draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-15.txt   rfc8818.txt 
DMM H. Chan, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) H. Chan, Ed.
Internet-Draft X. Wei Request for Comments: 8818 CIHE
Intended status: Informational Huawei Technologies Category: Informational X. Wei
Expires: September 8, 2020 J. Lee ISSN: 2070-1721 Huawei Technologies
Sangmyung University J. Lee
Sejong University
S. Jeon S. Jeon
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
CJ. Bernardos, Ed. CJ. Bernardos, Ed.
UC3M UC3M
March 7, 2020 October 2020
Distributed Mobility Anchoring Distributed Mobility Anchoring
draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-15
Abstract Abstract
This document defines distributed mobility anchoring in terms of the This document defines distributed mobility anchoring in terms of the
different configurations and functions to provide IP mobility different configurations and functions to provide IP mobility
support. A network may be configured with distributed mobility support. A network may be configured with distributed mobility
anchoring functions for both network-based or host-based mobility anchoring functions for both network-based or host-based mobility
support according to the needs of mobility support. In a distributed support, depending on the network's needs. In a distributed mobility
mobility anchoring environment, multiple anchors are available for anchoring environment, multiple anchors are available for mid-session
mid-session switching of an IP prefix anchor. To start a new flow or switching of an IP prefix anchor. To start a new flow or to handle a
to handle a flow not requiring IP session continuity as a mobile node flow not requiring IP session continuity as a mobile node moves to a
moves to a new network, the flow can be started or re-started using new network, the flow can be started or restarted using an IP address
an IP address configured from the new IP prefix anchored to the new configured from the new IP prefix anchored to the new network. If
network. If the flow needs to survive the change of network, there the flow needs to survive the change of network, there are solutions
are solutions that can be used to enable IP address mobility. This that can be used to enable IP address mobility. This document
document describes different anchoring approaches, depending on the describes different anchoring approaches, depending on the IP
IP mobility needs, and how this IP address mobility is handled by the mobility needs, and how this IP address mobility is handled by the
network. network.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for informational purposes.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- received public review and has been approved for publication by the
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approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8818.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on September 8, 2020.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction
2. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Conventions and Terminology
3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring
3.1. Configurations for Different Networks . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Configurations for Different Networks
3.1.1. Network-based DMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1.1. Network-Based DMM
3.1.2. Client-based DMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1.2. Client-Based DMM
4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - 4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments:
Mobility Support Only When Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Mobility Support Only When Needed
4.1. Nomadic case (no need of IP mobility): Changing to new IP 4.1. Nomadic Case
prefix/address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2. Mobility Case with Traffic Redirection
4.2. Mobility case, traffic redirection . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.3. Mobility Case with Anchor Relocation
4.3. Mobility case, anchor relocation . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5. Security Considerations
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6. IANA Considerations
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7. References
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7.1. Normative References
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 7.2. Informative References
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Acknowledgements
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Contributors
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Authors' Addresses
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to A key requirement in distributed mobility management (DMM) [RFC7333]
enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far from is to enable traffic to avoid traversing a single mobility anchor far
an optimal route. This document defines different configurations, from an optimal route. This document defines different
functional operations and parameters for distributed mobility configurations, functional operations, and parameters for distributed
anchoring and explains how to use them to avoid unnecessarily long mobility anchoring and explains how to use them to avoid
routes when a mobile node moves. unnecessarily long routes when a mobile node moves.
Companion distributed mobility management documents are already Other distributed mobility management documents already address
addressing source address selection [RFC8653], and control-plane source address selection [RFC8653] and control-plane and data-plane
data-plane signaling [I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]. A number of signaling [FPC-DMM-PROTOCOL]. A number of distributed mobility
distributed mobility solutions have also been proposed, for example, solutions have also been proposed, for example, in [DMM-DMA],
in [I-D.seite-dmm-dma], [I-D.ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif], [RFC8885], [DMM-WIFI], [DMM-ENHANCED-ANCHORING], and
[I-D.sarikaya-dmm-for-wifi], [I-D.yhkim-dmm-enhanced-anchoring], and [STATELESS-UPLANE-VEPC].
[I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc].
Distributed mobility anchoring employs multiple anchors in the data Distributed mobility anchoring employs multiple anchors in the data
plane. In general, control plane functions may be separated from plane. In general, control-plane functions may be separated from
data plane functions and be centralized but may also be co-located data-plane functions and be centralized but may also be co-located
with the data plane functions at the distributed anchors. Different with the data-plane functions at the distributed anchors. Different
configurations of distributed mobility anchoring are described in configurations of distributed mobility anchoring are described in
Section 3.1. Section 3.1.
As a Mobile Node (MN) attaches to an access router and establishes a As a Mobile Node (MN) attaches to an access router and establishes a
link between them, a /64 IPv6 prefix anchored to the router may be link between them, a /64 IPv6 prefix anchored to the router may be
assigned to the link for exclusive use by the MN [RFC6459]. The MN assigned to the link for exclusive use by the MN [RFC6459]. The MN
may then configure a global IPv6 address from this prefix and use it may then configure a global IPv6 address from this prefix and use it
as the source IP address in a flow to communicate with its as the source IP address in a flow to communicate with its
Correspondent Node (CN). When there are multiple mobility anchors Correspondent Node (CN). When there are multiple mobility anchors
assigned to the same MN, an address selection for a given flow is assigned to the same MN, an address selection for a given flow is
first required before the flow is initiated. Using an anchor in a first required before the flow is initiated. Using an anchor in an
MN's network of attachment has the advantage that the packets can MN's network of attachment has the advantage that the packets can
simply be forwarded according to the forwarding table. However, simply be forwarded according to the forwarding table. However,
after the flow has been initiated, the MN may later move to another after the flow has been initiated, the MN may later move to another
network which assigns a new mobility anchor to the MN. Since the new network that assigns a new mobility anchor to the MN. Since the new
anchor is located in a different network, the MN's assigned prefix anchor is located in a different network, the MN's assigned prefix
does not belong to the network where the MN is currently attached. does not belong to the network where the MN is currently attached.
When the MN wants to continue using its assigned prefix to complete When the MN wants to continue using its assigned prefix to complete
ongoing data sessions after it has moved to a new network, the ongoing data sessions after it has moved to a new network, the
network needs to provide support for the MN's IP address and session network needs to provide support for the MN's IP address and session
continuity, since routing packets to the MN through the new network continuity, since routing packets to the MN through the new network
deviates from applying default routes. The IP session continuity deviates from applying default routes. The IP session continuity
needs of a flow (application) determines how the IP address used by needs of a flow (application) determine how the IP address used by
this flow has to be anchored. If the ongoing IP flow can cope with this flow has to be anchored. If the ongoing IP flow can cope with
an IP prefix/address change, the flow can be reinitiated with a new an IP prefix/address change, the flow can be reinitiated with a new
IP address anchored in the new network. On the other hand, if the IP address anchored in the new network. On the other hand, if the
ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change, mobility support is ongoing IP flow cannot cope with such change, mobility support is
needed. A network supporting a mix of flows both requiring and not needed. A network supporting a mix of flows both requiring and not
requiring IP mobility support will need to distinguish these flows. requiring IP mobility support will need to distinguish these flows.
2. Conventions and Terminology 2. Conventions and Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. capitals, as shown here.
All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this
document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)
base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) base specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6)
specification [RFC5213], the "Mobility Related Terminologies" specification [RFC5213], the Mobility Terminology document [RFC3753],
[RFC3753], and the DMM current practices and gap analysis [RFC7429]. and the DMM Current Practices and Gap Analysis document [RFC7429].
These include terms such as Mobile Node (MN), Correspondent Node These include terms such as Mobile Node (MN), Correspondent Node
(CN), Home Agent (HA), Home Address (HoA), Care-of-Address (CoA), (CN), Home Agent (HA), Home Address (HoA), Care-of-Address (CoA),
Local Mobility Anchor (LMA), and Mobile Access Gateway (MAG). Local Mobility Anchor (LMA), and Mobile Access Gateway (MAG).
In addition, this document uses the following terms and definitions: In addition, this document uses the following terms and definitions:
IP session continuity: The ability to maintain an ongoing transport IP session continuity: The ability to maintain an ongoing transport
interaction by keeping the same local endpoint IP address interaction by keeping the same local endpoint IP address
throughout the lifetime of the IP socket despite the mobile host throughout the lifetime of the IP socket despite the mobile host
changing its point of attachment within the IP network topology. changing its point of attachment within the IP network topology.
The IP address of the host may change after closing the IP socket The IP address of the host may change after closing the IP socket
and before opening a new one, but that does not jeopardize the and before opening a new one, but that does not jeopardize the
ability of applications using these IP sockets to work flawlessly. ability of applications using these IP sockets to work flawlessly.
Session continuity is essential for mobile hosts to maintain Session continuity is essential for mobile hosts to maintain
ongoing flows without any interruption [RFC8653]. ongoing flows without any interruption [RFC8653].
Higher layer session continuity: The ability to maintain an ongoing Higher-layer session continuity: The ability to maintain an ongoing
transport or higher layer (e.g., application) interaction by transport- or higher-layer (e.g., application) interaction by
keeping the session indentifiers throughout the lifetime of the keeping the session identifiers throughout the lifetime of the
session despite the mobile host changing its point of attachment session despite the mobile host changing its point of attachment
within the IP network topology. This can be achieved by using within the IP network topology. This can be achieved by using
mechanisms at the transport or higher layers. mechanisms at the transport or higher layers.
IP address reachability: The ability to maintain the same IP address IP address reachability: The ability to maintain the same IP address
for an extended period of time. The IP address stays the same for an extended period of time. The IP address stays the same
across independent sessions, even in the absence of any session. across independent sessions, even in the absence of any session.
The IP address may be published in a long-term registry (e.g., The IP address may be published in a long-term registry (e.g.,
DNS) and is made available for serving incoming (e.g., TCP) DNS) and is made available for serving incoming (e.g., TCP)
connections. IP address reachability is essential for mobile connections. IP address reachability is essential for mobile
hosts to use specific/published IP addresses [RFC8653]. hosts to use specific/published IP addresses [RFC8653].
IP mobility: Combination of IP address reachability and session IP mobility: The combination of IP address reachability and session
continuity. continuity.
Home network of a home address: the network that has assigned the Anchoring (of an IP prefix/address): An IP prefix (i.e., Home
HoA used as the session identifier by the application running in Network Prefix (HNP)) or address (i.e., HoA) assigned for use by
an MN. The MN may be running multiple application sessions, and
each of these sessions can have a different home network.
Anchoring (of an IP prefix/address): An IP prefix, i.e., Home
Network Prefix (HNP), or address, i.e., HoA, assigned for use by
an MN is topologically anchored to an anchor node when the anchor an MN is topologically anchored to an anchor node when the anchor
node is able to advertise a route into the routing infrastructure node is able to advertise a route into the routing infrastructure
for the assigned IP prefix. The traffic using the assigned IP for the assigned IP prefix. The traffic using the assigned IP
address/prefix must traverse the anchor node. We can refer to the address/prefix must traverse the anchor node. We can refer to the
function performed by IP anchor node as anchoring, which is a data function performed by the IP anchor node as anchoring, which is a
plane function. data-plane function.
Location Management (LM) function: control plane function that keeps Location Management (LM) function: A control-plane function that
and manages the network location information of an MN. The keeps and manages the network location information of an MN. The
location information may be a binding of the advertised IP location information may be a binding of the advertised IP
address/prefix, e.g., HoA or HNP, to the IP routing address of the address/prefix (e.g., HoA or HNP) to the IP routing address of the
MN or of a node that can forward packets destined to the MN. MN or of a node that can forward packets destined to the MN.
When the MN is a Mobile Router (MR), the location information will When the MN is a Mobile Router (MR), the location information will
also include the Mobile Network Prefix (MNP), which is the also include the Mobile Network Prefix (MNP), which is the
aggregate IP prefix delegated to the MR to assign IP prefixes for aggregate IP prefix delegated to the MR to assign IP prefixes for
use by the Mobile Network Nodes (MNNs) in the mobile network. use by the Mobile Network Nodes (MNNs) in the mobile network.
In a client-server protocol model, secure (i.e., authenticated and In a client-server protocol model, secure (i.e., authenticated and
authorized) location query and update messages may be exchanged authorized) location query and update messages may be exchanged
between a Location Management client (LMc) and a Location between a Location Management client (LMc) and a Location
Management server (LMs), where the location information can be Management server (LMs), where the location information can be
updated or queried from the LMc. Optionally, there may be a updated or queried from the LMc. Optionally, there may be a
Location Management proxy (LMp) between LMc and LMs. Location Management proxy (LMp) between LMc and LMs.
With separation of control plane and data plane, the LM function With separation of control plane and data plane, the LM function
is in the control plane. It may be a logical function at the is in the control plane. It may be a logical function at the
control plane node, control plane anchor, or mobility controller. control-plane node, control-plane anchor, or mobility controller.
It may be distributed or centralized. It may be distributed or centralized.
Forwarding Management (FM) function: packet interception and Forwarding Management (FM) function: Packet interception and
forwarding to/from the IP address/prefix assigned for use by the forwarding to/from the IP address/prefix assigned for use by the
MN, based on the internetwork location information, either to the MN, based on the internetwork location information, either to the
destination or to some other network element that knows how to destination or to some other network element that knows how to
forward the packets to their destination. forward the packets to their destination.
This function may be used to achieve traffic indirection. With This function may be used to achieve traffic indirection. With
separation of control plane and data plane, the FM function may separation of control plane and data plane, the FM function may
split into a FM function in the data plane (FM-DP) and a FM split into an FM function in the data plane (FM-DP) and an FM
function in the control plane (FM-CP). function in the control plane (FM-CP).
FM-DP may be distributed with distributed mobility management. It FM-DP may be distributed with distributed mobility management. It
may be a function in a data plane anchor or data plane node. may be a function in a data-plane anchor or data-plane node.
FM-CP may be distributed or centralized. It may be a function in FM-CP may be distributed or centralized. It may be a function in
a control plane node, control plane anchor or mobility controller. a control-plane node, control-plane anchor, or mobility
controller.
Home Control-Plane Anchor (Home-CPA or H-CPA): The Home-CPA function Home Control-Plane Anchor (Home-CPA or H-CPA): The Home-CPA function
hosts the mobile node (MN)'s mobility session. There can be more hosts the MN's mobility session. There can be more than one
than one mobility session for a mobile node and those sessions may mobility session for a mobile node, and those sessions may be
be anchored on the same or different Home-CPA's. The home-CPA anchored on the same or different Home-CPA's. The Home-CPA will
will interface with the home-DPA for managing the forwarding interface with the Home-DPA for managing the forwarding state.
state.
Home Data Plane Anchor (Home-DPA or H-DPA): The Home-DPA is the Home Data-Plane Anchor (Home-DPA or H-DPA): The Home-DPA is the
topological anchor for the MN's IP address/ prefix(es). The Home- topological anchor for the MN's IP address/prefix(es). The Home-
DPA is chosen by the Home-CPA on a session- basis. The Home-DPA DPA is chosen by the Home-CPA on a session basis. The Home-DPA is
is in the forwarding path for all the mobile node's IP traffic. in the forwarding path for all the mobile node's IP traffic.
Access Control Plane Node (Access-CPN or A-CPN): The Access-CPN is Access Control-Plane Node (Access-CPN or A-CPN): The Access-CPN is
responsible for interfacing with the mobile node's Home-CPA and responsible for interfacing with the mobile node's Home-CPA and
with the Access-DPN. The Access-CPN has a protocol interface to with the Access-DPN. The Access-CPN has a protocol interface to
the Home-CPA. the Home-CPA.
Access Data Plane Node (Access-DPN or A-DPN): The Access-DPN Access Data-Plane Node (Access-DPN or A-DPN): The Access-DPN
function is hosted on the first-hop router where the mobile node function is hosted on the first-hop router where the mobile node
is attached. This function is not hosted on a layer-2 bridging is attached. This function is not hosted on a Layer 2 bridging
device such as a eNode(B) or Access Point. device such as an eNode(B) or Access Point.
3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring 3. Distributed Mobility Anchoring
3.1. Configurations for Different Networks 3.1. Configurations for Different Networks
We next describe some configurations with multiple distributed We next describe some configurations with multiple distributed
anchors. To cover the widest possible spectrum of scenarios, we anchors. To cover the widest possible spectrum of scenarios, we
consider architectures in which the control and data planes are consider architectures in which the control and data planes are
separated. We analyze where LM and FM functions -- which are separated. We analyze where LM and FM functions, which are specific
specific sub-functions involved in mobility management -- can be sub-functions involved in mobility management, can be placed when
placed when looking at the different scenarios with distributed looking at the different scenarios with distributed anchors.
anchors.
3.1.1. Network-based DMM 3.1.1. Network-Based DMM
Figure 1 shows a general scenario for network-based distributed Figure 1 shows a general scenario for network-based distributed
mobility management. mobility management.
The main characteristics of a network-based DMM solution are: The main characteristics of a network-based DMM solution are:
o There are multiple data plane anchors, each with a FM-DP function. * There are multiple data-plane anchors, each with an FM-DP
o The control plane may either be distributed (not shown in the function.
* The control plane may either be distributed (not shown in the
figure) or centralized (as shown in the figure). figure) or centralized (as shown in the figure).
o The control plane and the data plane (Control Plane Anchor -- CPA
-- and Data Plane Anchor -- DPA) may be co-located or not. If the * The Control-Plane Anchor (CPA) and the Data Plane Anchor (DPA) may
CPA is co-located with the distributed DPAs, then there are or may not be co-located. If the CPA is co-located with the
multiple co-located CPA-DPA instances (not shown in the figure). distributed DPAs, then there are multiple co-located CPA-DPA
o An IP prefix/address IP1 (anchored to the DPA with IP address instances (not shown in the figure).
IPa1) is assigned for use to a MN. The MN uses this IP1 address
* An IP prefix/address IP1 (anchored to the DPA with IP address
IPa1) is assigned for use to an MN. The MN uses this IP1 address
to communicate with CNs (not shown in the figure). to communicate with CNs (not shown in the figure).
o The location management (LM) function may be co-located or split
* The location management (LM) function may be co-located or split
(as shown in the figure) into a separate server (LMs) and a client (as shown in the figure) into a separate server (LMs) and a client
(LMc). In this case, the LMs may be centralized whereas the LMc (LMc). In this case, the LMs may be centralized whereas the LMc
may be distributed or centralized. may be distributed or centralized.
____________ Network ____________ Network
___/ \___________ ___/ \___________
/ +-----+ \___ / +-----+ \___
( |LMs | Control \ ( |LMs | Control- \
/ +-.---+ plane \ / +-.---+ plane \
/ +--------.---+ functions \ / +--------.---+ functions \
( |CPA: . | in the ) ( |CPA: . | in the )
( |FM-CP, LMc | network ) ( |FM-CP, LMc | network )
( +------------+ \ ( +------------+ \
/ . . \ / . . \
( . . ) ( . . )
( . . ) ( . . )
( . . \ ( . . \
\ +------------+ +------------+Distributed ) \ +------------+ +------------+Distributed )
( |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |DPAs ) ( |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |DPAs )
( |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | _/ ( |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | _/
\ |FM-DP | |FM-DP | etc. / \ |FM-DP | |FM-DP | etc. /
\ +------------+ +------------+ / \ +------------+ +------------+ /
\___ Data plane _____/ \___ Data-plane _____/
\______ functions / \______ functions /
\__________________/ \__________________/
+------------+ +------------+
|MN(IP1) | Mobile node attached |MN(IP1) | Mobile node attached
|flow(IP1,..)| to the network |flow(IP1,..)| to the network
+------------+ +------------+
Figure 1: Network-based DMM configuration Figure 1: Network-Based DMM Configuration
3.1.2. Client-based DMM 3.1.2. Client-Based DMM
Figure 2 shows a general scenario for client-based distributed Figure 2 shows a general scenario for client-based distributed
mobility management. In this configuration, the mobile node performs mobility management. In this configuration, the mobile node performs
Control Plane Node (CPN) and Data Plane Node (DPN) mobility Control-Plane Node (CPN) and Data-Plane Node (DPN) mobility
functions, namely the forwarding management and location management functions, namely the forwarding management and location management
(client) roles. (client) roles.
+-----+ +-----+
|LMs | |LMs |
+-.---+ +-.---+
+--------.---+ +--------.---+
|CPA: . | |CPA: . |
|FM-CP, LMp | |FM-CP, LMp |
+------------+ +------------+
skipping to change at page 9, line 28 skipping to change at line 355
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 |
|FM-DP | |FM-DP | etc. |FM-DP | |FM-DP | etc.
+------------+ +------------+ +------------+ +------------+
+------------+ +------------+
|MN(IP1) |Mobile node |MN(IP1) |Mobile node
|flow(IP1,..)|using IP1 |flow(IP1,..)|using IP1
|FM, LMc |anchored to |FM, LMc |anchored to
+------------+DPA(IPa1) +------------+DPA(IPa1)
Figure 2: Client-based DMM configuration Figure 2: Client-Based DMM Configuration
4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments - 4. IP Mobility Handling in Distributed Anchoring Environments: Mobility
Mobility Support Only When Needed Support Only When Needed
IP mobility support may be provided only when needed instead of being IP mobility support may be provided only when needed instead of being
provided by default. Three cases can be considered: provided by default. Three cases can be considered:
o Nomadic case: no address continuity is required. The IP address * Nomadic case: No address continuity is required. The IP address
used by the MN changes after a movement and traffic using the old used by the MN changes after a movement and traffic using the old
address is disrupted. If session continuity is required, then it address is disrupted. If session continuity is required, then it
needs to be provided by a solution running at L4 or above. needs to be provided by a solution running at Layer 4 or above.
o Mobility case, traffic redirection: address continuity is
* Mobility case with traffic redirection: Address continuity is
required. When the MN moves, the previous anchor still anchors required. When the MN moves, the previous anchor still anchors
the traffic using the old IP address, and forwards it to the new the traffic using the old IP address and forwards it to the new
MN's location. The MN obtains a new IP address anchored to the MN's location. The MN obtains a new IP address anchored to the
new location, and preferably uses it for new communications, new location and preferably uses it for new communications
established while connected at the new location. established while connected at the new location.
o Mobility case, anchor relocation: address continuity is required.
In this case the route followed by the traffic is optimized, by * Mobility case with anchor relocation: Address continuity is
using some means for traffic indirection to deviate from default required. In this case, the route followed by the traffic is
routes. optimized by using some means for traffic indirection to deviate
from default routes.
A straightforward choice of mobility anchoring is the following: the A straightforward choice of mobility anchoring is the following: the
MN's chooses as source IP address for packets belonging to an IP MN chooses, as a source IP address for packets belonging to an IP
flow, an address allocated by the network the MN is attached to when flow, an address allocated by the network the MN is attached to when
the flow was initiated. As such, traffic belonging to this flow the flow was initiated. As such, traffic belonging to this flow
traverses the MN's mobility anchor [I-D.seite-dmm-dma] traverses the MN's mobility anchor [DMM-DMA] [RFC8885].
[I-D.ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif].
The IP prefix/address at the MN's side of a flow may be anchored to The IP prefix/address at the MN's side of a flow may be anchored to
the Access Router (AR) to which the MN is attached. For example, the Access Router (AR) to which the MN is attached. For example,
when a MN attaches to a network (Net1) or moves to a new network when an MN attaches to a network (Net1) or moves to a new network
(Net2), an IP prefix from the attached network is assigned to the (Net2), an IP prefix from the attached network is assigned to the
MN's interface. In addition to configuring new link-local addresses, MN's interface. In addition to configuring new link-local addresses,
the MN configures from this prefix an IP address which is typically a the MN configures from this prefix an IP address that is typically a
dynamic IP address (meaning that this address is only used while the dynamic IP address (meaning that this address is only used while the
MN is attached to this access router, and therefore the IP address MN is attached to this access router, so the IP address configured by
configured by the MN dynamically changes when attaching to a the MN dynamically changes when attaching to a different access
different access network). It then uses this IP address when a flow network). It then uses this IP address when a flow is initiated.
is initiated. Packets from this flow addressed to the MN are simply Packets from this flow addressed to the MN are simply forwarded
forwarded according to the forwarding table. according to the forwarding table.
There may be multiple IP prefixes/addresses that an MN can select There may be multiple IP prefixes/addresses that an MN can select
when initiating a flow. They may be from the same access network or when initiating a flow. They may be from the same access network or
different access networks. The network may advertise these prefixes different access networks. The network may advertise these prefixes
with cost options [I-D.mccann-dmm-prefixcost] so that the mobile node with cost options [PREFIX-COST] so that the mobile node may choose
may choose the one with the least cost. In addition, the IP the one with the least cost. In addition, the IP prefixes/addresses
prefixes/addresses provided by the network may be of different types provided by the network may be of different types regarding whether
regarding whether mobility support is supported [RFC8653]. A MN will mobility support is supported [RFC8653]. An MN will need to choose
need to choose which IP prefix/address to use for each flow according which IP prefix/address to use for each flow according to whether or
to whether it needs IP mobility support or not, using for example the not it needs IP mobility support, for example, using the mechanisms
mechanisms described in [RFC8653]. described in [RFC8653].
4.1. Nomadic case (no need of IP mobility): Changing to new IP prefix/ 4.1. Nomadic Case
address
When IP mobility support is not needed for a flow, the LM and FM When IP mobility support is not needed for a flow, the LM and FM
functions are not utilized so that the configurations in Section 3.1 functions are not utilized so that the configurations in Section 3.1
are simplified as shown in Figure 3. are simplified as shown in Figure 3.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | AR is changed |AR2 | |AR1 | AR is changed |AR2 |
+---------------+ -------> +---------------+ +---------------+ -------> +---------------+
skipping to change at page 11, line 21 skipping to change at line 432
|---------------| |---------------| |---------------| |---------------|
|DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 | |anchors IP1 | |anchors IP2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2) | .MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP2,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP2,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 3: Changing to a new IP address/prefix Figure 3: Changing to a New IP Address/Prefix
When there is no need to provide IP mobility to a flow, the flow may When there is no need to provide IP mobility to a flow, the flow may
use a new IP address acquired from a new network as the MN moves to use a new IP address acquired from a new network as the MN moves to
the new network. the new network.
Regardless of whether IP mobility is needed, if the flow has not Regardless of whether or not IP mobility is needed, if the flow has
terminated before the MN moves to a new network, the flow may not terminated before the MN moves to a new network, the flow may
subsequently restart using the new IP address assigned from the new subsequently restart using the new IP address assigned from the new
network. network.
When IP session continuity is needed, even if an application flow is When IP session continuity is needed, even if an application flow is
ongoing as the MN moves, it may still be desirable for the ongoing as the MN moves, it may still be desirable for the
application flow to change to using the new IP prefix configured in application flow to change to using the new IP prefix configured in
the new network. The application flow may then be closed at IP level the new network. The application flow may then be closed at the IP
and then be restarted using a new IP address configured in the new level and then be restarted using a new IP address configured in the
network. Such a change in the IP address used by the application new network. Such a change in the IP address used by the application
flow may be enabled using a higher layer mobility support which is flow may be enabled using a higher-layer mobility support that is not
not in the scope of this document. in the scope of this document.
In Figure 3, a flow initiated while the MN was using the IP prefix In Figure 3, a flow initiated while the MN was using the IP prefix
IP1 -- anchored to a previous access router AR1 in network Net1 -- IP1, anchored to a previous access router AR1 in network Net1, has
has terminated before the MN moves to a new network Net2. After terminated before the MN moves to a new network Net2. After moving
moving to Net2, the MN uses the new IP prefix IP2 -- anchored to a to Net2, the MN uses the new IP prefix IP2, anchored to a new access
new access router AR2 in network Net2 -- to start a new flow. router AR2 in network Net2, to start a new flow. Packets may then be
Packets may then be forwarded without requiring IP layer mobility forwarded without requiring IP-layer mobility support.
support.
An example call flow is outlined in Figure 4. A MN attaches to AR1, An example call flow is outlined in Figure 4. An MN attaches to AR1,
which sends a router advertisement (RA) including information about which sends a router advertisement (RA) including information about
the prefix assigned to MN, from which MN configures an IP address the prefix assigned to the MN, from which the MN configures an IP
(IP1). This address is used for new communications, for example with address (IP1). This address is used for new communications, for
a correspondent node (CN). If the MN moves to a new network and example, with a correspondent node (CN). If the MN moves to a new
attaches to AR2, the process is repeated (MN obtains a new IP network and attaches to AR2, the process is repeated (the MN obtains
address, IP2, from AR2). Since the IP address (IP1) configured at a new IP address, IP2, from AR2). Since the IP address (IP1)
the previously visited network is not valid at the current attachment configured at the previously visited network is not valid at the
point, and any existing flows have to be reestablished using IP2. current attachment point, any existing flows have to be reestablished
using IP2.
Note that in these scenarios, if there is no mobility support Note that in these scenarios, if there is no mobility support
provided by L4 or above, application traffic would stop. provided by Layer 4 or above, application traffic would stop.
MN AR1 AR2 CN MN AR1 AR2 CN
|MN attaches to AR1: | | | |MN attaches to AR1: | | |
|acquires MN-ID and profile | | |acquires MN-ID and profile | |
|--RS---------------->| | | |--RS---------------->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<----------RA(IP1)---| | | |<----------RA(IP1)---| | |
| | | | | | | |
Assigned prefix IP1 | | | Assigned prefix IP1 | | |
IP1 address configuration | | IP1 address configuration | |
skipping to change at page 12, line 38 skipping to change at line 498
|--RS------------------------------>| | |--RS------------------------------>| |
| | | | | | | |
|<--------------RA(IP2)-------------| | |<--------------RA(IP2)-------------| |
| | | | | | | |
Assigned prefix IP2 | | | Assigned prefix IP2 | | |
IP2 address configuration | | IP2 address configuration | |
| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+---------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+---------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 4: Re-starting a flow with new IP prefix/address Figure 4: Restarting a Flow with New IP Prefix/Address
4.2. Mobility case, traffic redirection 4.2. Mobility Case with Traffic Redirection
When IP mobility is needed for a flow, the LM and FM functions in When IP mobility is needed for a flow, the LM and FM functions in
Section 3.1 are utilized. There are two possible cases: (i) the Section 3.1 are utilized. There are two possible cases: (i) the
mobility anchor remains playing that role and forwards traffic to a mobility anchor remains playing that role and forwards traffic to a
new locator in the new network, and (ii) the mobility anchor (data new locator in the new network, and (ii) the mobility anchor (data-
plane function) is changed but binds the MN's transferred IP address/ plane function) is changed but binds the MN's transferred IP address/
prefix. The latter enables optimized routes but requires some data prefix. The latter enables optimized routes but requires some data-
plane node that enforces traffic indirection. Next, we focus on the plane node that enforces traffic indirection. We focus on the first
first case. The second one is addressed in Section 4.3. case in this section. The second case is addressed in Section 4.3.
Mobility support can be provided by using mobility management Mobility support can be provided by using mobility management
methods, such as the several approaches surveyed in the academic methods, such as the approaches surveyed in the following academic
papers ([Paper-Distributed.Mobility], papers: [IEEE-DISTRIBUTED-MOBILITY], [PMIP-DMA], and
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP] and [DMM-MOBILE-INTERNET]. After moving, a certain MN's traffic flow may
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review]). After moving, a certain MN's continue using the IP prefix from the prior network of attachment.
traffic flow may continue using the IP prefix from the prior network Yet, some time later, the application generating this traffic flow
of attachment. Yet, some time later, the application generating this may be closed. If the application is started again, the new flow may
traffic flow may be closed. If the application is started again, the not need to use the prior network's IP address to avoid having to
new flow may not need to use the prior network's IP address to avoid invoke IP mobility support. This may be the case where a dynamic IP
having to invoke IP mobility support. This may be the case where a prefix/address, rather than a permanent one, is used. Packets
dynamic IP prefix/address, rather than a permanent one, is used. belonging to this flow may then use the new IP prefix (the one
Packets belonging to this flow may then use the new IP prefix (the allocated in the network where the flow is being initiated). Routing
one allocated in the network where the flow is being initiated). is again kept simpler without employing IP mobility and will remain
Routing is again kept simpler without employing IP mobility and will so as long as the MN, which is now in the new network, does not move
remain so as long as the MN which is now in the new network does not again to another network.
move again to another network.
An example call flow in this case is outlined in Figure 5. In this
example, the AR1 plays the role of the FM-DP entity and redirects the
traffic (e.g., using an IP tunnel) to AR2.
MN AR1 AR2 CN MN AR1 AR2 CN
|MN attaches to AR1: | | | |MN attaches to AR1: | | |
|acquires MN-ID and profile | | |acquires MN-ID and profile | |
|--RS---------------->| | | |--RS---------------->| | |
| | | | | | | |
|<----------RA(IP1)---| | | |<----------RA(IP1)---| | |
| | | | | | | |
Assigned prefix IP1 | | | Assigned prefix IP1 | | |
IP1 address configuration | | IP1 address configuration | |
skipping to change at page 14, line 36 skipping to change at line 562
|<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-------------->+ | |<-Flow(IP1,IPcn,...)-------------->+ |
| | | | | | | |
Assigned prefix IP2 | | | Assigned prefix IP2 | | |
IP2 address configuration | | IP2 address configuration | |
| | | | | | | |
Flow(IP1,IPcn) terminates | | Flow(IP1,IPcn) terminates | |
| | | | | | | |
|<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+---------------------------->| |<-new Flow(IP2,IPcn,...)-----------+---------------------------->|
| | | | | | | |
Figure 5: A flow continues to use the IP prefix from its home network Figure 5: Flow Using IP Prefix from Home Network after MN has Moved
after MN has moved to a new network
An example call flow in this case is outlined in Figure 5. In this Another solution could be to place an FM-DP entity closer to the CN
example, the AR1 plays the role of FM-DP entity and redirects the network to perform traffic steering to deviate from default routes
traffic (e.g., using an IP tunnel) to AR2. Another solution could be (which will bring the packet to AR1 per default routing). The LM and
to place an FM-DP entity closer to the CN network to perform traffic FM functions are implemented as shown in Figure 6.
steering to deviate from default routes (which will bring the packet
to AR1 per default routing). The LM and FM functions are implemented
as shown in Figure 6.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
| | |LM:IP1 at IPa1 | | | |LM:IP1 at IPa1 |
|---------------| IP1 (anchored to Net1) |---------------| |---------------| IP1 (anchored to Net1) |---------------|
|DPA(IPa1): | is redirected to Net2 |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | is redirected to Net2 |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchors IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2 | |anchors IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2 |
|FM:IP1 via IPa2| |FM:IP1 via IPa1| |FM:IP1 via IPa2| |FM:IP1 via IPa1|
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
. . |flow(IP2,...) | . . |flow(IP2,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 6: Anchor redirection Figure 6: Anchor Redirection
Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers), which are providing Multiple instances of DPAs (at access routers), which are providing
IP prefixes to the MNs, are needed to provide distributed mobility IP prefixes to the MNs, are needed to provide distributed mobility
anchoring in an appropriate configuration such as those described in anchoring in an appropriate configuration such as those described in
Figure 1 (Section 3.1.1) for network-based distributed mobility or in Figure 1 (Section 3.1.1) for network-based distributed mobility or in
Figure 2 (Section 3.1.2) for client-based distributed mobility. Figure 2 (Section 3.1.2) for client-based distributed mobility.
4.3. Mobility case, anchor relocation 4.3. Mobility Case with Anchor Relocation
We focus next on the case where the mobility anchor (data plane We focus next on the case where the mobility anchor (data-plane
function) is changed but binds the MN's transferred IP address/ function) is changed but binds the MN's transferred IP address/
prefix. This enables optimized routes but requires some data plane prefix. This enables optimized routes but requires some data-plane
node that enforces traffic indirection. node that enforces traffic indirection.
IP mobility is invoked to enable IP session continuity for an ongoing IP mobility is invoked to enable IP session continuity for an ongoing
flow as the MN moves to a new network. The anchoring of the IP flow as the MN moves to a new network. The anchoring of the IP
address of the flow is in the home network of the flow (i.e., address of the flow is in the home network of the flow (i.e.,
different from the current network of attachment). A centralized different from the current network of attachment). A centralized
mobility management mechanism may employ indirection from the anchor mobility management mechanism may employ indirection from the anchor
in the home network to the current network of attachment. Yet it may in the home network to the current network of attachment. Yet, it
be difficult to avoid using an unnecessarily long route (when the may be difficult to avoid using an unnecessarily long route (when the
route between the MN and the CN via the anchor in the home network is route between the MN and the CN via the anchor in the home network is
significantly longer than the direct route between them). An significantly longer than the direct route between them). An
alternative is to move the IP prefix/address anchoring to the new alternative is to move the IP prefix/address anchoring to the new
network. network.
The IP prefix/address anchoring may move without changing the IP The IP prefix/address anchoring may move without changing the IP
prefix/address of the flow. The LM function in Figure 1 in prefix/address of the flow. The LM function in Figure 1 of
Section 3.1.1 is implemented as shown in Figure 7. Section 3.1.1 is implemented as shown in Figure 7.
Net1 Net2 Net1 Net2
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|AR1 | |AR2 | |AR1 | |AR2 |
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
|CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: | |CPA: |
|LM:IP1 at IPa1 | |LM:IP1 at IPa2 | |LM:IP1 at IPa1 | |LM:IP1 at IPa2 |
| changes to | | | | changes to | | |
skipping to change at page 16, line 28 skipping to change at line 638
|---------------| |---------------| |---------------| |---------------|
|DPA(IPa1): | IP1 anchoring effectively moved |DPA(IPa2): | |DPA(IPa1): | IP1 anchoring effectively moved |DPA(IPa2): |
|anchored IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2,IP1| |anchored IP1 | =======> |anchors IP2,IP1|
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
.MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) | .MN(IP1) . MN moves |MN(IP2,IP1) |
.flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) | .flow(IP1,...) . =======> |flow(IP1,...) |
+...............+ +---------------+ +...............+ +---------------+
Figure 7: Anchor relocation Figure 7: Anchor Relocation
As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may
preserve IP session continuity by moving the anchoring of the preserve IP session continuity by moving the anchoring of the
original IP prefix/address of the flow to the new network. original IP prefix/address of the flow to the new network.
One way to accomplish such a move is to use a centralized routing One way to accomplish such a move is to use a centralized routing
protocol, but such a solution may present some scalability concerns protocol, but such a solution may present some scalability concerns
and its applicability is typically limited to small networks. One and its applicability is typically limited to small networks. One
example of this type of solution is described in example of this type of solution is described in [BGP-ATN-IPS]. When
[I-D.ietf-rtgwg-atn-bgp]. When a MN associates with an anchor the an MN associates with an anchor, the anchor injects the MN's prefix
anchor injects the mobile's prefix into the global routing system. into the global routing system. If the MN moves to a new anchor, the
If the MN moves to a new anchor, the old anchor withdraws the /64 and old anchor withdraws the /64 and the new anchor injects it instead.
the new anchor injects it instead.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
As stated in [RFC7333], "a DMM solution MUST support any security As stated in [RFC7333], "a DMM solution MUST support any security
protocols and mechanisms needed to secure the network and to make protocols and mechanisms needed to secure the network and to make
continuous security improvements". It "MUST NOT introduce new continuous security improvements". It "MUST NOT introduce new
security risks". security risks".
There are different potential deployment models of a DMM solution. There are different potential deployment models of a DMM solution.
The present document has presented 3 different scenarios for The present document has presented three different scenarios for
distributed anchoring: (i) nomadic case, (ii) mobility case with distributed anchoring: (i) nomadic case, (ii) mobility case with
traffic redirection, and (iii) mobility case with anchor relocation. traffic redirection, and (iii) mobility case with anchor relocation.
Each of them has different security requirements, and the actual Each of these cases has different security requirements, and the
security mechanisms would depend on the specifics of each solution/ actual security mechanisms depend on the specifics of each solution/
scenario. scenario.
As general rules, for the first distributed anchoring scenario As general rules, for the first distributed anchoring scenario
(nomadic case), no additional security consideration is needed, as (nomadic case), no additional security consideration is needed, as
this does not involve any additional mechanism at L3. If session this does not involve any additional mechanism at Layer 3. If
connectivity is required, the L4 or above solution used to provide it session connectivity is required, the Layer 4 or above solution used
MUST also provide the required authentication and security. to provide it MUST also provide the required authentication and
security.
The second and third distributed anchoring scenarios (mobility case) The second and third distributed anchoring scenarios (mobility case)
involve mobility signalling among the mobile node and the control and involve mobility signaling among the mobile node and the control-
data plane anchors. The control-plane messages exchanged between plane and data-plane anchors. The control-plane messages exchanged
these entitites MUST be protected using end-to-end security between these entities MUST be protected using end-to-end security
associations with data-integrity and data-origination capabilities. associations with data-integrity and data-origination capabilities.
IPsec [RFC8221] ESP in transport mode with mandatory integrity IPsec [RFC8221] Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) in transport
protection SHOULD be used for protecting the signaling messages. mode with mandatory integrity protection SHOULD be used for
IKEv2 [RFC8247] SHOULD be used to set up security associations protecting the signaling messages. Internet Key Exchange Protocol
between the data and control plane anchors. Note that in scenarios Version 2 (IKEv2) [RFC8247] SHOULD be used to set up security
in which traffic indirection mechanisms are used to relocate an associations between the data-plane and control-plane anchors. Note
anchor, authentication and authorization mechanisms MUST be used. that in scenarios in which traffic indirection mechanisms are used to
relocate an anchor, authentication and authorization mechanisms MUST
be used.
Control-plane functionality MUST apply authorization checks to any Control-plane functionality MUST apply authorization checks to any
commands or updates that are made by the control-plane protocol. commands or updates that are made by the control-plane protocol.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
This document presents no IANA considerations. This document has no IANA actions.
7. Contributors
Alexandre Petrescu and Fred Templin had contributed to earlier
versions of this document regarding distributed anchoring for
hierarchical network and for network mobility, although these
extensions were removed to keep the document within reasonable
length.
This document has benefited from other work on mobility support in
SDN network, on providing mobility support only when needed, and on
mobility support in enterprise network. These works have been
referenced. While some of these authors have taken the work to
jointly write this document, others have contributed at least
indirectly by writing these drafts. The latter include Philippe
Bertin, Dapeng Liu, Satoru Matushima, Pierrick Seite, Jouni Korhonen,
and Sri Gundavelli.
Some terminology has been incorporated for completeness from draft-
ietf-dmm-deployment-models-04 document.
Valuable comments have been received from John Kaippallimalil,
ChunShan Xiong, Dapeng Liu, Fred Templin, Paul Kyzivat, Joseph
Salowey, Yoshifumi Nishida, Carlos Pignataro, Mirja Kuehlewind, Eric
Vyncke, Qin Wu, Warren Kumari, Benjamin Kaduk, Roman Danyliw and
Barry Leiba. Dirk von Hugo, Byju Pularikkal, Pierrick Seite have
generously provided careful review with helpful corrections and
suggestions. Marco Liebsch and Lyle Bertz also performed very
detailed and helpful reviews of this document.
8. References 7. References
8.1. Normative References 7.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3753] Manner, J., Ed. and M. Kojo, Ed., "Mobility Related [RFC3753] Manner, J., Ed. and M. Kojo, Ed., "Mobility Related
Terminology", RFC 3753, DOI 10.17487/RFC3753, June 2004, Terminology", RFC 3753, DOI 10.17487/RFC3753, June 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3753>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3753>.
skipping to change at page 19, line 18 skipping to change at line 745
Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header (AH)", RFC 8221, Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header (AH)", RFC 8221,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8221, October 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8221, October 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8221>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8221>.
[RFC8247] Nir, Y., Kivinen, T., Wouters, P., and D. Migault, [RFC8247] Nir, Y., Kivinen, T., Wouters, P., and D. Migault,
"Algorithm Implementation Requirements and Usage Guidance "Algorithm Implementation Requirements and Usage Guidance
for the Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)", for the Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)",
RFC 8247, DOI 10.17487/RFC8247, September 2017, RFC 8247, DOI 10.17487/RFC8247, September 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8247>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8247>.
8.2. Informative References 7.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp]
Matsushima, S., Bertz, L., Liebsch, M., Gundavelli, S.,
Moses, D., and C. Perkins, "Protocol for Forwarding Policy
Configuration (FPC) in DMM", draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-12
(work in progress), June 2018.
[I-D.ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif]
Bernardos, C., Oliva, A., Giust, F., Zuniga, J., and A.
Mourad, "Proxy Mobile IPv6 extensions for Distributed
Mobility Management", draft-ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif-05 (work
in progress), November 2019.
[I-D.ietf-rtgwg-atn-bgp] [BGP-ATN-IPS]
Templin, F., Saccone, G., Dawra, G., Lindem, A., and V. Templin, F., Saccone, G., Dawra, G., Lindem, A., and V.
Moreno, "A Simple BGP-based Mobile Routing System for the Moreno, "A Simple BGP-based Mobile Routing System for the
Aeronautical Telecommunications Network", draft-ietf- Aeronautical Telecommunications Network", Work in
rtgwg-atn-bgp-05 (work in progress), January 2020. Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-rtgwg-atn-bgp-06, 30
June 2020,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-rtgwg-atn-bgp-06>.
[I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc] [DMM-DMA] Seite, P., Bertin, P., and J. Lee, "Distributed Mobility
Matsushima, S. and R. Wakikawa, "Stateless user-plane Anchoring", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-seite-
architecture for virtualized EPC (vEPC)", draft- dmm-dma-07, 6 February 2014,
matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc-06 (work in progress), <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-seite-dmm-dma-07>.
March 2016.
[I-D.mccann-dmm-prefixcost] [DMM-ENHANCED-ANCHORING]
McCann, P. and J. Kaippallimalil, "Communicating Prefix Kim, Y. and S. Jeon, "Enhanced Mobility Anchoring in
Cost to Mobile Nodes", draft-mccann-dmm-prefixcost-03 Distributed Mobility Management", Work in Progress,
(work in progress), April 2016. Internet-Draft, draft-yhkim-dmm-enhanced-anchoring-05, 8
July 2016, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-yhkim-dmm-
enhanced-anchoring-05>.
[I-D.sarikaya-dmm-for-wifi] [DMM-MOBILE-INTERNET]
Sarikaya, B. and L. Li, "Distributed Mobility Management Chan, H., Yokota, H., Xie, J., Seite, P., and D. Liu,
Protocol for WiFi Users in Fixed Network", draft-sarikaya- "Distributed and Dynamic Mobility Management in Mobile
dmm-for-wifi-05 (work in progress), October 2017. Internet: Current Approaches and Issues", Journal of
Communications, Vol. 6, No. 1, February 2011.
[I-D.seite-dmm-dma] [DMM-WIFI] Sarikaya, B. and L. Li, "Distributed Mobility Management
Seite, P., Bertin, P., and J. Lee, "Distributed Mobility Protocol for WiFi Users in Fixed Network", Work in
Anchoring", draft-seite-dmm-dma-07 (work in progress), Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-sarikaya-dmm-for-wifi-05,
February 2014. 30 October 2017, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-
sarikaya-dmm-for-wifi-05>.
[I-D.yhkim-dmm-enhanced-anchoring] [FPC-DMM-PROTOCOL]
Kim, Y. and S. Jeon, "Enhanced Mobility Anchoring in Matsushima, S., Bertz, L., Liebsch, M., Gundavelli, S.,
Distributed Mobility Management", draft-yhkim-dmm- Moses, D., and C. Perkins, "Protocol for Forwarding Policy
enhanced-anchoring-05 (work in progress), July 2016. Configuration (FPC) in DMM", Work in Progress, Internet-
Draft, draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-14, 22 September 2020,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-dmm-fpc-cpdp-14>.
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility] [IEEE-DISTRIBUTED-MOBILITY]
Lee, J., Bonnin, J., Seite, P., and H. Chan, "Distributed Lee, J., Bonnin, J., Seite, P., and H. A. Chan,
IP Mobility Management from the Perspective of the IETF: "Distributed IP mobility management from the perspective
Motivations, Requirements, Approaches, Comparison, and of the IETF: motivations, requirements, approaches,
Challenges", IEEE Wireless Communications, October 2013. comparison, and challenges", IEEE Wireless Communications,
vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 159-168, October 2013.
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP] [PMIP-DMA] Chan, H., "Proxy mobile IP with distributed mobility
Chan, H., "Proxy Mobile IP with Distributed Mobility anchors", IEEE Globecom Workshops Miami, FL, 2010, pp.
Anchors", Proceedings of GlobeCom Workshop on Seamless 16-20, December 2010.
Wireless Mobility, December 2010.
[Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review] [PREFIX-COST]
Chan, H., Yokota, H., Xie, J., Seite, P., and D. Liu, McCann, P. and J. Kaippallimalil, "Communicating Prefix
"Distributed and Dynamic Mobility Management in Mobile Cost to Mobile Nodes", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
Internet: Current Approaches and Issues", February 2011. draft-mccann-dmm-prefixcost-03, 11 April 2016,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-mccann-dmm-prefixcost-
03>.
[RFC6459] Korhonen, J., Ed., Soininen, J., Patil, B., Savolainen, [RFC6459] Korhonen, J., Ed., Soininen, J., Patil, B., Savolainen,
T., Bajko, G., and K. Iisakkila, "IPv6 in 3rd Generation T., Bajko, G., and K. Iisakkila, "IPv6 in 3rd Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP) Evolved Packet System (EPS)", Partnership Project (3GPP) Evolved Packet System (EPS)",
RFC 6459, DOI 10.17487/RFC6459, January 2012, RFC 6459, DOI 10.17487/RFC6459, January 2012,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6459>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6459>.
[RFC8653] Yegin, A., Moses, D., and S. Jeon, "On-Demand Mobility [RFC8653] Yegin, A., Moses, D., and S. Jeon, "On-Demand Mobility
Management", RFC 8653, DOI 10.17487/RFC8653, October 2019, Management", RFC 8653, DOI 10.17487/RFC8653, October 2019,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8653>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8653>.
[RFC8885] Bernardos, CJ., de la Oliva, A., Giust, F., Zúñiga, JC.,
and A. Mourad, "Proxy Mobile IPv6 Extensions for
Distributed Mobility Management", RFC 8885,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8885, October 2020,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8885>.
[STATELESS-UPLANE-VEPC]
Matsushima, S. and R. Wakikawa, "Stateless user-plane
architecture for virtualized EPC (vEPC)", Work in
Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-matsushima-stateless-
uplane-vepc-06, 21 March 2016,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-matsushima-stateless-
uplane-vepc-06>.
Acknowledgements
The work of Jong-Hyouk Lee was supported by the MSIT (Ministry of
Science and ICT), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology
Research Center) support program (IITP-2020-2015-0-00403) supervised
by the IITP (Institute for Information & communications Technology
Planning & Evaluation).
Contributors
Alexandre Petrescu and Fred Templin had contributed to earlier draft
versions of this document regarding distributed anchoring for
hierarchical networks and for network mobility, although these
extensions were removed to keep the document within reasonable
length.
This document has benefited from other work on mobility support in
SDN networks, on providing mobility support only when needed, and on
mobility support in enterprise networks. These works have been
referenced. While some of these authors have taken the work to
jointly write this document, others have contributed at least
indirectly by writing these works. The latter include Philippe
Bertin, Dapeng Liu, Satoru Matushima, Pierrick Seite, Jouni Korhonen,
and Sri Gundavelli.
For completeness, some terminology from draft-ietf-dmm-deployment-
models-04 has been incorporated into this document.
Valuable comments have been received from John Kaippallimalil,
ChunShan Xiong, Dapeng Liu, Fred Templin, Paul Kyzivat, Joseph
Salowey, Yoshifumi Nishida, Carlos Pignataro, Mirja Kuehlewind, Eric
Vyncke, Qin Wu, Warren Kumari, Benjamin Kaduk, Roman Danyliw, and
Barry Leiba. Dirk von Hugo, Byju Pularikkal, and Pierrick Seite have
generously provided careful review with helpful corrections and
suggestions. Marco Liebsch and Lyle Bertz also performed very
detailed and helpful reviews of this document.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
H. Anthony Chan (editor) H. Anthony Chan (editor)
Huawei Technologies Caritas Institute of Higher Education
5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3 2 Chui Ling Lane, Tseung Kwan O
Plano, TX 75024 N.T.
USA Hong Kong
Email: h.a.chan@ieee.org Email: h.a.chan@ieee.org
Xinpeng Wei Xinpeng Wei
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
Xin-Xi Rd. No. 3, Haidian District Xin-Xi Rd. No. 3, Haidian District
Beijing, 100095 Beijing, 100095
P. R. China China
Email: weixinpeng@huawei.com Email: weixinpeng@huawei.com
Jong-Hyouk Lee Jong-Hyouk Lee
Sangmyung University Sejong University
31, Sangmyeongdae-gil, Dongnam-gu 209, Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu
Cheonan 31066 Seoul
05006
Republic of Korea Republic of Korea
Email: jonghyouk@smu.ac.kr Email: jonghyouk@sejong.ac.kr
Seil Jeon Seil Jeon
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-do Suwon, Gyeonggi-do
Republic of Korea Republic of Korea
Email: seiljeon@skku.edu Email: seiljeon.ietf@gmail.com
Carlos J. Bernardos (editor) Carlos J. Bernardos (editor)
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Av. Universidad, 30 Av. Universidad, 30
Leganes, Madrid 28911 28911 Leganes, Madrid
Spain Spain
Phone: +34 91624 6236 Phone: +34 91624 6236
Email: cjbc@it.uc3m.es Email: cjbc@it.uc3m.es
URI: http://www.it.uc3m.es/cjbc/ URI: http://www.it.uc3m.es/cjbc/
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