draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-13.txt   draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-14.txt 
DMM H. Chan, Ed. DMM H. Chan, Ed.
Internet-Draft X. Wei Internet-Draft X. Wei
Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies
Expires: September 27, 2019 J. Lee Expires: May 4, 2020 J. Lee
Sangmyung University Sangmyung University
S. Jeon S. Jeon
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
CJ. Bernardos, Ed. CJ. Bernardos, Ed.
UC3M UC3M
March 26, 2019 November 1, 2019
Distributed Mobility Anchoring Distributed Mobility Anchoring
draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-13 draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-14
Abstract Abstract
This document defines distributed mobility anchoring in terms of the This document defines distributed mobility anchoring in terms of the
different configurations and functions to provide IP mobility different configurations and functions to provide IP mobility
support. A network may be configured with distributed mobility support. A network may be configured with distributed mobility
anchoring functions for both network-based or host-based mobility anchoring functions for both network-based or host-based mobility
support according to the needs of mobility support. In a distributed support according to the needs of mobility support. In a distributed
mobility anchoring environment, multiple anchors are available for mobility anchoring environment, multiple anchors are available for
mid-session switching of an IP prefix anchor. To start a new flow or mid-session switching of an IP prefix anchor. To start a new flow or
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 27, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on May 4, 2020.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Configurations for Different Networks . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Configurations for Different Networks . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.1. Network-based DMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.1. Network-based DMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.2. Client-based DMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1.2. Client-based DMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - 4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments -
Mobility Support Only When Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Mobility Support Only When Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Nomadic case (no need of IP mobility): Changing to new IP 4.1. Nomadic case (no need of IP mobility): Changing to new IP
prefix/address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 prefix/address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2. Mobility case, traffic redirection . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2. Mobility case, traffic redirection . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3. Mobility case, anchor relocation . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.3. Mobility case, anchor relocation . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to
enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far from enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far from
an optimal route. This document defines different configurations, an optimal route. This document defines different configurations,
functional operations and parameters for distributed mobility functional operations and parameters for distributed mobility
anchoring and explains how to use them to avoid unnecessarily long anchoring and explains how to use them to avoid unnecessarily long
routes when a mobile node moves. routes when a mobile node moves.
Companion distributed mobility management documents are already Companion distributed mobility management documents are already
addressing the architecture and deployment addressing the architecture and deployment
[I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models], source address selection [I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models], source address selection [RFC8653],
[I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility], and control-plane data-plane and control-plane data-plane signaling [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]. A
signaling [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]. A number of distributed mobility number of distributed mobility solutions have also been proposed, for
solutions have also been proposed, for example, in example, in [I-D.seite-dmm-dma], [I-D.ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif],
[I-D.seite-dmm-dma], [I-D.ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif],
[I-D.sarikaya-dmm-for-wifi], [I-D.yhkim-dmm-enhanced-anchoring], and [I-D.sarikaya-dmm-for-wifi], [I-D.yhkim-dmm-enhanced-anchoring], and
[I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]. [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc].
Distributed mobility anchoring employs multiple anchors in the data Distributed mobility anchoring employs multiple anchors in the data
plane. In general, control plane functions may be separated from plane. In general, control plane functions may be separated from
data plane functions and be centralized but may also be co-located data plane functions and be centralized but may also be co-located
with the data plane functions at the distributed anchors. Different with the data plane functions at the distributed anchors. Different
configurations of distributed mobility anchoring are described in configurations of distributed mobility anchoring are described in
Section 3.1. Section 3.1.
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address used by this flow has to be anchored. If the ongoing IP flow address used by this flow has to be anchored. If the ongoing IP flow
can cope with an IP prefix/address change, the flow can be can cope with an IP prefix/address change, the flow can be
reinitiated with a new IP address anchored in the new network. On reinitiated with a new IP address anchored in the new network. On
the other hand, if the ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change, the other hand, if the ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change,
mobility support is needed. A network supporting a mix of flows both mobility support is needed. A network supporting a mix of flows both
requiring and not requiring IP mobility support will need to requiring and not requiring IP mobility support will need to
distinguish these flows. distinguish these flows.
2. Conventions and Terminology 2. Conventions and Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here.
All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this
document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)
base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6)
specification [RFC5213], the "Mobility Related Terminologies" specification [RFC5213], the "Mobility Related Terminologies"
[RFC3753], and the DMM current practices and gap analysis [RFC7429]. [RFC3753], and the DMM current practices and gap analysis [RFC7429].
These include terms such as mobile node (MN), correspondent node These include terms such as mobile node (MN), correspondent node
(CN), home agent (HA), home address (HoA), care-of-address (CoA), (CN), home agent (HA), home address (HoA), care-of-address (CoA),
local mobility anchor (LMA), and mobile access gateway (MAG). local mobility anchor (LMA), and mobile access gateway (MAG).
In addition, this document uses the following terms: In addition, this document uses the following terms:
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dynamic IP address. It then uses this IP address when a flow is dynamic IP address. It then uses this IP address when a flow is
initiated. Packets from this flow addressed to the MN are simply initiated. Packets from this flow addressed to the MN are simply
forwarded according to the forwarding table. forwarded according to the forwarding table.
There may be multiple IP prefixes/addresses that an MN can select There may be multiple IP prefixes/addresses that an MN can select
when initiating a flow. They may be from the same access network or when initiating a flow. They may be from the same access network or
different access networks. The network may advertise these prefixes different access networks. The network may advertise these prefixes
with cost options [I-D.mccann-dmm-prefixcost] so that the mobile node with cost options [I-D.mccann-dmm-prefixcost] so that the mobile node
may choose the one with the least cost. In addition, these IP may choose the one with the least cost. In addition, these IP
prefixes/addresses may be of different types regarding whether prefixes/addresses may be of different types regarding whether
mobility support is needed [I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]. A MN mobility support is needed [RFC8653]. A MN will need to choose which
will need to choose which IP prefix/address to use for each flow IP prefix/address to use for each flow according to whether it needs
according to whether it needs IP mobility support or not. IP mobility support or not, using for example the mechanisms
described in [RFC8653].
4.1. Nomadic case (no need of IP mobility): Changing to new IP prefix/ 4.1. Nomadic case (no need of IP mobility): Changing to new IP prefix/
address address
When IP mobility support is not needed for a flow, the LM and FM When IP mobility support is not needed for a flow, the LM and FM
functions are not utilized so that the configurations in Section 3.1 functions are not utilized so that the configurations in Section 3.1
are simplified as shown in Figure 3. are simplified as shown in Figure 3.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
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An example call flow is outlined in Figure 4. A MN attaches to AR1, An example call flow is outlined in Figure 4. A MN attaches to AR1,
which sends a router advertisement (RA) including information about which sends a router advertisement (RA) including information about
the prefix assigned to MN, from which MN configures an IP address the prefix assigned to MN, from which MN configures an IP address
(IP1). This address is used for new communications, for example with (IP1). This address is used for new communications, for example with
a correspondent node (CN). If the MN moves to a new network and a correspondent node (CN). If the MN moves to a new network and
attaches to AR2, the process is repeated (MN obtains a new IP attaches to AR2, the process is repeated (MN obtains a new IP
address, IP2, from AR2). Since the IP address (IP1) configured at address, IP2, from AR2). Since the IP address (IP1) configured at
the previously visited network is not valid at the current attachment the previously visited network is not valid at the current attachment
point, and any existing flows have to be reestablished using IP2. point, and any existing flows have to be reestablished using IP2.
Note that in this scenarios, if there is no mobility support provided
by L4 or above, an application might be able to stop before changing
point of attachement, and therefore the traffic would stop.
MN AR1 AR2 CN MN AR1 AR2 CN
|MN attaches to AR1: | | | |MN attaches to AR1: | | |
|acquires MN-ID and profile | | |acquires MN-ID and profile | |
|--RS---------------->| | | |--RS---------------->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<----------RA(IP1)---| | | |<----------RA(IP1)---| | |
| | | | | | | |
Assigned prefix IP1 | | | Assigned prefix IP1 | | |
IP1 address configuration | | IP1 address configuration | |
| | | | | | | |
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| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+---------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+---------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 4: Re-starting a flow with new IP prefix/address Figure 4: Re-starting a flow with new IP prefix/address
4.2. Mobility case, traffic redirection 4.2. Mobility case, traffic redirection
When IP mobility is needed for a flow, the LM and FM functions in When IP mobility is needed for a flow, the LM and FM functions in
Section 3.1 are utilized. There are two possible cases: (i) the Section 3.1 are utilized. There are two possible cases: (i) the
initial anchor remains the anchor and forwards traffic to a new mobility anchor remains playing that role and forwards traffic to a
locator in the new network, and (ii) the mobility anchor (data plane new locator in the new network, and (ii) the mobility anchor (data
function) is changed but binds the MN's transferred IP address/ plane function) is changed but binds the MN's transferred IP address/
prefix. The latter enables optimized routes but requires some data prefix. The latter enables optimized routes but requires some data
plane node that enforces rules for traffic indirection. Next, we plane node that enforces rules for traffic indirection. Next, we
focus on the first case. The second one is addressed in Section 4.3. focus on the first case. The second one is addressed in Section 4.3.
Mobility support can be provided by using mobility management Mobility support can be provided by using mobility management
methods, such as the several approaches surveyed in the academic methods, such as the several approaches surveyed in the academic
papers ([Paper-Distributed.Mobility], papers ([Paper-Distributed.Mobility],
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP] and [Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP] and
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review]). After moving, a certain MN's [Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review]). After moving, a certain MN's
traffic flow may continue using the IP prefix from the prior network traffic flow may continue using the IP prefix from the prior network
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protocol, but such a solution may present some scalability concerns protocol, but such a solution may present some scalability concerns
and its applicability is typically limited to small networks. One and its applicability is typically limited to small networks. One
example of this type of solution is described in example of this type of solution is described in
[I-D.ietf-rtgwg-atn-bgp]. When a mobile associates with an anchor [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-atn-bgp]. When a mobile associates with an anchor
the anchor injects the mobile's prefix into the global routing the anchor injects the mobile's prefix into the global routing
system. If the mobile moves to a new anchor, the old anchor system. If the mobile moves to a new anchor, the old anchor
withdraws the /64 and the new anchor injects it instead. withdraws the /64 and the new anchor injects it instead.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Security protocols and mechanisms are employed to secure the network As stated in [RFC7333], "a DMM solution MUST supportany security
and to make continuous security improvements, and a DMM solution is protocols and mechanisms needed to secure the network and to make
required to support them [RFC7333]. continuous security improvements". It "MUST NOT introduce new
security risks".
In a DMM deployment [I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models] various attacks As described in [I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models], there are different
such as impersonation, denial of service, man-in-the-middle attacks potential deployment models of a DMM solution. The present document
need to be prevented. has presented 3 different scenarios for distributed anchoring: (i)
nomadic case, (ii) mobility case with traffic redirection, and (iii)
mobility case with anchor relocation. Each of them has different
security requirements, and the actual security mechanisms would
depend on the specifics of each solution/scenario.
As general rules, for the first distributed anchoring scenario
(nomadic case), no additional security consideration is needed, as
this does not involve any additional mechanism at L3. If session
connectivity is required, the L4 or above solution used to provide it
MUST also provide the required authentication and security.
The second and third distributed anchoring scenarios (mobility case)
involve mobility signalling among the mobile node and the control and
data plane anchors. The control-plane messages exchanged between
these entitites MUST be protected using end-to-end security
associations with data-integrity and data-origination capabilities.
IPsec ESP in transport mode with mandatory integrity protection
SHOULD be used for protecting the signaling messages. IKEv2 should
be used to set up security associations between the data and control
plane anchors.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
This document presents no IANA considerations. This document presents no IANA considerations.
7. Contributors 7. Contributors
Alexandre Petrescu and Fred Templin had contributed to earlier Alexandre Petrescu and Fred Templin had contributed to earlier
versions of this document regarding distributed anchoring for versions of this document regarding distributed anchoring for
hierarchical network and for network mobility, although these hierarchical network and for network mobility, although these
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This document has benefited from other work on mobility support in This document has benefited from other work on mobility support in
SDN network, on providing mobility support only when needed, and on SDN network, on providing mobility support only when needed, and on
mobility support in enterprise network. These works have been mobility support in enterprise network. These works have been
referenced. While some of these authors have taken the work to referenced. While some of these authors have taken the work to
jointly write this document, others have contributed at least jointly write this document, others have contributed at least
indirectly by writing these drafts. The latter include Philippe indirectly by writing these drafts. The latter include Philippe
Bertin, Dapeng Liu, Satoru Matushima, Pierrick Seite, Jouni Korhonen, Bertin, Dapeng Liu, Satoru Matushima, Pierrick Seite, Jouni Korhonen,
and Sri Gundavelli. and Sri Gundavelli.
Valuable comments have been received from John Kaippallimalil, Valuable comments have been received from John Kaippallimalil,
ChunShan Xiong, Dapeng Liu and Fred Templin. Dirk von Hugo, Byju ChunShan Xiong, Dapeng Liu, Fred Templin, Paul Kyzivat, Joseph
Pularikkal, Pierrick Seite have generously provided careful review Salowey and Yoshifumi Nishida. Dirk von Hugo, Byju Pularikkal,
with helpful corrections and suggestions. Marco Liebsch and Lyle Pierrick Seite have generously provided careful review with helpful
Bertz also performed very detailed and helpful reviews of this corrections and suggestions. Marco Liebsch and Lyle Bertz also
document. performed very detailed and helpful reviews of this document.
8. References 8. References
8.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3753] Manner, J., Ed. and M. Kojo, Ed., "Mobility Related [RFC3753] Manner, J., Ed. and M. Kojo, Ed., "Mobility Related
Terminology", RFC 3753, DOI 10.17487/RFC3753, June 2004, Terminology", RFC 3753, DOI 10.17487/RFC3753, June 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3753>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3753>.
[RFC5213] Gundavelli, S., Ed., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V., [RFC5213] Gundavelli, S., Ed., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V.,
Chowdhury, K., and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6", Chowdhury, K., and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6",
RFC 5213, DOI 10.17487/RFC5213, August 2008, RFC 5213, DOI 10.17487/RFC5213, August 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5213>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5213>.
[RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility [RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility
skipping to change at page 15, line 16 skipping to change at page 16, line 38
Korhonen, "Requirements for Distributed Mobility Korhonen, "Requirements for Distributed Mobility
Management", RFC 7333, DOI 10.17487/RFC7333, August 2014, Management", RFC 7333, DOI 10.17487/RFC7333, August 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7333>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7333>.
[RFC7429] Liu, D., Ed., Zuniga, JC., Ed., Seite, P., Chan, H., and [RFC7429] Liu, D., Ed., Zuniga, JC., Ed., Seite, P., Chan, H., and
CJ. Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current CJ. Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current
Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429, Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7429, January 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7429, January 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7429>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7429>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
8.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models] [I-D.ietf-dmm-deployment-models]
Gundavelli, S. and S. Jeon, "DMM Deployment Models and Gundavelli, S. and S. Jeon, "DMM Deployment Models and
Architectural Considerations", draft-ietf-dmm-deployment- Architectural Considerations", draft-ietf-dmm-deployment-
models-04 (work in progress), May 2018. models-04 (work in progress), May 2018.
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp] [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]
Matsushima, S., Bertz, L., Liebsch, M., Gundavelli, S., Matsushima, S., Bertz, L., Liebsch, M., Gundavelli, S.,
Moses, D., and C. Perkins, "Protocol for Forwarding Policy Moses, D., and C. Perkins, "Protocol for Forwarding Policy
Configuration (FPC) in DMM", draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-12 Configuration (FPC) in DMM", draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-12
(work in progress), June 2018. (work in progress), June 2018.
[I-D.ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility]
Yegin, A., Moses, D., and S. Jeon, "On Demand Mobility
Management", draft-ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility-17 (work in
progress), February 2019.
[I-D.ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif] [I-D.ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif]
Bernardos, C., Oliva, A., Giust, F., Zuniga, J., and A. Bernardos, C., Oliva, A., Giust, F., Zuniga, J., and A.
Mourad, "Proxy Mobile IPv6 extensions for Distributed Mourad, "Proxy Mobile IPv6 extensions for Distributed
Mobility Management", draft-ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif-04 (work Mobility Management", draft-ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif-04 (work
in progress), January 2019. in progress), January 2019.
[I-D.ietf-rtgwg-atn-bgp] [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-atn-bgp]
Templin, F., Saccone, G., Dawra, G., Lindem, A., and V. Templin, F., Saccone, G., Dawra, G., Lindem, A., and V.
Moreno, "A Simple BGP-based Mobile Routing System for the Moreno, "A Simple BGP-based Mobile Routing System for the
Aeronautical Telecommunications Network", draft-ietf- Aeronautical Telecommunications Network", draft-ietf-
rtgwg-atn-bgp-01 (work in progress), January 2019. rtgwg-atn-bgp-02 (work in progress), May 2019.
[I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc] [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]
Matsushima, S. and R. Wakikawa, "Stateless user-plane Matsushima, S. and R. Wakikawa, "Stateless user-plane
architecture for virtualized EPC (vEPC)", draft- architecture for virtualized EPC (vEPC)", draft-
matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc-06 (work in progress), matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc-06 (work in progress),
March 2016. March 2016.
[I-D.mccann-dmm-prefixcost] [I-D.mccann-dmm-prefixcost]
McCann, P. and J. Kaippallimalil, "Communicating Prefix McCann, P. and J. Kaippallimalil, "Communicating Prefix
Cost to Mobile Nodes", draft-mccann-dmm-prefixcost-03 Cost to Mobile Nodes", draft-mccann-dmm-prefixcost-03
skipping to change at page 16, line 47 skipping to change at page 18, line 27
Chan, H., Yokota, H., Xie, J., Seite, P., and D. Liu, Chan, H., Yokota, H., Xie, J., Seite, P., and D. Liu,
"Distributed and Dynamic Mobility Management in Mobile "Distributed and Dynamic Mobility Management in Mobile
Internet: Current Approaches and Issues", February 2011. Internet: Current Approaches and Issues", February 2011.
[RFC6459] Korhonen, J., Ed., Soininen, J., Patil, B., Savolainen, [RFC6459] Korhonen, J., Ed., Soininen, J., Patil, B., Savolainen,
T., Bajko, G., and K. Iisakkila, "IPv6 in 3rd Generation T., Bajko, G., and K. Iisakkila, "IPv6 in 3rd Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP) Evolved Packet System (EPS)", Partnership Project (3GPP) Evolved Packet System (EPS)",
RFC 6459, DOI 10.17487/RFC6459, January 2012, RFC 6459, DOI 10.17487/RFC6459, January 2012,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6459>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6459>.
[RFC8653] Yegin, A., Moses, D., and S. Jeon, "On-Demand Mobility
Management", RFC 8653, DOI 10.17487/RFC8653, October 2019,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8653>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
H. Anthony Chan (editor) H. Anthony Chan (editor)
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3 5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3
Plano, TX 75024 Plano, TX 75024
USA USA
Email: h.a.chan@ieee.org Email: h.a.chan@ieee.org
Xinpeng Wei Xinpeng Wei
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
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