draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-00.txt   draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-01.txt 
ECRIT R. Gellens ECRIT R. Gellens
Internet-Draft Qualcomm Technologies, Inc Internet-Draft Qualcomm Technologies, Inc
Intended status: Informational B. Rosen Intended status: Informational B. Rosen
Expires: January 5, 2015 NeuStar, Inc. Expires: April 16, 2015 NeuStar, Inc.
H. Tschofenig H. Tschofenig
(no affiliation) (no affiliation)
July 04, 2014 October 13, 2014
Internet Protocol-based In-Vehicle Emergency Calls Next-Generation Vehicle-Initiated Emergency Calls
draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-00.txt draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-01.txt
Abstract Abstract
This document describes how to use IP-based emergency services This document describes how to use IP-based emergency services
mechanisms to support the next generation of emergency calls placed mechanisms to support the next generation of emergency calls placed
by vehicles (automatically in the event of a crash or serious by vehicles (automatically in the event of a crash or serious
incident, or manually invoked by a vehicle occupant) and conveying incident, or manually invoked by a vehicle occupant) and conveying
vehicle, sensor, and location data related to the crash or incident. vehicle, sensor, and location data related to the crash or incident.
Such calls are often referred to as "Automatic Crash Notification" Such calls are often referred to as "Automatic Crash Notification"
(ACN), or "Advanced Automatic Crash Notification" (AACN), even in the (ACN), or "Advanced Automatic Crash Notification" (AACN), even in the
case of manual trigger. The "Advanced" qualifier refers to the case of manual trigger. The "Advanced" qualifier refers to the
ability to carry a richer set of data. ability to carry a richer set of data.
This document also registers a MIME Content Type and an Emergency This document also registers a MIME Content Type and an Emergency
Call Additional Data Block for the vehicle, sensor, and location data Call Additional Data Block for the vehicle, sensor, and location data
(often referred to as "crash data" even though there is not (often referred to as "crash data" even though there is not
necessarily a crash). necessarily a crash). An external specification for the data format,
contents, and structure are referenced in this document.
Profiling and simplifications are possible due to the nature of the Profiling and simplifications are possible due to the nature of the
functionality that is provided in vehicles with the usage of Global functionality that is provided in vehicles with the usage of Global
Satellite Navigation System (GNSS). Satellite Navigation System (GNSS).
This document does not address pan-European eCall (a mandated and
standardized system for emergency calls by in-vehicle systems within
Europe and other regions), which is the subject of a separate
document, [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall].
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2015.
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 16, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 37 skipping to change at page 2, line 43
5. Migration to Next-Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Migration to Next-Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7. Call Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7. Call Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8. Call Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. Call Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. Test Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. Test Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12.1. Service URN Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12.1. Service URN Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12.2. MIME Content-type Registration for 12.2. MIME Content-type Registration for
'application/EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml' . . . . . . . . . . 17 'application/EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml' . . . . . . . . . . 18
12.3. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call 12.3. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call
Additional Data registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Additional Data registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
13. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 13. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
14. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 14. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
15. Changes from Previous Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 15. Changes from Previous Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
15.1. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00 . . . . . 19 15.1. Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01 . . . . . . 19
15.2. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . 19 15.2. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00 . . . . . 19
15.3. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . 19 15.3. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . 20
16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 15.4. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . 20
16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
16.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 16.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1. Terminology 1. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
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an in-vehicle system (IVS) and that carry incident-related data as an in-vehicle system (IVS) and that carry incident-related data as
well as voice.) Automatically triggered calls indicate a car crash well as voice.) Automatically triggered calls indicate a car crash
or some other serious incident (e.g., a fire) and carry a greater or some other serious incident (e.g., a fire) and carry a greater
presumption of risk of injury. Manually triggered calls are often presumption of risk of injury. Manually triggered calls are often
reports of serious hazards (such as drunk drivers) and may require reports of serious hazards (such as drunk drivers) and may require
different responses depending on the situation. Manually triggered different responses depending on the situation. Manually triggered
calls are also more likely to be false (e.g., accidental) calls and calls are also more likely to be false (e.g., accidental) calls and
may thus be subject to different handling by the PSAP. may thus be subject to different handling by the PSAP.
This document describes how the IETF mechanisms for IP-based This document describes how the IETF mechanisms for IP-based
emergency calls, including [RFC6443] and [additional-data-draft], are emergency calls, including [RFC6443] and
used to provide the realization of next-generation ACN. [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], are used to provide the realization
of next-generation ACN.
The Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) and The Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) and
the National Emergency Number Association (NENA) have jointly the National Emergency Number Association (NENA) have jointly
developed a standardized set of incident-related vehicle data for ACN developed a standardized set of incident-related vehicle data for ACN
use, called the Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) [VEDS]. Such data use, called the Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) [VEDS]. Such data
is often referred to as crash data although it is applicable in is often referred to as crash data although it is applicable in
incidents other than crashes. incidents other than crashes.
VEDS provides a standard data set for the transmission, exchange, and VEDS provides a standard data set for the transmission, exchange, and
interpretation of vehicle-related data. A standard data format interpretation of vehicle-related data. A standard data format
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needs to be transported. needs to be transported.
This document registers the 'application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' This document registers the 'application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml'
MIME content-type, and registers the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency MIME content-type, and registers the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency
Call Additional Data registry. Call Additional Data registry.
VEDS is an XML structure (see [VEDS]). The 'application/ VEDS is an XML structure (see [VEDS]). The 'application/
EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' MIME content-type is used to identify it. EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' MIME content-type is used to identify it.
The 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional Data registry is The 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional Data registry is
used to construct a 'purpose' parameter value for conveying VEDS data used to construct a 'purpose' parameter value for conveying VEDS data
in a Call-Info header (as described in [additional-data-draft]). in a Call-Info header (as described in
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]).
VEDS is a versatile structure that can accomodate varied needs. VEDS is a versatile structure that can accomodate varied needs.
However, if additional sets of data are determined to be needed, the However, if additional sets of data are determined to be needed, the
steps to enable each data block are very briefly summarized below: steps to enable each data block are very briefly summarized below:
o A standardized format and encoding (such as XML) is defined and o A standardized format and encoding (such as XML) is defined and
published by a Standards Development Organization (SDO). published by a Standards Development Organization (SDO).
o A MIME Content-Type is registered for it (typically under the o A MIME Content-Type is registered for it (typically under the
'Application' media type and with a sub-type starting with 'Application' media type and with a sub-type starting with
'EmergencyCallData.'). 'EmergencyCallData.').
o An entry for the block is added to the Emergency Call Additional o An entry for the block is added to the Emergency Call Additional
Data Blocks sub-registry (established by [additional-data-draft]); Data Blocks sub-registry (established by
the registry entry is the root of the MIME sub-type (not including [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]); the registry entry is the root
the 'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml'). of the MIME sub-type (not including the 'EmergencyCallData' prefix
and any suffix such as '+xml').
A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by
encoding it in a standardized and registered format (such as VEDS) encoding it in a standardized and registered format (such as VEDS)
and attaching it to an INVITE as a MIME body part. The body part is and attaching it to an INVITE as a MIME body part. The body part is
identified by its MIME content-type (such as 'application/ identified by its MIME content-type (such as 'application/
EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml') in the Content-Type header field of the EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml') in the Content-Type header field of the
body part. The body part is assigned a unique identifier which is body part. The body part is assigned a unique identifier which is
listed in a Content-ID header field in the body part. The INVITE is listed in a Content-ID header field in the body part. The INVITE is
marked as containing the crash data by adding (or appending to) a marked as containing the crash data by adding (or appending to) a
Call-Info header field at the top level of the INVITE. The Call-Info Call-Info header field at the top level of the INVITE. The Call-Info
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identifier, and a 'purpose' parameter identifying the data as the identifier, and a 'purpose' parameter identifying the data as the
crash data per the registry entry; the 'purpose' parameter's value is crash data per the registry entry; the 'purpose' parameter's value is
'EmergencyCallData.' and the root of the MIME type (not including the 'EmergencyCallData.' and the root of the MIME type (not including the
'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml' (e.g., 'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml' (e.g.,
'purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS'). 'purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS').
The mechanisms described here can be used place emergency calls that The mechanisms described here can be used place emergency calls that
are identifiable as ACN calls and that carry one or more standardized are identifiable as ACN calls and that carry one or more standardized
crash data objects in an interoperable way. crash data objects in an interoperable way.
Note that while ACN systems in the U.S. and other regions are not
currently mandated, Europe has a mandated and standardized system for
emergency calls by in-vehicle systems. This pan-European system is
known as "eCall" and is not further discussed in this document but is
the subject of a separate document, [eCall-draft]
3. Overview of Current Deployment Models 3. Overview of Current Deployment Models
Current (circuit-switched or legacy) systems for placing emergency Current (circuit-switched or legacy) systems for placing emergency
calls by in-vehicle systems, including automatic crash notification calls by in-vehicle systems, including automatic crash notification
systems, generally have a limited ability to convey at least location systems, generally have a limited ability to convey at least location
and in some cases telematics data to the PSAP. Most such systems use and in some cases telematics data to the PSAP. Most such systems use
one of three architectural models, which are described here as: one of three architectural models, which are described here as:
"Telematics Service Provider" (TSP), "direct", and "paired handset". "Telematics Service Provider" (TSP), "direct", and "paired handset".
These three models are illustrated below. These three models are illustrated below.
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an ACN emergency call is setup and incident-related data (including an ACN emergency call is setup and incident-related data (including
vehicle, sensor, and location data) is transmitted to the PSAP using vehicle, sensor, and location data) is transmitted to the PSAP using
IETF specifications. (The goal is to re-use specifications rather IETF specifications. (The goal is to re-use specifications rather
than to invent new.) For the direct model, this is the end-to-end than to invent new.) For the direct model, this is the end-to-end
description (between the vehicle and the PSAP). For the TSP model, description (between the vehicle and the PSAP). For the TSP model,
this describes the right-hand side (between the TSP and the PSAP), this describes the right-hand side (between the TSP and the PSAP),
leaving the left-hand side (between the vehicle and the TSP) up to leaving the left-hand side (between the vehicle and the TSP) up to
the entities involved (i.e., IVS and TSP vendors) who are then free the entities involved (i.e., IVS and TSP vendors) who are then free
to use the same mechanism as for the right-hand side (or not). to use the same mechanism as for the right-hand side (or not).
This document does not address pan-European eCall (a mandated and Note that while ACN systems in the U.S. and other regions are not
standardized system for emergency calls by in-vehicle systems within currently mandated, Europe has a mandated and standardized system for
Europe and other regions), which is the subject of a separate emergency calls by in-vehicle systems. This pan-European system is
document, [eCall-draft] known as "eCall" and is not further discussed in this document but is
the subject of a separate document, [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. Vehicles
designed to operate in multiple regions may need to support eCall as
well as the ACN described here. If other regions devise their own
specifications or data formats, a multi-region vehicle may need to
support those as well. Both eCall and the ACN mechanism described
here are compatible in most respects, differing primarily in the
Request-URI and the specific data block that is sent.
5. Migration to Next-Generation 5. Migration to Next-Generation
Migration of emergency calls placed by in-vehicle systems to next- Migration of emergency calls placed by in-vehicle systems to next-
generation (all-IP) technology provides a standardized mechanism to generation (all-IP) technology provides a standardized mechanism to
identify such calls and to present crash data with the call. This identify such calls and to present crash data with the call. This
allows ACN calls and crash data to be automatically processed by the allows ACN calls and crash data to be automatically processed by the
PSAP and made available to the call taker in an integrated, automated PSAP and made available to the call taker in an integrated, automated
way. way.
Vehicle manufacturers using the TSP model may choose to take Vehicle manufacturers using the TSP model may choose to take
advantage of the same mechanism to carry telematics data between the advantage of the same mechanism to carry telematics data between the
vehicle and the TSP for both emergency and non-emergency calls. vehicle and the TSP for both emergency and non-emergency calls.
A next-generation IVS establishes an emergency call using the 3GPP A next-generation IVS establishes an emergency call using the 3GPP
IMS solution with a Request-URI indicating an ACN type of emergency IMS solution with a Request-URI indicating an ACN type of emergency
call with vehicle data attached; the MNO only needs to recognize the call with vehicle data attached; the MNO only needs to recognize the
call as an emergency call and route it to an ESInet; the ESInet call as an emergency call and route it to an ESInet; the ESInet may
recognizes the call as an ACN with vehicle data and routes the call recognize the call as an ACN with vehicle data and may route the call
to an NG-ACN capable PSAP; the PSAP interpets the vehicle data sent to an NG-ACN capable PSAP; such a PSAP would interpet the vehicle
with the call and makes it available to the call taker. data sent with the call and make it available to the call taker.
Because of the need to identify and specially process Next-Generation Because of the need to identify and specially process Next-Generation
ACN calls (as discussed above), this document registers new service ACN calls (as discussed above), this document registers new service
URN children within the "sos" subservice. These URNs provide the URN children within the "sos" subservice. These URNs provide the
mechanism by which an NG-ACN call is identified, and differentiate mechanism by which an NG-ACN call is identified, and differentiate
between manually and automatically triggered NG-ACN calls (which may between manually and automatically triggered NG-ACN calls (which may
be subject to different treatment, depending on policy). The two be subject to different treatment, depending on policy). The two
service URNs are: 'urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic' and service URNs are: 'urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic' and
'urn:service:sos.vehicle.manual'. 'urn:service:sos.vehicle.manual'.
Note that in North America, routing queries performed by clients
outside of an ESInet are likely to treat all sub-services of "sos"
identically to "sos" with no sub-service. However, the Request-URI
header field retains the full sub-service; route and handling
decisions within an ESInet or PSAP may take the sub-service into
account. For example, in a region with multiple cooperating PSAPs,
an NG-ACN call might be routed to a PSAP that is NG-ACN capable, or
one that specializes in vehicle-related incidents.
Migration of the three architectural models to next-generation (all- Migration of the three architectural models to next-generation (all-
IP) is described below. IP) is described below.
In the TSP model, the IVS transmits crash and location data to the In the TSP model, the IVS transmits crash and location data to the
TSP using either a protocol that is based on a proprietary design or TSP using either a protocol that is based on a proprietary design or
one that re-uses IETF specifications. In an emergency, the TSP call one that re-uses IETF specifications. In an emergency, the TSP call
taker bridges in the PSAP and the TSP transmits crash and other data taker bridges in the PSAP and the TSP transmits crash and other data
to the PSAP using IETF specifications. There is a three-way call to the PSAP using IETF specifications. There is a three-way call
between the vehicle, the TSP, and the PSAP, allowing communication between the vehicle, the TSP, and the PSAP, allowing communication
between the PSAP call taker, the TSP call taker, and the vehicle between the PSAP call taker, the TSP call taker, and the vehicle
occupants (who might be unconscious). occupants (who might be unconscious).
proprietary proprietary
///----\\\ or standard +------+ standard +------+ ///----\\\ or standard +------+ standard +------+
||| IVS ||| ------------------->+ TSP +------------------->+ PSAP | ||| IVS ||| ------------------->+ TSP +------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// crash + other data +------+ crash + other data +------+ \\\----/// crash + other data +------+ crash + other data +------+
Figure 4: Next-Generation TSP Model Figure 4: Next-Generation TSP Model
The vehicle manufacturer and the TSP may choose to use the same IETF The vehicle manufacturer and the TSP may choose to use the same IETF
specifications to transmit crash and location data from the vehicle specifications to transmit crash and location data from the vehicle
to the TSP as is described here to transmit such data from the TSP to to the TSP as is described here to transmit such data from the TSP to
the PSAP. the PSAP.
In the paired model, the IVS uses a Bluetooth link to a previously- In the paired model, the IVS uses a Bluetooth link to a previously-
paired handset to establish an emergency call with the PSAP; it is paired handset to establish an emergency call with the PSAP; it is
not clear what facilities are or will be available for transmitting not clear what facilities are or will be available for transmitting
crash data through the Bluetooth link. crash data through the Bluetooth link.
+---+ +---+
///----\\\ (unclear) | H | (unclear) +------+ ///----\\\ (unclear) | H | (unclear) +------+
||| IVS |||------------------>| S +------------------->+ PSAP | ||| IVS |||------------------>| S +------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// (unclear) +---+ (unclear) +------+ \\\----/// (unclear) +---+ (unclear) +------+
Figure 5: Next-Generation Paired Model Figure 5: Next-Generation Paired Model
In the direct model, the IVS communicates crash data to the PSAP In the direct model, the IVS communicates crash data to the PSAP
directly using IETF specifications. directly using IETF specifications.
///----\\\ NG1-1-2/NG9-1-1 call +------+ ///----\\\ NG1-1-2/NG9-1-1 call +------+
||| IVS |||----------------------------------------->+ PSAP | ||| IVS |||----------------------------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// crash data +------+ \\\----/// crash data +------+
Figure 6: Next-Generation Model Figure 6: Next-Generation Model
6. Profile 6. Profile
In the context of emergncy calls placed by an in-vehicle system it is In the context of emergncy calls placed by an in-vehicle system it is
assumed that the car is equipped with a built-in GNSS receiver. For assumed that the car is equipped with a built-in GNSS receiver. For
this reason only geodetic location information will be sent within an this reason only geodetic location information will be sent within an
emergency call. The following location shapes MUST be implemented: emergency call. The following location shapes MUST be implemented:
2d and 3d Point (see Section 5.2.1 of [RFC5491]), Circle (see 2d and 3d Point (see Section 5.2.1 of [RFC5491]), Circle (see
Section 5.2.3 of [RFC5491]), and Ellipsoid (see Section 5.2.7 of Section 5.2.3 of [RFC5491]), and Ellipsoid (see Section 5.2.7 of
[RFC5491]). The coordinate reference systems (CRS) specified in [RFC5491]). The coordinate reference systems (CRS) specified in
[RFC5491] are also mandatory for this document. The <direction> [RFC5491] are also mandatory for this document. The <direction>
element, as defined in [RFC5962] which indicates the direction of element, as defined in [RFC5962] which indicates the direction of
travel of the vehicle, is important for dispatch and hence it MUST be travel of the vehicle, is important for dispatch and hence it MUST be
included in the PIDF-LO . The <heading> element specified in included in the PIDF-LO [RFC4119]. The <heading> element specified
[RFC5962] MUST be implemented and MAY be included. in [RFC5962] MUST be implemented and MAY be included.
Calls by in-vehicle systems are placed via cellular networks, which Calls by in-vehicle systems are placed via cellular networks, which
may ignore location sent by an originating device in an emergency may ignore location sent by an originating device in an emergency
call INVITE, instead attaching their own location (often determined call INVITE, instead attaching their own location (often determined
in cooperation with the originating device). The IVS MAY attach in cooperation with the originating device). The IVS MAY attach
location data to the call INVITE. Standardized crash data structures location data to the call INVITE. Standardized crash data structures
often include location as determined by the IVS. A benefit of this often include location as determined by the IVS. A benefit of this
is that it allows the PSAP to see both the location as determined by is that it allows the PSAP to see both the location as determined by
the cellular network (often in cooperation with the originating the cellular network (often in cooperation with the originating
device) and the location as determined by the IVS. device) and the location as determined by the IVS.
This specification also inherits the ability to utilize test call This specification inherits the ability to utilize test call
functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881]. functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881].
7. Call Setup 7. Call Setup
It is important that ACN calls be easily identifiable as such at all It is important that ACN calls be easily identifiable as such at all
stages of call handling, and that automatic versis manual triggering stages of call handling, and that automatic versis manual triggering
be known. ACN calls differ from general emergency calls in several be known. ACN calls differ from general emergency calls in several
aspects, including the presence of standardized crash data, the fact aspects, including the presence of standardized crash data, the fact
that the call is known to be placed by an in-vehicle system (which that the call is known to be placed by an in-vehicle system (which
has implications for PSAP operational processes), and, especially for has implications for PSAP operational processes), and, especially for
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specific responders (such as trauma or fire). Manually triggered specific responders (such as trauma or fire). Manually triggered
calls are often reports of serious hazards (such as drunk drivers) calls are often reports of serious hazards (such as drunk drivers)
and may require different responses depending on the situation. and may require different responses depending on the situation.
Manually triggered calls are also more likely to be false (e.g., Manually triggered calls are also more likely to be false (e.g.,
accidental) calls and may thus be subject to different handling by accidental) calls and may thus be subject to different handling by
the PSAP. the PSAP.
A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by
encoding it in a standardized and registered format and attaching it encoding it in a standardized and registered format and attaching it
to an INVITE as an additional data block as specified in Section 4.1 to an INVITE as an additional data block as specified in Section 4.1
of [additional-data-draft]. As described in that document, the block of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]. As described in that document,
is identified by its MIME content-type, and pointed to by a CID URL the block is identified by its MIME content-type, and pointed to by a
in a Call-Info header with a 'purpose' parameter value corresponding CID URL in a Call-Info header with a 'purpose' parameter value
to the block. corresponding to the block.
Specifically, the steps required during standardization are: Specifically, the steps required during standardization are:
o A set of crash data is standardized by an SDO or appropriate o A set of crash data is standardized by an SDO or appropriate
organization organization
o A MIME Content-Type for the crash data set is registered with IANA o A MIME Content-Type for the crash data set is registered with IANA
* If the data is specifically for use in emergency calling, the * If the data is specifically for use in emergency calling, the
MIME type is normally under the 'application' type with a MIME type is normally under the 'application' type with a
subtype starting with 'EmergencyCallData.' subtype starting with 'EmergencyCallData.'
* If the data format is XML, then by convention the name has a * If the data format is XML, then by convention the name has a
suffix of '+xml' suffix of '+xml'
o The item is registered in the Emergency Call Additional Data o The item is registered in the Emergency Call Additional Data
registry, as defined in Section 9.1.7 of [additional-data-draft] registry, as defined in Section 9.1.7 of
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
* For emergency-call-specific formats, the registered name is the * For emergency-call-specific formats, the registered name is the
root of the MIME Content-Type (not including the root of the MIME Content-Type (not including the
'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml') as 'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml') as
described in Section 4.1 of [additional-data-draft] described in Section 4.1 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
When placing an emergency call: When placing an emergency call:
o The crash data set is created and encoded per its specification o The crash data set is created and encoded per its specification
o The crash data set is attached to the emergency call INVITE as o The crash data set is attached to the emergency call INVITE as
specified in Section 4.1 of [additional-data-draft], that is, as a specified in Section 4.1 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], that
MIME body part identified by its MIME Content-Type in the body is, as a MIME body part identified by its MIME Content-Type in the
part's Content-Type header field body part's Content-Type header field
o The body part is assigned a unique identifier label in a Content- o The body part is assigned a unique identifier label in a Content-
ID header field of the body part ID header field of the body part
o A Call-Info header field at the top level of the INVITE references o A Call-Info header field at the top level of the INVITE references
the crash data and identifies it by its MIME root (as registered the crash data and identifies it by its MIME root (as registered
in the Emergency Call Additional Data registry) in the Emergency Call Additional Data registry)
* The crash data is referenced in the Call-Info header field by a * The crash data is referenced in the Call-Info header field by a
CID URL that contains the unique Content ID assigned to the CID URL that contains the unique Content ID assigned to the
skipping to change at page 14, line 44 skipping to change at page 14, line 37
In an environment that uses ESInets, the originating network need In an environment that uses ESInets, the originating network need
only detect that the service URN of an emergency call is or starts only detect that the service URN of an emergency call is or starts
with "sos", passing all types of emergency calls to an ESInet. The with "sos", passing all types of emergency calls to an ESInet. The
ESInet is then responsible for routing such calls to an appropriate ESInet is then responsible for routing such calls to an appropriate
PSAP. In an environment without an ESInet, the emergency services PSAP. In an environment without an ESInet, the emergency services
authorities and the originating carriers would need to determine how authorities and the originating carriers would need to determine how
such calls are routed. such calls are routed.
9. Test Calls 9. Test Calls
This specification also inherits the ability to utilize test call This specification inherits the ability to utilize test call
functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881]. functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881].
A service URN starting with "test." indicates a request for an A service URN starting with "test." indicates a request for an
automated test. For example, automated test. For example,
"urn:service:test.sos.vehicle.automatic" indicates such a test "urn:service:test.sos.vehicle.automatic" indicates such a test
feature. This functionality is defined in [RFC6881]. feature. This functionality is defined in [RFC6881].
Note that since test calls are placed using "test" as the parent
service URN and "sos" as a child, such calls are not treated as an
emergency call and so some functionality will not apply (such as pre-
emption or service availability for devices lacking service ("non-
service-initialized" or "NSI") if those are available for emergency
calls); this is by design. MNOs may recognize test calls and treat
them in a way that tests as much functionality as desired, but this
is outside the scope of this document.
10. Example 10. Example
Figure 7 shows an emergency call placed by a vehicle whereby location Figure 7 shows an emergency call placed by a vehicle whereby location
information and VEDS crash data are both attached to the SIP INVITE information and VEDS crash data are both attached to the SIP INVITE
message. The INVITE has a request URI containing the message. The INVITE has a request URI containing the
'urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic' service URN and is thus 'urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic' service URN and is thus
recognized as an ACN type of emergency call, and is also recognized recognized as an ACN type of emergency call, and is also recognized
as a type of emergency call because the request URI starts with as a type of emergency call because the request URI starts with
'urn:service:sos'. The mobile network operator (MNO) routes the call 'urn:service:sos'. The mobile network operator (MNO) routes the call
to an Emergency services IP Network (ESInet), as for any emergency to an Emergency services IP Network (ESInet), as for any emergency
call. The ESInet processes the call as an ACN and routes the call to call. The ESInet processes the call as an ACN and routes the call to
an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP (using location information and the an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP (using location information and the
fact that that it is an ACN). (In deployments where there is no fact that that it is an ACN). (In deployments where there is no
ESInet, the MNO itself needs to route directly to an appropriate ACN- ESInet, the MNO itself needs to route directly to an appropriate ACN-
capable PSAP.) The call is processed by the Emergency Services capable PSAP.) The call is processed by the Emergency Services
Routing Proxy (ESRP), as the entry point to the ESInet. The ESRP Routing Proxy (ESRP), as the entry point to the ESInet. The ESRP
routes the call to an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP, where the call is routes the call to an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP, where the call is
received by a call taker. received by a call taker.
+-----------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------+
| | | |
+------------+ | +-------+ | +------------+ | +-------+ |
| | | | PSAP2 | | | | | | PSAP2 | |
| | | +-------+ | | | | +-------+ |
| Originating| | | | Originating| | |
| Mobile | | +------+ +-------+ | | Mobile | | +------+ +-------+ |
Vehicle-->| Network |--+->| ESRP |---->| PSAP1 |---> Call-Taker | Vehicle-->| Network |--+->| ESRP |---->| PSAP1 |--> Call-Taker |
| | | +------+ +-------+ | | | | +------+ +-------+ |
| | | | | | | |
+------------+ | +-------+ | +------------+ | +-------+ |
| | PSAP3 | | | | PSAP3 | |
| +-------+ | | +-------+ |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| ESInet | | ESInet |
+-----------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------+
Figure 7: Example of Vehicle-Placed Emergency Call Message Flow Figure 7: Example of Vehicle-Placed Emergency Call Message Flow
The example, shown in Figure 8, illustrates a SIP emergency call The example, shown in Figure 8, illustrates a SIP emergency call
eCall INVITE that is being conveyed with location information (a INVITE that is being conveyed with location information (a PIDF-LO)
PIDF-LO) and crash data (as VEDS data). and crash data (as VEDS data).
INVITE urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic SIP/2.0 INVITE urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic SIP/2.0
To: urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic To: urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic
From: <sip:+13145551111@example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl From: <sip:+13145551111@example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com
Geolocation: <cid:target123@example.com> Geolocation: <cid:target123@example.com>
Geolocation-Routing: no Geolocation-Routing: no
Call-Info: cid:1234567890@atlanta.example.com; Call-Info: cid:1234567890@atlanta.example.com;
purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS
Accept: application/sdp, application/pidf+xml Accept: application/sdp, application/pidf+xml
CSeq: 31862 INVITE CSeq: 31862 INVITE
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary1 Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary1
Content-Length: ... Content-Length: ...
skipping to change at page 16, line 49 skipping to change at page 17, line 4
<dyn:heading>278</dyn:heading> <dyn:heading>278</dyn:heading>
<dyn:direction><dyn:direction> <dyn:direction><dyn:direction>
</dyn:Dynamic> </dyn:Dynamic>
</gp:location-info> </gp:location-info>
<gp:usage-rules/> <gp:usage-rules/>
<method>gps</method> <method>gps</method>
</gp:geopriv> </gp:geopriv>
<timestamp>2012-04-5T10:18:29Z</timestamp> <timestamp>2012-04-5T10:18:29Z</timestamp>
<dm:deviceID>1M8GDM9A_KP042788</dm:deviceID> <dm:deviceID>1M8GDM9A_KP042788</dm:deviceID>
</dm:device> </dm:device>
</presence> </presence>
--boundary1 --boundary1
Content-Type: application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml Content-Type: application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml
Content-ID: 1234567890@atlanta.example.com Content-ID: 1234567890@atlanta.example.com
...eCall VEDS data object goes here ...VEDS data object goes here
--boundary1-- --boundary1--
Figure 8: SIP INVITE indicating an In-Vehicular Emergency Call Figure 8: SIP INVITE indicating a Vehicule-Initated Emergency Call
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
This document does not raise security considerations beyond those This document does not raise security considerations beyond those
described in [RFC5069]. As with emergency service systems with end described in [RFC5069]. As with emergency service systems with end
host provided location information there is the possibility that that host provided location information there is the possibility that that
location is incorrect, either intentially (in case of an a denial of location is incorrect, either intentially (in case of an a denial of
service attack against the emergency services infrastructure) or due service attack against the emergency services infrastructure) or due
to a malfunctioning devices. The reader is referred to to a malfunctioning devices. The reader is referred to
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location] for a discussion of some of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location] for a discussion of some of
skipping to change at page 18, line 29 skipping to change at page 18, line 32
Encoding considerations: Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit Encoding considerations: Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit
characters, depending on the character encoding used. See characters, depending on the character encoding used. See
Section 3.2 of RFC 3023 [RFC3023]. Section 3.2 of RFC 3023 [RFC3023].
Security considerations: This content type is designed to carry Security considerations: This content type is designed to carry
vehicle crash data during an emergency call. This data may vehicle crash data during an emergency call. This data may
contains personal information including vehicle VIN, location, contains personal information including vehicle VIN, location,
direction, etc. appropriate precautions need to be taken to limit direction, etc. appropriate precautions need to be taken to limit
unauthorized access, inappropriate disclosure to third parties, unauthorized access, inappropriate disclosure to third parties,
and eavesdropping of this information. Please refer to Section 7 and eavesdropping of this information. Please refer to Section 7
and Section 8 of [additional-data-draft] for more information. and Section 8 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] for more
information.
Interoperability considerations: None Interoperability considerations: None
Published specification: [VEDS] Published specification: [VEDS]
Applications which use this media type: Emergency Services Applications which use this media type: Emergency Services
Additional information: None Additional information: None
Magic Number: None Magic Number: None
skipping to change at page 19, line 13 skipping to change at page 19, line 15
working group, with mailing list address <ecrit@ietf.org>. working group, with mailing list address <ecrit@ietf.org>.
Change controller: The IESG <ietf@ietf.org> Change controller: The IESG <ietf@ietf.org>
12.3. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional 12.3. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional
Data registry Data registry
This specification requests IANA to add the 'VEDS' entry to the This specification requests IANA to add the 'VEDS' entry to the
Emergency Call Additional Data registry, with a reference to this Emergency Call Additional Data registry, with a reference to this
document. The Emergency Call Additional Data registry has been document. The Emergency Call Additional Data registry has been
established by [additional-data-draft]. established by [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data].
13. Contributors 13. Contributors
We would like to thank Ulrich Dietz for his help with earlier We would like to thank Ulrich Dietz for his help with earlier
versions of the original version of this document. versions of the original version of this document.
14. Acknowledgements 14. Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Michael Montag, Arnoud van Wijk, Ban Al-Bakri, We would like to thank Michael Montag, Arnoud van Wijk, Ban Al-Bakri,
and Gunnar Hellstrom for their feedback. and Gunnar Hellstrom for their feedback.
15. Changes from Previous Versions 15. Changes from Previous Versions
15.1. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00 15.1. Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01
o Added further discussion of test calls
o Added further clarification to the document scope
o Mentioned that multi-region vehicles may need to support other
crash notification specifications such as eCall
o Minor wording improvements and clarifications
15.2. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00
o Renamed from draft-gellens- to draft-ietf- o Renamed from draft-gellens- to draft-ietf-
o Added text to Introduction to clarify that during a CS ACN, the o Added text to Introduction to clarify that during a CS ACN, the
PSAP call taker usually needs to listen to the data and transcribe PSAP call taker usually needs to listen to the data and transcribe
it it
15.2. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 15.3. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02
o Fixed case of 'EmergencyCallData', in accordance with changes to o Fixed case of 'EmergencyCallData', in accordance with changes to
[additional-data-draft] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
15.3. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 15.4. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01
o Now using 'EmergencyCallData' for purpose parameter values and o Now using 'EmergencyCallData' for purpose parameter values and
MIME subtypes, in accordance with changes to MIME subtypes, in accordance with changes to
[additional-data-draft] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
o Added reference to RFC 6443 o Added reference to RFC 6443
o Fixed bug that caused Figure captions to not appear o Fixed bug that caused Figure captions to not appear
16. References 16. References
16.1. Normative References 16.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
Rosen, B., Tschofenig, H., Marshall, R., Randy, R., and J.
Winterbottom, "Additional Data related to an Emergency
Call", draft-ietf-ecrit-additional-data-15 (work in
progress), November 2013.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3023] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media [RFC3023] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media
Types", RFC 3023, January 2001. Types", RFC 3023, January 2001.
[RFC4119] Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object [RFC4119] Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object
Format", RFC 4119, December 2005. Format", RFC 4119, December 2005.
[RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and [RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
skipping to change at page 20, line 32 skipping to change at page 21, line 10
[RFC5491] Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., and H. Tschofenig, "GEOPRIV [RFC5491] Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., and H. Tschofenig, "GEOPRIV
Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO) Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)
Usage Clarification, Considerations, and Recommendations", Usage Clarification, Considerations, and Recommendations",
RFC 5491, March 2009. RFC 5491, March 2009.
[RFC5962] Schulzrinne, H., Singh, V., Tschofenig, H., and M. [RFC5962] Schulzrinne, H., Singh, V., Tschofenig, H., and M.
Thomson, "Dynamic Extensions to the Presence Information Thomson, "Dynamic Extensions to the Presence Information
Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)", RFC 5962, Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)", RFC 5962,
September 2010. September 2010.
[RFC6442] Polk, J., Rosen, B., and J. Peterson, "Location Conveyance
for the Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 6442, December
2011.
[RFC6443] Rosen, B., Schulzrinne, H., Polk, J., and A. Newton, [RFC6443] Rosen, B., Schulzrinne, H., Polk, J., and A. Newton,
"Framework for Emergency Calling Using Internet "Framework for Emergency Calling Using Internet
Multimedia", RFC 6443, December 2011. Multimedia", RFC 6443, December 2011.
[RFC6881] Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for [RFC6881] Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for
Communications Services in Support of Emergency Calling", Communications Services in Support of Emergency Calling",
BCP 181, RFC 6881, March 2013. BCP 181, RFC 6881, March 2013.
[VEDS] , "Vehicular Emergency Data Set (VEDS) version 3", July [VEDS] "Vehicular Emergency Data Set (VEDS) version 3", July
2012, <http://apcointl.org/resources/aacn-and-veds/ 2012, <http://apcointl.org/resources/
2012-07-25-19-24-06.html>. aacn-and-veds/2012-07-25-19-24-06.html>.
[additional-data-draft]
Rosen, B., Tschofenig, H., Marshall, R., Gellens, R., and
J. Winterbottom, "Additional Data related to an Emergency
Call", draft-ietf-ecrit-additional-data-11 (work in
progress), July 2013.
16.2. Informative references 16.2. Informative references
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]
Gellens, R. and H. Tschofenig, "Next-Generation Pan-
European eCall", draft-ietf-ecrit-ecall (work in
progress), October 2014.
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location]
Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and B. Aboba, Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and B. Aboba,
"Trustworthy Location", draft-ietf-ecrit-trustworthy- "Trustworthy Location", draft-ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-
location-07 (work in progress), July 2013. location-07 (work in progress), July 2013.
[RFC4481] Schulzrinne, H., "Timed Presence Extensions to the
Presence Information Data Format (PIDF) to Indicate Status
Information for Past and Future Time Intervals", RFC 4481,
July 2006.
[RFC5012] Schulzrinne, H. and R. Marshall, "Requirements for [RFC5012] Schulzrinne, H. and R. Marshall, "Requirements for
Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies", Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies",
RFC 5012, January 2008. RFC 5012, January 2008.
[RFC5069] Taylor, T., Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and M. [RFC5069] Taylor, T., Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and M.
Shanmugam, "Security Threats and Requirements for Shanmugam, "Security Threats and Requirements for
Emergency Call Marking and Mapping", RFC 5069, January Emergency Call Marking and Mapping", RFC 5069, January
2008. 2008.
[eCall-draft]
Gellens, RG., "Next-Generation Pan-European eCall", 2013.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Randall Gellens Randall Gellens
Qualcomm Technologies, Inc Qualcomm Technologies, Inc
5775 Morehouse Drive 5775 Morehouse Drive
San Diego 92651 San Diego 92651
US US
Email: rg+ietf@qti.qualcomm.com Email: rg+ietf@qti.qualcomm.com
Brian Rosen Brian Rosen
NeuStar, Inc. NeuStar, Inc.
470 Conrad Dr 470 Conrad Dr
Mars, PA 16046 Mars, PA 16046
US US
Email: br@brianrosen.net Email: br@brianrosen.net
Hannes Tschofenig Hannes Tschofenig
(no affiliation) (no affiliation)
Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net
URI: http://www.tschofenig.priv.at URI: http://www.tschofenig.priv.at
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