draft-ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif-06.txt   rfc8885.txt 
DMM Working Group CJ. Bernardos Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) CJ. Bernardos
Internet-Draft A. de la Oliva Request for Comments: 8885 A. de la Oliva
Intended status: Experimental UC3M Category: Experimental UC3M
Expires: September 9, 2020 F. Giust ISSN: 2070-1721 F. Giust
Athonet Athonet
JC. Zuniga JC. Zúñiga
SIGFOX SIGFOX
A. Mourad A. Mourad
InterDigital InterDigital
March 8, 2020 October 2020
Proxy Mobile IPv6 extensions for Distributed Mobility Management Proxy Mobile IPv6 Extensions for Distributed Mobility Management
draft-ietf-dmm-pmipv6-dlif-06
Abstract Abstract
Distributed Mobility Management solutions allow for setting up Distributed Mobility Management solutions allow networks to be set up
networks so that traffic is distributed in an optimal way and does in such a way that traffic is distributed optimally and centrally
not rely on centrally deployed anchors to provide IP mobility deployed anchors are not relied upon to provide IP mobility support.
support.
There are many different approaches to address Distributed Mobility There are many different approaches to address Distributed Mobility
Management, as for example extending network-based mobility protocols Management -- for example, extending network-based mobility protocols
(like Proxy Mobile IPv6), or client-based mobility protocols (like (like Proxy Mobile IPv6) or client-based mobility protocols (like
Mobile IPv6), among others. This document follows the former Mobile IPv6), among others. This document follows the former
approach and proposes a solution based on Proxy Mobile IPv6 in which approach and proposes a solution based on Proxy Mobile IPv6, in which
mobility sessions are anchored at the last IP hop router (called mobility sessions are anchored at the last IP hop router (called the
mobility anchor and access router). The mobility anchor and access mobility anchor and access router). The mobility anchor and access
router is an enhanced access router which is also able to operate as router is an enhanced access router that is also able to operate as a
a local mobility anchor or mobility access gateway, on a per prefix local mobility anchor or mobility access gateway on a per-prefix
basis. The document focuses on the required extensions to basis. The document focuses on the required extensions to
effectively support simultaneously anchoring several flows at effectively support the simultaneous anchoring several flows at
different distributed gateways. different distributed gateways.
Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for examination, experimental implementation, and
evaluation.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any community. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." community. It has received public review and has been approved for
publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not
all documents approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of
Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 9, 2020. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8885.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Requirements Language
3. PMIPv6 DMM extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Terminology
3.1. Initial registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. PMIPv6 DMM Extensions
3.2. The CMD as PBU/PBA relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1. Initial Registration
3.3. The CMD as MAAR locator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.2. The CMD as PBU/PBA Relay
3.4. The CMD as MAAR proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3. The CMD as MAAR Locator
3.5. De-registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.4. The CMD as PBU/PBA Proxy
3.6. Retransmissions and Rate Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.5. De-registration
3.7. The Distributed Logical Interface (DLIF) concept . . . . 14 3.6. Retransmissions and Rate Limiting
4. Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.7. The Distributed Logical Interface (DLIF) Concept
4.1. Proxy Binding Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4. Message Format
4.2. Proxy Binding Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.1. Proxy Binding Update
4.3. Anchored Prefix Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.2. Proxy Binding Acknowledgement
4.4. Local Prefix Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3. Anchored Prefix Option
4.5. Previous MAAR Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.4. Local Prefix Option
4.6. Serving MAAR Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.5. Previous MAAR Option
4.7. DLIF Link-local Address Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.6. Serving MAAR Option
4.8. DLIF Link-layer Address Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.7. DLIF Link-Local Address Option
4.8. DLIF Link-Layer Address Option
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5. IANA Considerations
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6. Security Considerations
7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7. References
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.1. Normative References
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.2. Informative References
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Acknowledgements
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Authors' Addresses
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) paradigm aims at minimizing The Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) paradigm aims at minimizing
the impact of currently standardized mobility management solutions the impact of currently standardized mobility management solutions,
which are centralized (at least to a considerable extent) [RFC7333]. which are centralized (at least to a considerable extent) [RFC7333].
Current IP mobility solutions, standardized with the names of Mobile The two most relevant examples of current IP mobility solutions are
IPv6 [RFC6275], or Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) [RFC5213], just to cite Mobile IPv6 [RFC6275] and Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) [RFC5213].
the two most relevant examples, offer mobility support at the cost of These solutions offer mobility support at the cost of handling
handling operations at a cardinal point, the mobility anchor (i.e., operations at a cardinal point (i.e., the mobility anchor) and
the home agent for Mobile IPv6, and the local mobility anchor for burdening it with data forwarding and control mechanisms for a large
Proxy Mobile IPv6), and burdening it with data forwarding and control number of users. The mobility anchor is the home agent for Mobile
mechanisms for a great amount of users. As stated in [RFC7333], IPv6 and the local mobility anchor for PMIPv6. As stated in
centralized mobility solutions are prone to several problems and [RFC7333], centralized mobility solutions are prone to several
limitations: longer (sub-optimal) routing paths, scalability problems and limitations: longer (sub-optimal) routing paths,
problems, signaling overhead (and most likely a longer associated scalability problems, signaling overhead (and most likely a longer
handover latency), more complex network deployment, higher associated handover latency), more complex network deployment, higher
vulnerability due to the existence of a potential single point of vulnerability due to the existence of a potential single point of
failure, and lack of granularity of the mobility management service failure, and lack of granularity of the mobility management service
(i.e., mobility is offered on a per-node basis, not being possible to (i.e., mobility is offered on a per-node basis because it is not
define finer granularity policies, as for example per-application). possible to define finer granularity policies, for example, on a per-
application basis).
The purpose of Distributed Mobility Management is to overcome the The purpose of DMM is to overcome the limitations of the traditional
limitations of the traditional centralized mobility management centralized mobility management [RFC7333] [RFC7429]; the main concept
[RFC7333] [RFC7429]; the main concept behind DMM solutions is indeed behind DMM solutions is indeed bringing the mobility anchor closer to
bringing the mobility anchor closer to the Mobile Node (MN). the mobile node (MN). Following this idea, the central anchor is
Following this idea, the central anchor is moved to the edge of the moved to the edge of the network and is deployed in the default
network, being deployed in the default gateway of the mobile node. gateway of the MN. That is, the first elements that provide IP
That is, the first elements that provide IP connectivity to a set of connectivity to a set of MNs are also the mobility managers for those
MNs are also the mobility managers for those MNs. In this document, MNs. In this document, we call these entities Mobility Anchors and
we call these entities Mobility Anchors and Access Routers (MAARs). Access Routers (MAARs).
This document focuses on network-based DMM, hence the starting point This document focuses on network-based DMM; hence, the starting point
is making PMIPv6 work in a distributed manner [RFC7429]. Mobility is is making PMIPv6 work in a distributed manner [RFC7429]. Mobility is
handled by the network without the MNs involvement, but, differently handled by the network without the MN's involvement. But differently
from PMIPv6, when the MN moves from one access network to another, it from PMIPv6, when the MN moves from one access network to another,
may also change anchor router, hence requiring signaling between the the router anchoring the MN's address may change, hence requiring
anchors to retrieve the MN's previous location(s). Also, a key- signaling between the anchors to retrieve the MN's previous
aspect of network-based DMM, is that a prefix pool belongs location(s). Also, a key aspect of network-based DMM is that a
exclusively to each MAAR, in the sense that those prefixes are prefix pool belongs exclusively to each MAAR in the sense that those
assigned by the MAAR to the MNs attached to it, and they are routable prefixes are assigned by the MAAR to the MNs attached to it and are
at that MAAR. Prefixes are assigned to MNs attached a MAAR at that routable at that MAAR. Prefixes are assigned to MNs attached to a
time, but remain with those MNs as mobility occurs, remaining always MAAR at that time, but remain with those MNs as mobility occurs,
routable at that MAAR as well as towards the MN itself. remaining always routable at that MAAR as well as towards the MN
itself.
We consider partially distributed schemes, where only the data plane We consider partially distributed schemes, where only the data plane
is distributed among access routers similar to MAGs, whereas the is distributed among access routers similar to mobile access gateways
control plane is kept centralized towards a cardinal node used as (MAGs), whereas the control plane is kept centralized towards a
information store, but relieved from any route management and MN's cardinal node (used as an information store), which is discharged
data forwarding task. from any route management and MN's data forwarding tasks.
1.1. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The following terms used in this document are defined in the Proxy The following terms used in this document are defined in the PMIPv6
Mobile IPv6 specification [RFC5213]: specification [RFC5213]:
Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) BCE: Binding Cache Entry
Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) LMA: Local Mobility Anchor
Mobile Node (MN) MAG: Mobile Access Gateway
Binding Cache Entry (BCE) MN: Mobile Node
Proxy Care-of Address (P-CoA) P-CoA: Proxy Care-of Address
Proxy Binding Update (PBU) PBA: Proxy Binding Acknowledgement
Proxy Binding Acknowledgement (PBA) PBU: Proxy Binding Update
The following terms used in this document are defined in the Mobile
IPv6 (MIPv6) specification [RFC6275]:
CN: Correspondent Node
The following terms are used in this document: The following terms are used in this document:
Home Control-Plane Anchor (Home-CPA or H-CPA): The Home-CPA function Home Control-Plane Anchor (Home-CPA or H-CPA):
hosts the mobile node (MN)'s mobility session. There can be more The Home-CPA function hosts the MN's mobility session. There can
than one mobility session for a mobile node and those sessions may be more than one mobility session for an MN, and those sessions
be anchored on the same or different Home-CPA's. The home-CPA may be anchored on the same or different Home-CPAs. The Home-CPA
will interface with the home-DPA for managing the forwarding will interface with the Home-DPA for managing the forwarding
state. state.
Home Data Plane Anchor (Home-DPA or H-DPA): The Home-DPA is the Home Data Plane Anchor (Home-DPA or H-DPA):
topological anchor for the MN's IP address/ prefix(es). The Home- The Home-DPA is the topological anchor for the MN's IP addresses
DPA is chosen by the Home-CPA on a session- basis. The Home-DPA and/or prefixes. The Home-DPA is chosen by the Home-CPA on a
is in the forwarding path for all the mobile node's IP traffic. session basis. The Home-DPA is in the forwarding path for all the
MN's IP traffic.
Access Control Plane Node (Access-CPN or A-CPN): The Access-CPN is Access Control Plane Node (Access-CPN or A-CPN):
responsible for interfacing with the mobile node's Home-CPA and The Access-CPN is responsible for interfacing with the MN's Home-
with the Access-DPN. The Access-CPN has a protocol interface to CPA and the Access-DPN. The Access-CPN has a protocol interface
the Home-CPA. to the Home-CPA.
Access Data Plane Node (Access-DPN or A-DPN): The Access-DPN Access Data Plane Node (Access-DPN or A-DPN):
function is hosted on the first-hop router where the mobile node The Access-DPN function is hosted on the first-hop router where
is attached. This function is not hosted on a layer-2 bridging the MN is attached. This function is not hosted on a Layer 2 (L2)
device such as a eNode(B) or Access Point. bridging device such as an eNode(B) or Access Point.
The following terms are defined and used in this document: The following terms are defined and used in this document:
MAAR (Mobility Anchor and Access Router). First hop router where the MAAR (Mobility Anchor and Access Router):
mobile nodes attach to. It also plays the role of mobility First-hop router where the MNs attach. It also plays the role of
manager for the IPv6 prefixes it anchors, running the mobility manager for the IPv6 prefixes it anchors, running the
functionalities of PMIP's MAG and LMA. Depending on the prefix, functionalities of PMIP's MAG and LMA. Depending on the prefix,
it plays the role of Access-DPN, Home-DPA and Access-CPN. it plays the role of Access-DPN, Home-DPA, and Access-CPN.
CMD (Central Mobility Database). The node that stores the BCEs CMD (Central Mobility Database):
allocated for the MNs in the mobility domain. It plays the role The node that stores the BCEs allocated for the MNs in the
of Home-CPA. mobility domain. It plays the role of Home-CPA.
P-MAAR (Previous MAAR). When a MN moves to a new point of attachment P-MAAR (Previous MAAR):
a new MAAR might be allocated as its anchor point for future IPv6 When an MN moves to a new point of attachment, a new MAAR might be
prefixes. The MAAR that served the MN prior to new attachment allocated as its anchor point for future IPv6 prefixes. The MAAR
becomes the P-MAAR. It is still the anchor point for the IPv6 that served the MN prior to new attachment becomes the P-MAAR. It
prefixes it had allocated to the MN in the past and serves as the is still the anchor point for the IPv6 prefixes it had allocated
Home-DPA for flows using these prefixes. There might be several to the MN in the past and serves as the Home-DPA for flows using
P-MAARs serving a MN when the MN is frequently switching points of these prefixes. There might be several P-MAARs serving an MN in
attachment while maintaining long-lasting flows. cases when the MN is frequently switching points of attachment
while maintaining long-lasting flows.
S-MAAR (Serving MAAR). The MAAR which the MN is currently attached S-MAAR (Serving MAAR):
to. Depending on the prefix, it plays the role of Access-DPN, The MAAR to which the MN is currently attached. Depending on the
Home-DPA and Access-CPN. prefix, it plays the role of Access-DPN, Home-DPA, and Access-CPN.
Anchoring MAAR. A MAAR anchoring an IPv6 prefix used by an MN. Anchoring MAAR:
A MAAR anchoring an IPv6 prefix used by an MN.
DLIF (Distributed Logical Interface). It is a logical interface at DLIF (Distributed Logical Interface):
the IP stack of the MAAR. For each active prefix used by the MN, It is a logical interface at the IP stack of the MAAR. For each
the S-MAAR has a DLIF configured (associated to each MAAR still active prefix used by the MN, the S-MAAR has a DLIF configured
anchoring flows). In this way, an S-MAAR exposes itself towards (associated with each MAAR still anchoring flows). In this way,
each MN as multiple routers, one as itself and one per P-MAAR. an S-MAAR exposes itself towards each MN as multiple routers, one
as itself and one per P-MAAR.
3. PMIPv6 DMM extensions 3. PMIPv6 DMM Extensions
The solution consists of de-coupling the entities that participate in The solution consists of decoupling the entities that participate in
the data and the control planes: the data plane becomes distributed the data and the control planes: the data plane becomes distributed
and managed by the MAARs near the edge of the network, while the and managed by the MAARs near the edge of the network, while the
control plane, besides those on the MAARs, relies on a central entity control plane, besides those on the MAARs, relies on a central entity
called Central Mobility Database (CMD). In the proposed called the Central Mobility Database (CMD). In the proposed
architecture, the hierarchy present in PMIPv6 between LMA and MAG is architecture, the hierarchy present in PMIPv6 between LMA and MAG is
preserved, but with the following substantial variations: preserved but with the following substantial variations:
o The LMA is relieved from the data forwarding role, only the * The LMA is discharged from the data forwarding role; only the
Binding Cache and its management operations are maintained. Hence Binding Cache and its management operations are maintained.
the LMA is renamed into CMD, which is therefore a Home-CPA. Also, Hence, the LMA is renamed as "CMD", which is therefore a Home-CPA.
the CMD is able to send and parse both PBU and PBA messages. Also, the CMD is able to send and parse both PBU and PBA messages.
o The MAG is enriched with the LMA functionalities, hence the name * The MAG is enriched with the LMA functionalities, hence the name
Mobility Anchor and Access Router (MAAR). It maintains a local Mobility Anchor and Access Router (MAAR). It maintains a local
Binding Cache for the MNs that are attached to it and it is able Binding Cache for the MNs that are attached to it, and it is able
to send and parse PBU and PBA messages. to send and parse PBU and PBA messages.
o The binding cache will be extended to include information * The Binding Cache will be extended to include information
regarding P-MAARs where the mobile node was anchored and still regarding P-MAARs where the MN was anchored and still retains
retains active data sessions. active data sessions.
o Each MAAR has a unique set of global prefixes (which are * Each MAAR has a unique set of global prefixes (which are
configurable), that can be allocated by the MAAR to the MNs, but configurable) that can be allocated by the MAAR to the MNs but
must be exclusive to that MAAR, i.e. no other MAAR can allocate must be exclusive to that MAAR, i.e., no other MAAR can allocate
the same prefixes. the same prefixes.
The MAARs leverage the CMD to access and update information related The MAARs leverage the CMD to access and update information related
to the MNs, stored as mobility sessions; hence, a centralized node to the MNs, which is stored as mobility sessions; hence, a
maintains a global view of the network status. The CMD is queried centralized node maintains a global view of the network status. The
whenever a MN is detected to join/leave the mobility domain. It CMD is queried whenever an MN is detected joining/leaving the
might be a fresh attachment, a detachment or a handover, but as MAARs mobility domain. It might be a fresh attachment, a detachment, or a
are not aware of past information related to a mobility session, they handover, but as MAARs are not aware of past information related to a
contact the CMD to retrieve the data of interest and eventually take mobility session, they contact the CMD to retrieve the data of
the appropriate action. The procedure adopted for the query and the interest and eventually take the appropriate action. The procedure
message exchange sequence might vary to optimize the update latency adopted for the query and the message exchange sequence might vary to
and/or the signaling overhead. Here is presented one method for the optimize the update latency and/or the signaling overhead. Here, one
initial registration, and three different approaches for updating the method for the initial registration and three different approaches
mobility sessions using PBUs and PBAs. Each approach assigns a for updating the mobility sessions using PBUs and PBAs are presented.
different role to the CMD: Each approach assigns a different role to the CMD:
o The CMD is a PBU/PBA relay; * The CMD is a PBU/PBA relay;
o The CMD is only a MAAR locator; * The CMD is only a MAAR locator;
o The CMD is a PBU/PBA proxy. * The CMD is a PBU/PBA proxy.
The solution described in this document allows performing per-prefix The solution described in this document allows per-prefix anchoring
anchoring decisions, to support e.g., some flows to be anchored at a decisions -- for example, to support the anchoring of some flows at a
central Home-DPA (like a traditional LMA) or to enable an application central Home-DPA (like a traditional LMA) or to enable an application
to switch to the locally anchored prefix to gain route optimization, to switch to the locally anchored prefix to gain route optimization,
as indicated in [RFC8563]. This type of per-prefix treatment would as indicated in [RFC8563]. This type of per-prefix treatment would
potentially require additional extensions to the MAARs and signaling potentially require additional extensions to the MAARs and signaling
between the MAARs and the MNs to convey the per-flow anchor between the MAARs and the MNs to convey the per-flow anchor
preference (central, distributed), which are not covered in this preference (central, distributed), which are not covered in this
document. document.
Note that a MN may move across different MAARs, which might result in Note that an MN may move across different MAARs, which might result
several P-MAARs existing at a given moment of time, each of them in several P-MAARs existing at a given moment of time, each of them
anchoring a different prefix used by the MN. anchoring a different prefix used by the MN.
3.1. Initial registration 3.1. Initial Registration
Initial registration is performed when an MN attaches to a network Initial registration is performed when an MN attaches to a network
for the first time (rather than attaching to a new network after for the first time (rather than attaching to a new network after
moving from a previous one). moving from a previous one).
In this description (shown in Figure 1), it is assumed that: In this description (shown in Figure 1), it is assumed that:
1. The MN is attaching to MAAR1. 1. The MN is attaching to MAAR1.
2. The MN is authorized to attach to the network. 2. The MN is authorized to attach to the network.
Upon MN attachment, the following operations take place: Upon MN attachment, the following operations take place:
1. MAAR1 assigns a global IPv6 prefix from its own prefix pool to 1. MAAR1 assigns a global IPv6 prefix from its own prefix pool to
the MN (Pref1). It also stores this prefix (Pref1) in the the MN (Pref1). It also stores this prefix (Pref1) in the
locally allocated temporary Binding Cache Entry (BCE). locally allocated temporary BCE.
2. MAAR1 sends a PBU [RFC5213] with Pref1 and the MN's MN-ID to the 2. MAAR1 sends a PBU [RFC5213] with Pref1 and the MN's MN-ID to the
CMD. CMD.
3. Since this is an initial registration, the CMD stores a BCE 3. Since this is an initial registration, the CMD stores a BCE
containing as primary fields the MN-ID, Pref1 and MAAR1's address containing the MN-ID, Pref1, and MAAR1's address (as a Proxy-CoA)
as a Proxy-CoA. as the primary fields.
4. The CMD replies with a PBA with the usual options defined in 4. The CMD replies with a PBA with the usual options defined in
PMIPv6 [RFC5213], meaning that the MN's registration is fresh and PMIPv6 [RFC5213], meaning that the MN's registration is fresh and
no past status is available. no past status is available.
5. MAAR1 stores the BCE described in (1) and unicasts a Router 5. MAAR1 stores the BCE described in (1) and unicasts a Router
Advertisement (RA) to the MN with Pref1. Advertisement (RA) to the MN with Pref1.
6. The MN uses Pref1 to configure an IPv6 address (IP1) (e.g., with 6. The MN uses Pref1 to configure an IPv6 address (IP1) (e.g., with
stateless auto-configuration, SLAAC). stateless address autoconfiguration (SLAAC)).
Note that: Note that:
1. Alternative IPv6 auto-configuration mechanisms can also be used, 1. Alternative IPv6 autoconfiguration mechanisms can also be used,
though this document describes the SLAAC-based one. though this document describes the SLAAC-based one.
2. IP1 is routable at MAAR1, in the sense that it is on the path of 2. IP1 is routable at MAAR1 in the sense that it is on the path of
packets addressed to the MN. packets addressed to the MN.
3. MAAR1 acts as a plain router for packets destined to the MN, as 3. MAAR1 acts as a plain router for packets destined to the MN as no
no encapsulation nor special handling takes place. encapsulation or special handling takes place.
In the diagram shown in Figure 1 (and subsequent diagrams), the flow In the diagram shown in Figure 1 (and subsequent diagrams), the flow
of packets is presented using '*'. of packets is presented using '*'.
+-----+ +---+ +--+ +-----+ +---+ +--+
|MAAR1| |CMD| |CN| |MAAR1| |CMD| |CN|
+-----+ +---+ +*-+ +-----+ +---+ +*-+
| | * | | *
MN | * +---+ MN | * +---+
attach. | ***** _|CMD|_ attach. | ***** _|CMD|_
skipping to change at page 8, line 40 skipping to change at line 376
| BCE | * | | | | | | BCE | * | | | | |
| creation |MAAR1+------+MAAR2+-----+MAAR3| | creation |MAAR1+------+MAAR2+-----+MAAR3|
|<-- PBA ---| | * | | | | | |<-- PBA ---| | * | | | | |
local BCE | +---*-+ +-----+ +-----+ local BCE | +---*-+ +-----+ +-----+
finalized | * finalized | *
| | Pref1 * | | Pref1 *
| | +*-+ | | +*-+
| | |MN| | | |MN|
| | +--+ | | +--+
Operations sequence Packets flow Operations sequence Packet flow
Figure 1: First attachment to the network Figure 1: First Attachment to the Network
Note that the registration process does not change regardless of the Note that the registration process does not change regardless of the
CMD's modes (relay, locator or proxy) described next. The procedure CMD's modes (relay, locator, or proxy) described in the following
is depicted in Figure 1. sections. The procedure is depicted in Figure 1.
3.2. The CMD as PBU/PBA relay 3.2. The CMD as PBU/PBA Relay
Upon MN mobility, if the CMD behaves as PBU/PBA relay, the following Upon MN mobility, if the CMD behaves as a PBU/PBA relay, the
operations take place: following operations take place:
1. When the MN moves from its current point of attachment and 1. When the MN moves from its current point of attachment and
attaches to MAAR2 (now the S-MAAR), MAAR2 reserves an IPv6 prefix attaches to MAAR2 (now the S-MAAR), MAAR2 reserves an IPv6 prefix
(Pref2), it stores a temporary BCE, and it sends a PBU to the CMD (Pref2), stores a temporary BCE, and sends a PBU to the CMD for
for registration. registration.
2. Upon PBU reception and BC lookup, the CMD retrieves an already 2. Upon PBU reception and BC lookup, the CMD retrieves an already
existing entry for the MN, binding the MN-ID to its former existing entry for the MN and binds the MN-ID to its former
location; thus, the CMD forwards the PBU to the MAAR indicated as location; thus, the CMD forwards the PBU to the MAAR indicated as
Proxy CoA (MAAR1), including a new mobility option to communicate Proxy-CoA (MAAR1) and includes a new mobility option to
the S-MAAR's global address to MAAR1, defined as Serving MAAR communicate the S-MAAR's global address to MAAR1 (defined as the
Option in Section 4.6. The CMD updates the P-CoA field in the Serving MAAR option in Section 4.6). The CMD updates the P-CoA
BCE related to the MN with the S-MAAR's address. field in the BCE related to the MN with the S-MAAR's address.
3. Upon PBU reception, MAAR1 can install a tunnel on its side 3. Upon PBU reception, MAAR1 can install a tunnel on its side
towards MAAR2 and the related routes for Pref1. Then MAAR1 towards MAAR2 and the related routes for Pref1. Then MAAR1
replies to the CMD with a PBA (including the option mentioned replies to the CMD with a PBA (including the option mentioned
before) to ensure that the new location has successfully changed, before) to ensure that the new location has successfully changed.
containing the prefix anchored at MAAR1 in the Home Network The PBA contains the prefix anchored at MAAR1 in the Home Network
Prefix option. Prefix option.
4. The CMD, after receiving the PBA, updates the BCE populating an 4. The CMD, after receiving the PBA, updates the BCE and populates
instance of the P-MAAR list. The P-MAAR list is an additional an instance of the P-MAAR list. The P-MAAR list is an additional
field on the BCE that contains an element for each P-MAAR field on the BCE that contains an element for each P-MAAR
involved in the MN's mobility session. The list element contains involved in the MN's mobility session. The list element contains
the P-MAAR's global address and the prefix it has delegated. the P-MAAR's global address and the prefix it has delegated.
Also, the CMD sends a PBA to the new S-MAAR, containing the Also, the CMD sends a PBA to the new S-MAAR, which contains the
previous Proxy-CoA and the prefix anchored to it embedded into a previous Proxy-CoA and the prefix anchored to it embedded into a
new mobility option called Previous MAAR Option (defined in new mobility option called the Previous MAAR option (defined in
Section 4.5), so that, upon PBA arrival, a bi-directional tunnel Section 4.5). Then, upon PBA arrival, a bidirectional tunnel can
can be established between the two MAARs and new routes are set be established between the two MAARs, and new routes are set
appropriately to recover the IP flow(s) carrying Pref1. appropriately to recover the IP flow(s) carrying Pref1.
5. Now packets destined to Pref1 are first received by MAAR1, 5. Now, packets destined for Pref1 are first received by MAAR1,
encapsulated into the tunnel and forwarded to MAAR2, which encapsulated into the tunnel, and forwarded to MAAR2, which
finally delivers them to their destination. In uplink, when the finally delivers them to their destination. In the uplink, when
MN transmits packets using Pref1 as source address, they are sent the MN transmits packets using Pref1 as a source address, they
to MAAR2, as it is MN's new default gateway, then tunneled to are sent to MAAR2 (as it is the MN's new default gateway) and
MAAR1 which routes them towards the next hop to destination. then tunneled to MAAR1, which routes them towards the next hop to
Conversely, packets carrying Pref2 are routed by MAAR2 without the destination. Conversely, packets carrying Pref2 are routed
any special packet handling both for uplink and downlink. by MAAR2 without any special packet handling both for the uplink
and downlink.
+-----+ +---+ +-----+ +--+ +--+ +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +--+ +--+
|MAAR1| |CMD| |MAAR2| |CN| |CN| |MAAR1| |CMD| |MAAR2| |CN| |CN|
+-----+ +---+ +-----+ +*-+ +*-+ +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +*-+ +*-+
| | | * * | | | * *
| | MN * +---+ * | | MN * +---+ *
| | attach. ***** _|CMD|_ * | | attach. ***** _|CMD|_ *
| | det. flow1 * / +-+-+ \ *flow2 | | det. flow1 * / +-+-+ \ *flow2
| |<-- PBU ---| * / | \ * | |<-- PBU ---| * / | \ *
| BCE | * / | ******* | BCE | * / | *******
skipping to change at page 10, line 26 skipping to change at line 452
|<-- PBU*---| | | * | | *| | | |<-- PBU*---| | | * | | *| | |
route | | |MAAR1|______|MAAR2+-----+MAAR3| route | | |MAAR1|______|MAAR2+-----+MAAR3|
update | | | **(______)** *| | | update | | | **(______)** *| | |
|--- PBA*-->| | +-----+ +-*--*+ +-----+ |--- PBA*-->| | +-----+ +-*--*+ +-----+
| BCE | * * | BCE | * *
| update | Pref1 * *Pref2 | update | Pref1 * *Pref2
| |--- PBA*-->| +*--*+ | |--- PBA*-->| +*--*+
| | route ---move-->|*MN*| | | route ---move-->|*MN*|
| | update +----+ | | update +----+
Operations sequence Data Packets flow Operations sequence Data Packet flow
PBU/PBA Messages with * contain PBU/PBA messages with * contain
a new mobility option a new mobility option
Figure 2: Scenario after a handover, CMD as relay Figure 2: Scenario after a Handover, CMD as Relay
For MN's next movements the process is repeated except the number of For MN's next movements, the process is repeated, but the number of
P-MAARs involved increases (accordingly to the number of prefixes P-MAARs involved increases (according to the number of prefixes that
that the MN wishes to maintain). Indeed, once the CMD receives the the MN wishes to maintain). Indeed, once the CMD receives the first
first PBU from the new S-MAAR, it forwards copies of the PBU to all PBU from the new S-MAAR, it forwards copies of the PBU to all the
the P-MAARs indicated in the BCE, namely the one registered as P-MAARs indicated in the BCE, namely the P-MAAR registered as the
current P-CoA (i.e., the MAAR prior to handover) plus the ones in the current P-CoA (i.e., the MAAR prior to handover) plus the ones in the
P-MAARs list. They reply with a PBA to the CMD, which aggregates P-MAAR list. Those P-MAARs reply with a PBA to the CMD, which
them into a single one to notify the S-MAAR, that finally can aggregates all of the PBAs into one PBA to notify the S-MAAR, which
establish the tunnels with the P-MAARs. finally can establish the tunnels with the P-MAARs.
It should be noted that this design separates the mobility management It should be noted that this design separates the mobility management
at the prefix granularity, and it can be tuned in order to erase old at the prefix granularity, and it can be tuned in order to erase old
mobility sessions when not required, while the MN is reachable mobility sessions when not required, while the MN is reachable
through the latest prefix acquired. Moreover, the latency associated through the latest prefix acquired. Moreover, the latency associated
to the mobility update is bound to the PBA sent by the furthest with the mobility update is bound to the PBA sent by the furthest
P-MAAR, in terms of RTT, that takes the longest time to reach the P-MAAR, in terms of RTT, that takes the longest time to reach the
CMD. The drawback can be mitigated introducing a timeout at the CMD, CMD. The drawback can be mitigated by introducing a timeout at the
by which, after its expiration, all the PBAs so far collected are CMD, by which, after its expiration, all the PBAs so far collected
transmitted, and the remaining are sent later upon their arrival. are transmitted, and the remaining are sent later upon their arrival.
Note that in this case the S-MAAR might receive multiple PBAs from Note that, in this case, the S-MAAR might receive multiple PBAs from
the CMD in response to a PBU. The CMD SHOULD follow the the CMD in response to a PBU. The CMD SHOULD follow the
retransmissions and rate limiting considerations described in retransmissions and rate-limiting considerations described in
Section 3.6, especially when aggregating and relaying PBAs. Section 3.6, especially when aggregating and relaying PBAs.
When there are multiple previous MAARs, e.g., k MAARs, a single PBU When there are multiple P-MAARs, e.g., k MAARs, a single PBU received
received by the CMD triggers k outgoing packets from a single by the CMD triggers k outgoing packets from a single incoming packet.
incoming packet. This may lead to packet bursts originated from the This may lead to packet bursts originating from the CMD, albeit to
CMD, albeit to different targets. Pacing mechanisms MUST be different targets. Pacing mechanisms MUST be introduced to avoid
introduced to avoid bursts on the outgoing link. bursts on the outgoing link.
3.3. The CMD as MAAR locator 3.3. The CMD as MAAR Locator
The handover latency experienced in the approach shown before can be The handover latency experienced in the approach shown before can be
reduced if the P-MAARs are allowed to signal directly their reduced if the P-MAARs are allowed to directly signal their
information to the new S-MAAR. This procedure reflects what was information to the new S-MAAR. This procedure reflects what was
described in Section 3.2 up to the moment the P-MAAR receives the PBU described in Section 3.2 up to the moment the P-MAAR receives the PBU
with the S-MAAR option. At that point a P-MAAR is aware of the new with the Serving MAAR option. At that point, a P-MAAR is aware of
MN's location (because of the S-MAAR's address in the S-MAAR option), the new MN's location (because of the S-MAAR's address in the Serving
and, besides sending a PBA to the CMD, it also sends a PBA to the MAAR option), and, besides sending a PBA to the CMD, it also sends a
S-MAAR including the prefix it is anchoring. This latter PBA does PBA to the S-MAAR, including the prefix it is anchoring. This latter
not need to include new options, as the prefix is embedded in the HNP PBA does not need to include new options, as the prefix is embedded
option and the P-MAAR's address is taken from the message's source in the Home Network Prefix (HNP) option and the P-MAAR's address is
address. The CMD is relieved from forwarding the PBA to the S-MAAR, taken from the message's source address. The CMD is released from
as the latter receives a copy directly from the P-MAAR with the forwarding the PBA to the S-MAAR as the latter receives a copy
necessary information to build the tunnels and set the appropriate directly from the P-MAAR with the necessary information to build the
routes. Figure 3 illustrates the new message sequence, while the tunnels and set the appropriate routes. Figure 3 illustrates the new
data forwarding is unaltered. message sequence. The data forwarding is unaltered.
+-----+ +---+ +-----+ +--+ +--+ +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +--+ +--+
|MAAR1| |CMD| |MAAR2| |CN| |CN| |MAAR1| |CMD| |MAAR2| |CN| |CN|
+-----+ +---+ +-----+ +*-+ +*-+ +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +*-+ +*-+
| | | * * | | | * *
| | MN * +---+ * | | MN * +---+ *
| | attach. ***** _|CMD|_ * | | attach. ***** _|CMD|_ *
| | det. flow1 * / +-+-+ \ *flow2 | | det. flow1 * / +-+-+ \ *flow2
| |<-- PBU ---| * / | \ * | |<-- PBU ---| * / | \ *
| BCE | * / | ******* | BCE | * / | *******
skipping to change at page 12, line 26 skipping to change at line 527
|<-- PBU*---| | | * | | *| | | |<-- PBU*---| | | * | | *| | |
route | | |MAAR1|______|MAAR2+-----+MAAR3| route | | |MAAR1|______|MAAR2+-----+MAAR3|
update | | | **(______)** *| | | update | | | **(______)** *| | |
|--------- PBA -------->| +-----+ +-*--*+ +-----+ |--------- PBA -------->| +-----+ +-*--*+ +-----+
|--- PBA*-->| route * * |--- PBA*-->| route * *
| BCE update Pref1 * *Pref2 | BCE update Pref1 * *Pref2
| update | +*--*+ | update | +*--*+
| | | ---move-->|*MN*| | | | ---move-->|*MN*|
| | | +----+ | | | +----+
Operations sequence Data Packets flow Operations sequence Data Packet flow
PBU/PBA Messages with * contain PBU/PBA messages with * contain
a new mobility option a new mobility option
Figure 3: Scenario after a handover, CMD as locator Figure 3: Scenario after a Handover, CMD as Locator
3.4. The CMD as MAAR proxy 3.4. The CMD as PBU/PBA Proxy
A further enhancement of previous solutions can be achieved when the A further enhancement of previous solutions can be achieved when the
CMD sends the PBA to the new S-MAAR before notifying the P-MAARs of CMD sends the PBA to the new S-MAAR before notifying the P-MAARs of
the location change. Indeed, when the CMD receives the PBU for the the location change. Indeed, when the CMD receives the PBU for the
new registration, it is already in possession of all the information new registration, it is already in possession of all the information
that the new S-MAAR requires to set up the tunnels and the routes. that the new S-MAAR requires to set up the tunnels and the routes.
Thus the PBA is sent to the S-MAAR immediately after a PBU is Thus, the PBA is sent to the S-MAAR immediately after a PBU is
received, including also in this case the P-MAAR option. In received, including the Previous MAAR option in this case. In
parallel, a PBU is sent by the CMD to the P-MAARs containing the parallel, a PBU is sent by the CMD to the P-MAARs containing the
S-MAAR option, to notify them about the new MN's location, so they Serving MAAR option to notify them about the new MN's location so
receive the information to establish the tunnels and routes on their that they receive the information to establish the tunnels and routes
side. When P-MAARs complete the update, they send a PBA to the CMD on their side. When P-MAARs complete the update, they send a PBA to
to indicate that the operation is concluded and the information is the CMD to indicate that the operation has concluded and the
updated in all network nodes. This procedure is obtained from the information is updated in all network nodes. This procedure is
first one re-arranging the order of the messages, but the parameters obtained from the first procedure rearranging the order of the
communicated are the same. This scheme is depicted in Figure 4, messages, but the parameters communicated are the same. This scheme
where, again, the data forwarding is kept untouched. is depicted in Figure 4, where, again, the data forwarding is kept
untouched.
+-----+ +---+ +-----+ +--+ +--+ +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +--+ +--+
|MAAR1| |CMD| |MAAR2| |CN| |CN| |MAAR1| |CMD| |MAAR2| |CN| |CN|
+-----+ +---+ +-----+ +*-+ +*-+ +-----+ +---+ +-----+ +*-+ +*-+
| | | * * | | | * *
| | MN * +---+ * | | MN * +---+ *
| | attach. ***** _|CMD|_ * | | attach. ***** _|CMD|_ *
| | det. flow1 * / +-+-+ \ *flow2 | | det. flow1 * / +-+-+ \ *flow2
| |<-- PBU ---| * / | \ * | |<-- PBU ---| * / | \ *
| BCE | * / | ******* | BCE | * / | *******
skipping to change at page 13, line 26 skipping to change at line 574
|<-- PBU*---x--- PBA*-->| | * | | *| | | |<-- PBU*---x--- PBA*-->| | * | | *| | |
route | route |MAAR1|______|MAAR2+-----+MAAR3| route | route |MAAR1|______|MAAR2+-----+MAAR3|
update | update | **(______)** *| | | update | update | **(______)** *| | |
|--- PBA*-->| | +-----+ +-*--*+ +-----+ |--- PBA*-->| | +-----+ +-*--*+ +-----+
| BCE | * * | BCE | * *
| update | Pref1 * *Pref2 | update | Pref1 * *Pref2
| | | +*--*+ | | | +*--*+
| | | ---move-->|*MN*| | | | ---move-->|*MN*|
| | | +----+ | | | +----+
Operations sequence Data Packets flow Operations sequence Data Packet flow
PBU/PBA Messages with * contain PBU/PBA messages with * contain
a new mobility option a new mobility option
Figure 4: Scenario after a handover, CMD as proxy Figure 4: Scenario after a Handover, CMD as Proxy
3.5. De-registration 3.5. De-registration
The de-registration mechanism devised for PMIPv6 cannot be used as-is The de-registration mechanism devised for PMIPv6 cannot be used as is
in this solution. The reason for this is that each MAAR handles an in this solution because each MAAR handles an independent mobility
independent mobility session (i.e., a single or a set of prefixes) session (i.e., a single prefix or a set of prefixes) for a given MN,
for a given MN, whereas the aggregated session is stored at the CMD. whereas the aggregated session is stored at the CMD. Indeed, if a
Indeed, if a previous MAAR initiates a de-registration procedure, P-MAAR initiates a de-registration procedure because the MN is no
because the MN is no longer present on the MAAR's access link, it longer present on the MAAR's access link, it removes the routing
removes the routing state for that (those) prefix(es), that would be state for the prefix(es), that would be deleted by the CMD as well,
deleted by the CMD as well, hence defeating any prefix continuity hence defeating any prefix continuity attempt. The simplest approach
attempt. The simplest approach to overcome this limitation is to to overcome this limitation is to deny a P-MAAR to de-register a
deny a P-MAAR to de-register a prefix, that is, allowing only a prefix, that is, allowing only an S-MAAR to de-register the whole MN
serving MAAR to de-register the whole MN session. This can be session. This can be achieved by first removing any L2 detachment
achieved by first removing any layer-2 detachment event, so that de- event so that de-registration is triggered only when the binding
registration is triggered only when the binding lifetime expires, lifetime expires, hence providing a guard interval for the MN to
hence providing a guard interval for the MN to connect to a new MAAR. connect to a new MAAR. Then, a change in the MAAR operations is
Then, a change in the MAAR operations is required, and at this stage required, and at this stage, two possible solutions can be deployed:
two possible solutions can be deployed:
o A previous MAAR stops the BCE timer upon receiving a PBU from the * A P-MAAR stops the BCE timer upon receiving a PBU from the CMD
CMD containing a "Serving MAAR" option. In this way only the containing a "Serving MAAR" option. In this way, only the S-MAAR
Serving MAAR is allowed to de-register the mobility session, is allowed to de-register the mobility session, arguing that the
arguing that the MN definitely left the domain. MN definitely left the domain.
o Previous MAARs can, upon BCE expiry, send de-registration messages * P-MAARs can, upon BCE expiry, send de-registration messages to the
to the CMD, which, instead of acknowledging the message with a 0 CMD, which, instead of acknowledging the message with a 0
lifetime, sends back a PBA with a non-zero lifetime, hence re- lifetime, sends back a PBA with a non-zero lifetime, hence
newing the session, if the MN is still connected to the domain. renewing the session if the MN is still connected to the domain.
3.6. Retransmissions and Rate Limiting 3.6. Retransmissions and Rate Limiting
When sending PBUs, the node sending them (the CMD or S-MAAR) SHOULD The node sending PBUs (the CMD or S-MAAR) SHOULD make use of the
make use of the timeout also to deal with missing PBAs (to retransmit timeout to also deal with missing PBAs (to retransmit PBUs). The
PBUs). The INITIAL_BINDACK_TIMEOUT [RFC6275] SHOULD be used for INITIAL_BINDACK_TIMEOUT [RFC6275] SHOULD be used for configuring the
configuring the retransmission timer. The retransmissions by the retransmission timer. The retransmissions by the node MUST use an
node MUST use an exponential backoff process in which the timeout exponential backoff process in which the timeout period is doubled
period is doubled upon each retransmission, until either the node upon each retransmission until either the node receives a response or
receives a response or the timeout period reaches the value the timeout period reaches the value MAX_BINDACK_TIMEOUT [RFC6275].
MAX_BINDACK_TIMEOUT [RFC6275]. The node MAY continue to send these The node MAY continue to send these messages at this slower rate
messages at this slower rate indefinitely. The node MUST NOT send indefinitely. The node MUST NOT send PBU messages to a particular
PBU messages to a particular node more than MAX_UPDATE_RATE times node more than MAX_UPDATE_RATE times within a second [RFC6275].
within a second [RFC6275].
3.7. The Distributed Logical Interface (DLIF) concept 3.7. The Distributed Logical Interface (DLIF) Concept
One of the main challenges of a network-based DMM solution is how to One of the main challenges of a network-based DMM solution is how to
allow a mobile node to simultaneously send/receive traffic which is allow a MN to simultaneously send/receive traffic that is anchored at
anchored at different MAARs, and how to influence the mobile node's different MAARs and how to influence the MN's selection process of
selection process of its source IPv6 address for a new flow, without its source IPv6 address for a new flow without requiring special
requiring special support from the mobile node's IP stack. This support from the MN's IP stack. This document defines the DLIF,
document defines the Distributed Logical Interface (DLIF), which is a which is a software construct in the MAAR that can easily hide the
software construct in the MAAR that allows to easily hide the change change of associated anchors from the MN.
of associated anchors from the mobile node.
+---------------------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------------------+
( Operator's ) ( Operator's )
( core ) ( core )
+---------------------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------------------+
| | | |
+---------------+ tunnel +---------------+ +---------------+ tunnel +---------------+
| IP stack |===============| IP stack | | IP stack |===============| IP stack |
+---------------+ +-------+-------+ +---------------+ +-------+-------+
| mn1mar1 |--+ (DLIFs) +--|mn1mar1|mn1mar2|--+ | mn1mar1 |--+ (DLIFs) +--|mn1mar1|mn1mar2|--+
skipping to change at page 15, line 28 skipping to change at line 654
x x x x
x x x x
prefA::/64 x x prefB::/64 prefA::/64 x x prefB::/64
(AdvPrefLft=0) x x (AdvPrefLft=0) x x
(o) (o)
| |
+-----+ +-----+
prefA::MN1 | MN1 | prefB::MN1 prefA::MN1 | MN1 | prefB::MN1
(deprecated) +-----+ (deprecated) +-----+
Figure 5: DLIF: exposing multiple routers (one per P-MAAR) Figure 5: DLIF: Exposing Multiple Routers (One per P-MAAR)
The basic idea of the DLIF concept is the following: each serving The basic idea of the DLIF concept is the following: each S-MAAR
MAAR exposes itself towards a given MN as multiple routers, one per exposes itself to a given MN as multiple routers, one per P-MAAR
P-MAAR associated to the MN. Let's consider the example shown in associated with the MN. Let's consider the example shown in
Figure 5, MN1 initially attaches to MAAR1, configuring an IPv6 Figure 5: MN1 initially attaches to MAAR1, configuring an IPv6
address (prefA::MN1) from a prefix locally anchored at MAAR1 address (prefA::MN1) from a prefix locally anchored at MAAR1
(prefA::/64). At this stage, MAAR1 plays both the role of anchoring (prefA::/64). At this stage, MAAR1 plays the role of both anchoring
and serving MAAR, and also behaves as a plain IPv6 access router. and serving MAAR and also behaves as a plain IPv6 access router.
MAAR1 creates a distributed logical interface to communicate (point- MAAR1 creates a DLIF to communicate (through a point-to-point link)
to-point link) with MN1, exposing itself as a (logical) router with a with MN1, exposing itself as a (logical) router with specific MAC and
specific MAC and IPv6 addresses (e.g., prefA::MAAR1/64 and IPv6 addresses (e.g., prefA::MAAR1/64 and fe80::MAAR1/64) using the
fe80::MAAR1/64) using the DLIF mn1mar1. As explained below, these DLIF mn1mar1. As explained below, these addresses represent the
addresses represent the "logical" identity of MAAR1 towards MN1, and "logical" identity of MAAR1 for MN1 and will "follow" the MN while
will "follow" the mobile node while roaming within the domain (note roaming within the domain (note that the place where all this
that the place where all this information is maintained and updated information is maintained and updated is out of scope of this
is out-of-scope of this draft; potential examples are to keep it on document; potential examples are to keep it on the home subscriber
the home subscriber server -- HSS -- or the user's profile). server -- HSS -- or the user's profile).
If MN1 moves and attaches to a different MAAR of the domain (MAAR2 in If MN1 moves and attaches to a different MAAR of the domain (MAAR2 in
the example of Figure 5), this MAAR will create a new logical the example of Figure 5), this MAAR will create a new logical
interface (mn1mar2) to expose itself towards MN1, providing it with a interface (mn1mar2) to expose itself to MN1, providing it with a
locally anchored prefix (prefB::/64). In this case, since the MN1 locally anchored prefix (prefB::/64). In this case, since the MN1
has another active IPv6 address anchored at a MAAR1, MAAR2 also needs has another active IPv6 address anchored at MAAR1, MAAR2 also needs
to create an additional logical interface configured to resemble the to create an additional logical interface configured to resemble the
one used by MAAR1 to communicate with MN1. In this example, there is one used by MAAR1 to communicate with MN1. In this example, MAAR1 is
only one P-MAAR (in addition to MAAR2, which is the serving one): the only P-MAAR (MAAR2 is the same as S-MAAR), so only the logical
MAAR1, so only the logical interface mn1mar1 is created, but the same interface mn1mar1 is created. However, the same process would be
process would be repeated in case there were more P-MAARs involved. repeated if more P-MAARs were involved. In order to keep the prefix
In order to maintain the prefix anchored at MAAR1 reachable, a tunnel anchored at MAAR1 reachable, a tunnel between MAAR1 and MAAR2 is
between MAAR1 and MAAR2 is established and the routing is modified established and the routing is modified accordingly. The PBU/PBA
accordingly. The PBU/PBA signaling is used to set-up the bi- signaling is used to set up the bidirectional tunnel between MAAR1
directional tunnel between MAAR1 and MAAR2, and it might also be used and MAAR2, and it might also be used to convey the information about
to convey to MAAR2 the information about the prefix(es) anchored at the prefix(es) anchored at MAAR1 and the addresses of the associated
MAAR1 and about the addresses of the associated DLIF (i.e., mn1mar1). DLIF (i.e., mn1mar1) to MAAR2.
+------------------------------------------+ +----------------------+ +------------------------------------------+ +----------------------+
| MAAR1 | | MAAR2 | | MAAR1 | | MAAR2 |
|+----------------------------------------+| |+--------------------+| |+----------------------------------------+| |+--------------------+|
||+------------------++------------------+|| ||+------------------+|| ||+------------------++------------------+|| ||+------------------+||
|||+-------++-------+||+-------++-------+||| |||+-------++-------+||| |||+-------++-------+||+-------++-------+||| |||+-------++-------+|||
||||mn3mar1||mn3mar2||||mn2mar1||mn2mar2|||| ||||mn1mar1||mn1mar2|||| ||||mn3mar1||mn3mar2||||mn2mar1||mn2mar2|||| ||||mn1mar1||mn1mar2||||
|||| LMAC1 || LMAC2 |||| LMAC3 || LMAC4 |||| |||| LMAC5 || LMAC6 |||| |||| LMAC1 || LMAC2 |||| LMAC3 || LMAC4 |||| |||| LMAC5 || LMAC6 ||||
|||+-------++-------+||+-------++-------+||| |||+-------++-------+||| |||+-------++-------+||+-------++-------+||| |||+-------++-------+|||
||| LIFs of MN3 || LIFs of MN2 ||| ||| LIFs of MN1 ||| ||| LIFs of MN3 || LIFs of MN2 ||| ||| LIFs of MN1 |||
skipping to change at page 16, line 36 skipping to change at line 711
|+----------------------------------------+| |+--------------------+| |+----------------------------------------+| |+--------------------+|
+------------------------------------------+ +----------------------+ +------------------------------------------+ +----------------------+
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
(o) (o) (o) (o) (o) (o)
| | | | | |
+--+--+ +--+--+ +--+--+ +--+--+ +--+--+ +--+--+
| MN3 | | MN2 | | MN1 | | MN3 | | MN2 | | MN1 |
+-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+
Figure 6: Distributed Logical Interface concept Figure 6: Distributed Logical Interface Concept
Figure 6 shows the logical interface concept in more detail. The Figure 6 shows the logical interface concept in more detail. The
figure shows two MAARs and three MNs. MAAR1 is currently serving MN2 figure shows two MAARs and three MNs. MAAR1 is currently serving MN2
and MN3, while MAAR2 is serving MN1. Note that a serving MAAR always and MN3, while MAAR2 is serving MN1. Note that an S-MAAR always
plays the role of anchoring MAAR for the attached (served) MNs. Each plays the role of anchoring MAAR for the attached (served) MNs. Each
MAAR has one single physical wireless interface as depicted in this MAAR has one single physical wireless interface as depicted in this
example. example.
As introduced before, each MN always "sees" multiple logical routers As discussed before, each MN always "sees" multiple logical routers
-- one per anchoring MAAR -- independently of its currently serving -- one per anchoring MAAR -- independently of its currently S-MAAR.
MAAR. From the point of view of the MN, these MAARs are portrayed as From the point of view of the MN, these MAARs are portrayed as
different routers, although the MN is physically attached to one different routers, although the MN is physically attached to a single
single interface. The way this is achieved is by the serving MAAR interface. This is achieved by the S-MAAR configuring different
configuring different logical interfaces. Focusing on MN1, it is logical interfaces. MN1 is currently attached to MAAR2 (i.e., MAAR2
currently attached to MAAR2 (i.e., MAAR2 is its serving MAAR) and, is its S-MAAR) and, therefore, it has configured an IPv6 address from
therefore, it has configured an IPv6 address from MAAR2's pool (e.g., MAAR2's pool (e.g., prefB::/64). MAAR2 has set up a logical
prefB::/64). MAAR2 has set-up a logical interface (mn1mar2) on top interface (mn1mar2) on top of its wireless physical interface (phy if
of its wireless physical interface (phy if MAAR2) which is used to MAAR2), which is used to serve MN1. This interface has a logical MAC
serve MN1. This interface has a logical MAC address (LMAC6), address (LMAC6) that is different from the hardware MAC address
different from the hardware MAC address (MAC2) of the physical (MAC2) of the physical interface of MAAR2. Over the mn1mar2
interface of MAAR2. Over the mn1mar2 interface, MAAR2 advertises its interface, MAAR2 advertises its locally anchored prefix prefB::/64.
locally anchored prefix prefB::/64. Before attaching to MAAR2, MN1 Before attaching to MAAR2, MN1 was attached to MAAR1 and configured a
was attached to MAAR1, configuring also an address locally anchored locally anchored address at that MAAR, which is still being used by
at that MAAR, which is still being used by MN1 in active MN1 in active communications. MN1 keeps "seeing" an interface
communications. MN1 keeps "seeing" an interface connecting to MAAR1, connecting to MAAR1 as if it were directly connected to the two
as if it were directly connected to the two MAARs. This is achieved MAARs. This is achieved by the S-MAAR (MAAR2) configuring an
by the serving MAAR (MAAR2) configuring an additional distributed additional DLIF, mn1mar1, which behaves as the logical interface
logical interface: mn1mar1, which behaves as the logical interface
configured by MAAR1 when MN1 was attached to it. This means that configured by MAAR1 when MN1 was attached to it. This means that
both the MAC and IPv6 addresses configured on this logical interface both the MAC and IPv6 addresses configured on this logical interface
remain the same regardless of the physical MAAR which is serving the remain the same regardless of the physical MAAR that is serving the
MN. The information required by a serving MAAR to properly configure MN. The information required by an S-MAAR to properly configure this
this logical interfaces can be obtained in different ways: as part of logical interfaces can be obtained in different ways: as part of the
the information conveyed in the PBA, from an external database (e.g., information conveyed in the PBA, from an external database (e.g., the
the HSS) or by other means. As shown in the figure, each MAAR may HSS) or by other means. As shown in the figure, each MAAR may have
have several logical interfaces associated to each attached MN, several logical interfaces associated with each attached MN and
having always at least one (since a serving MAAR is also an anchoring always has at least one (since an S-MAAR is also an anchoring MAAR
MAAR for the attached MN). for the attached MN).
In order to enforce the use of the prefix locally anchored at the In order to enforce the use of the prefix locally anchored at the
serving MAAR, the router advertisements sent over those logical S-MAAR, the RAs sent over those logical interfaces playing the role
interfaces playing the role of anchoring MAARs (different from the of anchoring MAARs (different from the serving one) include a zero
serving one) include a zero preferred prefix lifetime (and a non-zero preferred prefix lifetime (and a non-zero valid prefix lifetime, so
valid prefix lifetime, so the prefix remains valid, while being the prefix remains valid while being deprecated). The goal is to
deprecated). The goal is to deprecate the prefixes delegated by deprecate the prefixes delegated by these MAARs (so that they will no
these MAARs (so that they will no longer be serving the MN). Note longer be serving the MN). Note that ongoing communications may keep
that on-going communications may keep on using those addresses, even on using those addresses even if they are deprecated, so this only
if they are deprecated, so this only affects the establishment of new affects the establishment of new sessions.
sessions.
The distributed logical interface concept also enables the following The DLIF concept also enables the following use case: suppose that
use case: suppose that access to a local IP network is provided by a access to a local IP network is provided by a given MAAR (e.g., MAAR1
given MAAR (e.g., MAAR1 in the example shown in Figure 5) and that in the example shown in Figure 5) and that the resources available at
the resources available at that network cannot be reached from that network cannot be reached from outside the local network (e.g.,
outside the local network (e.g., cannot be accessed by an MN attached cannot be accessed by an MN attached to MAAR2). This is similar to
to MAAR2). This is similar to the local IP access scenario the local IP access scenario considered by 3GPP, where a local
considered by 3GPP, where a local gateway node is selected for gateway node is selected for sessions requiring access to services
sessions requiring access to services provided locally (instead of provided locally (instead of going through a central gateway). The
going through a central gateway). The goal is to allow an MN to be goal is to allow an MN to be able to roam while still being able to
able to roam while still being able to have connectivity to this have connectivity to this local IP network. The solution adopted to
local IP network. The solution adopted to support this case makes support this case makes use of more specific routes, as discussed in
use of RFC 4191 [RFC4191] more specific routes when the MN moves to a RFC 4191 [RFC4191], when the MN moves to a MAAR different from the
MAAR different from the one providing access to the local IP network one providing access to the local IP network (MAAR1 in the example).
(MAAR1 in the example). These routes are advertised through the These routes are advertised through the DLIF where the MAAR is
distributed logical interface representing the MAAR providing access providing access to the local network (MAAR1 in this example). In
to the local network (MAAR1 in this example). In this way, if MN1 this way, if MN1 moves from MAAR1 to MAAR2, any active session that
moves from MAAR1 to MAAR2, any active session that MN1 may have with MN1 may have with a node on the local network connected to MAAR1 will
a node on the local network connected to MAAR1 will survive via the survive via the tunnel between MAAR1 and MAAR2. Also, any potential
tunnel between MAAR1 and MAAR2. Also, any potential future future connection attempt to the local network will be supported even
connection attempt towards the local network will be supported, even though MN1 is no longer attached to MAAR1, so long as a source
though MN1 is no longer attached to MAAR1. address configured from MAAR1 is selected for new connections (see
[RFC6724], rule 5.5).
4. Message Format 4. Message Format
This section defines extensions to the Proxy Mobile IPv6 [RFC5213] This section defines extensions to the PMIPv6 [RFC5213] protocol
protocol messages. messages.
4.1. Proxy Binding Update 4.1. Proxy Binding Update
A new flag (D) is included in the Proxy Binding Update to indicate A new flag (D) is included in the PBU to indicate that the PBU is
that the Proxy Binding Update is coming from a MAAR or a CMD and not coming from a MAAR or a CMD and not from a MAG. The rest of the PBU
from a mobile access gateway. The rest of the Proxy Binding Update
format remains the same as defined in [RFC5213]. format remains the same as defined in [RFC5213].
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Sequence # | | Sequence # |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|A|H|L|K|M|R|P|F|T|B|S|D| Rsrvd | Lifetime | |A|H|L|K|M|R|P|F|T|B|S|D| Rsrvd | Lifetime |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
. . . .
. Mobility options . . Mobility Options .
. . . .
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
DMM Flag (D) DMM Flag (D)
The D flag is set to indicate to the receiver of the message that
The D Flag is set to indicate to the receiver of the message that the PBU is from a MAAR or a CMD. When an LMA that does not
the Proxy Binding Update is from a MAAR or a CMD. When an LMA support the extensions described in this document receives a
that does not support the extensions described in this document message with the D flag set, the PBU in that case MUST NOT be
receives a message with the D-Flag set, the PBU in that case MUST processed by the LMA, and an error MUST be returned.
NOT be processed by the LMA and an error MUST be returned.
Mobility Options Mobility Options
Variable-length field of such length that the complete Mobility Variable-length field of such length that the complete Mobility
Header is an integer multiple of 8 octets long. This field Header is an integer that is a multiple of 8 octets long. This
contains zero or more TLV-encoded mobility options. The encoding field contains zero or more TLV-encoded mobility options. The
and format of defined options are described in Section 6.2 of encoding and format of the defined options are described in
[RFC6275]. The receiving node MUST ignore and skip any options Section 6.2 of [RFC6275]. The receiving node MUST ignore and skip
that it does not understand. any options that it does not understand.
4.2. Proxy Binding Acknowledgment 4.2. Proxy Binding Acknowledgement
A new flag (D) is included in the Proxy Binding Acknowledgment to A new flag (D) is included in the PBA to indicate that the sender
indicate that the sender supports operating as a MAAR or CMD. The supports operating as a MAAR or CMD. The rest of the PBA format
rest of the Proxy Binding Acknowledgment format remains the same as remains the same as defined in [RFC5213].
defined in [RFC5213].
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Status |K|R|P|T|B|S|D| | | Status |K|R|P|T|B|S|D| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Sequence # | Lifetime | | Sequence # | Lifetime |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
. . . .
. Mobility options . . Mobility Options .
. . . .
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
DMM Flag (D) DMM Flag (D)
The D flag is set to indicate that the sender of the message The D flag is set to indicate that the sender of the message
supports operating as a MAAR or a CMD. When a MAG that does not supports operating as a MAAR or CMD. When a MAG that does not
support the extensions described in this document receives a support the extensions described in this document receives a
message with the D-Flag set, it MUST ignore the message and an message with the D flag set, it MUST ignore the message, and an
error MUST be returned. error MUST be returned.
Mobility Options Mobility Options
Variable-length field of such length that the complete Mobility Variable-length field of such length that the complete Mobility
Header is an integer multiple of 8 octets long. This field Header is an integer multiple of 8 octets long. This field
contains zero or more TLV-encoded mobility options. The encoding contains zero or more TLV-encoded mobility options. The encoding
and format of defined options are described in Section 6.2 of and format of the defined options are described in Section 6.2 of
[RFC6275]. The MAAR MUST ignore and skip any options that it does [RFC6275]. The MAAR MUST ignore and skip any options that it does
not understand. not understand.
4.3. Anchored Prefix Option 4.3. Anchored Prefix Option
A new Anchored Prefix option is defined for use with the Proxy A new Anchored Prefix option is defined for use with the PBU and PBA
Binding Update and Proxy Binding Acknowledgment messages exchanged messages exchanged between MAARs and CMDs. Therefore, this option
between MAARs and CMDs. Therefore, this option can only appear if can only appear if the D bit is set in a PBU/PBA. This option is
the D bit is set in a PBU/PBA. This option is used for exchanging used for exchanging the MN's prefix anchored at the anchoring MAAR.
the mobile node's prefix anchored at the anchoring MAAR. There can There can be multiple Anchored Prefix options present in the message.
be multiple Anchored Prefix options present in the message.
The Anchored Prefix Option has an alignment requirement of 8n+4. Its The Anchored Prefix option has an alignment requirement of 8n+4. Its
format is as follows: format is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Reserved | Prefix Length | | Type | Length | Reserved | Prefix Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+ Anchored Prefix + + Anchored Prefix +
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type Type
65
IANA-1.
Length Length
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in
octets, excluding the type and length fields. This field MUST be octets, excluding the type and length fields. This field MUST be
set to 18. set to 18.
Reserved Reserved
This field is unused at the time of publication. The value MUST
This field is unused for now. The value MUST be initialized to 0 be initialized to 0 by the sender and MUST be ignored by the
by the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver. receiver.
Prefix Length Prefix Length
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the prefix length in bits of the 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the prefix length in bits of the
IPv6 prefix contained in the option. IPv6 prefix contained in the option.
Anchored Prefix Anchored Prefix
A 16-octet field containing the MN's IPv6 Anchored Prefix. Only
A sixteen-octet field containing the mobile node's IPv6 Anchored the first Prefix Length bits are valid for the Anchored Prefix
Prefix. Only the first Prefix Length bits are valid for the option. The rest of the bits MUST be ignored.
Anchored Prefix. The rest of the bits MUST be ignored.
4.4. Local Prefix Option 4.4. Local Prefix Option
A new Local Prefix option is defined for use with the Proxy Binding A new Local Prefix option is defined for use with the PBU and PBA
Update and Proxy Binding Acknowledgment messages exchanged between messages exchanged between MAARs or between a MAAR and a CMD.
MAARs or between a MAAR and a CMD. Therefore, this option can only Therefore, this option can only appear if the D bit is set in a PBU/
appear if the D bit is set in a PBU/PBA. This option is used for PBA. This option is used for exchanging a prefix of a local network
exchanging a prefix of a local network that is only reachable via the that is only reachable via the anchoring MAAR. There can be multiple
anchoring MAAR. There can be multiple Local Prefix options present Local Prefix options present in the message.
in the message.
The Local Prefix Option has an alignment requirement of 8n+4. Its The Local Prefix option has an alignment requirement of 8n+4. Its
format is as follows: format is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Reserved | Prefix Length | | Type | Length | Reserved | Prefix Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+ Local Prefix + + Local Prefix +
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type Type
66
IANA-2.
Length Length
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in
octets, excluding the type and length fields. This field MUST be octets, excluding the type and length fields. This field MUST be
set to 18. set to 18.
Reserved Reserved
This field is unused at the time of publication. The value MUST
This field is unused for now. The value MUST be initialized to 0 be initialized to 0 by the sender and MUST be ignored by the
by the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver. receiver.
Prefix Length Prefix Length
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the prefix length in bits of the 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the prefix length in bits of the
IPv6 prefix contained in the option. IPv6 prefix contained in the option.
Local Prefix Local Prefix
A sixteen-octet field containing the IPv6 Local Prefix. Only the A 16-octet field containing the IPv6 Local Prefix. Only the first
first Prefix Length bits are valid for the IPv6 Local Prefix. The Prefix Length bits are valid for the IPv6 Local Prefix. The rest
rest of the bits MUST be ignored. of the bits MUST be ignored.
4.5. Previous MAAR Option 4.5. Previous MAAR Option
This new option is defined for use with the Proxy Binding This new option is defined for use with the PBA messages exchanged by
Acknowledgement messages exchanged by the CMD to a MAAR. This option the CMD to a MAAR. This option is used to notify the S-MAAR about
is used to notify the S-MAAR about the previous MAAR's global address the P-MAAR's global address and the prefix anchored to it. There can
and the prefix anchored to it. There can be multiple Previous MAAR be multiple Previous MAAR options present in the message.
options present in the message. Its format is as follows:
The Previous MAAR Option has an alignment requirement of 8n+4. Its The Previous MAAR option has an alignment requirement of 8n+4. Its
format is as follows: format is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Reserved | Prefix Length | | Type | Length | Reserved | Prefix Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+ P-MAAR's address + + Previous MAAR +
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+ Home Network Prefix + + Home Network Prefix +
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type Type
67
IANA-3.
Length Length
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in
octets, excluding the type and length fields. This field MUST be octets, excluding the type and length fields. This field MUST be
set to 34. set to 34.
Reserved Reserved
This field is unused for now. The value MUST be initialized to 0 This field is unused at the time of publication. The value MUST
by the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver. be initialized to 0 by the sender and MUST be ignored by the
receiver.
Prefix Length Prefix Length
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the prefix length in bits of the 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the prefix length in bits of the
IPv6 prefix contained in the option. IPv6 prefix contained in the option.
Previous MAAR's address Previous MAAR
A 16-octet field containing the P-MAAR's IPv6 global address.
A sixteen-octet field containing the P-MAAR's IPv6 global address.
Home Network Prefix Home Network Prefix
A 16-octet field containing the MN's IPv6 Home Network Prefix.
A sixteen-octet field containing the mobile node's IPv6 Home Only the first Prefix Length bits are valid for the MN's IPv6 Home
Network Prefix. Only the first Prefix Length bits are valid for Network Prefix. The rest of the bits MUST be ignored.
the mobile node's IPv6 Home Network Prefix. The rest of the bits
MUST be ignored.
4.6. Serving MAAR Option 4.6. Serving MAAR Option
This new option is defined for use with the Proxy Binding Update This new option is defined for use with the PBU message exchanged
message exchanged between the CMD and a Previous MAAR. This option between the CMD and a P-MAAR. This option is used to notify the
is used to notify the P-MAAR about the current Serving MAAR's global P-MAAR about the current S-MAAR's global address. Its format is as
address. Its format is as follows: follows:
The Serving MAAR Option has an alignment requirement of 8n+6. Its The Serving MAAR option has an alignment requirement of 8n+6. Its
format is as follows: format is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | | Type | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+ S-MAAR's address + + S-MAAR's Address +
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type Type
68
IANA-4.
Length Length
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in
octets, excluding the type and length fields. This field MUST be octets, excluding the type and length fields. This field MUST be
set to 16. set to 16.
Serving MAAR's address Serving MAAR
A 16-octet field containing the S-MAAR's IPv6 global address.
A sixteen-octet field containing the S-MAAR's IPv6 global address.
4.7. DLIF Link-local Address Option 4.7. DLIF Link-Local Address Option
A new DLIF Link-local Address option is defined for use with the A new DLIF Link-Local Address option is defined for use with the PBA
Proxy Binding Acknowledgment message exchanged between MAARs and message exchanged between MAARs and between a MAAR and a CMD. This
between a MAAR and a CMD. This option is used for exchanging the option is used for exchanging the link-local address of the DLIF to
link-local address of the DLIF to be configured on the serving MAAR be configured on the S-MAAR so it resembles the DLIF configured on
so it resembles the DLIF configured on the P-MAAR. the P-MAAR.
The DLIF Link-local Address option has an alignment requirement of The DLIF Link-Local Address option has an alignment requirement of
8n+6. Its format is as follows: 8n+6. Its format is as follows:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | | Type | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+ DLIF Link-local Address + + DLIF Link-Local Address +
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type Type
69
IANA-5.
Length Length
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in
octets, excluding the type and length fields. This field MUST be octets, excluding the type and length fields. This field MUST be
set to 16. set to 16.
DLIF Link-local Address DLIF Link-Local Address
A sixteen-octet field containing the link-local address of the A 16-octet field containing the link-local address of the logical
logical interface. interface.
4.8. DLIF Link-layer Address Option 4.8. DLIF Link-Layer Address Option
A new DLIF Link-layer Address option is defined for use with the A new DLIF Link-Layer Address option is defined for use with the PBA
Proxy Binding Acknowledgment message exchanged between MAARs and message exchanged between MAARs and between a MAAR and a CMD. This
betwwe a MAAR and a CMD. This option is used for exchanging the option is used for exchanging the link-layer address of the DLIF to
link-layer address of the DLIF to be configured on the serving MAAR be configured on the S-MAAR so it resembles the DLIF configured on
so it resembles the DLIF configured on the P-MAAR. the P-MAAR.
The format of the DLIF Link-layer Address option is shown below. The format of the DLIF Link-Layer Address option is shown below.
Based on the size of the address, the option MUST be aligned Based on the size of the address, the option MUST be aligned
appropriately, as per mobility option alignment requirements appropriately, as per the mobility option alignment requirements
specified in [RFC6275]. specified in [RFC6275].
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Reserved | | Type | Length | Reserved |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ DLIF Link-layer Address + + DLIF Link-Layer Address +
. ... . . ... .
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type Type
70
IANA-6.
Length Length
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the length of the option in
octets, excluding the type and length fields. octets, excluding the type and length fields.
Reserved Reserved
This field is unused at the time of publication. The value MUST
be initialized to 0 by the sender and MUST be ignored by the
receiver.
This field is unused for now. The value MUST be initialized to 0 DLIF Link-Layer Address
by the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver.
DLIF Link-layer Address
A variable length field containing the link-layer address of the A variable length field containing the link-layer address of the
logical interface to be configured on the S-MAAR. logical interface to be configured on the S-MAAR.
The content and format of this field (including octet and bit The content and format of this field (including octet and bit
ordering) is as specified in Section 4.6 of [RFC4861] for carrying ordering) is as specified in Section 4.6 of [RFC4861] for carrying
link-layer addresses. On certain access links, where the link- link-layer addresses. On certain access links where the link-
layer address is not used or cannot be determined, this option layer address is not used or cannot be determined, this option
cannot be used. cannot be used.
5. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
This document defines six new mobility options, the Anchored Prefix This document defines six new mobility options: Anchored Prefix,
Option, the Local Prefix Option, the Previous MAAR Option, the Local Prefix, Previous MAAR, Serving MAAR, DLIF Link-Local Address,
Serving MAAR Option, the DLIF Link-local Address Option and the DLIF and DLIF Link-Layer Address. IANA has assigned Type values for these
Link-layer Address Option. The Type value for these options needs to options from the same numbering space as allocated for the other
be assigned from the same numbering space as allocated for the other
mobility options in the "Mobility Options" registry defined in mobility options in the "Mobility Options" registry defined in
http://www.iana.org/assignments/mobility-parameters. The required http://www.iana.org/assignments/mobility-parameters.
IANA actions are marked as IANA-1 to IANA-6.
This document reserves a new flag (D) in the "Binding Update Flags" This document reserves a new flag (D) with a value of 0x0010 in the
and a new flag (D) in the "Binding Acknowledgment Flags" of the "Binding Update Flags" registry and a new flag (D) with a value of
"Mobile IPv6 parameters" registry http://www.iana.org/assignments/ 0x02 in the "Binding Acknowledgment Flags" of the "Mobile IPv6
mobility-parameters. parameters" registry (http://www.iana.org/assignments/mobility-
parameters).
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
The protocol extensions defined in this document share the same The protocol extensions defined in this document share the same
security concerns of Proxy Mobile IPv6 [RFC5213]. It is recommended security concerns of PMIPv6 [RFC5213]. It is recommended that the
that the signaling messages, Proxy Binding Update and Proxy Binding signaling messages, PBU and PBA, exchanged between the MAARs be
Acknowledgment, exchanged between the MAARs are protected using IPsec protected using IPsec, specifically by using the established security
using the established security association between them. This association between them. This essentially eliminates the threats
essentially eliminates the threats related to the impersonation of a related to the impersonation of a MAAR.
MAAR.
When the CMD acts as a PBU/PBA relay, the CMD may act as a relay of a When the CMD acts as a PBU/PBA relay, the CMD may act as a relay of a
single PBU to multiple previous MAARs. In situations of many fast single PBU to multiple P-MAARs. In situations with many fast
handovers (e.g., with vehicular networks), there may exist multiple handovers (e.g., with vehicular networks), multiple previous (e.g.,
previous (e.g., k) MAARs. In this situation, the CMD creates k k) MAARs may exist. In this situation, the CMD creates k outgoing
outgoing packets from a single incoming packet. This bears a certain packets from a single incoming packet. This bears a certain
amplification risk. The CMD MUST use a pacing approach in the amplification risk. The CMD MUST use a pacing approach in the
outgoing queue to cap the output traffic (i.e., the rate of PBUs outgoing queue to cap the output traffic (i.e., the rate of PBUs
sent) to limit this amplification risk. sent) to limit this amplification risk.
When the CMD acts as MAAR locator, mobility signaling (PBAs) is When the CMD acts as a MAAR locator, mobility signaling (PBAs) is
exchanged between P-MAARs and current S-MAAR. Hence, security exchanged between P-MAARs and the current S-MAAR. Hence, security
associations are REQUIRED to exist between the involved MAARs (in associations are REQUIRED to exist between the involved MAARs (in
addition to the ones needed with the CMD). addition to the ones needed with the CMD).
Since deregistration is performed by timeout, measures SHOULD be Since de-registration is performed by timeout, measures SHOULD be
implemented to minimize the risks associated to continued resource implemented to minimize the risks associated with continued resource
consumption (DoS attacks), e.g., imposing a limit of the number of consumption (DoS attacks), e.g., imposing a limit on the number of
P-MAARs associated to a given MN. P-MAARs associated with a given MN.
The CMD and the participating MAARs MUST be trusted parties, The CMD and the participating MAARs MUST be trusted parties
authorized perform all operations relevant to their role. authorized perform all operations relevant to their role.
There are some privacy considerations to consider. While the There are some privacy considerations to consider. While the
involved parties trust each other, the signalling involves disclosing involved parties trust each other, the signaling involves disclosing
information about the previous locations visited by each MN, as well information about the previous locations visited by each MN, as well
as the active prefixes they are using at a given point of time. as the active prefixes they are using at a given point of time.
Therefore, mechanisms MUST be in place to ensure that MAARs and CMD Therefore, mechanisms MUST be in place to ensure that MAARs and CMDs
do not disclose this information to other parties nor use it for do not disclose this information to other parties or use it for other
other ends that providing the distributed mobility support specified ends than providing the distributed mobility support specified in
in this document. this document.
7. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Dirk von Hugo, John Kaippallimalil,
Ines Robles, Joerg Ott, Carlos Pignataro, Vincent Roca, Mirja
Kuehlewind, Eric Vyncke, Adam Roach, Benjamin Kaduk and Roman Danyliw
for the comments on this document. The authors would also like to
thank Marco Liebsch, Dirk von Hugo, Alex Petrescu, Daniel Corujo,
Akbar Rahman, Danny Moses, Xinpeng Wei and Satoru Matsushima for
their comments and discussion on the documents
[I-D.bernardos-dmm-distributed-anchoring] and
[I-D.bernardos-dmm-pmip] on which the present document is based.
The authors would also like to thank Lyle Bertz and Danny Moses for
their in-deep review of this document and their very valuable
comments and suggestions.
8. References 7. References
8.1. Normative References 7.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC4191] Draves, R. and D. Thaler, "Default Router Preferences and [RFC4191] Draves, R. and D. Thaler, "Default Router Preferences and
More-Specific Routes", RFC 4191, DOI 10.17487/RFC4191, More-Specific Routes", RFC 4191, DOI 10.17487/RFC4191,
November 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4191>. November 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4191>.
skipping to change at page 28, line 23 skipping to change at line 1219
[RFC7333] Chan, H., Ed., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J. [RFC7333] Chan, H., Ed., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J.
Korhonen, "Requirements for Distributed Mobility Korhonen, "Requirements for Distributed Mobility
Management", RFC 7333, DOI 10.17487/RFC7333, August 2014, Management", RFC 7333, DOI 10.17487/RFC7333, August 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7333>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7333>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
8.2. Informative References 7.2. Informative References
[I-D.bernardos-dmm-distributed-anchoring] [DISTRIBUTED-ANCHORING]
Bernardos, C. and J. Zuniga, "PMIPv6-based distributed Bernardos, C. and J. Zuniga, "PMIPv6-based distributed
anchoring", draft-bernardos-dmm-distributed-anchoring-09 anchoring", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
(work in progress), May 2017. bernardos-dmm-distributed-anchoring-09, 29 May 2017,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-bernardos-dmm-
distributed-anchoring-09>.
[I-D.bernardos-dmm-pmip] [DMM-PMIP] Bernardos, C., Oliva, A., and F. Giust, "A PMIPv6-based
Bernardos, C., Oliva, A., and F. Giust, "A PMIPv6-based solution for Distributed Mobility Management", Work in
solution for Distributed Mobility Management", draft- Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-bernardos-dmm-pmip-09, 8
bernardos-dmm-pmip-09 (work in progress), September 2017. September 2017,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-bernardos-dmm-pmip-09>.
[RFC6724] Thaler, D., Ed., Draves, R., Matsumoto, A., and T. Chown,
"Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol Version 6
(IPv6)", RFC 6724, DOI 10.17487/RFC6724, September 2012,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6724>.
[RFC7429] Liu, D., Ed., Zuniga, JC., Ed., Seite, P., Chan, H., and [RFC7429] Liu, D., Ed., Zuniga, JC., Ed., Seite, P., Chan, H., and
CJ. Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current CJ. Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current
Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429, Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7429, January 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7429, January 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7429>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7429>.
[RFC8563] Katz, D., Ward, D., Pallagatti, S., Ed., and G. Mirsky, [RFC8563] Katz, D., Ward, D., Pallagatti, S., Ed., and G. Mirsky,
Ed., "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) Multipoint Ed., "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) Multipoint
Active Tails", RFC 8563, DOI 10.17487/RFC8563, April 2019, Active Tails", RFC 8563, DOI 10.17487/RFC8563, April 2019,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8563>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8563>.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Dirk von Hugo, John Kaippallimalil,
Ines Robles, Joerg Ott, Carlos Pignataro, Vincent Roca, Mirja
Kühlewind, Éric Vyncke, Adam Roach, Benjamin Kaduk, and Roman Danyliw
for the comments on this document. The authors would also like to
thank Marco Liebsch, Dirk von Hugo, Alex Petrescu, Daniel Corujo,
Akbar Rahman, Danny Moses, Xinpeng Wei, and Satoru Matsushima for
their comments and discussion on the documents
[DISTRIBUTED-ANCHORING] and [DMM-PMIP], on which the present document
is based.
The authors would also like to thank Lyle Bertz and Danny Moses for
their in-depth review of this document and their very valuable
comments and suggestions.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Carlos J. Bernardos Carlos J. Bernardos
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Av. Universidad, 30 Av. Universidad, 30
Leganes, Madrid 28911 28911 Leganes Madrid
Spain Spain
Phone: +34 91624 6236 Phone: +34 91624 6236
Email: cjbc@it.uc3m.es Email: cjbc@it.uc3m.es
URI: http://www.it.uc3m.es/cjbc/ URI: http://www.it.uc3m.es/cjbc/
Antonio de la Oliva Antonio de la Oliva
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
Av. Universidad, 30 Av. Universidad, 30
Leganes, Madrid 28911 28911 Leganes Madrid
Spain Spain
Phone: +34 91624 8803 Phone: +34 91624 8803
Email: aoliva@it.uc3m.es Email: aoliva@it.uc3m.es
URI: http://www.it.uc3m.es/aoliva/ URI: http://www.it.uc3m.es/aoliva/
Fabio Giust Fabio Giust
Athonet S.r.l. Athonet S.r.l.
via Ca' del Luogo 6/8
36050 Bolzano Vicentino (VI)
Italy
Email: fabio.giust.2011@ieee.org Email: fabio.giust.research@gmail.com
Juan Carlos Zuniga Juan Carlos Zúñiga
SIGFOX SIGFOX
425 rue Jean Rostand 425 rue Jean Rostand
Labege 31670 31670 Labege
France France
Email: j.c.zuniga@ieee.org Email: j.c.zuniga@ieee.org
URI: http://www.sigfox.com/ URI: http://www.sigfox.com/
Alain Mourad Alain Mourad
InterDigital Europe InterDigital Europe
Email: Alain.Mourad@InterDigital.com Email: Alain.Mourad@InterDigital.com
URI: http://www.InterDigital.com/ URI: http://www.InterDigital.com/
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