AVTCore Working Group                                          J. Uberti
Internet-Draft                                                 S. Holmer
Intended status: Standards Track                              M. Flodman
Expires: 6 12 December 2021                                        D. Hong
                                                               J. Lennox
                                                             8x8 / Jitsi
                                                            10 June 2021

                    RTP Payload Format for VP9 Video


   This specification describes an RTP payload format for the VP9 video
   codec.  The payload format has wide applicability, as it supports
   applications from low bit-rate peer-to-peer usage, to high bit-rate
   video conferences.  It includes provisions for temporal and spatial

Status of This Memo

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions, Definitions and Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Media Format Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Payload Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  RTP Header Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  VP9 Payload Descriptor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.1.  Scalability Structure (SS): . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.3.  Frame Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.4.  Scalable encoding considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.5.  Examples of VP9 RTP Stream  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.5.1.  Reference picture use for scalable structure  . . . .  14
   5.  Feedback Messages and Header Extensions . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.1.  Reference Picture Selection Indication (RPSI) . . . . . .  15
     5.2.  Full Intra Request (FIR)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     5.3.  Layer Refresh Request (LRR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   6.  Payload Format Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     6.1.  SDP Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       6.1.1.  Mapping of Media Subtype Parameters to SDP  . . . . .  18
       6.1.2.  Offer/Answer Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   7.  Media Type Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   9.  Congestion Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24

1.  Introduction

   This specification describes an RTP [RFC3550] payload specification
   applicable to the transmission of video streams encoded using the VP9
   video codec [VP9-BITSTREAM].  The format described in this document
   can be used both in peer-to-peer and video conferencing applications.

   The VP9 video codec was developed by Google, and is the successor to
   its earlier VP8 [RFC6386] codec.  Above the compression improvements
   and other general enhancements above VP8, VP9 is also designed in a
   way that allows spatially-scalable video encoding.

2.  Conventions, Definitions and Acronyms

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  Media Format Description

   The VP9 codec can maintain up to eight reference frames, of which up
   to three can be referenced by any new frame.

   VP9 also allows a frame to use another frame of a different
   resolution as a reference frame.  (Specifically, a frame may use any
   references whose width and height are between 1/16th that of the
   current frame and twice that of the current frame, inclusive.)  This
   allows internal resolution changes without requiring the use of key

   These features together enable an encoder to implement various forms
   of coarse-grained scalability, including temporal, spatial and
   quality scalability modes, as well as combinations of these, without
   the need for explicit scalable coding tools.

   Temporal layers define different frame rates of video; spatial and
   quality layers define different and possibly dependent
   representations of a single input frame.  Spatial layers allow a
   frame to be encoded at different resolutions, whereas quality layers
   allow a frame to be encoded at the same resolution but at different
   qualities (and thus with different amounts of coding error).  VP9
   supports quality layers as spatial layers without any resolution
   changes; hereinafter, the term "spatial layer" is used to represent
   both spatial and quality layers.

   This payload format specification defines how such temporal and
   spatial scalability layers can be described and communicated.

   Temporal and spatial scalability layers are associated with non-
   negative integer IDs.  The lowest layer of either type has an ID of
   0, and is sometimes referred to as the "base" temporal or spatial

   Layers are designed, and MUST be encoded, such that if any layer, and
   all higher layers, are removed from the bitstream along either the
   spatial or temporal dimension, the remaining bitstream is still
   correctly decodable.

   For terminology, this document uses the term "frame" to refer to a
   single encoded VP9 frame for a particular resolution/quality, and
   "picture" to refer to all the representations (frames) at a single
   instant in time.  A picture thus consists of one or more frames,
   encoding different spatial layers.

   Within a picture, a frame with spatial layer ID equal to SID, where
   SID > 0, can depend on a frame of the same picture with a lower
   spatial layer ID.  This "inter-layer" dependency can result in
   additional coding gain compared to the case where only traditional
   "inter-picture" dependency is used, where a frame depends on
   previously coded frame in time.  For simplicity, this payload format
   assumes that, within a picture and if inter-layer dependency is used,
   a spatial layer SID frame can depend only on the immediately previous
   spatial layer SID-1 frame, when S > 0.  Additionally, if inter-
   picture dependency is used, a spatial layer SID frame is assumed to
   only depend on a previously coded spatial layer SID frame.

   Given above simplifications for inter-layer and inter-picture
   dependencies, a flag (the D bit described below) is used to indicate
   whether a spatial layer SID frame depends on the spatial layer SID-1
   frame.  Given the D bit, a receiver only needs to additionally know
   the inter-picture dependency structure for a given spatial layer
   frame in order to determine its decodability.  Two modes of
   describing the inter-picture dependency structure are possible:
   "flexible mode" and "non-flexible mode".  An encoder can only switch
   between the two on the first packet of a key frame with temporal
   layer ID equal to 0.

   In flexible mode, each packet can contain up to 3 reference indices,
   which identify all frames referenced by the frame transmitted in the
   current packet for inter-picture prediction.  This (along with the D
   bit) enables a receiver to identify if a frame is decodable or not
   and helps it understand the temporal layer structure.  Since this is
   signaled in each packet it makes it possible to have very flexible
   temporal layer hierarchies, and scalability structures which are
   changing dynamically.

   In non-flexible mode, frames are encoded using a fixed, recurring
   pattern of dependencies; the set of pictures that recur in this
   pattern is known as a Picture Group (PG).  In this mode, the inter-
   picture dependencies (the reference indices) of the Picture Group
   MUST be pre-specified as part of the scalability structure (SS) data.
   Each packet has an index to refer to one of the described pictures in
   the PG, from which the pictures referenced by the picture transmitted
   in the current packet for inter-picture prediction can be identified.

   (Note: A "Picture Group", as used in this document, is not the same
   thing as the term "Group of Pictures" as it is traditionally used in
   video coding, i.e. to mean an independently-decoadable run of
   pictures beginning with a keyframe.)

   The SS data can also be used to specify the resolution of each
   spatial layer present in the VP9 stream for both flexible and non-
   flexible modes.

4.  Payload Format

   This section describes how the encoded VP9 bitstream is encapsulated
   in RTP.  To handle network losses usage of RTP/AVPF [RFC4585] is
   RECOMMENDED.  All integer fields in the specifications are encoded as
   unsigned integers in network octet order.

4.1.  RTP Header Usage

   The general RTP payload format for VP9 is depicted below.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     |V=2|P|X|  CC   |M|     PT      |       sequence number         |
     |                           timestamp                           |
     |           synchronization source (SSRC) identifier            |
     |            contributing source (CSRC) identifiers             |
     |                             ....                              |
     |            VP9 payload descriptor (integer #octets)           |
     :                                                               :
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               :                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               |
     :                          VP9 payload                          :
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               :    OPTIONAL RTP padding       |
                                  Figure 1

   The VP9 payload descriptor will be described in Section 4.2; the VP9
   payload is described in [VP9-BITSTREAM].  OPTIONAL RTP padding MUST
   NOT be included unless the P bit is set.

   Marker bit (M):  MUST be set to 1 for the final packet of the highest
      spatial layer frame (the final packet of the picture), and 0
      otherwise.  Unless spatial scalability is in use for this picture,
      this will have the same value as the E bit described below.  Note
      this bit MUST be set to 1 for the target spatial layer frame if a
      stream is being rewritten to remove higher spatial layers.

   Payload Type (PT):  In line with the policy in Section 3 of
      [RFC3551], applications using the VP9 RTP payload profile MUST
      assign a dynamic payload type number to be used in each RTP
      session and provide a mechanism to indicate the mapping.  See
      Section 6.1 for the mechanism to be used with the Session
      Description Protocol (SDP) [RFC8866].

   Timestamp:  The RTP timestamp [RFC3550] indicates the time when the
      input frame was sampled, at a clock rate of 90 kHz.  If the input
      picture is encoded with multiple layer frames, all of the frames
      of the picture MUST have the same timestamp.

      If a frame has the VP9 show_frame field set to 0 (i.e., it is
      meant only to populate a reference buffer, without being output)
      its timestamp MAY alternatively be set to be the same as the
      subsequent frame with show_frame equal to 1.  (This will be
      convenient for playing out pre-encoded content packaged with VP9
      "superframes", which typically bundle show_frame==0 frames with a
      subsequent show_frame==1 frame.)  Every frame with show_frame==1,
      however, MUST have a unique timestamp modulo the 2^32 wrap of the

   The remaining RTP Fixed Header Fields (V, P, X, CC, sequence number,
   SSRC and CSRC identifiers) are used as specified in Section 5.1 of

4.2.  VP9 Payload Descriptor

   In flexible mode (with the F bit below set to 1), the first octets
   after the RTP header are the VP9 payload descriptor, with the
   following structure.

         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
        |I|P|L|F|B|E|V|Z| (REQUIRED)
   L:   | TID |U| SID |D| (Conditionally RECOMMENDED)
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                             -\
   P,F: | P_DIFF      |N| (Conditionally REQUIRED)    - up to 3 times
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                             -/
   V:   | SS            |
        | ..            |

                                  Figure 2

   In non-flexible mode (with the F bit below set to 0), The the first
   octets after the RTP header are the VP9 payload descriptor, with the
   following structure.

         0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
        |I|P|L|F|B|E|V|Z| (REQUIRED)
   L:   | TID |U| SID |D| (Conditionally RECOMMENDED)
        |   TL0PICIDX   | (Conditionally REQUIRED)
   V:   | SS            |
        | ..            |

                                  Figure 3

   I:  Picture ID (PID) present.  When set to one, the OPTIONAL PID MUST
      be present after the mandatory first octet and specified as below.
      Otherwise, PID MUST NOT be present.  If the V bit was set in the
      stream's most recent start of a keyframe (i.e. the SS field was
      present) and the F bit is set to 0 (i.e. non-flexible scalability
      mode is in use), then this bit MUST be set on every packet.

   P:  Inter-picture predicted frame.  When set to zero, the frame does
      not utilize inter-picture prediction.  In this case, up-switching
      to a current spatial layer's frame is possible from directly lower
      spatial layer frame.  P SHOULD also be set to zero when encoding a
      layer synchronization frame in response to an LRR
      [I-D.ietf-avtext-lrr] message (see Section 5.3).  When P is set to
      zero, the TID field (described below) MUST also be set to 0 (if
      present).  Note that the P bit does not forbid intra-picture,
      inter-layer prediction from earlier frames of the same picture, if

   L:  Layer indices present.  When set to one, the one or two octets
      following the mandatory first octet and the PID (if present) is as
      described by "Layer indices" below.  If the F bit (described
      below) is set to 1 (indicating flexible mode), then only one octet
      is present for the layer indices.  Otherwise if the F bit is set
      to 0 (indicating non-flexible mode), then two octets are present
      for the layer indices.

   F:  Flexible mode.  F set to one indicates flexible mode and if the P
      bit is also set to one, then the octets following the mandatory
      first octet, the PID, and layer indices (if present) are as
      described by "Reference indices" below.  This MUST only be set to
      1 if the I bit is also set to one; if the I bit is set to zero,
      then this MUST also be set to zero and ignored by receivers.
      (Flexible mode's Reference indices are defined as offsets from the
      Picture ID field, so they would have no meaning if I were not
      set.)  The value of this F bit MUST only change on the first
      packet of a key picture.  A key picture is a picture whose base
      spatial layer frame is a key frame, and which thus completely
      resets the encoder state.  This packet will have its P bit equal
      to zero, SID or L bit (described below) equal to zero, and B bit
      (described below) equal to 1.

   B:  Start of a frame.  MUST be set to 1 if the first payload octet of
      the RTP packet is the beginning of a new VP9 frame, and MUST NOT
      be 1 otherwise.  Note that this frame might not be the first frame
      of a picture.

   E:  End of a frame.  MUST be set to 1 for the final RTP packet of a
      VP9 frame, and 0 otherwise.  This enables a decoder to finish
      decoding the frame, where it otherwise may need to wait for the
      next packet to explicitly know that the frame is complete.  Note
      that, if spatial scalability is in use, more frames from the same
      picture may follow; see the description of the M B bit above.

   V:  Scalability structure (SS) data present.  When set to one, the
      OPTIONAL SS data MUST be present in the payload descriptor.
      Otherwise, the SS data MUST NOT be present.

   Z:  Not a reference frame for upper spatial layers.  If set to 1,
      indicates that frames with higher spatial layers SID+1 and greater
      of the current and following pictures do not depend on the current
      spatial layer SID frame.  This enables a decoder which is
      targeting a higher spatial layer to know that it can safely
      discard this packet's frame without processing it, without having
      to wait for the "D" bit in the higher-layer frame (see below).

   The mandatory first octet is followed by the extension data fields
   that are enabled:

   M:  The most significant bit of the first octet is an extension flag.
      The field MUST be present if the I bit is equal to one.  If M is
      set, the PID field MUST contain 15 bits; otherwise, it MUST
      contain 7 bits.  See PID below.

   Picture ID (PID):  Picture ID represented in 7 or 15 bits, depending
      on the M bit.  This is a running index of the pictures, where the
      sender increments the value by 1 for each picture it sends.  (Note
      however that because a middlebox can discard pictures where
      permitted by the scalability structure, Picture IDs as received by
      a receiver might not be contiguous.)  This field MUST be present
      if the I bit is equal to one.  If M is set to zero, 7 bits carry
      the PID; else if M is set to one, 15 bits carry the PID in network
      byte order.  The sender may choose between a 7- or 15-bit index.
      The PID SHOULD start on a random number, and MUST wrap after
      reaching the maximum ID (0x7f or 0x7fff depending on the index
      size chosen).  The receiver MUST NOT assume that the number of
      bits in PID stay the same through the session.  If this field
      transitions from 7-bits to 15-bits, the value is zero-extended
      (i.e. the value after 0x6e is 0x006f); if the field transitions
      from 15 bits to 7 bits, it is truncated (i.e. the value after
      0x1bbe is 0xbf).

      In the non-flexible mode (when the F bit is set to 0), this PID is
      used as an index to the picture group (PG) specified in the SS
      data below.  In this mode, the PID of the key frame corresponds to
      the first specified frame in the PG.  Then subsequent PIDs are
      mapped to subsequently specified frames in the PG (modulo N_G,
      specified in the SS data below), respectively.

      All frames of the same picture MUST have the same PID value.

      Frames (and their corresponding pictures) with the VP9 show_frame
      field equal to 0 MUST have distinct PID values from subsequent
      pictures with show_frame equal to 1.  Thus, a Picture as defined
      in this specification is different than a VP9 Superframe.

      All frames of the same picture MUST have the same value for

   Layer indices:  This information is optional but RECOMMENDED whenever
      encoding with layers.  For both flexible and non-flexible modes,
      one octet is used to specify a layer frame's temporal layer ID
      (TID) and spatial layer ID (SID) as shown both in Figure 2 and
      Figure 3.  Additionally, a bit (U) is used to indicate that the
      current frame is a "switching up point" frame.  Another bit (D) is
      used to indicate whether inter-layer prediction is used for the
      current frame.

      In the non-flexible mode (when the F bit is set to 0), another
      octet is used to represent temporal layer 0 index (TL0PICIDX), as
      depicted in Figure 3.  The TL0PICIDX is present so that all
      minimally required frames - the base temporal layer frames - can
      be tracked.

      The TID and SID fields indicate the temporal and spatial layers
      and can help middleboxes and endpoints quickly identify which
      layer a packet belongs to.

      TID:  The temporal layer ID of current frame.  In the case of non-
         flexible mode, if PID is mapped to a picture in a specified PG,
         then the value of TID MUST match the corresponding TID value of
         the mapped picture in the PG.

      U:  Switching up point.  If this bit is set to 1 for the current
         picture with temporal layer ID equal to TID, then "switch up"
         to a higher frame rate is possible as subsequent higher
         temporal layer pictures will not depend on any picture before
         the current picture (in coding order) with temporal layer ID
         greater than TID.

      SID:  The spatial layer ID of current frame.  Note that frames
         with spatial layer SID > 0 may be dependent on decoded spatial
         layer SID-1 frame within the same picture.  Different frames of
         the same picture MUST have distinct spatial layer IDs, and
         frames' spatial layers MUST appear in increasing order within
         the frame.

      D:  Inter-layer dependency used.  MUST be set to one if and only
         if the current spatial layer SID frame depends on spatial layer
         SID-1 frame of the same picture, otherwise MUST be set to zero.
         For the base layer frame (with SID equal to 0), this D bit MUST
         be set to zero.

      TL0PICIDX:  8 bits temporal layer zero index.  TL0PICIDX is only
         present in the non-flexible mode (F = 0).  This is a running
         index for the temporal base layer pictures, i.e., the pictures
         with TID set to 0.  If TID is larger than 0, TL0PICIDX
         indicates which temporal base layer picture the current picture
         depends on.  TL0PICIDX MUST be incremented by 1 when TID is
         equal to 0.  The index SHOULD start on a random number, and
         MUST restart at 0 after reaching the maximum number 255.

   Reference indices:  When P and F are both set to one, indicating a
      non-key frame in flexible mode, then at least one reference index
      MUST be specified as below.  Additional reference indices (total
      of up to 3 reference indices are allowed) may be specified using
      the N bit below.  When either P or F is set to zero, then no
      reference index is specified.

      P_DIFF:  The reference index (in 7 bits) specified as the relative
         PID from the current picture.  For example, when P_DIFF=3 on a
         packet containing the picture with PID 112 means that the
         picture refers back to the picture with PID 109.  This
         calculation is done modulo the size of the PID field, i.e.,
         either 7 or 15 bits.  A P_DIFF value of 0 is invalid.

      N:  1 if there is additional P_DIFF following the current P_DIFF.

4.2.1.  Scalability Structure (SS):

   The scalability structure (SS) data describes the resolution of each
   frame within a picture as well as the inter-picture dependencies for
   a picture group (PG).  If the VP9 payload descriptor's "V" bit is
   set, the SS data is present in the position indicated in Figure 2 and
   Figure 3.

   V:   | N_S |Y|G|-|-|-|
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+              -\
   Y:   |     WIDTH     | (OPTIONAL)    .
        +               +               .
        |               | (OPTIONAL)    .
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               . - N_S + 1 times
        |     HEIGHT    | (OPTIONAL)    .
        +               +               .
        |               | (OPTIONAL)    .
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+              -/
   G:   |      N_G      | (OPTIONAL)
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                            -\
   N_G: | TID |U| R |-|-| (OPTIONAL)                 .
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+              -\            . - N_G times
        |    P_DIFF     | (OPTIONAL)    . - R times  .
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+              -/            -/

                                  Figure 4

   N_S:  N_S + 1 indicates the number of spatial layers present in the
      VP9 stream.

   Y:  Each spatial layer's frame resolution present.  When set to one,
      the OPTIONAL WIDTH (2 octets) and HEIGHT (2 octets) MUST be
      present for each layer frame.  Otherwise, the resolution MUST NOT
      be present.

   G:  PG description present flag.

   -:  Bit reserved for future use.  MUST be set to zero and MUST be
      ignored by the receiver.

   N_G:  N_G indicates the number of pictures in a Picture Group (PG).
      If N_G is greater than 0, then the SS data allows the inter-
      picture dependency structure of the VP9 stream to be pre-declared,
      rather than indicating it on the fly with every packet.  If N_G is
      greater than 0, then for N_G pictures in the PG, each picture's
      temporal layer ID (TID), switch up point (U), and the Reference
      indices (P_DIFFs) are specified.

      The first picture specified in the PG MUST have TID set to 0.

      G set to 0 or N_G set to 0 indicates that either there is only one
      temporal layer (for non-flexible mode) or no fixed inter-picture
      dependency information is present (for flexible mode) going
      forward in the bitstream.

      Note that for a given picture, all frames follow the same inter-
      picture dependency structure.  However, the frame rate of each
      spatial layer can be different from each other and this can be
      described with the use of the D bit described above.  The
      specified dependency structure in the SS data MUST be for the
      highest frame rate layer.

   In a scalable stream sent with a fixed pattern, the SS data SHOULD be
   included in the first packet of every key frame.  This is a packet
   with P bit equal to zero, SID or L bit equal to zero, and B bit equal
   to 1.  The SS data MUST only be changed on the picture that
   corresponds to the first picture specified in the previous SS data's
   PG (if the previous SS data's N_G was greater than 0).

4.3.  Frame Fragmentation

   VP9 frames are fragmented into packets, in RTP sequence number order,
   beginning with a packet with the B bit set, and ending with a packet
   with the E bit set.  There is no mechanism for finer-grained access
   to parts of a VP9 frame.

4.4.  Scalable encoding considerations

   In addition to the use of reference frames, VP9 has several
   additional forms of inter-frame dependencies, largely involving
   probability tables for the entropy and tree encoders.  In VP9 syntax,
   the syntax element "error_resilient_mode" resets this additional
   inter-frame data, allowing a frame's syntax to be decoded

   Due to the requirements of scalable streams, a VP9 encoder producing
   a scalable stream needs to ensure that a frame does not depend on a
   previous frame (of the same or a previous picture) that can
   legitimately be removed from the stream.  Thus, a frame that follows
   a frame that might be removed (in full decode order) MUST be encoded
   with "error_resilient_mode" set to true.

   For spatially-scalable streams, this means that
   "error_resilient_mode" needs to be turned on for the base spatial
   layer; it can however be turned off for higher spatial layers,
   assuming they are sent with inter-layer dependency (i.e. with the "D"
   bit set).  For streams that are only temporally-scalable without
   spatial scalability, "error_resilient_mode" can additionally be
   turned off for any picture that immediately follows a temporal layer
   0 frame.

4.5.  Examples of VP9 RTP Stream
4.5.1.  Reference picture use for scalable structure

   As discussed in Section 3, the VP9 codec can maintain up to eight
   reference frames, of which up to three can be referenced or updated
   by any new frame.  This section illustrates one way that a scalable
   structure (with three spatial layers and three temporal layers) can
   be constructed using these reference frames.

               | Temporal | Spatial | References | Updates |
               |    0     |    0    |     0      |    0    |
               |    0     |    1    |    0,1     |    1    |
               |    0     |    2    |    1,2     |    2    |
               |    2     |    0    |     0      |    6    |
               |    2     |    1    |    1,6     |    7    |
               |    2     |    2    |    2,7     |    -    |
               |    1     |    0    |     0      |    3    |
               |    1     |    1    |    1,3     |    4    |
               |    1     |    2    |    2,4     |    5    |
               |    2     |    0    |     3      |    6    |
               |    2     |    1    |    4,6     |    7    |
               |    2     |    2    |    5,7     |    -    |

                   Table 1: Example scalability structure

   This structure is constructed such that the "U" bit can always be

5.  Feedback Messages and Header Extensions
5.1.  Reference Picture Selection Indication (RPSI)

   The reference picture selection index is a payload-specific feedback
   message defined within the RTCP-based feedback format.  The RPSI
   message is generated by a receiver and can be used in two ways.
   Either it can signal a preferred reference picture when a loss has
   been detected by the decoder -- preferably then a reference that the
   decoder knows is perfect -- or, it can be used as positive feedback
   information to acknowledge correct decoding of certain reference
   pictures.  The positive feedback method is useful for VP9 used for
   point to point (unicast) communication.  The use of RPSI for VP9 is
   preferably combined with a special update pattern of the codec's two
   special reference frames -- the golden frame and the altref frame --
   in which they are updated in an alternating leapfrog fashion.  When a
   receiver has received and correctly decoded a golden or altref frame,
   and that frame had a Picture ID in the payload descriptor, the
   receiver can acknowledge this simply by sending an RPSI message back
   to the sender.  The message body (i.e., the "native RPSI bit string"
   in [RFC4585]) is simply the (7 or 15 bit) Picture ID of the received

   Note: because all frames of the same picture must have the same
   inter-picture reference structure, there is no need for a message to
   specify which frame is being selected.

5.2.  Full Intra Request (FIR)

   The Full Intra Request (FIR) [RFC5104] RTCP feedback message allows a
   receiver to request a full state refresh of an encoded stream.

   Upon receipt of an FIR request, a VP9 sender MUST send a picture with
   a keyframe for its spatial layer 0 layer frame, and then send frames
   without inter-picture prediction (P=0) for any higher layer frames.

5.3.  Layer Refresh Request (LRR)

   The Layer Refresh Request (LRR) [I-D.ietf-avtext-lrr] allows a
   receiver to request a single layer of a spatially or temporally
   encoded stream to be refreshed, without necessarily affecting the
   stream's other layers.

               |   RES   | TID | RES     | SID |

                                  Figure 5

   Figure 5 shows the format of LRR's layer index fields for VP9
   streams.  The two "RES" fields MUST be set to 0 on transmission and
   ingnored on reception.  See Section 4.2 for details on the TID and
   SID fields.

   Identification of a layer refresh frame can be derived from the
   reference IDs of each frame by backtracking the dependency chain
   until reaching a point where only decodable frames are being
   referenced.  Therefore it's recommended for both the flexible and the
   non-flexible mode that, when switching up points are being encoded in
   response to a LRR, those packets should contain layer indices and the
   reference field(s) so that the decoder or a selective forwarding
   middleboxes [RFC7667] can make this derivation.


   LRR {1,0}, {2,1} is sent by an MCU when it is currently relaying
   {1,0} to a receiver and which wants to upgrade to {2,1}. In response
   the encoder should encode the next frames in layers {1,1} and {2,1}
   by only referring to frames in {1,0}, or {0,0}.

   In the non-flexible mode, periodic upgrade frames can be defined by
   the layer structure of the SS, thus periodic upgrade frames can be
   automatically identified by the picture ID.

6.  Payload Format Parameters

   This payload format has three optional parameters, "max-fr", "max-
   fs", and "profile-id".

   The max-fr and max-fs parameters are used to signal the capabilities
   of a receiver implementation.  If the implementation is willing to
   receive media, both parameters MUST be provided.  These parameters
   MUST NOT be used for any other purpose.  A media sender SHOULD NOT
   send media with a frame rate or frame size exceeding the max-fr and
   max-fs values signaled.  (There may be scenarios, such as pre-encoded
   media or selective forwarding middleboxes [RFC7667], where a media
   sender does not have media available that fits within a receivers
   max-fs and max-fr value; in such scenarios, a sender MAY exceed the
   signaled values.)

   max-fr:  The value of max-fr is an integer indicating the maximum
      frame rate in units of frames per second that the decoder is
      capable of decoding.

   max-fs:  The value of max-fs is an integer indicating the maximum
      frame size in units of macroblocks that the decoder is capable of

      The decoder is capable of decoding this frame size as long as the
      width and height of the frame in macroblocks are less than
      int(sqrt(max-fs * 8)) - for instance, a max-fs of 1200 (capable of
      supporting 640x480 resolution) will support widths and heights up
      to 1552 pixels (97 macroblocks).

   profile-id:  The value of profile-id is an integer indicating the
      default coding profile, the subset of coding tools that may have
      been used to generate the stream or that the receiver supports).
      Table 2 lists all of the profiles defined in section 7.2 of
      [VP9-BITSTREAM] and the corresponding integer values to be used.

      If no profile-id is present, Profile 0 MUST be inferred.  (The
      profile-id parameter was added relatively late in the development
      of this specification, so some existing implementations may not
      send it.)

      Informative note: See Table 3 for capabilities of coding profiles
      defined in section 7.2 of [VP9-BITSTREAM].

   A receiver MUST ignore any parameter unspecified in this

                          | Profile | profile-id |
                          |    0    |     0      |
                          |    1    |     1      |
                          |    2    |     2      |
                          |    3    |     3      |

                             Table 2: Table of
                             profile-id integer
                            values representing
                              the VP9 profile
                            corresponding to the
                            set of coding tools

   | Profile | Bit Depth | SRGB Colorspace |    Chroma Subsampling    |
   |    0    |     8     |        No       |        YUV 4:2:0         |
   |    1    |     8     |       Yes       | YUV 4:2:2,4:4:0 or 4:4:4 |
   |    2    |  10 or 12 |        No       |        YUV 4:2:0         |
   |    3    |  10 or 12 |       Yes       | YUV 4:2:2,4:4:0 or 4:4:4 |

                 Table 3: Table of profile capabilities.

6.1.  SDP Parameters

6.1.1.  Mapping of Media Subtype Parameters to SDP

   The media type video/VP9 string is mapped to fields in the Session
   Description Protocol (SDP) [RFC8866] as follows:

   *  The media name in the "m=" line of SDP MUST be video.

   *  The encoding name in the "a=rtpmap" line of SDP MUST be VP9 (the
      media subtype).

   *  The clock rate in the "a=rtpmap" line MUST be 90000.

   *  The parameters "max-fr" and "max-fs" MUST be included in the
      "a=fmtp" line of SDP if the receiver wishes to declare its
      receiver capabilities.  These parameters are expressed as a media
      subtype string, in the form of a semicolon separated list of
      parameter=value pairs.

   *  The OPTIONAL parameter profile-id, when present, SHOULD be
      included in the "a=fmtp" line of SDP.  This parameter is expressed
      as a media subtype string, in the form of a parameter=value pair.
      When the parameter is not present, a value of 0 MUST be inferred
      for profile-id.  Example

   An example of media representation in SDP is as follows:

   m=video 49170 RTP/AVPF 98
   a=rtpmap:98 VP9/90000
   a=fmtp:98 max-fr=30;max-fs=3600;profile-id=0

6.1.2.  Offer/Answer Considerations

   When VP9 is offered over RTP using SDP in an Offer/Answer model
   [RFC3264] for negotiation for unicast usage, the following
   limitations and rules apply:

   *  The parameter identifying a media format configuration for VP9 is
      profile-id.  This media format configuration parameter MUST be
      used symmetrically; that is, the answerer MUST either maintain
      this configuration parameter or remove the media format (payload
      type) completely if it is not supported.

   *  The max-fr and max-fs parameters are used declaratively to
      describe receiver capabilities, even in the Offer/Answer model.
      The values in an answer are used to describe the answerer's
      capabilities, and thus their values are set independently of the
      values in the offer.

   *  To simplify the handling and matching of these configurations, the
      same RTP payload type number used in the offer SHOULD also be used
      in the answer and in a subsequent offer, as specified in
      [RFC3264].  An answer or subsequent offer MUST NOT contain the
      payload type number used in the offer unless the profile-id value
      is exactly the same as in the original offer.  However, max-fr and
      max-fs parameters MAY be changed in subsequent offers and answers,
      with the same payload type number, if an endpoint wishes to change
      its declared receiver capabilities.

7.  Media Type Definition

   This registration is done using the template defined in [RFC6838] and
   following [RFC4855].

   Type name:

   Subtype name:

   Required parameters:

   Optional parameters:
      There are three optional parameters, "max-fr", "max-fs", and
      "profile-id".  See Section 6 for their definition.

   Encoding considerations:
      This media type is framed in RTP and contains binary data; see
      Section 4.8 of [RFC6838].

   Security considerations:
      See Section 8 of RFC xxxx.

      [RFC Editor: Upon publication as an RFC, please replace "XXXX"
      with the number assigned to this document and remove this note.]

   Interoperability considerations:

   Published specification:
      VP9 bitstream format [VP9-BITSTREAM] and RFC XXXX.

      [RFC Editor: Upon publication as an RFC, please replace "XXXX"
      with the number assigned to this document and remove this note.]

   Applications which use this media type:
      For example: Video over IP, video conferencing.

   Fragment identifier considerations:

   Additional information:

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Jonathan Lennox <jonathan.lennox@8x8.com>

   Intended usage:

   Restrictions on usage:
      This media type depends on RTP framing, and hence is only defined
      for transfer via RTP [RFC3550].

      Jonathan Lennox <jonathan.lennox@8x8.com>

   Change controller:
      IETF AVTCore Working Group delegated from the IESG.

8.  Security Considerations

   RTP packets using the payload format defined in this specification
   are subject to the security considerations discussed in the RTP
   specification [RFC3550], and in any applicable RTP profile such as
   RTP/AVP [RFC3551], RTP/AVPF [RFC4585], RTP/SAVP [RFC3711], or RTP/
   SAVPF [RFC5124].  However, as "Securing the RTP Protocol Framework:
   Why RTP Does Not Mandate a Single Media Security Solution" [RFC7202]
   discusses, it is not an RTP payload format's responsibility to
   discuss or mandate what solutions are used to meet the basic security
   goals like confidentiality, integrity and source authenticity for RTP
   in general.  This responsibility lays on anyone using RTP in an
   application.  They can find guidance on available security mechanisms
   in Options for Securing RTP Sessions [RFC7201].  Applications SHOULD
   use one or more appropriate strong security mechanisms.  The rest of
   this security consideration section discusses the security impacting
   properties of the payload format itself.

   Implementations of this RTP payload format need to take appropriate
   security considerations into account.  It is extremely important for
   the decoder to be robust against malicious or malformed payloads and
   ensure that they do not cause the decoder to overrun its allocated
   memory or otherwise mis-behave.  An overrun in allocated memory could
   lead to arbitrary code execution by an attacker.  The same applies to
   the encoder, even though problems in encoders are typically rarer.

   This RTP payload format and its media decoder do not exhibit any
   significant non-uniformity in the receiver-side computational
   complexity for packet processing, and thus are unlikely to pose a
   denial-of-service threat due to the receipt of pathological data.
   Nor does the RTP payload format contain any active content.

9.  Congestion Control

   Congestion control for RTP SHALL be used in accordance with RFC 3550
   [RFC3550], and with any applicable RTP profile; e.g., RFC 3551
   [RFC3551].  The congestion control mechanism can, in a real-time
   encoding scenario, adapt the transmission rate by instructing the
   encoder to encode at a certain target rate.  Media aware network
   elements MAY use the information in the VP9 payload descriptor in
   Section 4.2 to identify non-reference frames and discard them in
   order to reduce network congestion.  Note that discarding of non-
   reference frames cannot be done if the stream is encrypted (because
   the non-reference marker is encrypted).

10.  IANA Considerations

   The IANA is requested to register the media type registration "video/
   vp9" as specified in Section 7.  The media type is also requested to
   be added to the IANA registry for "RTP Payload Format MIME types"

11.  Acknowledgments

   Alex Eleftheriadis, Yuki Ito, Won Kap Jang, Sergio Garcia Murillo,
   Roi Sasson, Timothy Terriberry, Emircan Uysaler, and Thomas Volkert
   commented on the development of this document and provided helpful
   comments and feedback.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

              Lennox, J., Hong, D., Uberti, J., Holmer, S., and M.
              Flodman, "The Layer Refresh Request (LRR) RTCP Feedback
              Message", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              avtext-lrr-07, 2 July 2017,

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC3264]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model
              with Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3264, June 2002,

   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, DOI 10.17487/RFC3550,
              July 2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3550>.

   [RFC4585]  Ott, J., Wenger, S., Sato, N., Burmeister, C., and J. Rey,
              "Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control
              Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)", RFC 4585,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4585, July 2006,

   [RFC4855]  Casner, S., "Media Type Registration of RTP Payload
              Formats", RFC 4855, DOI 10.17487/RFC4855, February 2007,

   [RFC5104]  Wenger, S., Chandra, U., Westerlund, M., and B. Burman,
              "Codec Control Messages in the RTP Audio-Visual Profile
              with Feedback (AVPF)", RFC 5104, DOI 10.17487/RFC5104,
              February 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5104>.

   [RFC6838]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type
              Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
              RFC 6838, DOI 10.17487/RFC6838, January 2013,

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8866]  Begen, A., Kyzivat, P., Perkins, C., and M. Handley, "SDP:
              Session Description Protocol", RFC 8866,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8866, January 2021,

              Grange, A., de Rivaz, P., and J. Hunt, "VP9 Bitstream &
              Decoding Process Specification", Version 0.6, 31 March

12.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3551]  Schulzrinne, H. and S. Casner, "RTP Profile for Audio and
              Video Conferences with Minimal Control", STD 65, RFC 3551,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3551, July 2003,

   [RFC3711]  Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
              Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
              RFC 3711, DOI 10.17487/RFC3711, March 2004,

   [RFC5124]  Ott, J. and E. Carrara, "Extended Secure RTP Profile for
              Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback
              (RTP/SAVPF)", RFC 5124, DOI 10.17487/RFC5124, February
              2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5124>.

   [RFC6386]  Bankoski, J., Koleszar, J., Quillio, L., Salonen, J.,
              Wilkins, P., and Y. Xu, "VP8 Data Format and Decoding
              Guide", RFC 6386, DOI 10.17487/RFC6386, November 2011,

   [RFC7201]  Westerlund, M. and C. Perkins, "Options for Securing RTP
              Sessions", RFC 7201, DOI 10.17487/RFC7201, April 2014,

   [RFC7202]  Perkins, C. and M. Westerlund, "Securing the RTP
              Framework: Why RTP Does Not Mandate a Single Media
              Security Solution", RFC 7202, DOI 10.17487/RFC7202, April
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7202>.

   [RFC7667]  Westerlund, M. and S. Wenger, "RTP Topologies", RFC 7667,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7667, November 2015,

Authors' Addresses

   Justin Uberti
   Google, Inc.
   747 6th Street South
   Kirkland, WA 98033
   United States of America

   Email: justin@uberti.name

   Stefan Holmer
   Google, Inc.
   Kungsbron 2
   SE-111 22 Stockholm

   Email: holmer@google.com

   Magnus Flodman
   Google, Inc.
   Kungsbron 2
   SE-111 22 Stockholm

   Email: mflodman@google.com
   Danny Hong
   Google, Inc.
   1585 Charleston Road
   Mountain View, CA 94043
   United States of America

   Email: dannyhong@google.com

   Jonathan Lennox
   8x8, Inc. / Jitsi
   1350 Broadway
   New York, NY 10018
   Jersey City, NJ 07302
   United States of America

   Email: jonathan.lennox@8x8.com