draft-ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility-18.txt   rfc8653.txt 
DMM Working Group A. Yegin Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) A. Yegin
Internet-Draft Actility Request for Comments: 8653 Actility
Intended status: Informational D. Moses Category: Informational D. Moses
Expires: January 31, 2020 Intel ISSN: 2070-1721 Intel
S. Jeon S. Jeon
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
July 30, 2019 October 2019
On Demand Mobility Management On-Demand Mobility Management
draft-ietf-dmm-ondemand-mobility-18
Abstract Abstract
Applications differ with respect to whether they need session Applications differ with respect to whether they need session
continuity and/or IP address reachability. The network providing the continuity and/or IP address reachability. The network providing the
same type of service to any mobile host and any application running same type of service to any mobile host and any application running
on the host yields inefficiencies, as described in [RFC7333]. This on the host yields inefficiencies, as described in RFC 7333. This
document defines a new concep of enabling applications to influence document defines a new concept of enabling applications to influence
the network's mobility services (session continuity and/or IP address the network's mobility services (session continuity and/or IP address
reachability) on a per-Socket basis, and suggests extensions to the reachability) on a per-socket basis, and suggests extensions to the
networking stack's API to accomodate this concept. networking stack's API to accommodate this concept.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for informational purposes.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents
approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 31, 2020. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8653.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction
2. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Notational Conventions
3. Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Solution
3.1. High-level Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. High-Level Description
3.2. Types of IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. Types of IP Addresses
3.3. Granularity of Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. Granularity of Selection
3.4. On Demand Nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.4. On-Demand Nature
4. Backwards Compatibility Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Backwards Compatibility Considerations
4.1. Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1. Applications
4.2. IP Stack in the Mobile Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. IP Stack in the Mobile Host
4.3. Network Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Network Infrastructure
4.4. Merging this work with RFC5014 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.4. Merging this work with RFC 5014
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Security Considerations
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. IANA Considerations
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. References
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.1. Normative References
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.2. Informative References
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Appendix A. Conveying the Desired Address Type
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Acknowledgements
Appendix A. Conveying the Desired Address Type . . . . . . . . . 11 Contributors
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Authors' Addresses
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
In the context of Mobile IP [RFC5563][RFC6275][RFC5213][RFC5944], the In the context of Mobile IP [RFC5563] [RFC6275] [RFC5213] [RFC5944],
following two attributes are defined for IP service provided to the following two attributes are defined for IP service provided to
mobile hosts: mobile hosts:
- Session Continuity Session Continuity
The ability to maintain an ongoing transport interaction by
The ability to maintain an ongoing transport interaction by keeping keeping the same local endpoint IP address throughout the lifetime
the same local end-point IP address throughout the life-time of the of the IP socket despite the mobile host changing its point of
IP socket despite the mobile host changing its point of attachment attachment within the IP network topology. The IP address of the
within the IP network topology. The IP address of the host may host may change after closing the IP socket and before opening a
change after closing the IP socket and before opening a new one, but new one, but that does not jeopardize the ability of applications
that does not jeopardize the ability of applications using these IP using these IP sockets to work flawlessly. Session continuity is
sockets to work flawlessly. Session continuity is essential for essential for mobile hosts to maintain ongoing flows without any
mobile hosts to maintain ongoing flows without any interruption. interruption.
- IP Address Reachability
The ability to maintain the same IP address for an extended period of IP Address Reachability
time. The IP address stays the same across independent sessions, and The ability to maintain the same IP address for an extended period
even in the absence of any session. The IP address may be published of time. The IP address stays the same across independent
in a long-term registry (e.g., DNS), and is made available for sessions, even in the absence of any session. The IP address may
serving incoming (e.g., TCP) connections. IP address reachability is be published in a long-term registry (e.g., DNS) and is made
essential for mobile hosts to use specific/published IP addresses. available for serving incoming (e.g., TCP) connections. IP
address reachability is essential for mobile hosts to use
specific/published IP addresses.
Mobile IP is designed to provide both session continuity and IP Mobile IP is designed to provide both session continuity and IP
address reachability to mobile hosts. Architectures utilizing these address reachability to mobile hosts. Architectures using these
protocols (e.g., 3GPP, 3GPP2, WIMAX) ensure that any mobile host protocols (e.g., 3GPP, 3GPP2, WiMAX) ensure that any mobile host
attached to the compliant networks can enjoy these benefits. Any attached to a compliant network can enjoy these benefits. Any
application running on these mobile hosts is subjected to the same application running on these mobile hosts is subjected to the same
treatment with respect to session continuity and IP address treatment with respect to session continuity and IP address
reachability. reachability.
Achieving session continuity and IP address reachability with Mobile Achieving session continuity and IP address reachability with Mobile
IP incurs some cost. Mobile IP protocol forces the mobile host's IP IP incurs some cost. Mobile IP forces the mobile host's IP traffic
traffic to traverse a centrally-located router (Home Agent, HA), to traverse a centrally located router (Home Agent, HA), which incurs
which incurs additional transmission latency and use of additional additional transmission latency and use of additional network
network resources, adds to the network CAPEX and OPEX, and decreases resources, adds to the network's operating and capital expenditures,
the reliability of the network due to the introduction of a single and decreases the reliability of the network due to the introduction
point of failure [RFC7333]. Therefore, session continuity and IP of a single point of failure [RFC7333]. Therefore, session
address reachability SHOULD be provided only when necessary. continuity and IP address reachability SHOULD be provided only when
necessary.
In reality not every application may need these benefits. IP address In reality, not every application may need these benefits. IP
reachability is required for applications running as servers (e.g., a address reachability is required for applications running as servers
web server running on the mobile host). But, a typical client (e.g., a web server running on the mobile host), but a typical client
application (e.g., web browser) does not necessarily require IP application (e.g., web browser) does not necessarily require IP
address reachability. Similarly, session continuity is not required address reachability. Similarly, session continuity is not required
for all types of applications either. Applications performing brief for all types of applications either. Applications performing brief
communication (e.g., text messaging) can survive without having communication (e.g., text messaging) can survive without having
session continuity support. session continuity support.
Furthermore, when an application needs session continuity, it may be Furthermore, when an application needs session continuity, it may be
able to satisfy that need by using a solution above the IP layer, able to satisfy that need by using a solution above the IP layer,
such as MPTCP [RFC6824], SIP mobility [RFC3261], or an application- such as Multipath TCP [RFC6824], SIP mobility [RFC3261], or an
layer mobility solution. These higher-layer solutions are not application-layer mobility solution. These higher-layer solutions
subject to the same issues that arise with the use of Mobile IP since are not subject to the same issues that arise with the use of Mobile
they can utilize the most direct data path between the end-points. IP since they can use the most direct data path between the
But, if Mobile IP is being applied to the mobile host, the higher- endpoints. But, if Mobile IP is being applied to the mobile host,
layer protocols are rendered useless because their operation is the higher-layer protocols are rendered useless because their
inhibited by Mobile IP. Since Mobile IP ensures that the IP address operation is inhibited by Mobile IP. Since Mobile IP ensures that
of the mobile host remains fixed (despite the location and movement the IP address of the mobile host remains fixed (despite the location
of the mobile host), the higher-layer protocols never detect the IP- and movement of the mobile host), the higher-layer protocols never
layer change and never engage in mobility management. detect the IP-layer change and never engage in mobility management.
This document proposes a solution for applications running on mobile This document proposes a solution for applications running on mobile
hosts to indicate when establishing the network connection ('on hosts to indicate when establishing the network connection ('on
demand') whether they need session continuity or IP address demand') whether they need session continuity or IP address
reachability. The network protocol stack on the mobile host, in reachability. The network protocol stack on the mobile host, in
conjunction with the network infrastructure, provides the required conjunction with the network infrastructure, provides the required
type of service. It is for the benefit of both the users and the type of service. It is for the benefit of both the users and the
network operators not to engage an extra level of service unless it network operators not to engage an extra level of service unless it
is absolutely necessary. It is expected that applications and is absolutely necessary. It is expected that applications and
networks compliant with this specification will utilize this solution networks compliant with this specification will utilize this solution
to use network resources more efficiently. to use network resources more efficiently.
2. Notational Conventions 2. Notational Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
14 , [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, they appear in all capitals, as shown BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
here. capitals, as shown here.
3. Solution 3. Solution
3.1. High-level Description 3.1. High-Level Description
Enabling applications to indicate their mobility service requirements Enabling applications to indicate their mobility service requirements
e.g. session continuity and/or IP address reachability, comprises the (e.g., session continuity and/or IP address reachability) comprises
following steps: the following steps:
- The application indicates to the network stack (local to the mobile 1. The application indicates to the network stack (local to the
host) the desired mobility service. mobile host) the desired mobility service.
- The network stack assigns a source IP address based on an IP prefix 2. The network stack assigns a source IP address based on an IP
with the desired services that was previously provided by the prefix with the desired services that was previously provided by
network. If such an IP prefix is not available, the network stack the network. If such an IP prefix is not available, the network
performs the additional steps below. stack performs the additional steps below.
- The network stack sends a request to the network for a new source 3. The network stack sends a request to the network for a new source
IP prefix that is associated with the desired mobility service. IP prefix that is associated with the desired mobility service.
- The network responds with the suitable allocated source IP prefix 4. The network responds with the suitable allocated source IP prefix
(or responds with a failure indication). (or responds with a failure indication).
- If the suitable source IP prefix was allocates, the network stack 5. If the suitable source IP prefix was allocated, the network stack
constructs a source IP address and provides it to the application. constructs a source IP address and provides it to the
application.
This document specifies the new address types associated with This document specifies the new address types associated with
mobility services and details the interaction between the mobility services and details the interaction between the
applications and the network stack steps. It uses the Socket applications and the network stack steps. It uses the socket
interface as an example for an API between applications and the interface as an example for an API between applications and the
network stack. Other steps are outside the scope of this document. network stack. Other steps are outside the scope of this document.
3.2. Types of IP Addresses 3.2. Types of IP Addresses
Four types of IP addresses are defined with respect to mobility Four types of IP addresses are defined with respect to mobility
management. management:
- Fixed IP Address
A Fixed IP address is an address with a guarantee to be valid for a
very long time, regardless of whether it is being used in any packet
to/from the mobile host, or whether or not the mobile host is
connected to the network, or whether it moves from one point-of-
attachment to another (with a different IP prefix) while it is
connected.
Fixed IP addresses are required by applications that need both
session continuity and IP address reachability.
- Session-lasting IP Address
A session-lasting IP address is an address with a guarantee to be Fixed IP address
valid throughout the life-time of the socket(s) for which it was A Fixed IP address is an address guaranteed to be valid for a very
requested. It is guaranteed to be valid even after the mobile host long time, regardless of whether it is being used in any packet
had moved from one point-of-attachment to another (with a different to/from the mobile host, or whether or not the mobile host is
IP prefix). connected to the network, or whether it moves from one point of
attachment to another (with a different IP prefix) while it is
connected.
Session-lasting IP addresses are required by applications that need Fixed IP addresses are required by applications that need both
session continuity but do not need IP address reachability. session continuity and IP address reachability.
- Non-persistent IP Address Session-Lasting IP address
A Session-Lasting IP address is an address guaranteed to be valid
for the lifetime of the socket(s) for which it was requested. It
is guaranteed to be valid even after the mobile host has moved
from one point of attachment to another (with a different IP
prefix).
This type of IP address has no guarantee to exist after a mobile host Session-Lasting IP addresses are required by applications that
moves from one point-of-attachment to another, and therefore, no need session continuity but do not need IP address reachability.
session continuity nor IP address reachability are provided. The IP
address is created from an IP prefix that is obtained from the
serving IP gateway and is not maintained across gateway changes. In
other words, the IP prefix may be released and replaced by a new one
when the IP gateway changes due to the movement of the mobile host
forcing the creation of a new source IP address with the updated
allocated IP prefix.
- Graceful Replacement IP Address Nonpersistent IP address
This type of IP address is not guaranteed to exist after a mobile
host moves from one point of attachment to another; therefore, no
session continuity nor IP address reachability are provided. The
IP address is created from an IP prefix that is obtained from the
serving IP gateway and is not maintained across gateway changes.
In other words, the IP prefix may be released and replaced by a
new one when the IP gateway changes due to the movement of the
mobile host forcing the creation of a new source IP address with
the updated allocated IP prefix.
In some cases, the network cannot guarantee the validity of the Graceful-Replacement IP address
provided IP prefix throughout the duration of the opened socket, but In some cases, the network cannot guarantee the validity of the
can provide a limited graceful period of time in which both the provided IP prefix throughout the duration of the opened socket,
original IP prefix and a new one are valid. This enables the but can provide a limited graceful period of time in which both
application some flexibility in the transition from the existing the original IP prefix and a new one are valid. This enables the
source IP address to the new one. application some flexibility in the transition from the existing
source IP address to the new one.
This gracefulness is still better than the non-persistence type of This gracefulness is still better than the nonpersistence type of
address for applications that can handle a change in their source IP address for applications that can handle a change in their source
address but require that extra flexibility. IP address but require that extra flexibility.
Applications running as servers at a published IP address require a Applications running as servers at a published IP address require a
Fixed IP Address. Long-standing applications (e.g., an SSH session) Fixed IP address. Long-standing applications (e.g., an SSH session)
may also require this type of address. Enterprise applications that may also require this type of address. Enterprise applications that
connect to an enterprise network via virtual LAN require a Fixed IP connect to an enterprise network via virtual LAN require a Fixed IP
Address. address.
Applications with short-lived transient sessions can use Session- Applications with short-lived transient sessions (e.g., web browsers)
lasting IP Addresses. For example: Web browsers. can use Session-Lasting IP addresses.
Applications with very short sessions, such as DNS clients and Applications with very short sessions, such as DNS clients and
instant messengers, can utilize Non-persistent IP Addresses. Even instant messengers, can use Nonpersistent IP addresses. Even though
though they could very well use Fixed or Session-lasting IP they could very well use Fixed or Session-Lasting IP addresses, the
Addresses, the transmission latency would be minimized when a Non- transmission latency would be minimized when a Nonpersistent IP
persistent IP Addresses are used. address is used.
Applications that can tolerate a short interruption in connectivity Applications that can tolerate a short interruption in connectivity
can use the Graceful-replacement IP addresses. For example, a can use the Graceful-Replacement IP addresses, for example, a
streaming client that has buffering capabilities. streaming client that has buffering capabilities.
3.3. Granularity of Selection 3.3. Granularity of Selection
IP address type selection is made on a per-socket granularity. IP address type selection is made on a per-socket granularity.
Different parts of the same application may have different needs. Different parts of the same application may have different needs.
For example, the control-plane of an application may require a Fixed For example, the control plane of an application may require a Fixed
IP Address in order to stay reachable, whereas the data-plane of the IP address in order to stay reachable, whereas the data plane of the
same application may be satisfied with a Session-lasting IP Address. same application may be satisfied with a Session-Lasting IP address.
3.4. On Demand Nature 3.4. On-Demand Nature
At any point in time, a mobile host may have a combination of IP At any point in time, a mobile host may have a combination of IP
addresses configured. Zero or more Fixed, zero or more Session- addresses configured. Zero or more Fixed, zero or more Session-
lasting, zero or more Non-persistent and zero or more Graceful- Lasting, zero or more Nonpersistent, and zero or more Graceful-
Replacement IP addresses may be configured by the IP stack of the Replacement IP addresses may be configured by the IP stack of the
host. The combination may be as a result of the host policy, host. The combination may be a result of the host policy,
application demand, or a mix of the two. application demand, or a mix of the two.
When an application requires a specific type of IP address and such When an application requires a specific type of IP address, and such
an address is not already configured on the host, the IP stack SHALL an address is not already configured on the host, the IP stack SHALL
attempt to configure one. For example, a host may not always have a attempt to configure one. For example, a host may not always have a
Session-lasting IP address available. When an application requests Session-Lasting IP address available. When an application requests
one, the IP stack SHALL make an attempt to configure one by issuing a one, the IP stack SHALL make an attempt to configure one by issuing a
request to the network. If the operation fails, the IP stack SHALL request to the network. If the operation fails, the IP stack SHALL
fail the associated socket request and return an error. If fail the associated socket request and return an error. If
successful, a Session-lasting IP Address gets configured on the successful, a Session-Lasting IP address is configured on the mobile
mobile host. If another socket requests a Session-lasting IP address host. If another socket requests a Session-Lasting IP address at a
at a later time, the same IP address may be served to that socket as later time, the same IP address may be served to that socket as well.
well. When the last socket using the same configured IP address is When the last socket using the same configured IP address is closed,
closed, the IP address may be released or kept for future the IP address may be released, or it may be kept for applications
applications that may be launched and require a Session-lasting IP requiring a Session-Lasting IP address that may be launched in the
address. future.
In some cases it might be preferable for the mobile host to request a In some cases, it might be preferable for the mobile host to request
new Session-lasting IP address for a new opening of an IP socket a new Session-Lasting IP address for a new opening of an IP socket
(even though one was already assigned to the mobile host by the (even though one was already assigned to the mobile host by the
network and might be in use in a different, already active IP network and might be in use in a different, already active IP
sockets). It is outside the scope of this specification to define socket). It is outside the scope of this specification to define
criteria for choosing to use available addresses or choosing to criteria for choosing to use available addresses or choosing to
request new ones. It supports both alternatives (and any request new ones. It supports both alternatives (and any
combination). combination).
It is outside the scope of this specification to define how the host It is outside the scope of this specification to define how the host
requests a specific type of prefix and how the network indicates the requests a specific type of prefix and how the network indicates the
type of prefix in its advertisement or in its reply to a request. type of prefix in its advertisement or in its reply to a request.
The following are matters of policy, which may be dictated by the The following are matters of policy, which may be dictated by the
host itself, the network operator, or the system architecture host itself, the network operator, or the system architecture
standard: standard:
- The initial set of IP addresses configured on the host at boot * The initial set of IP addresses configured on the host at boot
time. time
- Permission to grant various types of IP addresses to a requesting * Permission to grant various types of IP addresses to a requesting
application. application
- Determination of a default address type when an application does * Determination of a default address type when an application does
not make any explicit indication, whether it already supports the not explicitly indicate whether it supports the required API or is
required API or it is just a legacy application. a legacy application
4. Backwards Compatibility Considerations 4. Backwards Compatibility Considerations
Backwards compatibility support is REQUIRED by the following 3 types Backwards compatibility support is REQUIRED by the following three
of entities: types of entities:
- The Applications on the mobile host * The applications on the mobile host
- The IP stack in the mobile host * The IP stack in the mobile host
- The network infrastructure * The network infrastructure
4.1. Applications 4.1. Applications
Legacy applications that do not support the On-Demand functionality Legacy applications that do not support the On-Demand functionality
will use the legacy API and will not be able to take advantage of the will use the legacy API and will not be able to take advantage of the
On-Demand Mobility feature. On-Demand Mobility feature.
Applications using the new On-Demand functionality should be aware Applications using the new On-Demand functionality should be aware
that they may be executed in legacy environments that do not support that they may be executed in legacy environments that do not support
it. Such environments may include a legacy IP stack on the mobile it. Such environments may include a legacy IP stack on the mobile
host, legacy network infrastructure, or both. In either case, the host, legacy network infrastructure, or both. In either case, the
API will return an error code and the invoking applications may just API will return an error code, and the invoking application may just
give up and use legacy calls. give up and use legacy calls.
4.2. IP Stack in the Mobile Host 4.2. IP Stack in the Mobile Host
New IP stacks (that implement On Demand functionality) MUST continue New IP stacks (that implement On-Demand functionality) MUST continue
to support all legacy operations. If an application does not use On- to support all legacy operations. If an application does not use On-
Demand functionality, the IP stack MUST respond in a legacy manner. Demand functionality, the IP stack MUST respond in a legacy manner.
If the network infrastructure supports On-Demand functionality, the If the network infrastructure supports On-Demand functionality, the
IP stack SHOULD follow the application request: If the application IP stack SHOULD follow the application request: If the application
requests a specific address type, the stack SHOULD forward this requests a specific address type, the stack SHOULD forward this
request to the network. If the application does not request an request to the network. If the application does not request an
address type, the IP stack MUST NOT request an address type and leave address type, the IP stack MUST NOT request an address type.
it to the network's default behavior to choose the type of the Instead, the network will choose the type of allocated IP prefix.
allocated IP prefix. If an IP prefix was already allocated to the How the network selects the type of allocated IP prefix is outside
host, the IP stack uses it and may not request a new one from the the scope of this document. If an IP prefix was already allocated to
the host, the IP stack uses it and may not request a new one from the
network. network.
4.3. Network Infrastructure 4.3. Network Infrastructure
The network infrastructure may or may not support the On-Demand The network infrastructure may or may not support the On-Demand
functionality. How the IP stack on the host and the network functionality. How the IP stack on the host and the network
infrastructure behave in case of a compatibility issue is outside the infrastructure behave in case of a compatibility issue is outside the
scope of this API specification. scope of this API specification.
4.4. Merging this work with RFC5014 4.4. Merging this work with RFC 5014
[RFC5014] defines new flags that may be used with setsockopt() to [RFC5014] defines new flags that may be used with setsockopt() to
influence source IP address selection for a socket. The list of influence source IP address selection for a socket. The list of
flags include: source home address, care-of address, temporary flags include the following: source home address, care-of address,
address, public address CGA (Cryptographically Created Address) and temporary address, public address CGA (Cryptographically Created
non-CGA. When applications require session continuity service, they Address), and non-CGA. When applications require session continuity
SHOULD NOT set the flags specified in [RFC5014]. service, they SHOULD NOT set the flags specified in [RFC5014].
However, if an application erroneously performs a combination of (1) However, if an application erroneously performs a combination of (1)
Use setsockopt() to set a specific option (using one of the flags using setsockopt() to set a specific option (using one of the flags
specified in [RFC5014]) and (2) Selects a source IP address type, the specified in [RFC5014]) and (2) selecting a source IP address type,
IP stack will fulfill the request specified by (2) and ignore the the IP stack will fulfill the request specified by (2) and ignore the
flags set by (1). flags set by (1).
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
The different service types (session continuity types and address The different service types (session continuity types and address
reachability) associated with the allocated IP address types, may be reachability) associated with the allocated IP address types may be
associated with different costs. The cost to the operator for associated with different costs: the cost to the operator for
enabling a type of service, and the cost to applications using a enabling a type of service, and the cost to applications using a
selected service. A malicious application may use these to generate selected service. A malicious application may use these to
extra billing of a mobile subscriber, and/or impose costly services indirectly generate extra billing of a mobile subscriber, and/or
on the mobile operator. When costly services are limited, malicious impose costly services on the mobile operator. When expensive
applications may exhaust them, preventing other applications on the services are limited, malicious applications may exhaust them,
same mobile host from being able to use them. preventing other applications on the same mobile host from being able
to use them.
Mobile hosts that enables such service options, should provide Mobile hosts that enable such service options should provide
capabilities for ensuring that only authorized applications can use capabilities for ensuring that only authorized applications can use
the costly (or limited) service types. the expensive (or limited) service types.
The ability to select service types requires the exchange of the The ability to select service types requires the exchange of the
association of source IP prefixes and their corresponding service association of source IP prefixes and their corresponding service
types, between the mobile host and mobile network. Exposing these types, between the mobile host and mobile network. Exposing these
associations may provide information to passive attackers even if the associations may provide information to passive attackers even if the
traffic that is used with these addressed is encrypted. traffic that is used with these addresses is encrypted.
To avoid profiling an application according to the type of IP To avoid profiling an application according to the type of IP
addresses, it is expected that prefixes provided by the mobile address, it is expected that prefixes provided by the mobile operator
operator are associated to various type of addresses over time. As a are associated with various types of addresses over time. As a
result, the type of address could not be associated to the prefix, result, the type of address cannot be associated with the prefix,
making application profiling based on the type of address harder. making application profiling based on the type of address more
difficult.
The application or the OS should ensure that IP addresses regularly The application or the OS should ensure that IP addresses regularly
change to limit IP tracking by a passive observer. The application change to limit IP tracking by a passive observer. The application
should regularly set the On Demand flag. The application should be should regularly set the On-Demand flag. The application should be
able to ensure that session lasting IP addresses are regularly able to ensure that Session-Lasting IP addresses are regularly
changed by setting a lifetime for example handled by the application. changed by setting a lifetime, for example, handled by the
In addition, the application should consider the use of graceful application. In addition, the application should consider the use of
replacement IP addresses. Graceful-Replacement IP addresses.
Similarly, the OS may also associated IP addresses with a lifetime. Similarly, the OS may also associate IP addresses with a lifetime.
Upon receiving a request for a given type of IP address, after some Upon receiving a request for a given type of IP address, after some
time, the OS should request a new address to the network even if it time, the OS should request a new address to the network even if it
already has one IP address available with the requested type. This already has one IP address available with the requested type. This
includes any type of IP address. IP addresses of type graceful includes any type of IP address. IP addresses of type Graceful-
replacement or non persistent should be regularly renewed by the OS. Replacement or nonpersistent should be regularly renewed by the OS.
The lifetime of an IP address may be expressed in number of seconds The lifetime of an IP address may be expressed in number of seconds
or in number of bytes sent through this IP address. or in number of bytes sent through this IP address.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
This document has no IANA considerations. This document has no IANA actions.
7. Contributors
This document was merged with [I-D.sijeon-dmm-use-cases-api-source].
We would like to acknowledge the contribution of the following people
to that document as well:
Sergio Figueiredo
Altran Research, France
Email: sergio.figueiredo@altran.com
Younghan Kim
Soongsil University, Korea
Email: younghak@ssu.ac.kr
John Kaippallimalil
Huawei, USA
Email: john.kaippallimalil@huawei.com
8. Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Wu-chi Feng, Alexandru Petrescu, Jouni
Korhonen, Sri Gundavelli, Dave Dolson Lorenzo Colitti and Daniel
Migault for their valuable comments and suggestions on this work.
9. References 7. References
9.1. Normative References 7.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC5014] Nordmark, E., Chakrabarti, S., and J. Laganier, "IPv6 [RFC5014] Nordmark, E., Chakrabarti, S., and J. Laganier, "IPv6
Socket API for Source Address Selection", RFC 5014, Socket API for Source Address Selection", RFC 5014,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5014, September 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC5014, September 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5014>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5014>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
9.2. Informative References 7.2. Informative References
[I-D.sijeon-dmm-use-cases-api-source] [API-EXT] Jeon, S., Figueiredo, S., Kim, Y., and J. Kaippallimalil,
Jeon, S., Figueiredo, S., Kim, Y., and J. Kaippallimalil,
"Use Cases and API Extension for Source IP Address "Use Cases and API Extension for Source IP Address
Selection", draft-sijeon-dmm-use-cases-api-source-07 (work Selection", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
in progress), September 2017. sijeon-dmm-use-cases-api-source-07, 10 September 2017,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-sijeon-dmm-use-cases-
api-source-07>.
[RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, [RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002, DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3261>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3261>.
[RFC5213] Gundavelli, S., Ed., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V., [RFC5213] Gundavelli, S., Ed., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V.,
Chowdhury, K., and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6", Chowdhury, K., and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6",
RFC 5213, DOI 10.17487/RFC5213, August 2008, RFC 5213, DOI 10.17487/RFC5213, August 2008,
skipping to change at page 11, line 49 skipping to change at line 500
Addresses", RFC 6824, DOI 10.17487/RFC6824, January 2013, Addresses", RFC 6824, DOI 10.17487/RFC6824, January 2013,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6824>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6824>.
[RFC7333] Chan, H., Ed., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J. [RFC7333] Chan, H., Ed., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J.
Korhonen, "Requirements for Distributed Mobility Korhonen, "Requirements for Distributed Mobility
Management", RFC 7333, DOI 10.17487/RFC7333, August 2014, Management", RFC 7333, DOI 10.17487/RFC7333, August 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7333>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7333>.
Appendix A. Conveying the Desired Address Type Appendix A. Conveying the Desired Address Type
Following are some suggestions of possible extensions to the Socket The following are some suggestions of possible extensions to the
API for enabling applications to convey their session continuity and socket API for enabling applications to convey their session
address reachability requirements. continuity and address reachability requirements.
[RFC5014] introduced the ability of applications to influence the [RFC5014] introduced the ability of applications to influence the
source address selection with the IPV6_ADDR_PREFERENCE option at the source address selection with the IPV6_ADDR_PREFERENCE option at the
IPPROTO_IPV6 level. This option is used with setsockopt() and IPPROTO_IPV6 level. This option is used with setsockopt() and
getsockopt() calls to set/get address selection preferences. getsockopt() calls to set/get address selection preferences.
One alternative is to extend the defintion of the IPV6_ADDR_REFERENCE One alternative is to extend the definition of the
opion with flags that express the invoker's desire. An "OnDeman" IPV6_ADDR_REFERENCE option with flags that express the invoker's
field could contains one of the values: FIXED_IP_ADDRESS, desire. An "OnDemand" field could contain one of the following
SESSION_LASTING_IP_ADDRESS, NON_PERSISTENT_IP_ADDRESS or values: FIXED_IP_ADDRESS, SESSION_LASTING_IP_ADDRESS,
GRACEFUL_REPLACEMENT_IP_ADDRESS. NON_PERSISTENT_IP_ADDRESS, or GRACEFUL_REPLACEMENT_IP_ADDRESS.
Another alternative is to define a new Socket function used by the Another alternative is to define a new socket function used by the
invoker to convey its desire. This enables the implementation of two invoker to convey its desire. This enables the implementation of two
behaviors of Socket functions: The existing "setsockotp()" is a behaviors of socket functions: the existing setsockopt() is a
function that returns after executing, and the new "setsc()" (Set function that returns after executing, and the new setsc() (Set
Service Contionuity) function that may initaite a request for the Service Continuity) is a function that may initiate a request for the
desired service, and wait until the network responds with the desired service, and wait until the network responds with the
allocated resources, before returning to the invoker. allocated resources, before returning to the invoker.
After obtaining an IP address with the desired behavior the After obtaining an IP address with the desired behavior, the
application can call the bind() Socket function to associate that application can call the bind() socket function to associate that
received IP address with the socket. received IP address with the socket.
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Wu-chi Feng, Alexandru Petrescu, Jouni
Korhonen, Sri Gundavelli, Dave Dolson, Lorenzo Colitti, and Daniel
Migault for their valuable comments and suggestions on this work.
Contributors
This document was merged with "Use Cases and API Extension for Source
IP Address Selection" [API-EXT]. We would like to acknowledge the
contribution of the following people to that document as well:
Sergio Figueiredo
Altran Research
France
Email: sergio.figueiredo@altran.com
Younghan Kim
Soongsil University
Republic of Korea
Email: younghak@ssu.ac.kr
John Kaippallimalil
Huawei
United States of America
Email: john.kaippallimalil@huawei.com
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Alper Yegin Alper Yegin
Actility Actility
Istanbul Istanbul/
Turkey Turkey
Email: alper.yegin@actility.com Email: alper.yegin@actility.com
Danny Moses Danny Moses
Intel Corporation Intel Corporation
Petah Tikva Petah Tikva
Israel Israel
Email: danny.moses@intel.com Email: danny.moses@intel.com
Seil Jeon Seil Jeon
Sungkyunkwan University Republic of Korea
Suwon Suwon
South Korea Sungkyunkwan University
Email: seiljeon@skku.edu Email: seiljeon.ietf@gmail.com
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