draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-01.txt   draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-02.txt 
ECRIT R. Gellens ECRIT R. Gellens
Internet-Draft Qualcomm Technologies, Inc Internet-Draft Qualcomm Technologies, Inc
Intended status: Informational B. Rosen Intended status: Informational B. Rosen
Expires: April 16, 2015 NeuStar, Inc. Expires: September 8, 2015 NeuStar, Inc.
H. Tschofenig H. Tschofenig
(no affiliation) (no affiliation)
October 13, 2014 March 7, 2015
Next-Generation Vehicle-Initiated Emergency Calls Next-Generation Vehicle-Initiated Emergency Calls
draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-01.txt draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-02.txt
Abstract Abstract
This document describes how to use IP-based emergency services This document describes how to use IP-based emergency services
mechanisms to support the next generation of emergency calls placed mechanisms to support the next generation of emergency calls placed
by vehicles (automatically in the event of a crash or serious by vehicles (automatically in the event of a crash or serious
incident, or manually invoked by a vehicle occupant) and conveying incident, or manually invoked by a vehicle occupant) and conveying
vehicle, sensor, and location data related to the crash or incident. vehicle, sensor, and location data related to the crash or incident.
Such calls are often referred to as "Automatic Crash Notification" Such calls are often referred to as "Automatic Crash Notification"
(ACN), or "Advanced Automatic Crash Notification" (AACN), even in the (ACN), or "Advanced Automatic Crash Notification" (AACN), even in the
case of manual trigger. The "Advanced" qualifier refers to the case of manual trigger. The "Advanced" qualifier refers to the
ability to carry a richer set of data. ability to carry a richer set of data.
This document also registers a MIME Content Type and an Emergency This document also registers a MIME Content Type and an Emergency
Call Additional Data Block for the vehicle, sensor, and location data Call Additional Data Block for the vehicle, sensor, and location data
(often referred to as "crash data" even though there is not (often referred to as "crash data" even though there is not
necessarily a crash). An external specification for the data format, necessarily a crash). An external specification for the data format,
contents, and structure are referenced in this document. contents, and structure are referenced in this document.
Profiling and simplifications are possible due to the nature of the Profiling and simplifications of the general emergency call
functionality that is provided in vehicles with the usage of Global mechanism, as described in [RFC6443] and [RFC6881], are possible due
Satellite Navigation System (GNSS). to the nature of the functionality that is provided in vehicles such
as the usage of Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS).
This document does not address pan-European eCall (a mandated and This document reuses the technical aspects of next-generation pan-
standardized system for emergency calls by in-vehicle systems within European eCall (a mandated and standardized system for emergency
Europe and other regions), which is the subject of a separate calls by in-vehicle systems within Europe and other regions), as
document, [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. described in [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. However, this document
specifies a different set of vehicle (crash) data, specifically, the
Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) rather than the eCall Minimum Set
of Data (MSD).
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 16, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 8, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Overview of Current Deployment Models . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Overview of Current Deployment Models . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. Document Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. Document Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. Migration to Next-Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Migration to Next-Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7. Call Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7. Call Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8. Call Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. Call Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. Test Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. Test Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
10. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
12.1. Service URN Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12.1. MIME Content-type Registration for
12.2. MIME Content-type Registration for
'application/EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml' . . . . . . . . . . 18 'application/EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml' . . . . . . . . . . 18
12.3. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call 12.2. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call
Additional Data registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Additional Data registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
13. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 13. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
14. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 14. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
15. Changes from Previous Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 15. Changes from Previous Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
15.1. Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01 . . . . . . 19 15.1. Changes from draft-ietf-01 to draft-ietf-02 . . . . . . 19
15.2. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00 . . . . . 19 15.2. Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01 . . . . . . 19
15.3. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . 20 15.3. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00 . . . . . 20
15.4. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . 20 15.4. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . 20
15.5. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . 20
16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
16.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 16.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1. Terminology 1. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
This document re-uses terminology defined in Section 3 of [RFC5012]. This document re-uses terminology defined in Section 3 of [RFC5012].
Additionally, we use the following abbreviations: Additionally, we use the following abbreviations:
3GPP: 3rd Generation Partnership Project +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| Term | Expansion |
AACN: Advanced Automatic Crash Notification +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| 3GPP | 3rd Generation Partnership Project |
ACN: Automatic Crash Notification | AACN | Advanced Automatic Crash Notification |
| ACN | Automatic Crash Notification |
APCO: Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials | APCO | Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials |
| EENA | European Emergency Number Association |
EENA: European Emergency Number Association | ESInet | Emergency Services IP network |
| GNSS | Global Satellite Navigation System (which includes the |
ESInet: Emergency Services IP network | | various such systems including the Global Positioning |
| | System or GPS) |
GNSS: Global Satellite Navigation System (which includes the various | IVS | In-Vehicle System |
such systems including the Global Positioning System or GPS) | MNO | Mobile Network Operator |
| NENA | National Emergency Number Association |
IVS: In-Vehicle System | TSP | Telematics Service Provider |
| VEDS | Vehicle Emergency Data Set |
MNO: Mobile Network Operator +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
NENA: National Emergency Number Association
TSP: Telematics Service Provider
VEDS: Vehicle Emergency Data Set
2. Introduction 2. Introduction
Emergency calls made by in-vehicle systems (e.g., in the event of a Emergency calls made by in-vehicle systems (e.g., in the event of a
crash) assist in significantly reducing road deaths and injuries by crash) assist in significantly reducing road deaths and injuries by
allowing emergency services to respond quickly and often with better allowing emergency services to respond quickly and often with better
location. location.
Drivers often have a poor location awareness, especially outside of Drivers often have a poor location awareness, especially outside of
major cities, at night and when away from home (especially abroad). major cities, at night and when away from home (especially abroad).
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be automatically processed by the PSAP and made available to the call be automatically processed by the PSAP and made available to the call
taker in an integrated, automated way. In addition, vehicle taker in an integrated, automated way. In addition, vehicle
manufacturers are provided an opportunity to take advantage of the manufacturers are provided an opportunity to take advantage of the
same standardized mechanisms for data transmission for internal use same standardized mechanisms for data transmission for internal use
if they wish (such as telemetry between the vehicle and a service if they wish (such as telemetry between the vehicle and a service
center for both emergency and non-emergency uses, including location- center for both emergency and non-emergency uses, including location-
based services, multi-media entertainment systems, and road-side based services, multi-media entertainment systems, and road-side
assistance applications). assistance applications).
Next-generation ACN provides an opportunity for such calls to be Next-generation ACN provides an opportunity for such calls to be
recognized and processed as such during call set-up, and routed to a recognized and processed as such during call set-up, and optionally
specialized PSAP where the vehicle data is available to assist the routed to an upgraded PSAP where the vehicle data is available to
call taker in assessing and responding to the situation. assist the call taker in assessing and responding to the situation.
An ACN call may be either occupant-initiated or automatically An ACN call may be either occupant-initiated or automatically
triggered. (The "A" in "ACN" does stand for "Automatic," but the triggered. (The "A" in "ACN" does stand for "Automatic," but the
term is often used to refer to the class of calls that are placed by term is often used to refer to the class of calls that are placed by
an in-vehicle system (IVS) and that carry incident-related data as an in-vehicle system (IVS) and that carry incident-related data as
well as voice.) Automatically triggered calls indicate a car crash well as voice.) Automatically triggered calls indicate a car crash
or some other serious incident (e.g., a fire) and carry a greater or some other serious incident (e.g., a fire) and carry a greater
presumption of risk of injury. Manually triggered calls are often presumption of risk of injury. Manually triggered calls are often
reports of serious hazards (such as drunk drivers) and may require reports of serious hazards (such as drunk drivers) and may require
different responses depending on the situation. Manually triggered different responses depending on the situation. Manually triggered
skipping to change at page 6, line 21 skipping to change at page 6, line 19
Call Additional Data registry. Call Additional Data registry.
VEDS is an XML structure (see [VEDS]). The 'application/ VEDS is an XML structure (see [VEDS]). The 'application/
EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' MIME content-type is used to identify it. EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' MIME content-type is used to identify it.
The 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional Data registry is The 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional Data registry is
used to construct a 'purpose' parameter value for conveying VEDS data used to construct a 'purpose' parameter value for conveying VEDS data
in a Call-Info header (as described in in a Call-Info header (as described in
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]). [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]).
VEDS is a versatile structure that can accomodate varied needs. VEDS is a versatile structure that can accomodate varied needs.
However, if additional sets of data are determined to be needed, the However, if additional sets of data are determined to be needed
steps to enable each data block are very briefly summarized below: (e.g., in the future or in different regions), the steps to enable
each data block are very briefly summarized below:
o A standardized format and encoding (such as XML) is defined and o A standardized format and encoding (such as XML) is defined and
published by a Standards Development Organization (SDO). published by a Standards Development Organization (SDO).
o A MIME Content-Type is registered for it (typically under the o A MIME Content-Type is registered for it (typically under the
'Application' media type and with a sub-type starting with 'Application' media type and with a sub-type starting with
'EmergencyCallData.'). 'EmergencyCallData.').
o An entry for the block is added to the Emergency Call Additional o An entry for the block is added to the Emergency Call Additional
Data Blocks sub-registry (established by Data Blocks sub-registry (established by
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]); the registry entry is the root [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]); the registry entry is the root
of the MIME sub-type (not including the 'EmergencyCallData' prefix of the MIME sub-type (not including the 'EmergencyCallData' prefix
and any suffix such as '+xml'). and any suffix such as '+xml').
A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by
encoding it in a standardized and registered format (such as VEDS) encoding it in a standardized and registered format (such as VEDS)
and attaching it to an INVITE as a MIME body part. The body part is and attaching it to an INVITE as a MIME body part. The body part is
identified by its MIME content-type (such as 'application/ identified by its MIME content-type (such as 'application/
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of the MIME sub-type (not including the 'EmergencyCallData' prefix of the MIME sub-type (not including the 'EmergencyCallData' prefix
and any suffix such as '+xml'). and any suffix such as '+xml').
A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by
encoding it in a standardized and registered format (such as VEDS) encoding it in a standardized and registered format (such as VEDS)
and attaching it to an INVITE as a MIME body part. The body part is and attaching it to an INVITE as a MIME body part. The body part is
identified by its MIME content-type (such as 'application/ identified by its MIME content-type (such as 'application/
EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml') in the Content-Type header field of the EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml') in the Content-Type header field of the
body part. The body part is assigned a unique identifier which is body part. The body part is assigned a unique identifier which is
listed in a Content-ID header field in the body part. The INVITE is listed in a Content-ID header field in the body part. The INVITE is
marked as containing the crash data by adding (or appending to) a marked as containing the crash data by adding a Call-Info header
Call-Info header field at the top level of the INVITE. The Call-Info field at the top level of the INVITE. This Call-Info header field
header field contains a CID URL referencing the body part's unique contains a CID URL referencing the body part's unique identifier, and
identifier, and a 'purpose' parameter identifying the data as the a 'purpose' parameter identifying the data as the crash data per the
crash data per the registry entry; the 'purpose' parameter's value is registry entry; the 'purpose' parameter's value is
'EmergencyCallData.' and the root of the MIME type (not including the 'EmergencyCallData.' and the root of the MIME type (not including the
'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml' (e.g., 'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml' (e.g.,
'purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS'). 'purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS').
The mechanisms described here can be used place emergency calls that The mechanisms described here are thus used to place emergency calls
are identifiable as ACN calls and that carry one or more standardized that are identifiable as ACN calls and that carry one or more
crash data objects in an interoperable way. standardized crash data objects in an interoperable way.
3. Overview of Current Deployment Models 3. Overview of Current Deployment Models
Current (circuit-switched or legacy) systems for placing emergency Current (circuit-switched or legacy) systems for placing emergency
calls by in-vehicle systems, including automatic crash notification calls by in-vehicle systems, including automatic crash notification
systems, generally have a limited ability to convey at least location systems, generally have a limited ability to convey at least location
and in some cases telematics data to the PSAP. Most such systems use and in some cases telematics data to the PSAP. Most such systems use
one of three architectural models, which are described here as: one of three architectural models, which are described here as:
"Telematics Service Provider" (TSP), "direct", and "paired handset". "Telematics Service Provider" (TSP), "direct", and "paired handset".
These three models are illustrated below. These three models are illustrated below.
skipping to change at page 8, line 39 skipping to change at page 8, line 39
than to invent new.) For the direct model, this is the end-to-end than to invent new.) For the direct model, this is the end-to-end
description (between the vehicle and the PSAP). For the TSP model, description (between the vehicle and the PSAP). For the TSP model,
this describes the right-hand side (between the TSP and the PSAP), this describes the right-hand side (between the TSP and the PSAP),
leaving the left-hand side (between the vehicle and the TSP) up to leaving the left-hand side (between the vehicle and the TSP) up to
the entities involved (i.e., IVS and TSP vendors) who are then free the entities involved (i.e., IVS and TSP vendors) who are then free
to use the same mechanism as for the right-hand side (or not). to use the same mechanism as for the right-hand side (or not).
Note that while ACN systems in the U.S. and other regions are not Note that while ACN systems in the U.S. and other regions are not
currently mandated, Europe has a mandated and standardized system for currently mandated, Europe has a mandated and standardized system for
emergency calls by in-vehicle systems. This pan-European system is emergency calls by in-vehicle systems. This pan-European system is
known as "eCall" and is not further discussed in this document but is known as "eCall" and is the subject of a separate document,
the subject of a separate document, [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. Vehicles [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. Vehicles designed to operate in multiple
designed to operate in multiple regions may need to support eCall as regions may need to support eCall as well as the ACN described here.
well as the ACN described here. If other regions devise their own If other regions devise their own specifications or data formats, a
specifications or data formats, a multi-region vehicle may need to multi-region vehicle may need to support those as well. This
support those as well. Both eCall and the ACN mechanism described document adopts the call set-up and other technical aspects of
here are compatible in most respects, differing primarily in the [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall], which uses [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data],
Request-URI and the specific data block that is sent. which makes it easy to substitute a different data set while keeping
other technical aspects unchanges. Hence, both NG-eCall and the ACN
mechanism described here are fully compatible, differing only in the
specific data block that is sent (the eCall MSD in the case of NG-
eCall, and the APCO/NENA VEDS used in this document). If other
regions adopt their own data set, this can be similarly accomodated
without changing other technical aspects.
5. Migration to Next-Generation 5. Migration to Next-Generation
Migration of emergency calls placed by in-vehicle systems to next- Migration of emergency calls placed by in-vehicle systems to next-
generation (all-IP) technology provides a standardized mechanism to generation (all-IP) technology provides a standardized mechanism to
identify such calls and to present crash data with the call. This identify such calls and to present crash data with the call. This
allows ACN calls and crash data to be automatically processed by the allows ACN calls and crash data to be automatically processed by the
PSAP and made available to the call taker in an integrated, automated PSAP and made available to the call taker in an integrated, automated
way. way. Because the crash data is carried in the initial SIP INVITE
(per [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]) the PSAP can present it to the
call taker simultaneously with the appearance of the call.
Vehicle manufacturers using the TSP model may choose to take Vehicle manufacturers using the TSP model may choose to take
advantage of the same mechanism to carry telematics data between the advantage of the same mechanism to carry telematics data between the
vehicle and the TSP for both emergency and non-emergency calls. vehicle and the TSP for both emergency and non-emergency calls.
A next-generation IVS establishes an emergency call using the 3GPP A next-generation IVS establishes an emergency call using the
IMS solution with a Request-URI indicating an ACN type of emergency emergency call solution as described in [RFC6443] and [RFC6881], with
call with vehicle data attached; the MNO only needs to recognize the the difference that the Request-URI indicates an ACN type of
call as an emergency call and route it to an ESInet; the ESInet may emergency call and a Call-Info header field indicates that vehicle
recognize the call as an ACN with vehicle data and may route the call crash data is attached. When an ESInet is deployed the MNO only
to an NG-ACN capable PSAP; such a PSAP would interpet the vehicle needs to recognize the call as an emergency call and route it to an
data sent with the call and make it available to the call taker. ESInet. The ESInet may recognize the call as an ACN with vehicle
data and may route the call to an NG-ACN capable PSAP. Such a PSAP
would interpet the vehicle data sent with the call and make it
available to the call taker.
Because of the need to identify and specially process Next-Generation Because of the need to identify and specially process Next-Generation
ACN calls (as discussed above), this document registers new service ACN calls (as discussed above), [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] registers new
URN children within the "sos" subservice. These URNs provide the service URN children within the "sos" subservice. These URNs provide
mechanism by which an NG-ACN call is identified, and differentiate a mechanism by which an NG-ACN call is identified, and differentiate
between manually and automatically triggered NG-ACN calls (which may between manually and automatically triggered NG-ACN calls, which can
be subject to different treatment, depending on policy). The two be subject to different treatment, depending on policy. (The two
service URNs are: 'urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic' and service URNs registered in [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] are:
'urn:service:sos.vehicle.manual'. urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic and urn:service:sos.ecall.manual.)
Note that in North America, routing queries performed by clients Note that in North America, routing queries performed by clients
outside of an ESInet are likely to treat all sub-services of "sos" outside of an ESInet are likely to treat all sub-services of "sos"
identically to "sos" with no sub-service. However, the Request-URI identically to "sos" with no sub-service. However, the Request-URI
header field retains the full sub-service; route and handling header field retains the full sub-service; route and handling
decisions within an ESInet or PSAP may take the sub-service into decisions within an ESInet or PSAP may take the sub-service into
account. For example, in a region with multiple cooperating PSAPs, account. For example, in a region with multiple cooperating PSAPs,
an NG-ACN call might be routed to a PSAP that is NG-ACN capable, or an NG-ACN call might be routed to a PSAP that is NG-ACN capable, or
one that specializes in vehicle-related incidents. one that specializes in vehicle-related incidents.
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Figure 4: Next-Generation TSP Model Figure 4: Next-Generation TSP Model
The vehicle manufacturer and the TSP may choose to use the same IETF The vehicle manufacturer and the TSP may choose to use the same IETF
specifications to transmit crash and location data from the vehicle specifications to transmit crash and location data from the vehicle
to the TSP as is described here to transmit such data from the TSP to to the TSP as is described here to transmit such data from the TSP to
the PSAP. the PSAP.
In the paired model, the IVS uses a Bluetooth link to a previously- In the paired model, the IVS uses a Bluetooth link to a previously-
paired handset to establish an emergency call with the PSAP; it is paired handset to establish an emergency call with the PSAP; it is
not clear what facilities are or will be available for transmitting not clear what facilities are or will be available for transmitting
crash data through the Bluetooth link. crash data through the Bluetooth link to the handset for inclusion in
an NG emergency call.
+---+ +---+
///----\\\ (unclear) | H | (unclear) +------+ ///----\\\ (unclear) | H | (unclear) +------+
||| IVS |||------------------>| S +------------------->+ PSAP | ||| IVS |||------------------>| S +------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// (unclear) +---+ (unclear) +------+ \\\----/// (unclear) +---+ (unclear) +------+
Figure 5: Next-Generation Paired Model Figure 5: Next-Generation Paired Model
In the direct model, the IVS communicates crash data to the PSAP In the direct model, the IVS communicates crash data to the PSAP
directly using IETF specifications. directly using IETF specifications.
///----\\\ NG1-1-2/NG9-1-1 call +------+ ///----\\\ NG emergency call +------+
||| IVS |||----------------------------------------->+ PSAP | ||| IVS |||----------------------------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// crash data +------+ \\\----/// crash + other data +------+
Figure 6: Next-Generation Model Figure 6: Next-Generation Model
If the call is routed to a PSAP that is not capable of processing the
vehicle data, the PSAP ignores (or does not receive) the vehicle
data. This is detectable by the IVS or TSP when it receives a 200 OK
to the INVITE that lacks an eCall control structure acknowledging
receipt of the data [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. The IVS or TSP then
proceeds as it would for a non-NG ACN call (e.g., verbal conveyance
of data)
6. Profile 6. Profile
In the context of emergncy calls placed by an in-vehicle system it is In the context of emergncy calls placed by an in-vehicle system it is
assumed that the car is equipped with a built-in GNSS receiver. For assumed that the car is equipped with a built-in GNSS receiver. For
this reason only geodetic location information will be sent within an this reason only geodetic location information will be sent within an
emergency call. The following location shapes MUST be implemented: emergency call. The following location shapes MUST be implemented:
2d and 3d Point (see Section 5.2.1 of [RFC5491]), Circle (see 2d and 3d Point (see Section 5.2.1 of [RFC5491]), Circle (see
Section 5.2.3 of [RFC5491]), and Ellipsoid (see Section 5.2.7 of Section 5.2.3 of [RFC5491]), and Ellipsoid (see Section 5.2.7 of
[RFC5491]). The coordinate reference systems (CRS) specified in [RFC5491]). The coordinate reference systems (CRS) specified in
[RFC5491] are also mandatory for this document. The <direction> [RFC5491] are also mandatory for this document. The <direction>
element, as defined in [RFC5962] which indicates the direction of element, as defined in [RFC5962] which indicates the direction of
travel of the vehicle, is important for dispatch and hence it MUST be travel of the vehicle, is important for dispatch and hence it MUST be
included in the PIDF-LO [RFC4119]. The <heading> element specified included in the PIDF-LO [RFC4119]. The <heading> element specified
in [RFC5962] MUST be implemented and MAY be included. in [RFC5962] MUST be implemented and MAY be included.
Calls by in-vehicle systems are placed via cellular networks, which Calls by in-vehicle systems are placed via cellular networks, which
may ignore location sent by an originating device in an emergency may ignore location sent by an originating device in an emergency
call INVITE, instead attaching their own location (often determined call INVITE, instead attaching their own location (often determined
in cooperation with the originating device). The IVS MAY attach in cooperation with the originating device). Standardized crash data
location data to the call INVITE. Standardized crash data structures structures often include location as determined by the IVS. A
often include location as determined by the IVS. A benefit of this benefit of this is that it allows the PSAP to see both the location
is that it allows the PSAP to see both the location as determined by as determined by the cellular network (often in cooperation with the
the cellular network (often in cooperation with the originating originating device) and the location as determined by the IVS.
device) and the location as determined by the IVS.
This specification inherits the ability to utilize test call This specification inherits the ability to utilize test call
functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881]. functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881].
7. Call Setup 7. Call Setup
It is important that ACN calls be easily identifiable as such at all It is important that ACN calls be easily identifiable as such at all
stages of call handling, and that automatic versis manual triggering stages of call handling, and that automatic versus manual triggering
be known. ACN calls differ from general emergency calls in several be known. ACN calls differ from general emergency calls in several
aspects, including the presence of standardized crash data, the fact aspects, including the presence of standardized crash data, the fact
that the call is known to be placed by an in-vehicle system (which that the call is known to be placed by an in-vehicle system (which
has implications for PSAP operational processes), and, especially for has implications for PSAP operational processes), and, especially for
automatic calls, information that may indicate a likelihood of severe automatic calls, information that may indicate a likelihood of severe
injury and hence need for trauma services. Knowledge that a call is injury and hence need for trauma services. Knowledge that a call is
an ACN and further that it was automatically or manually invoked an ACN and further that it was automatically or manually invoked
carries a range of implications about the call, the circumstances, carries a range of implications about the call, the circumstances,
and the vehicle occupants. Calls by in-vehicle systems may be and the vehicle occupants. Calls by in-vehicle systems may be
considered a specific sub-class of general emergency calls and need considered a specific sub-class of general emergency calls and are
to be handled by a PSAP with the technical and operational optimally handled by a PSAP with the technical and operational
capabilities to serve such calls. (This is especially so in capabilities to serve such calls. (This is especially so in
environments such as the U.S. where there are many PSAPs and where environments such as the U.S. where there are many PSAPs and where
individual PSAPs have a range of capabilities.) Technical individual PSAPs have a range of capabilities.) Technical
capabilities include the ability to recognize and process capabilities include the ability to recognize and process
standardized crash data. Operational capabilities include training standardized crash data. Operational capabilities include training
and processes for assessing severe injury likelihood and responding and processes for assessing severe injury likelihood and responding
appropriately (e.g., dispatching trauma-capable medical responders, appropriately (e.g., dispatching trauma-capable medical responders or
transporting victims to a trauma center, alerting the receiving those trained and equipped to extract occupants from crashed vehicles
facility, etc.). and handle gasoline or other hazardous materials, transporting
victims to a trauma center, alerting the receiving facility, etc.).
Because ACN calls differ in significant ways from general emergency Because ACN calls differ in significant ways from general emergency
calls, and because such calls need to be handled by specialized PSAPs calls, and because such calls should be handled by specialized PSAPs
(equipped technically to interpet and make use of crash data, and (equipped technically to interpet and make use of crash data, and
operationally to handle emergency calls placed by in-vehicle operationally to handle emergency calls placed by in-vehicle
systems), this document proposes an SOS sub-service for ACN/car systems), [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] registers SOS sub-services. Using a
crash, specifically, "SOS.vehicle". Using a sub-service makes it sub-service makes it readily obvious that the call is an ACN; a
readily obvious that the call is an ACN; a further child elements is further child element distinguishes calls automatically placed due to
proposed to distinguish calls automatically placed due to a crash or a crash or other serious incident (such as a fire) from those
other serious incident (such as a fire) from those manually invoked manually invoked by a vehicle occupant (specifically,
by a vehicle occupant (specifically, "SOS.vehicle.automatic" and "SOS.ecall.automatic" and "SOS.ecall.manual"). The distinction
"SOS.vehicle.manual"). The distinction between automatic and manual between automatic and manual invocation is also significant;
invocation is also significant; automatically triggered calls automatically triggered calls indicate a car crash or some other
indicate a car crash or some other serious incident (e.g., a fire) serious incident (e.g., a fire) and carry a greater presumption of
and carry a greater presumption of risk of injury and hence need for risk of injury and hence need for specific responders (such as trauma
specific responders (such as trauma or fire). Manually triggered or fire). Manually triggered calls are often reports of serious
calls are often reports of serious hazards (such as drunk drivers) hazards (such as drunk drivers) and may require different responses
and may require different responses depending on the situation. depending on the situation. Manually triggered calls are also more
Manually triggered calls are also more likely to be false (e.g., likely to be false (e.g., accidental) calls and may thus be subject
accidental) calls and may thus be subject to different handling by to different handling by the PSAP.
the PSAP.
A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by
encoding it in a standardized and registered format and attaching it encoding it in a standardized and registered format and attaching it
to an INVITE as an additional data block as specified in Section 4.1 to an INVITE as an additional data block as specified in Section 4.1
of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]. As described in that document, of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]. As described in that document,
the block is identified by its MIME content-type, and pointed to by a the block is identified by its MIME content-type, and pointed to by a
CID URL in a Call-Info header with a 'purpose' parameter value CID URL in a Call-Info header with a 'purpose' parameter value
corresponding to the block. corresponding to the block.
Specifically, the steps required during standardization are: Specifically, the steps required during standardization are:
skipping to change at page 13, line 4 skipping to change at page 13, line 23
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
* For emergency-call-specific formats, the registered name is the * For emergency-call-specific formats, the registered name is the
root of the MIME Content-Type (not including the root of the MIME Content-Type (not including the
'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml') as 'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml') as
described in Section 4.1 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] described in Section 4.1 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
When placing an emergency call: When placing an emergency call:
o The crash data set is created and encoded per its specification o The crash data set is created and encoded per its specification
o The crash data set is attached to the emergency call INVITE as o The crash data set is attached to the emergency call INVITE as
specified in Section 4.1 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], that specified in Section 4.1 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], that
is, as a MIME body part identified by its MIME Content-Type in the is, as a MIME body part identified by its MIME Content-Type in the
body part's Content-Type header field body part's Content-Type header field
o The body part is assigned a unique identifier label in a Content- o The body part is assigned a unique identifier label in a Content-
ID header field of the body part ID header field of the body part
o A Call-Info header field at the top level of the INVITE references o A Call-Info header field at the top level of the INVITE is added
the crash data and identifies it by its MIME root (as registered that references the crash data and identifies it by its MIME root
in the Emergency Call Additional Data registry) (as registered in the Emergency Call Additional Data registry)
* The crash data is referenced in the Call-Info header field by a * The crash data is referenced in the Call-Info header field by a
CID URL that contains the unique Content ID assigned to the CID URL that contains the unique Content ID assigned to the
crash data body part crash data body part
* The crash data is identified in the Call-Info header field by a * The crash data is identified in the Call-Info header field by a
'purpose' parameter whose value is 'EmergencyCallData.' 'purpose' parameter whose value is 'EmergencyCallData.'
concatenated with the specific crash data entry in the concatenated with the specific crash data entry in the
Emergency Call Additional Data registry Emergency Call Additional Data registry
skipping to change at page 14, line 37 skipping to change at page 15, line 9
In an environment that uses ESInets, the originating network need In an environment that uses ESInets, the originating network need
only detect that the service URN of an emergency call is or starts only detect that the service URN of an emergency call is or starts
with "sos", passing all types of emergency calls to an ESInet. The with "sos", passing all types of emergency calls to an ESInet. The
ESInet is then responsible for routing such calls to an appropriate ESInet is then responsible for routing such calls to an appropriate
PSAP. In an environment without an ESInet, the emergency services PSAP. In an environment without an ESInet, the emergency services
authorities and the originating carriers would need to determine how authorities and the originating carriers would need to determine how
such calls are routed. such calls are routed.
9. Test Calls 9. Test Calls
This specification inherits the ability to utilize test call This document uses [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall], which inherits the ability
functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881]. to utilize test call functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881].
A service URN starting with "test." indicates a request for an A service URN starting with "test." indicates a request for an
automated test. For example, automated test. Per [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall],
"urn:service:test.sos.vehicle.automatic" indicates such a test "urn:service:test.sos.ecall.automatic" indicates such a test feature.
feature. This functionality is defined in [RFC6881]. This functionality is defined in [RFC6881].
Note that since test calls are placed using "test" as the parent Note that since test calls are placed using "test" as the parent
service URN and "sos" as a child, such calls are not treated as an service URN and "sos" as a child, such calls are not treated as an
emergency call and so some functionality will not apply (such as pre- emergency call and so some functionality will not apply (such as
emption or service availability for devices lacking service ("non- preemption or service availability for devices lacking service ("non-
service-initialized" or "NSI") if those are available for emergency service-initialized" or "NSI") if those are available for emergency
calls); this is by design. MNOs may recognize test calls and treat calls); this is by design. MNOs may recognize test calls and treat
them in a way that tests as much functionality as desired, but this them in a way that tests as much functionality as desired, but this
is outside the scope of this document. is outside the scope of this document.
10. Example 10. Example
Figure 7 shows an emergency call placed by a vehicle whereby location Figure 7 shows an emergency call placed by a vehicle whereby location
information and VEDS crash data are both attached to the SIP INVITE information and VEDS crash data are both attached to the SIP INVITE
message. The INVITE has a request URI containing the message. The INVITE has a request URI containing the
'urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic' service URN and is thus 'urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic' service URN and is thus recognized
recognized as an ACN type of emergency call, and is also recognized as an ACN type of emergency call, and is also recognized as a type of
as a type of emergency call because the request URI starts with emergency call because the request URI starts with 'urn:service:sos'.
'urn:service:sos'. The mobile network operator (MNO) routes the call The mobile network operator (MNO) routes the call to an Emergency
to an Emergency services IP Network (ESInet), as for any emergency services IP Network (ESInet), as for any emergency call. The ESInet
call. The ESInet processes the call as an ACN and routes the call to processes the call as an ACN and routes the call to an appropriate
an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP (using location information and the ACN-capable PSAP (using location information and the fact that that
fact that that it is an ACN). (In deployments where there is no it is an ACN). (In deployments where there is no ESInet, the MNO
ESInet, the MNO itself needs to route directly to an appropriate ACN- itself needs to route directly to an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP.)
capable PSAP.) The call is processed by the Emergency Services The call is processed by the Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP),
Routing Proxy (ESRP), as the entry point to the ESInet. The ESRP as the entry point to the ESInet. The ESRP routes the call to an
routes the call to an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP, where the call is appropriate ACN-capable PSAP, where the call is received by a call
received by a call taker. taker.
+---------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------+
| | | |
+------------+ | +-------+ | +------------+ | +-------+ |
| | | | PSAP2 | | | | | | PSAP2 | |
| | | +-------+ | | | | +-------+ |
| Originating| | | | Originating| | |
| Mobile | | +------+ +-------+ | | Mobile | | +------+ +-------+ |
Vehicle-->| Network |--+->| ESRP |---->| PSAP1 |--> Call-Taker | Vehicle-->| Network |--+->| ESRP |---->| PSAP1 |--> Call-Taker |
| | | +------+ +-------+ | | | | +------+ +-------+ |
skipping to change at page 15, line 51 skipping to change at page 16, line 30
| | | |
| ESInet | | ESInet |
+---------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------+
Figure 7: Example of Vehicle-Placed Emergency Call Message Flow Figure 7: Example of Vehicle-Placed Emergency Call Message Flow
The example, shown in Figure 8, illustrates a SIP emergency call The example, shown in Figure 8, illustrates a SIP emergency call
INVITE that is being conveyed with location information (a PIDF-LO) INVITE that is being conveyed with location information (a PIDF-LO)
and crash data (as VEDS data). and crash data (as VEDS data).
INVITE urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic SIP/2.0 INVITE urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic SIP/2.0
To: urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic To: urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic
From: <sip:+13145551111@example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl From: <sip:+13145551111@example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com
Geolocation: <cid:target123@example.com> Geolocation: <cid:target123@example.com>
Geolocation-Routing: no Geolocation-Routing: no
Call-Info: cid:1234567890@atlanta.example.com; Call-Info: cid:1234567890@atlanta.example.com;
purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS
Accept: application/sdp, application/pidf+xml Accept: application/sdp, application/pidf+xml
CSeq: 31862 INVITE CSeq: 31862 INVITE
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary1 Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary1
Content-Length: ... Content-Length: ...
skipping to change at page 17, line 25 skipping to change at page 17, line 50
Figure 8: SIP INVITE indicating a Vehicule-Initated Emergency Call Figure 8: SIP INVITE indicating a Vehicule-Initated Emergency Call
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
This document does not raise security considerations beyond those This document does not raise security considerations beyond those
described in [RFC5069]. As with emergency service systems with end described in [RFC5069]. As with emergency service systems with end
host provided location information there is the possibility that that host provided location information there is the possibility that that
location is incorrect, either intentially (in case of an a denial of location is incorrect, either intentially (in case of an a denial of
service attack against the emergency services infrastructure) or due service attack against the emergency services infrastructure) or due
to a malfunctioning devices. The reader is referred to to a malfunctioning device. The reader is referred to
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location] for a discussion of some of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location] for a discussion of some of
these vulnerabilities. these vulnerabilities.
12. IANA Considerations 12. IANA Considerations
12.1. Service URN Registration 12.1. MIME Content-type Registration for 'application/
IANA is requested to register the URN 'urn:service:sos.vehicle' under
the sub-services 'sos' registry defined in Section 4.2 of [RFC5031].
This service identifier reaches a public safety answering point
(PSAP), which in turn dispatches aid appropriate to the emergency
related to accidents of vehicles. The following two sub-services are
registered as well:
urn:service:sos.vehicle.manual
This service URN indicates that an emergency call carrying vehicle
sensor ("crash") data has been placed by an in-vehicle system
(IVS) based on the manual interaction of the driver or a
passenger.
urn:service:sos.vehicle.automatic
This service URN indicates that an emergency call carrying vehicle
sensor ("crash") data has been placed by an in-vehicle system
(IVS) triggered automatically, for example, due to a crash.
12.2. MIME Content-type Registration for 'application/
EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml' EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml'
This specification requests the registration of a new MIME type This specification requests the registration of a new MIME type
according to the procedures of RFC 4288 [RFC4288] and guidelines in according to the procedures of RFC 4288 [RFC4288] and guidelines in
RFC 3023 [RFC3023]. RFC 3023 [RFC3023].
MIME media type name: application MIME media type name: application
MIME subtype name: EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml MIME subtype name: EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml
skipping to change at page 18, line 48 skipping to change at page 19, line 4
Applications which use this media type: Emergency Services Applications which use this media type: Emergency Services
Additional information: None Additional information: None
Magic Number: None Magic Number: None
File Extension: .xml File Extension: .xml
Macintosh file type code: 'TEXT' Macintosh file type code: 'TEXT'
Person and email address for further information: Hannes Person and email address for further information: Hannes
Tschofenig, Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net Tschofenig, Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net
Intended usage: LIMITED USE Intended usage: LIMITED USE
Author: This specification is a work item of the IETF ECRIT Author: This specification is a work item of the IETF ECRIT
working group, with mailing list address <ecrit@ietf.org>. working group, with mailing list address <ecrit@ietf.org>.
Change controller: The IESG <ietf@ietf.org> Change controller: The IESG <ietf@ietf.org>
12.3. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional 12.2. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional
Data registry Data registry
This specification requests IANA to add the 'VEDS' entry to the This specification requests IANA to add the 'VEDS' entry to the
Emergency Call Additional Data registry, with a reference to this Emergency Call Additional Data registry, with a reference to this
document. The Emergency Call Additional Data registry has been document. The Emergency Call Additional Data registry has been
established by [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]. established by [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data].
13. Contributors 13. Contributors
We would like to thank Ulrich Dietz for his help with earlier We would like to thank Ulrich Dietz for his help with earlier
versions of the original version of this document. versions of the original version of this document.
14. Acknowledgements 14. Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Michael Montag, Arnoud van Wijk, Ban Al-Bakri, We would like to thank Michael Montag, Arnoud van Wijk, Ban Al-Bakri,
and Gunnar Hellstrom for their feedback. and Gunnar Hellstrom for their feedback.
15. Changes from Previous Versions 15. Changes from Previous Versions
15.1. Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01 15.1. Changes from draft-ietf-01 to draft-ietf-02
o Added further discussion of test calls o This document now refers to [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] for technical
aspects including the service URN; this document no longer
proposes a unique service URN for non-eCall NG-ACN calls; the same
service URN is now used for all NG-ACN calls including NG-eCall
and non-eCall
o Added discussion of an NG-ACN call placed to a PSAP that doesn't
support it
o Minor wording improvements and clarifications
o Added further clarification to the document scope 15.2. Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01
o Added further discussion of test calls
o Added further clarification to the document scope
o Mentioned that multi-region vehicles may need to support other o Mentioned that multi-region vehicles may need to support other
crash notification specifications such as eCall crash notification specifications such as eCall
o Minor wording improvements and clarifications o Minor wording improvements and clarifications
15.2. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00 15.3. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00
o Renamed from draft-gellens- to draft-ietf- o Renamed from draft-gellens- to draft-ietf-
o Added text to Introduction to clarify that during a CS ACN, the o Added text to Introduction to clarify that during a CS ACN, the
PSAP call taker usually needs to listen to the data and transcribe PSAP call taker usually needs to listen to the data and transcribe
it it
15.3. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 15.4. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02
o Fixed case of 'EmergencyCallData', in accordance with changes to o Fixed case of 'EmergencyCallData', in accordance with changes to
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
15.4. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 15.5. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01
o Now using 'EmergencyCallData' for purpose parameter values and o Now using 'EmergencyCallData' for purpose parameter values and
MIME subtypes, in accordance with changes to MIME subtypes, in accordance with changes to
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
o Added reference to RFC 6443 o Added reference to RFC 6443
o Fixed bug that caused Figure captions to not appear o Fixed bug that caused Figure captions to not appear
16. References 16. References
16.1. Normative References 16.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
Rosen, B., Tschofenig, H., Marshall, R., Randy, R., and J. Randy, R., Rosen, B., Tschofenig, H., Marshall, R., and J.
Winterbottom, "Additional Data related to an Emergency Winterbottom, "Additional Data related to an Emergency
Call", draft-ietf-ecrit-additional-data-15 (work in Call", draft-ietf-ecrit-additional-data-24 (work in
progress), November 2013. progress), October 2014.
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]
Gellens, R. and H. Tschofenig, "Next-Generation Pan-
European eCall", draft-ietf-ecrit-ecall (work in
progress), March 2015.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3023] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media [RFC3023] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media
Types", RFC 3023, January 2001. Types", RFC 3023, January 2001.
[RFC4119] Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object [RFC4119] Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object
Format", RFC 4119, December 2005. Format", RFC 4119, December 2005.
skipping to change at page 21, line 24 skipping to change at page 21, line 33
[RFC6881] Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for [RFC6881] Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for
Communications Services in Support of Emergency Calling", Communications Services in Support of Emergency Calling",
BCP 181, RFC 6881, March 2013. BCP 181, RFC 6881, March 2013.
[VEDS] "Vehicular Emergency Data Set (VEDS) version 3", July [VEDS] "Vehicular Emergency Data Set (VEDS) version 3", July
2012, <http://apcointl.org/resources/ 2012, <http://apcointl.org/resources/
aacn-and-veds/2012-07-25-19-24-06.html>. aacn-and-veds/2012-07-25-19-24-06.html>.
16.2. Informative references 16.2. Informative references
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]
Gellens, R. and H. Tschofenig, "Next-Generation Pan-
European eCall", draft-ietf-ecrit-ecall (work in
progress), October 2014.
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location]
Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and B. Aboba, Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and B. Aboba,
"Trustworthy Location", draft-ietf-ecrit-trustworthy- "Trustworthy Location", draft-ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-
location-07 (work in progress), July 2013. location-14 (work in progress), July 2014.
[RFC5012] Schulzrinne, H. and R. Marshall, "Requirements for [RFC5012] Schulzrinne, H. and R. Marshall, "Requirements for
Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies", Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies",
RFC 5012, January 2008. RFC 5012, January 2008.
[RFC5069] Taylor, T., Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and M. [RFC5069] Taylor, T., Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and M.
Shanmugam, "Security Threats and Requirements for Shanmugam, "Security Threats and Requirements for
Emergency Call Marking and Mapping", RFC 5069, January Emergency Call Marking and Mapping", RFC 5069, January
2008. 2008.
 End of changes. 60 change blocks. 
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