draft-ietf-drip-arch-19.txt   draft-ietf-drip-arch-20.txt 
drip S. Card drip S. Card
Internet-Draft A. Wiethuechter Internet-Draft A. Wiethuechter
Intended status: Informational AX Enterprize Intended status: Informational AX Enterprize
Expires: 20 July 2022 R. Moskowitz Expires: 1 August 2022 R. Moskowitz
HTT Consulting HTT Consulting
S. Zhao (Editor) S. Zhao (Editor)
Tencent Tencent
A. Gurtov A. Gurtov
Linköping University Linköping University
16 January 2022 28 January 2022
Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP) Architecture Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP) Architecture
draft-ietf-drip-arch-19 draft-ietf-drip-arch-20
Abstract Abstract
This document describes an architecture for protocols and services to This document describes an architecture for protocols and services to
support Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking support Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking
(UAS RID), plus RID-related communications. This architecture (UAS RID), plus RID-related communications. This architecture
adheres to the requirements listed in the DRIP Requirements document. adheres to the requirements listed in the DRIP Requirements document.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on 20 July 2022. This Internet-Draft will expire on 1 August 2022.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/ Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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| |
| |
v v
+------------------o-------------------+ +------------------o-------------------+
| Observer's device (e.g., smartphone) | | Observer's device (e.g., smartphone) |
+--------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------+
Figure 1 Figure 1
Broadcast RID provides information only about unmanned aircraft (UA) Broadcast RID provides information only about unmanned aircraft (UA)
within direct RF LOS, typically similar to visual Light-Of-Sight within direct RF LOS, typically similar to visual Line-Of-Sight
(LOS), with a range up to approximately 1 km. This information may (LOS), with a range up to approximately 1 km. This information may
be 'harvested' from received broadcasts and made available via the be 'harvested' from received broadcasts and made available via the
Internet, enabling surveillance of areas too large for local direct Internet, enabling surveillance of areas too large for local direct
visual observation or direct RF link based ID (see Section 7). visual observation or direct RF link based ID (see Section 7).
1.2.2. Network RID 1.2.2. Network RID
[F3411], using the same data dictionary that is the basis of [F3411], using the same data dictionary that is the basis of
Broadcast RID messages, defines a Network Remote Identification (Net- Broadcast RID messages, defines a Network Remote Identification (Net-
RID) data flow as follows. RID) data flow as follows.
* The information to be reported via RID is generated by the UAS * The information to be reported via RID is generated by the UAS,
(typically some by the UA and some by the GCS (Ground Control typically some by the UA and some by the GCS (Ground Control
Station), e.g. their respective GNSS derived locations). Station), e.g. their respective GNSS derived locations.
* The information is sent by the UAS (UA or GCS) via unspecified * The information is sent by the UAS (UA or GCS) via unspecified
means to the cognizant Network Remote Identification Service means to the cognizant Network Remote Identification Service
Provider (Net-RID SP), typically the USS under which the UAS is Provider (Net-RID SP), typically the USS under which the UAS is
operating if participating in UTM. operating if participating in UTM.
* The Net-RID SP publishes via the Discovery and Synchronization * The Net-RID SP publishes via the Discovery and Synchronization
Service (DSS) over the Internet that it has operations in various Service (DSS) over the Internet that it has operations in various
4-D airspace volumes, describing the volumes but not the 4-D airspace volumes, describing the volumes but not the
operations. operations.
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Informative note: Neither link layer protocols nor the use of Informative note: Neither link layer protocols nor the use of
links (e.g., the link often existing between the GCS and the links (e.g., the link often existing between the GCS and the
UA) for any purpose other than carriage of RID information is UA) for any purpose other than carriage of RID information is
in the scope of [F3411] Network RID. in the scope of [F3411] Network RID.
1.3. Overview of USS Interoperability 1.3. Overview of USS Interoperability
With Net-RID, there is direct communication between each UAS and its With Net-RID, there is direct communication between each UAS and its
USS. Multiple USS exchange information with the assistance of a DSS USS. Multiple USS exchange information with the assistance of a DSS
so all USS collectively have knowledge about all activities in a 4D so all USS collectively have knowledge about all activities in a 4D
airspace. airspace. The interactions among an Observer, multiple UAS, and
their USS are shown in Figure 3.
The interactions among an Observer, multiple UAS, and their USS are +------+ +----------+ +------+
shown in Figure 3. | UAS1 | | Observer | | UAS2 |
+---o--+ +-----o----+ +--o---+
| | |
******|*************|************|******
* | | | *
* | +---o--+ | *
* | .------o USS3 o------. | *
* | | +--o---+ | | *
* | | | | | *
* +-o--o-+ +--o--+ +-o--o-+ *
* | o----o DSS o-----o | *
* | USS1 | +-----+ | USS2 | *
* | o----------------o | *
* +------+ +------+ *
* *
* Internet *
****************************************
+------+ +----------+ +------+
| UAS1 | | Observer | | UAS2 |
+----o-+ +-----o----+ +-o----+
| | |
| | |
******|*************|************|******
* | | | *
* | +---o--+ | *
* | .------o USS3 o------. | *
* | | +--o---+ | | *
* | | | | | *
* +-o--o-+ +--o--+ +-o--o-+ *
* | o----o DSS o-----o | *
* | USS1 | +-----+ | USS2 | *
* | o----------------o | *
* +------+ +------+ *
* *
* Internet *
****************************************
Figure 3 Figure 3
1.4. Overview of DRIP Architecture 1.4. Overview of DRIP Architecture
Figure 4 illustrates the general UAS RID usage scenario. Broadcast Figure 4 illustrates the general UAS RID usage scenario. Broadcast
RID links are not shown as they reach from any UA to any listening RID links are not shown as they reach from any UA to any listening
receiver in range and thus would obscure the intent of the figure. receiver in range and thus would obscure the intent of the figure.
Figure 4 shows, as context, some entities and interfaces beyond the Figure 4 shows, as context, some entities and interfaces beyond the
scope of DRIP (as currently (2022) chartered). scope of DRIP (as currently (2022) chartered).
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* +--------+ * DAA/V2V * +--------+ * * +--------+ * DAA/V2V * +--------+ *
* | UA o--*----------------------------------------*--o UA | * * | UA o--*----------------------------------------*--o UA | *
* +--o--o--+ * * +--o--o--+ * * +--o--o--+ * * +--o--o--+ *
* | | * +------+ Lookups +------+ * | | * * | | * +------+ Lookups +------+ * | | *
* | | * | GPOD o------. .------o PSOD | * | | * * | | * | GPOD o------. .------o PSOD | * | | *
* | | * +------+ | | +------+ * | | * * | | * +------+ | | +------+ * | | *
* | | * | | * | | * * | | * | | * | | *
* C2 | | * V2I ************ V2I * | | C2 * * C2 | | * V2I ************ V2I * | | C2 *
* | '-----*--------------* *--------------*-----' | * * | '-----*--------------* *--------------*-----' | *
* | * * * * | * * | * * * * | *
* | o====NetRID====* *====NetRID====o | * * | o====Net-RID===* *====Net-RID===o | *
* +--o--+ * * Internet * * +--o--+ * * +--o--+ * * Internet * * +--o--+ *
* | GCS o-----*--------------* *--------------*-----o GCS | * * | GCS o-----*--------------* *--------------*-----o GCS | *
* +-----+ * Registration * * Registration * +-----+ * * +-----+ * Registration * * Registration * +-----+ *
* * (and UTM) * * (and UTM) * * * * (and UTM) * * (and UTM) * *
*************** ************ *************** *************** ************ ***************
| | | | | |
+----------+ | | | +----------+ +----------+ | | | +----------+
| Public o---' | '---o Private | | Public o---' | '---o Private |
| Registry | | | Registry | | Registry | | | Registry |
+----------+ | +----------+ +----------+ | +----------+
+--o--+ +--o--+
| DNS | | DNS |
+-----+ +-----+
GPOD: General Public Observer Device (for brevity in this figure) GPOD: General Public Observer Device (for brevity in this figure)
PSOD: Public Safety Observer Device (for brevity in this figure) PSOD: Public Safety Observer Device (for brevity in this figure)
Figure 4 Figure 4
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the claimant or a related party with stake in the assertion(s). the claimant or a related party with stake in the assertion(s).
Under DRIP this is normally used when an entity asserts a Under DRIP this is normally used when an entity asserts a
relationship with another entity, along with other information, relationship with another entity, along with other information,
and the asserting entity signs the assertion, thereby making it an and the asserting entity signs the assertion, thereby making it an
attestation. attestation.
Certificates: Certificates:
A certificate in DRIP is an attestation, strictly over identity A certificate in DRIP is an attestation, strictly over identity
information, signed by a third party. This third party should be information, signed by a third party. This third party should be
one with no stake in the attestation(s) its signing over. one with no stake in the attestation(s) over which it is signing.
3.3. Additional Definitions 3.3. Additional Definitions
This document uses terms defined in [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs]. This document uses terms defined in [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs].
4. HHIT as the DRIP Entity Identifier 4. HHIT as the DRIP Entity Identifier
This section describes the DRIP architectural approach to meeting the This section describes the DRIP architectural approach to meeting the
basic requirements of a DRIP entity identifier within external basic requirements of a DRIP entity identifier within external
technical standard ASTM [F3411] and regulatory constraints. It technical standard ASTM [F3411] and regulatory constraints. It
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means that given a sufficient collection of RID messages, an Observer means that given a sufficient collection of RID messages, an Observer
can establish that the identifier claimed therein uniquely belongs to can establish that the identifier claimed therein uniquely belongs to
the claimant. To satisfy DRIP requirements and maintain important the claimant. To satisfy DRIP requirements and maintain important
security properties, the DRIP identifier should be self-generated by security properties, the DRIP identifier should be self-generated by
the entity it names (e.g., a UAS) and registered (e.g., with a USS, the entity it names (e.g., a UAS) and registered (e.g., with a USS,
see Requirements GEN-3 and ID-2). see Requirements GEN-3 and ID-2).
Broadcast RID, especially its support for Bluetooth 4, imposes severe Broadcast RID, especially its support for Bluetooth 4, imposes severe
constraints. ASTM RID [F3411] allows a UAS ID of types 1, 2 and 3 of constraints. ASTM RID [F3411] allows a UAS ID of types 1, 2 and 3 of
20 bytes; a revision to [F3411], currently in balloting (as of Oct 20 bytes; a revision to [F3411], currently in balloting (as of Oct
2021), adds type 4, Session IDs, to be standardized by IETF and other 2021), adds type 4, Specific Session ID, to be standardized by IETF
standard development organizations (SDOs) as extensions to ASTM RID, and other standard development organizations (SDOs) as extensions to
consumes one of those bytes to index the sub-type, leaving only 19 ASTM RID, consumes one of those bytes to index the sub-type, leaving
for the identifier (see DRIP Requirement ID-1). only 19 for the identifier (see DRIP Requirement ID-1).
Likewise, the maximum ASTM RID [F3411] Authentication Message payload Likewise, the maximum ASTM RID [F3411] Authentication Message payload
is 201 bytes for most authentication types, but for type 5, also is 201 bytes for most authentication types, but for type 5, also
added in this revision, for IETF and other SDOs to develop Specific added in this revision, for IETF and other SDOs to develop Specific
Authentication Methods as extensions to ASTM RID, one byte is Authentication Methods as extensions to ASTM RID, one byte is
consumed to index the sub-type, leaving only 200 for DRIP consumed to index the sub-type, leaving only 200 for DRIP
authentication payloads, including one or more DRIP entity authentication payloads, including one or more DRIP entity
identifiers and associated authentication data. identifiers and associated authentication data.
4.2. HHIT as A Trustworthy DRIP Entity Identifier 4.2. HHIT as A Trustworthy DRIP Entity Identifier
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5. DRIP Identifier Registration and Registries 5. DRIP Identifier Registration and Registries
DRIP registries hold both public and private UAS information DRIP registries hold both public and private UAS information
resulting from the DRIP identifier registration process. Given these resulting from the DRIP identifier registration process. Given these
different uses, and to improve scalability, security, and simplicity different uses, and to improve scalability, security, and simplicity
of administration, the public and private information can be stored of administration, the public and private information can be stored
in different registries. This section introduces the public and in different registries. This section introduces the public and
private information registries for DRIP identifiers. This DRIP private information registries for DRIP identifiers. This DRIP
Identifier registration process satisfies the following DRIP Identifier registration process satisfies the following DRIP
requirements defined in [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs]: GEN-3, GEN-4, ID-2, ID- requirements defined in [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs]: GEN-3, GEN-4, ID-2, ID-
4, ID-6, PRIV-3, PRIV-4, REG-1, PRG-2, REG-3 and REG-4. 4, ID-6, PRIV-3, PRIV-4, REG-1, REG-2, REG-3 and REG-4.
5.1. Public Information Registry 5.1. Public Information Registry
5.1.1. Background 5.1.1. Background
The public registry provides trustable information such as The public registry provides trustable information such as
attestations of RID ownership and registration with the HDA attestations of RID ownership and registration with the HDA
(Hierarchical HIT Domain Authority). Optionally, pointers to the (Hierarchical HIT Domain Authority). Optionally, pointers to the
registries for the HDA and RAA (Registered Assigning registries for the HDA and RAA (Registered Assigning
Authority)implicit in the RID can be included (e.g., for HDA and RAA Authority)implicit in the RID can be included (e.g., for HDA and RAA
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provided by the same organizations that run a USS, and likely provided by the same organizations that run a USS, and likely
integrated with a USS. The lookup function may be implemented by the integrated with a USS. The lookup function may be implemented by the
Net-RID DPs. Net-RID DPs.
5.2.2. EPP and RDAP as the Private DRIP Identifier Registry 5.2.2. EPP and RDAP as the Private DRIP Identifier Registry
A DRIP private information registry supports essential registry A DRIP private information registry supports essential registry
operations (e.g. add, delete, update, query) using interoperable open operations (e.g. add, delete, update, query) using interoperable open
standard protocols. It can accomplish this by using the Extensible standard protocols. It can accomplish this by using the Extensible
Provisioning Protocol (EPP [RFC5730]) and the Registry Data Access Provisioning Protocol (EPP [RFC5730]) and the Registry Data Access
Protocol (RDAP RFC7480] [RFC9082] [RFC9083]). The DRIP private Protocol (RDAP [RFC7480] [RFC9082] [RFC9083]). The DRIP private
information registry in which a given UAS is registered needs to be information registry in which a given UAS is registered needs to be
findable, starting from the UAS ID, using the methods specified in findable, starting from the UAS ID, using the methods specified in
[RFC7484]. [RFC7484].
5.2.3. Alternative Private DRIP Registry methods 5.2.3. Alternative Private DRIP Registry methods
A DRIP private information registry might be an access controlled DNS A DRIP private information registry might be an access controlled DNS
(e.g. via DNS over TLS). Additionally, WebFinger [RFC7033] can be (e.g. via DNS over TLS). Additionally, WebFinger [RFC7033] can be
deployed. These alternative methods may be used by Net-RID DP with deployed. These alternative methods may be used by Net-RID DP with
specific customers. specific customers.
6. DRIP Identifier Trust 6. DRIP Identifier Trust
While the DRIP entity identifier is self-asserting, it alone does not While the DRIP entity identifier is self-asserting, it alone does not
provide the "trustworthiness" specified in [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs]. For provide the "trustworthiness" specified in [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs]. For
that it MUST be registered (under DRIP Registries) and be actively that it MUST be registered (under DRIP Registries) and be actively
used by the party (in most cases the UA). For example, when a sender used by the party (in most cases the UA). A sender's identity can
simply possessing a DET (DRIP Entity Tag which is a HHIT-based UAS not be approved by only possessing a DET (DRIP Entity Tag which is an
ID) and broadcasting a claim that it belongs to that sender proves HHIT-based UA ID) and broadcasting a claim that it belongs to that
nothing about that sender's identity. Even the sender using that sender. Even the sender using that HI's private key to sign static
HI's private key to sign static data proves nothing as well, as it is data proves nothing as well, as it is subject to trivial replay
subject to trivial replay attacks. Only sending the DET and a attacks. Only sending the DET and a signature on frequently changing
signature on frequently changing data that can be sanity checked by data that can be sanity checked by the Observer (such as a Location/
the Observer (such as a Location/Vector message) proves that the Vector message) proves that the observed UA possesses the claimed UAS
observed UA possesses the claimed UAS ID. ID.
For Broadcast RID, this is a challenge to balance the original For Broadcast RID, this is a challenge to balance the original
requirements of Broadcast RID and the efforts needed to satisfy the requirements of Broadcast RID and the efforts needed to satisfy the
DRIP requirements all under severe constraints. From received DRIP requirements all under severe constraints. From received
Broadcast RID messages and information that can be looked up using Broadcast RID messages and information that can be looked up using
the received UAS ID in online registries or local caches, it is the received UAS ID in online registries or local caches, it is
possible to establish levels of trust in the asserted information and possible to establish levels of trust in the asserted information and
the Operator. the Operator.
An optimization of different DRIP Authentication Messages allows an An optimization of different DRIP Authentication Messages allows an
skipping to change at page 17, line 21 skipping to change at page 17, line 21
the UTM. It performs this gateway function via a CS-RID SDSP. A CS- the UTM. It performs this gateway function via a CS-RID SDSP. A CS-
RID Finder could implement, integrate, or accept outputs from, a RID Finder could implement, integrate, or accept outputs from, a
Broadcast RID receiver. However, it should not depend upon a direct Broadcast RID receiver. However, it should not depend upon a direct
interface with a GCS, Net-RID SP, Net-RID DP or Network RID client. interface with a GCS, Net-RID SP, Net-RID DP or Network RID client.
It would present a TBD interface to a CS-RID SDSP, similar to but It would present a TBD interface to a CS-RID SDSP, similar to but
readily distinguishable from that between a GCS and a Net-RID SP. readily distinguishable from that between a GCS and a Net-RID SP.
7.2. The CS-RID SDSP 7.2. The CS-RID SDSP
A CS-RID SDSP aggregates and processes (e.g., estimates UA location A CS-RID SDSP aggregates and processes (e.g., estimates UA location
using including using multilateration when possible) information using multilateration when possible) information collected by CS-RID
collected by CS-RID Finders. A CS-RID SDSP should appear (i.e. Finders. A CS-RID SDSP should appear (i.e. present the same
present the same interface) to a Net-RID SP as a Net-RID DP. interface) to a Net-RID SP as a Net-RID DP.
8. DRIP Contact 8. DRIP Contact
One of the ways in which DRIP can enhance [F3411] with immediately One of the ways in which DRIP can enhance [F3411] with immediately
actionable information is by enabling an Observer to instantly actionable information is by enabling an Observer to instantly
initiate secure communications with the UAS remote pilot, Pilot In initiate secure communications with the UAS remote pilot, Pilot In
Command, operator, USS under which the operation is being flown, or Command, operator, USS under which the operation is being flown, or
other entity potentially able to furnish further information other entity potentially able to furnish further information
regarding the operation and its intent and/or to immediately regarding the operation and its intent and/or to immediately
influence further conduct or termination of the operation (e.g., land influence further conduct or termination of the operation (e.g., land
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[RFC7033] Jones, P., Salgueiro, G., Jones, M., and J. Smarr, [RFC7033] Jones, P., Salgueiro, G., Jones, M., and J. Smarr,
"WebFinger", RFC 7033, DOI 10.17487/RFC7033, September "WebFinger", RFC 7033, DOI 10.17487/RFC7033, September
2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7033>. 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7033>.
[RFC7401] Moskowitz, R., Ed., Heer, T., Jokela, P., and T. [RFC7401] Moskowitz, R., Ed., Heer, T., Jokela, P., and T.
Henderson, "Host Identity Protocol Version 2 (HIPv2)", Henderson, "Host Identity Protocol Version 2 (HIPv2)",
RFC 7401, DOI 10.17487/RFC7401, April 2015, RFC 7401, DOI 10.17487/RFC7401, April 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7401>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7401>.
[RFC7480] Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP Usage in the
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", STD 95,
RFC 7480, DOI 10.17487/RFC7480, March 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7480>.
[RFC7484] Blanchet, M., "Finding the Authoritative Registration Data [RFC7484] Blanchet, M., "Finding the Authoritative Registration Data
(RDAP) Service", RFC 7484, DOI 10.17487/RFC7484, March (RDAP) Service", RFC 7484, DOI 10.17487/RFC7484, March
2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7484>. 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7484>.
[RFC7519] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token [RFC7519] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token
(JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015, (JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7519>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7519>.
[RFC8004] Laganier, J. and L. Eggert, "Host Identity Protocol (HIP) [RFC8004] Laganier, J. and L. Eggert, "Host Identity Protocol (HIP)
Rendezvous Extension", RFC 8004, DOI 10.17487/RFC8004, Rendezvous Extension", RFC 8004, DOI 10.17487/RFC8004,
 End of changes. 18 change blocks. 
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