draft-ietf-ace-cbor-web-token-04.txt   draft-ietf-ace-cbor-web-token-05.txt 
ACE Working Group M. Jones ACE Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track E. Wahlstroem Intended status: Standards Track E. Wahlstroem
Expires: October 15, 2017 Expires: December 7, 2017
S. Erdtman S. Erdtman
Spotify AB Spotify AB
H. Tschofenig H. Tschofenig
ARM Ltd. ARM Ltd.
April 13, 2017 June 5, 2017
CBOR Web Token (CWT) CBOR Web Token (CWT)
draft-ietf-ace-cbor-web-token-04 draft-ietf-ace-cbor-web-token-05
Abstract Abstract
CBOR Web Token (CWT) is a compact means of representing claims to be CBOR Web Token (CWT) is a compact means of representing claims to be
transferred between two parties. CWT is a profile of the JSON Web transferred between two parties. The claims in a CWT are encoded in
Token (JWT) that is optimized for constrained devices. The claims in the Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) and CBOR Object
a CWT are encoded in the Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) Signing and Encryption (COSE) is used for added application layer
and CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) is used for added security protection. A claim is a piece of information asserted
application layer security protection. A claim is a piece of about a subject and is represented as a name/value pair consisting of
information asserted about a subject and is represented as a name/ a claim name and a claim value. CWT is derived from JSON Web Token
value pair consisting of a claim name and a claim value. (JWT), but uses CBOR rather than JSON.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. CBOR Related Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Claim Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1.1. iss (Issuer) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1.1. iss (Issuer) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.2. sub (Subject) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.2. sub (Subject) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.3. aud (Audience) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.3. aud (Audience) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.4. exp (Expiration Time) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.4. exp (Expiration Time) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.5. nbf (Not Before) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.5. nbf (Not Before) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.6. iat (Issued At) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.6. iat (Issued At) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.7. cti (CWT ID) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.7. cti (CWT ID) Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Summary of the values, CBOR major types and encoded claim 4. Summary of the values, value types, and encoded claim keys . 6
keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. CBOR Tags and Claim Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. CBOR Tags and Claim Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6. CWT CBOR Tag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. CWT CBOR Tag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
7. Creating and Validating CWTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. Creating and Validating CWTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7.1. Creating a CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7.1. Creating a CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7.2. Validating a CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7.2. Validating a CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9.1. CBOR Web Token (CWT) Claims Registry . . . . . . . . . . 9 9.1. CBOR Web Token (CWT) Claims Registry . . . . . . . . . . 9
9.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
9.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
9.2. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 9.2. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9.2.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 9.2.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.3. CoAP Content-Formats Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 9.3. CoAP Content-Formats Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.3.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 9.3.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.4. CBOR Tag registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9.4. CBOR Tag registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.4.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9.4.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
A.1. Example CWT Claims Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 A.1. Example CWT Claims Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
A.2. Example keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 A.2. Example keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
A.2.1. 128-bit Symmetric Key as Hex Encoded String . . . . . 15 A.2.1. 128-bit Symmetric Key as Hex Encoded String . . . . . 16
A.2.2. 256-bit Symmetric Key as Hex Encoded String . . . . . 15 A.2.2. 256-bit Symmetric Key as Hex Encoded String . . . . . 16
A.2.3. ECDSA P-256 256-bit COSE Key . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 A.2.3. ECDSA P-256 256-bit COSE Key . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
A.3. Example Signed CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 A.3. Example Signed CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
A.4. Example MACed CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A.4. Example MACed CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
A.5. Example Encrypted CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A.5. Example Encrypted CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
A.6. Example Nested CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 A.6. Example Nested CWT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix B. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 A.7. Example MACed CWT with a floating-point value . . . . . . 20
Appendix C. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix B. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Appendix C. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The JSON Web Token (JWT) [RFC7519] is a standardized security token The JSON Web Token (JWT) [RFC7519] is a standardized security token
format that has found use in OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect format that has found use in OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect
deployments, among other applications. JWT uses JSON Web Signature deployments, among other applications. JWT uses JSON Web Signature
(JWS) [RFC7515] and JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [RFC7516] to secure the (JWS) [RFC7515] and JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [RFC7516] to secure the
contents of the JWT, which is a set of claims represented in JSON. contents of the JWT, which is a set of claims represented in JSON.
The use of JSON for encoding information is popular for Web and The use of JSON for encoding information is popular for Web and
native applications, but it is considered inefficient for some native applications, but it is considered inefficient for some
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which is a compact means of representing secured claims to be which is a compact means of representing secured claims to be
transferred between two parties. CWT is closely related to JWT. It transferred between two parties. CWT is closely related to JWT. It
references the JWT claims and both its name and pronunciation are references the JWT claims and both its name and pronunciation are
derived from JWT. To protect the claims contained in CWTs, the CBOR derived from JWT. To protect the claims contained in CWTs, the CBOR
Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) [I-D.ietf-cose-msg]
specification is used. specification is used.
The suggested pronunciation of CWT is the same as the English word The suggested pronunciation of CWT is the same as the English word
"cot". "cot".
1.1. CBOR Related Terminology
In JSON, maps are called objects and only have one kind of map key: a
string. In COSE, we use strings, negative integers, and unsigned
integers as map keys. The integers are used for compactness of
encoding and easy comparison. The inclusion of strings allows for an
additional range of short encoded values to be used as well.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
"Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels" [RFC2119]. "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels" [RFC2119].
This document reuses terminology from JWT [RFC7519] and COSE This document reuses terminology from JWT [RFC7519] and COSE
[I-D.ietf-cose-msg]. [I-D.ietf-cose-msg].
StringOrURI: StringOrURI:
The "StringOrURI" term has the same meaning, syntax, and The "StringOrURI" term has the same meaning, syntax, and
processing rules as the "StringOrUri" term defined in Section 2 of processing rules as the "StringOrUri" term defined in Section 2 of
JWT [RFC7519], except that a CWT StringOrURI uses CBOR major type JWT [RFC7519], except that it uses a CBOR text string instead of a
3 (text string) instead of a JSON string value. JSON string value.
NumericDate: NumericDate:
The "NumericDate" term has the same meaning, syntax, and The "NumericDate" term has the same meaning, syntax, and
processing rules as the "NumericDate" term defined in Section 2 of processing rules as the "NumericDate" term defined in Section 2 of
JWT [RFC7519], except that a CWT NumericDate uses one of the CBOR JWT [RFC7519], except that the CBOR numeric date representation
numeric types (0, 1, or 7 with subtypes 25, 26, or 27), instead of (from Section 2.4.1 of [RFC7049]) is used. The encoding is
a numeric JSON value. The numeric date values that can used for a modified so that the leading tag (6.1 or 0xC1) MUST be omitted.
CWT NumericDate are identical to the epoch-based date/time values
that are specified to follow the tag defined in Section 2.4.1
(Date and Time) of [RFC7049], except that the tag itself need not
be present.
CBOR encoded claim key: CBOR encoded claim key:
The key used to identify a claim value. The key used to identify a claim value.
CWT Claims Set CWT Claims Set
A CBOR map that contains the claims conveyed by the CWT. A CBOR map that contains the claims conveyed by the CWT.
3. Claims 3. Claims
The set of claims that a CWT must contain to be considered valid is The set of claims that a CWT must contain to be considered valid is
context dependent and is outside the scope of this specification. context dependent and is outside the scope of this specification.
Specific applications of CWTs will require implementations to Specific applications of CWTs will require implementations to
understand and process some claims in particular ways. However, in understand and process some claims in particular ways. However, in
the absence of such requirements, all claims that are not understood the absence of such requirements, all claims that are not understood
by implementations MUST be ignored. by implementations MUST be ignored.
To keep CWTs as small as possible, the CBOR encoded claim keys are To keep CWTs as small as possible, the CBOR encoded claim keys are
represented using CBOR major type 0. Section 4 summarizes all keys represented using integers or text strings. Section 4 summarizes all
used to identify the claims defined in this document. keys used to identify the claims defined in this document.
3.1. Claim Names 3.1. Claim Names
None of the claims defined below are intended to be mandatory to use None of the claims defined below are intended to be mandatory to use
or implement. They rather provide a starting point for a set of or implement. They rather provide a starting point for a set of
useful, interoperable claims. Applications using CWTs should define useful, interoperable claims. Applications using CWTs should define
which specific claims they use and when they are required or which specific claims they use and when they are required or
optional. optional.
3.1.1. iss (Issuer) Claim 3.1.1. iss (Issuer) Claim
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The "aud" (audience) claim has the same meaning, syntax, and The "aud" (audience) claim has the same meaning, syntax, and
processing rules as the "aud" claim defined in Section 4.1.3 of JWT processing rules as the "aud" claim defined in Section 4.1.3 of JWT
[RFC7519], except that the format MUST be a StringOrURI. The CBOR [RFC7519], except that the format MUST be a StringOrURI. The CBOR
encoded claim key 3 MUST be used to identify this claim. encoded claim key 3 MUST be used to identify this claim.
3.1.4. exp (Expiration Time) Claim 3.1.4. exp (Expiration Time) Claim
The "exp" (expiration time) claim has the same meaning, syntax, and The "exp" (expiration time) claim has the same meaning, syntax, and
processing rules as the "exp" claim defined in Section 4.1.4 of JWT processing rules as the "exp" claim defined in Section 4.1.4 of JWT
[RFC7519], except that the format MUST be a CWT NumericDate. The [RFC7519], except that the format MUST be a NumericDate. The CBOR
CBOR encoded claim key 4 MUST be used to identify this claim. encoded claim key 4 MUST be used to identify this claim.
3.1.5. nbf (Not Before) Claim 3.1.5. nbf (Not Before) Claim
The "nbf" (not before) claim has the same meaning, syntax, and The "nbf" (not before) claim has the same meaning, syntax, and
processing rules as the "nbf" claim defined in Section 4.1.5 of JWT processing rules as the "nbf" claim defined in Section 4.1.5 of JWT
[RFC7519], except that the format MUST be a CWT NumericDate. The [RFC7519], except that the format MUST be a NumericDate. The CBOR
CBOR encoded claim key 5 MUST be used to identify this claim. encoded claim key 5 MUST be used to identify this claim.
3.1.6. iat (Issued At) Claim 3.1.6. iat (Issued At) Claim
The "iat" (issued at) claim has the same meaning, syntax, and The "iat" (issued at) claim has the same meaning, syntax, and
processing rules as the "iat" claim defined in Section 4.1.6 of JWT processing rules as the "iat" claim defined in Section 4.1.6 of JWT
[RFC7519], except that the format MUST be a CWT NumericDate. The [RFC7519], except that the format MUST be a NumericDate. The CBOR
CBOR encoded claim key 6 MUST be used to identify this claim. encoded claim key 6 MUST be used to identify this claim.
3.1.7. cti (CWT ID) Claim 3.1.7. cti (CWT ID) Claim
The "cti" (CWT ID) claim has the same meaning, syntax, and processing The "cti" (CWT ID) claim has the same meaning, syntax, and processing
rules as the "jti" claim defined in Section 4.1.7 of JWT [RFC7519], rules as the "jti" claim defined in Section 4.1.7 of JWT [RFC7519],
except that the format MUST be of major type 2, binary string. The except that the format MUST be binary string. The CBOR encoded claim
CBOR encoded claim key 7 MUST be used to identify this claim. key 7 MUST be used to identify this claim.
4. Summary of the values, CBOR major types and encoded claim keys 4. Summary of the values, value types, and encoded claim keys
/---------+------------------------+-------------------------------\
| Claim | CBOR encoded claim key | CBOR major type of value |
|---------+------------------------+-------------------------------|
| iss | 1 | 3 |
| sub | 2 | 3 |
| aud | 3 | 3 |
| exp | 4 | 0, 1, or 7 with float subtype |
| nbf | 5 | 0, 1, or 7 with float subtype |
| iat | 6 | 0, 1, or 7 with float subtype |
| cti | 7 | 2 |
\---------+------------------------+-------------------------------/
Figure 1: Summary of the values, CBOR major types and encoded claim /---------+-----+----------------------------------\
keys. | Name | Key | Value type |
|---------+-----+----------------------------------|
| iss | 1 | text string |
| sub | 2 | text string |
| aud | 3 | text string |
| exp | 4 | integer or floating-point number |
| nbf | 5 | integer or floating-point number |
| iat | 6 | integer or floating-point number |
| cti | 7 | binary string |
\---------+-----+----------------------------------/
Figure 1: Summary of the values, value types, and encoded claim keys
5. CBOR Tags and Claim Values 5. CBOR Tags and Claim Values
The use of CBOR tags to prefix any of the claim values defined in The claim values defined in this specification MUST NOT be prefixed
this specification is NOT RECOMMENDED. For instance, while CBOR tag with any CBOR tag. For instance, while CBOR tag 6.1 (seconds-since-
6.1 (seconds-since-the-epoch) could logically be prefixed to values the-epoch) could logically be prefixed to values of the "exp", "nbf",
of the "exp", "nbf", and "iat" claims, this is unnecessary, since the and "iat" claims, this is unnecessary, since the representation of
representation of the claim values is already specified by the claim the claim values is already specified by the claim definitions.
definitions. Tagging claim values would only take up extra space, Tagging claim values would only take up extra space without adding
without adding information. However, other claims defined by other information. However, this does not prohibit future claim
specifications can specify that a tag prefix the claim value, when definitions from requiring the use of CBOR tags for those specific
appropriate. claims.
6. CWT CBOR Tag 6. CWT CBOR Tag
How to determine that a CBOR data structure is a CWT is application- How to determine that a CBOR data structure is a CWT is application-
dependent. In some cases, this information is known from the dependent. In some cases, this information is known from the
application context, such as from the position of the CWT in a data application context, such as from the position of the CWT in a data
structure at which the value must be a CWT. One method of indicating structure at which the value must be a CWT. One method of indicating
that a CBOR object is a CWT is the use of the "application/cwt" that a CBOR object is a CWT is the use of the "application/cwt"
content type by a transport protocol. content type by a transport protocol.
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using the Message as the COSE_Mac/COSE_Mac0 Payload; all steps using the Message as the COSE_Mac/COSE_Mac0 Payload; all steps
specified in [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] for creating a COSE_Mac/ specified in [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] for creating a COSE_Mac/
COSE_Mac0 object MUST be followed. COSE_Mac0 object MUST be followed.
* Else, if the CWT is a COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0 object, * Else, if the CWT is a COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0 object,
create a COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0 using the Message as the create a COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0 using the Message as the
plaintext for the COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0 object; all steps plaintext for the COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0 object; all steps
specified in [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] for creating a COSE_Encrypt/ specified in [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] for creating a COSE_Encrypt/
COSE_Encrypt0 object MUST be followed. COSE_Encrypt0 object MUST be followed.
5. If a nested signing, MACing or encryption operation will be 5. If a nested signing, MACing, or encryption operation will be
performed, let the Message be the COSE_Sign/COSE_Sign1, COSE_Mac/ performed, let the Message be the COSE_Sign/COSE_Sign1, COSE_Mac/
COSE_Mac0 or COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0, and return to Step 3, COSE_Mac0, or COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0, add the matching COSE
using a "content type" header value corresponding to the media CBOR tag, and return to Step 3.
type "application/cwt" in the new COSE Header created in that
step.
6. If needed by the application, add the appropriate COSE CBOR tag 6. If needed by the application, add the appropriate COSE CBOR tag
to the COSE object to indicate type of COSE object. If also to the COSE object to indicate the type of the COSE object. If
needed by the application, add the CWT CBOR tag to indicate that needed by the application, add the CWT CBOR tag to indicate that
the COSE object is a CWT. the COSE object is a CWT.
7.2. Validating a CWT 7.2. Validating a CWT
When validating a CWT, the following steps are performed. The order When validating a CWT, the following steps are performed. The order
of the steps is not significant in cases where there are no of the steps is not significant in cases where there are no
dependencies between the inputs and outputs of the steps. If any of dependencies between the inputs and outputs of the steps. If any of
the listed steps fail, then the CWT MUST be rejected -- that is, the listed steps fail, then the CWT MUST be rejected -- that is,
treated by the application as invalid input. treated by the application as invalid input.
1. Verify that the CWT is a valid CBOR object. 1. Verify that the CWT is a valid CBOR object.
2. If the object begins with the CWT CBOR tag, remove it and verify 2. If the object begins with the CWT CBOR tag, remove it and verify
that one of the COSE CBOR tags follows it. that one of the COSE CBOR tags follows it.
3. If the object is tagged with one of the COSE CBOR tags, remove it 3. If the object is tagged with one of the COSE CBOR tags, remove it
and verify that it corresponds to the structure of the following and use it to determine the type of the CWT, COSE_Sign/
COSE object. COSE_Sign1, COSE_Mac/COSE_Mac0, or COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0.
If the object does not have a COSE CBOR tag, the COSE message
type is determined from the application context.
4. Verify that the resulting COSE Header includes only parameters 4. Verify that the resulting COSE Header includes only parameters
and values whose syntax and semantics are both understood and and values whose syntax and semantics are both understood and
supported or that are specified as being ignored when not supported or that are specified as being ignored when not
understood. understood.
5. Use the CBOR tag to determine the type of the CWT, COSE_Sign/ 5. Depending upon whether the CWT is a signed, MACed, or encrypted,
COSE_Sign1, COSE_Mac/COSE_Mac0, or COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0.
6. Depending upon whether the CWT is a signed, MACed, or encrypted,
there are three cases: there are three cases:
* If the CWT is a COSE_Sign/COSE_Sign1, follow the steps * If the CWT is a COSE_Sign/COSE_Sign1, follow the steps
specified in [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] Section 4 (Signing Objects) specified in [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] Section 4 (Signing Objects)
for validating a COSE_Sign/COSE_Sign1 object. Let the Message for validating a COSE_Sign/COSE_Sign1 object. Let the Message
be the COSE_Sign/COSE_Sign1 payload. be the COSE_Sign/COSE_Sign1 payload.
* Else, if the CWT is a COSE_Mac/COSE_Mac0, follow the steps * Else, if the CWT is a COSE_Mac/COSE_Mac0, follow the steps
specified in [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] Section 6 (MAC Objects) for specified in [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] Section 6 (MAC Objects) for
validating a COSE_Mac/COSE_Mac0 object. Let the Message be validating a COSE_Mac/COSE_Mac0 object. Let the Message be
the COSE_Mac/COSE_Mac0 payload. the COSE_Mac/COSE_Mac0 payload.
* Else, if the CWT is a COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0 object, * Else, if the CWT is a COSE_Encrypt/COSE_Encrypt0 object,
follow the steps specified in [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] Section 5 follow the steps specified in [I-D.ietf-cose-msg] Section 5
(Encryption Objects) for validating a COSE_Encrypt/ (Encryption Objects) for validating a COSE_Encrypt/
COSE_Encrypt0 object. Let the Message be the resulting COSE_Encrypt0 object. Let the Message be the resulting
plaintext. plaintext.
7. If the COSE Header contains a "content type" header value 6. If the Message begins with a COSE CBOR tag, then the Message is a
corresponding to the media type "application/cwt", then the CWT that was the subject of nested signing, MACing, or encryption
Message is a CWT that was the subject of nested signing or operations. In this case, return to Step 1, using the Message as
encryption operations. In this case, return to Step 1, using the the CWT.
Message as the CWT.
8. Verify that the Message is a valid CBOR object; let the CWT 7. Verify that the Message is a valid CBOR object; let the CWT
Claims Set be this CBOR object. Claims Set be this CBOR object.
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
The security of the CWT is dependent on the protections offered by The security of the CWT relies upon on the protections offered by
COSE. Unless the claims in a CWT are protected, an adversary can COSE. Unless the claims in a CWT are protected, an adversary can
modify, add, or remove claims. Since the claims conveyed in a CWT modify, add, or remove claims.
may be used to make authorization decisions, it is not only important
to protect the CWT in transit but also to ensure that the recipient Since the claims conveyed in a CWT may be used to make authorization
can authenticate the party that assembled the claims and created the decisions, it is not only important to protect the CWT in transit but
CWT. Without trust of the recipient in the party that created the also to ensure that the recipient can authenticate the party that
CWT, no sensible authorization decision can be made. Furthermore, assembled the claims and created the CWT. Without trust of the
the creator of the CWT needs to carefully evaluate each claim value recipient in the party that created the CWT, no sensible
prior to including it in the CWT so that the recipient can be assured authorization decision can be made. Furthermore, the creator of the
of the validity of the information provided. CWT needs to carefully evaluate each claim value prior to including
it in the CWT so that the recipient can be assured of the validity of
the information provided.
While syntactically, the signing and encryption operations for Nested
CWTs may be applied in any order, if both signing and encryption are
necessary, normally producers should sign the message and then
encrypt the result (thus encrypting the signature). This prevents
attacks in which the signature is stripped, leaving just an encrypted
message, as well as providing privacy for the signer. Furthermore,
signatures over encrypted text are not considered valid in many
jurisdictions.
9. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
9.1. CBOR Web Token (CWT) Claims Registry 9.1. CBOR Web Token (CWT) Claims Registry
This section establishes the IANA "CBOR Web Token (CWT) Claims" This section establishes the IANA "CBOR Web Token (CWT) Claims"
registry. registry.
Values are registered on a Specification Required [RFC5226] basis, on Values are registered on a Specification Required [RFC5226] basis
the advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for after a three-week review period on the cwt-reg-review@ietf.org
the allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Experts mailing list, on the advice of one or more Designated Experts.
may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a However, to allow for the allocation of values prior to publication,
specification will be published. the Designated Experts may approve registration once they are
satisfied that such a specification will be published. [[ Note to
the RFC Editor: The name of the mailing list should be determined in
consultation with the IESG and IANA. Suggested name: cwt-reg-
review@ietf.org. ]]
Registration requests sent to the mailing list for review should use
an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request to register claim: example").
Registration requests that are undetermined for a period longer than
21 days can be brought to the IESG's attention (using the
iesg@ietf.org mailing list) for resolution.
Criteria that should be applied by the Designated Experts includes Criteria that should be applied by the Designated Experts includes
determining whether the proposed registration duplicates existing determining whether the proposed registration duplicates existing
functionality, whether it is likely to be of general applicability or functionality, whether it is likely to be of general applicability or
whether it is useful only for a single application, and whether the whether it is useful only for a single application, and whether the
registration description is clear. registration description is clear.
It is suggested that multiple Designated Experts be appointed who are
able to represent the perspectives of different applications using
this specification in order to enable broadly informed review of
registration decisions. In cases where a registration decision could
be perceived as creating a conflict of interest for a particular
Expert, that Expert should defer to the judgment of the other
Experts.
9.1.1. Registration Template 9.1.1. Registration Template
Claim Name: Claim Name:
The human-readable name requested (e.g., "iss"). The human-readable name requested (e.g., "iss").
Claim Description: Claim Description:
Brief description of the claim (e.g., "Issuer"). Brief description of the claim (e.g., "Issuer").
JWT Claim Name: JWT Claim Name:
Claim Name of the equivalent JWT claim, as registered in Claim Name of the equivalent JWT claim, as registered in
[IANA.JWT.Claims]. CWT claims should normally have a [IANA.JWT.Claims]. CWT claims should normally have a
corresponding JWT claim. If a corresponding JWT claim would not corresponding JWT claim. If a corresponding JWT claim would not
make sense, the Designated Experts can choose to accept make sense, the Designated Experts can choose to accept
registrations for which the JWT Claim Name is listed as "N/A". registrations for which the JWT Claim Name is listed as "N/A".
CBOR Key Value: CBOR Key Value:
Key value for the claim. The key value MUST be an integer in the Integer values between -256 and 255 and strings of length 1 are
range of 1 to 65536. designated as Standards Track Document required. Integer values
from -65536 to 65535 and strings of length 2 are designated as
Specification Required. Integer values of greater than 65535 and
strings of length greater than 2 are designated as expert review.
Integer values less than -65536 are marked as private use.
CBOR Major Type: CBOR Major Type:
CBOR major type and optional tag for the claim. CBOR major type and optional tag for the claim.
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, list the "IESG". For others, give the For Standards Track RFCs, list the "IESG". For others, give the
name of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal name of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal
address, email address, home page URI) may also be included. address, email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter, Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter,
preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of
the documents. An indication of the relevant sections may also be the documents. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
included but is not required. included but is not required.
9.1.2. Initial Registry Contents 9.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Claim Name: N/A
o Claim Description: This registration reserves the key value 0.
o JWT Claim Name: N/A
o CBOR Key Value: 0
o CBOR Major Type: N/A
o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): [[ this specification ]]
o Claim Name: "iss" o Claim Name: "iss"
o Claim Description: Issuer o Claim Description: Issuer
o JWT Claim Name: "iss" o JWT Claim Name: "iss"
o CBOR Key Value: 1 o CBOR Key Value: 1
o CBOR Major Type: 3 o CBOR Major Type: 3
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1.1 of [[ this specification o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1.1 of [[ this specification
]] ]]
o Claim Name: "sub" o Claim Name: "sub"
skipping to change at page 15, line 25 skipping to change at page 16, line 25
Figure 4: Example CWT Claims Set in CBOR diagnostic notation Figure 4: Example CWT Claims Set in CBOR diagnostic notation
A.2. Example keys A.2. Example keys
This section contains the keys used to sign, MAC, and encrypt the This section contains the keys used to sign, MAC, and encrypt the
messages in this appendix. Line breaks are for display purposes messages in this appendix. Line breaks are for display purposes
only. only.
A.2.1. 128-bit Symmetric Key as Hex Encoded String A.2.1. 128-bit Symmetric Key as Hex Encoded String
8e82e68e61654ecb5a369fe8be7572dd 231f4c4d4d3051fdc2ec0a3851d5b383
A.2.2. 256-bit Symmetric Key as Hex Encoded String A.2.2. 256-bit Symmetric Key as Hex Encoded String
403697de87af64611c1d32a05dab0fe1fcb715a86ab435f1ec99192d79569388 403697de87af64611c1d32a05dab0fe1fcb715a86ab435f1ec99192d79569388
A.2.3. ECDSA P-256 256-bit COSE Key A.2.3. ECDSA P-256 256-bit COSE Key
a622582060f7f1a780d8a783bfb7a2dd6b2796e8128dbbcef9d3d168db952997 a622582060f7f1a780d8a783bfb7a2dd6b2796e8128dbbcef9d3d168db952997
1a36e7b92358206c1382765aec5358f117733d281c1c7bdc39884d04a45a1e6c 1a36e7b92358206c1382765aec5358f117733d281c1c7bdc39884d04a45a1e6c
67c858bc206c1903260102215820143329cce7868e416927599cf65a34f3ce2f 67c858bc206c1903260102215820143329cce7868e416927599cf65a34f3ce2f
skipping to change at page 16, line 16 skipping to change at page 17, line 16
This section shows a signed CWT with a single recipient and a full This section shows a signed CWT with a single recipient and a full
CWT Claims Set. CWT Claims Set.
The signature is generated using the private key listed in The signature is generated using the private key listed in
Appendix A.2.3 and it can be validated using the public key from Appendix A.2.3 and it can be validated using the public key from
Appendix A.2.3. Line breaks are for display purposes only. Appendix A.2.3. Line breaks are for display purposes only.
d28443a10126a05850a70175636f61703a2f2f61732e6578616d706c652e636f6 d28443a10126a05850a70175636f61703a2f2f61732e6578616d706c652e636f6
d02656572696b77037818636f61703a2f2f6c696768742e6578616d706c652e63 d02656572696b77037818636f61703a2f2f6c696768742e6578616d706c652e63
6f6d041a5612aeb0051a5610d9f0061a5610d9f007420b7158401fe410abce650 6f6d041a5612aeb0051a5610d9f0061a5610d9f007420b715840b9b2821b6b2c2
effed497f05d7f9462de67d571384097de0d96f1e2514d284cdd85634f269af6c f9d1d984b11854dcfcee1f219746800ce76112c21f58c45dea1d7f01cec1ab394
36c64f22e7691abb464bed2ff23176cdba9fd9e213f637d082 0f75c459305365210a23a9ed463b4f6fc984c2f1c08e504d90
Figure 7: Signed CWT as hex string Figure 7: Signed CWT as hex string
18( 18(
[ [
/ protected / h'a10126' / { / protected / h'a10126' / {
/ alg / 1: -7 / ECDSA 256 / / alg / 1: -7 / ECDSA 256 /
} / , } / ,
/ unprotected / {}, / unprotected / {},
/ payload / h'a70175636f61703a2f2f61732e6578616d706c652e63 / payload / h'a70175636f61703a2f2f61732e6578616d706c652e63
skipping to change at page 16, line 40 skipping to change at page 17, line 40
68742e6578616d706c652e636f6d041a5612aeb0051a 68742e6578616d706c652e636f6d041a5612aeb0051a
5610d9f0061a5610d9f007420b71' / { 5610d9f0061a5610d9f007420b71' / {
/ iss / 1: "coap://as.example.com", / iss / 1: "coap://as.example.com",
/ sub / 2: "erikw", / sub / 2: "erikw",
/ aud / 3: "coap://light.example.com", / aud / 3: "coap://light.example.com",
/ exp / 4: 1444064944, / exp / 4: 1444064944,
/ nbf / 5: 1443944944, / nbf / 5: 1443944944,
/ iat / 6: 1443944944, / iat / 6: 1443944944,
/ cti / 7: h'0b71' / cti / 7: h'0b71'
} / , } / ,
/ signature / h'1fe410abce650effed497f05d7f9462de67d571384 / signature / h'b9b2821b6b2c2f9d1d984b11854dcfcee1f2197468
097de0d96f1e2514d284cdd85634f269af6c36c64f 00ce76112c21f58c45dea1d7f01cec1ab3940f75c4
22e7691abb464bed2ff23176cdba9fd9e213f637d0 59305365210a23a9ed463b4f6fc984c2f1c08e504d
82' 90'
] ]
) )
Figure 8: Signed CWT in CBOR diagnostic notation Figure 8: Signed CWT in CBOR diagnostic notation
A.4. Example MACed CWT A.4. Example MACed CWT
This section shows a MACed CWT with a single recipient and a full CWT This section shows a MACed CWT with a single recipient, a full CWT
Claims Set. Claims Set, and a CWT tag.
The MAC is generated using the 256-bit symmetric key from The MAC is generated using the 256-bit symmetric key from
Appendix A.2.2 with a 64-bit truncation. Line breaks are for display Appendix A.2.2 with a 64-bit truncation. Line breaks are for display
purposes only. purposes only.
d83dd18443a10104a05850a70175636f61703a2f2f61732e6578616d706c652e d83dd18443a10104a05850a70175636f61703a2f2f61732e6578616d706c652e
636f6d02656572696b77037818636f61703a2f2f6c696768742e6578616d706c 636f6d02656572696b77037818636f61703a2f2f6c696768742e6578616d706c
652e636f6d041a5612aeb0051a5610d9f0061a5610d9f007420b7148093101ef 652e636f6d041a5612aeb0051a5610d9f0061a5610d9f007420b7148093101ef
6d789200 6d789200
skipping to change at page 18, line 9 skipping to change at page 19, line 9
A.5. Example Encrypted CWT A.5. Example Encrypted CWT
This section shows an encrypted CWT with a single recipient and a This section shows an encrypted CWT with a single recipient and a
full CWT Claims Set. full CWT Claims Set.
The encryption is done with AES-CCM mode using the 128-bit symmetric The encryption is done with AES-CCM mode using the 128-bit symmetric
key from Appendix A.2.1 with a 64-bit tag and 13-byte nonce, i.e., key from Appendix A.2.1 with a 64-bit tag and 13-byte nonce, i.e.,
COSE AES-CCM-16-64-128. Line breaks are for display purposes only. COSE AES-CCM-16-64-128. Line breaks are for display purposes only.
d08343a1010aa1054d3a869e378e72b77d077c29be025858d275ad9cd7df1b10 d08343a1010aa1054d3d9624bfb90a612bdcfc5077c45858e06d4b57cf3b3c9d
ba8cde785c74b1e1e6ada287e2baf1451b06862529b784d230b0111773b6c369 a3a16325dadcb9d2a0748f00ecd728f4b79030b56a292ee9cc8cc75349c120fc
1319aec4dcc379fe47115a5d62632727c05f4567fc84dd79554db86676a14978 1ba5d67ee29affde28df75a20f344812453ff68270ad5f46295660558168e1d1
42de805d8be93180af4d6ff3043886a0 85cb308226cdad0a50417dcd4a8d4b47
Figure 11: Encrypted CWT as hex string Figure 11: Encrypted CWT as hex string
16( 16(
[ [
/ protected / h'a1010a' / { / protected / h'a1010a' / {
/ alg / 1: 10 / AES-CCM-16-64-128 / / alg / 1: 10 / AES-CCM-16-64-128 /
} /, } /,
/ unprotected / { / unprotected / {
/ iv / 5: h'3a869e378e72b77d077c29be02' / iv / 5: h'3d9624bfb90a612bdcfc5077c4'
}, },
/ ciphertext / h'd275ad9cd7df1b10ba8cde785c74b1e1e6ada287e2b / ciphertext / h'e06d4b57cf3b3c9da3a16325dadcb9d2a0748f00ecd
af1451b06862529b784d230b0111773b6c3691319ae 728f4b79030b56a292ee9cc8cc75349c120fc1ba5d6
c4dcc379fe47115a5d62632727c05f4567fc84dd795 7ee29affde28df75a20f344812453ff68270ad5f462
54db86676a1497842de805d8be93180af4d6ff30438 95660558168e1d185cb308226cdad0a50417dcd4a8d
86a0' 4b47'
] ]
) )
Figure 12: Encrypted CWT in CBOR diagnostic notation Figure 12: Encrypted CWT in CBOR diagnostic notation
A.6. Example Nested CWT A.6. Example Nested CWT
This section shows a Nested CWT, signed and then encrypted, with a This section shows a Nested CWT, signed and then encrypted, with a
single recipient and a full CWT Claims Set. single recipient and a full CWT Claims Set.
skipping to change at page 19, line 5 skipping to change at page 20, line 5
from Appendix A.2.3. The encryption is done with AES-CCM mode using from Appendix A.2.3. The encryption is done with AES-CCM mode using
the 128-bit symmetric key from Appendix A.2.1 with a 64-bit tag and the 128-bit symmetric key from Appendix A.2.1 with a 64-bit tag and
13-byte nonce, i.e., COSE AES-CCM-16-64-128. The content type is set 13-byte nonce, i.e., COSE AES-CCM-16-64-128. The content type is set
to CWT to indicate that there are multiple layers of COSE protection to CWT to indicate that there are multiple layers of COSE protection
before finding the CWT Claims Set. The decrypted ciphertext will be a before finding the CWT Claims Set. The decrypted ciphertext will be a
COSE_sign1 structure. In this example, it is the same one as in COSE_sign1 structure. In this example, it is the same one as in
Appendix A.3, i.e., a Signed CWT Claims Set. Note that there is no Appendix A.3, i.e., a Signed CWT Claims Set. Note that there is no
limitation to the number of layers; this is an example with two limitation to the number of layers; this is an example with two
layers. Line breaks are for display purposes only. layers. Line breaks are for display purposes only.
d08346a203183d010aa1054d9120e5dc42c9f9aec05ebe8a4858a538be026c02 d08343a1010aa1054dd3bdeeb4daaa50625a5b576cc458a3318af5c80a11e081
4a40b19d6dbea3ddb18b31021f874a097a05ff3cdaa4665bafc8e46a3d7f37ad 91ca790b0793156451afc144e0f9f892679dff1d01cd52d7fe1e43ac8dabace0
f002fe57eee267f8f62a9c1621af75e1ecd742a3d801c2cc82358cf104a8d902 f74af095f918197da1550a76d59c2a89db6331e12451fc87fef56f2ff179fb33
4d38a599ea6027d482dc2948a88fe83f9734804299c832401029e2d32a984789 d6132ca34eb7fa8de0960d5f02a2b625792ccc8e5b3d59c0bede9d7438dc5c4f
c8e9563e8d2a751323bb7e4462b549e0fa89ef93f78bf6425635fba76b4aa804 e0c403c8fc32e874fbb7516c52edddfc09d4444a762dcd0cd486895131c343ae
7908e89b3b7c3d59d8a80e22f70a1b6ee8c162c564341c2f15cec252d3da038c 040620cdd4448c6ce0b7803022ff3d7877a83c345c05a57b36105a
Figure 13: Signed and Encrypted CWT as hex string Figure 13: Signed and Encrypted CWT as hex string
16( 16(
[ [
/ protected / h'a203183d010a' / { / protected / h'a203183d010a' / {
/ content type / 3: 61, / CWT /
/ alg / 1: 10 / AES-CCM-16-64-128 / / alg / 1: 10 / AES-CCM-16-64-128 /
} / , } / ,
/ unprotected / { / unprotected / {
/ iv / 5: h'9120e5dc42c9f9aec05ebe8a48' / iv / 5: h'd3bdeeb4daaa50625a5b576cc4'
}, },
/ ciphertext / h'38be026c024a40b19d6dbea3ddb18b31021f874a097 / ciphertext / h'318af5c80a11e08191ca790b0793156451afc144e0f
a05ff3cdaa4665bafc8e46a3d7f37adf002fe57eee2 9f892679dff1d01cd52d7fe1e43ac8dabace0f74af0
67f8f62a9c1621af75e1ecd742a3d801c2cc82358cf 95f918197da1550a76d59c2a89db6331e12451fc87f
104a8d9024d38a599ea6027d482dc2948a88fe83f97 ef56f2ff179fb33d6132ca34eb7fa8de0960d5f02a2
34804299c832401029e2d32a984789c8e9563e8d2a7 b625792ccc8e5b3d59c0bede9d7438dc5c4fe0c403c
51323bb7e4462b549e0fa89ef93f78bf6425635fba7 8fc32e874fbb7516c52edddfc09d4444a762dcd0cd4
6b4aa8047908e89b3b7c3d59d8a80e22f70a1b6ee8c 86895131c343ae040620cdd4448c6ce0b7803022ff3
162c564341c2f15cec252d3da038c' d7877a83c345c05a57b36105a'
] ]
) )
Figure 14: Signed and Encrypted CWT in CBOR diagnostic notation Figure 14: Signed and Encrypted CWT in CBOR diagnostic notation
A.7. Example MACed CWT with a floating-point value
This section shows a MACed CWT with a single recipient and a simple
CWT Claims Set. The CWT Claims Set with a floating-point 'iat' value.
The MAC is generated using the 256-bit symmetric key from
Appendix A.2.2 with a 64-bit truncation. Line breaks are for display
purposes only.
d18443a10104a04ba106fb41d584367c20000048b8816f34c0542892
Figure 15: MACed CWT with a floating-point value as hex string
17(
[
/ protected / h'a10104' / {
/ alg / 1: 4 / HMAC 256/64 /
} / ,
/ unprotected / {},
/ payload / h'a106fb41d584367c200000' / {
/ iat / 6: 1443944944.5
} / ,
/ tag / h'b8816f34c0542892'
]
)
Figure 16: MACed CWT with a floating-point value in CBOR diagnostic
notation
Appendix B. Acknowledgements Appendix B. Acknowledgements
This specification is based on JSON Web Token (JWT) [RFC7519], the This specification is based on JSON Web Token (JWT) [RFC7519], the
authors of which also include Nat Sakimura and John Bradley. Ludwig authors of which also include Nat Sakimura and John Bradley. It also
Seitz and Goeran Selander have made contributions the specification. incorporates suggestions made by many people, notably Carsten
Bormann, Jim Schaad, Ludwig Seitz, and Goeran Selander.
Appendix C. Document History Appendix C. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-05
o Addressed working group last call comments with the following
changes:
o Say that CWT is derived from JWT, rather than CWT is a profile of
JWT.
o Used CBOR type names in descriptions, rather than major/minor type
numbers.
o Clarified the NumericDate and StringOrURI descriptions.
o Changed to allow CWT claim names to use values of any legal CBOR
map key type.
o Changed to use the CWT tag to identify nested CWTs instead of the
CWT content type.
o Added an example using a floating-point date value.
o Acknowledged reviewers.
-04 -04
o Specified that the use of CBOR tags to prefix any of the claim o Specified that the use of CBOR tags to prefix any of the claim
values defined in this specification is NOT RECOMMENDED. values defined in this specification is NOT RECOMMENDED.
-03 -03
o Reworked the examples to include signed, MACed, encrypted, and o Reworked the examples to include signed, MACed, encrypted, and
nested CWTs. nested CWTs.
o Defined the CWT CBOR tag and explained its usage. o Defined the CWT CBOR tag and explained its usage.
-02 -02
o Added IANA registration for the application/cwt media type. o Added IANA registration for the application/cwt media type.
o Clarified the nested CWT language. o Clarified the nested CWT language.
o Corrected nits identified by Ludwig Seitz. o Corrected nits identified by Ludwig Seitz.
-01 -01
o Added IANA registration for CWT Claims. o Added IANA registration for CWT Claims.
o Added IANA registration for the application/cwt CoAP content- o Added IANA registration for the application/cwt CoAP content-
format type. format type.
o Added Samuel Erdtman as an editor. o Added Samuel Erdtman as an editor.
o Changed Erik's e-mail address. o Changed Erik's e-mail address.
-00 -00
o Created the initial working group version based on draft- o Created the initial working group version based on draft-
wahlstroem-ace-cbor-web-token-00. wahlstroem-ace-cbor-web-token-00.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Michael B. Jones Michael B. Jones
 End of changes. 56 change blocks. 
152 lines changed or deleted 253 lines changed or added

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