draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-03.txt   draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-04.txt 
ECRIT R. Gellens ECRIT R. Gellens
Internet-Draft Qualcomm Technologies, Inc Internet-Draft Qualcomm Technologies, Inc
Intended status: Informational B. Rosen Intended status: Informational B. Rosen
Expires: January 3, 2016 NeuStar, Inc. Expires: April 20, 2016 NeuStar, Inc.
H. Tschofenig H. Tschofenig
(Individual)
July 4, 2015 October 18, 2015
Next-Generation Vehicle-Initiated Emergency Calls Next-Generation Vehicle-Initiated Emergency Calls
draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-03.txt draft-ietf-ecrit-car-crash-04.txt
Abstract Abstract
This document describes how to use IP-based emergency services This document describes how to use IP-based emergency services
mechanisms to support the next generation of emergency calls placed mechanisms to support the next generation of emergency calls placed
by vehicles (automatically in the event of a crash or serious by vehicles (automatically in the event of a crash or serious
incident, or manually invoked by a vehicle occupant) and conveying incident, or manually invoked by a vehicle occupant) and conveying
vehicle, sensor, and location data related to the crash or incident. vehicle, sensor, and location data related to the crash or incident.
Such calls are often referred to as "Automatic Crash Notification" Such calls are often referred to as "Automatic Crash Notification"
(ACN), or "Advanced Automatic Crash Notification" (AACN), even in the (ACN), or "Advanced Automatic Crash Notification" (AACN), even in the
case of manual trigger. The "Advanced" qualifier refers to the case of manual trigger. The "Advanced" qualifier refers to the
ability to carry a richer set of data. ability to carry a richer set of data.
This document also registers a MIME Content Type and an Emergency This document also registers a MIME Content Type and an Emergency
Call Additional Data Block for the vehicle, sensor, and location data Call Additional Data Block for the vehicle, sensor, and location data
(often referred to as "crash data" even though there is not (often referred to as "crash data" even though there is not
necessarily a crash). An external specification for the data format, necessarily a crash). An external specification for the data format,
contents, and structure are referenced in this document. contents, and structure are referenced in this document.
Profiling and simplifications of the general emergency call
mechanism, as described in [RFC6443] and [RFC6881], are possible due
to the nature of the functionality that is provided in vehicles such
as the usage of Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS).
This document reuses the technical aspects of next-generation pan- This document reuses the technical aspects of next-generation pan-
European eCall (a mandated and standardized system for emergency European eCall (a mandated and standardized system for emergency
calls by in-vehicle systems within Europe and other regions), as calls by in-vehicle systems within Europe and other regions).
described in [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. However, this document However, this document specifies a different set of vehicle (crash)
specifies a different set of vehicle (crash) data, specifically, the data, specifically, the Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) rather than
Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) rather than the eCall Minimum Set the eCall Minimum Set of Data (MSD). This document is an extension
of Data (MSD). of the eCall document, with the differences being that this document
makes the MSD data set optional and VEDS mandatory. This document
also discusses legacy (curcuit-switched) ACN systems and their
migration to next-generation emergency calling.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on January 3, 2016. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 20, 2016.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Overview of Current Deployment Models . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Document Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. Document Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. Overview of Legacy Deployment Models . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. Migration to Next-Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Migration to Next-Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6. Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7. Call Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7. Call Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
8. Call Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. Call Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9. Test Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9. Test Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 12. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.1. MIME Content-type Registration for 13. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
'application/EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml' . . . . . . . . . . 18 13.1. MIME Content-type Registration for
12.2. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call 'application/EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml' . . . . . . . . . . 21
Additional Data registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 13.2. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call
13. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Additional Data registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
14. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 14. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
15. Changes from Previous Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 15. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
15.1. Changes from draft-ietf-01 to draft-ietf-02 . . . . . . 19 16. Changes from Previous Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
15.2. Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01 . . . . . . 19 16.1. Changes from draft-ietf-03 to draft-ietf-04 . . . . . . 23
15.3. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00 . . . . . 20 16.2. Changes from draft-ietf-02 to draft-ietf-03 . . . . . . 23
15.4. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . 20 16.3. Changes from draft-ietf-01 to draft-ietf-02 . . . . . . 23
15.5. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . 20 16.4. Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01 . . . . . . 23
16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 16.5. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00 . . . . . 23
16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 16.6. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . 24
16.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 16.7. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . 24
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 17. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
17.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
17.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1. Terminology 1. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
This document re-uses terminology defined in Section 3 of [RFC5012]. This document re-uses terminology defined in Section 3 of [RFC5012].
Additionally, we use the following abbreviations: Additionally, we use the following abbreviations:
skipping to change at page 4, line 4 skipping to change at page 4, line 7
2. Introduction 2. Introduction
Emergency calls made by in-vehicle systems (e.g., in the event of a Emergency calls made by in-vehicle systems (e.g., in the event of a
crash) assist in significantly reducing road deaths and injuries by crash) assist in significantly reducing road deaths and injuries by
allowing emergency services to respond quickly and often with better allowing emergency services to respond quickly and often with better
location. location.
Drivers often have a poor location awareness, especially outside of Drivers often have a poor location awareness, especially outside of
major cities, at night and when away from home (especially abroad). major cities, at night and when away from home (especially abroad).
In the most crucial cases, the victim(s) might not be able to call
In the most crucial cases, the victim(s) may not be able to call
because they have been injured or trapped. because they have been injured or trapped.
For more than a decade, some vehicles have been equipped with For more than a decade, some vehicles have been equipped with
telematics systems that, among other features, place an emergency telematics systems that, among other features, place an emergency
call automatically in the event of a crash or manually in response to call automatically in the event of a crash or manually in response to
an emergency call button. Such systems generally have on-board an emergency call button. Such systems generally have on-board
location determination systems that make use of satellite-based location determination systems that make use of satellite-based
positioning technology, inertial sensors, gyroscopes, etc., to positioning technology, inertial sensors, gyroscopes, etc., to
provide a fairly accurate position for the vehicle. Such built-in provide a fairly accurate position for the vehicle. Such built-in
systems can take advantage of the benefits of being integrated into a systems can take advantage of the benefits of being integrated into a
skipping to change at page 4, line 36 skipping to change at page 4, line 38
The general term for such systems is Automatic Crash Notification The general term for such systems is Automatic Crash Notification
(ACN) or "Advanced Automatic Crash Notification" (AACN). "ACN" is (ACN) or "Advanced Automatic Crash Notification" (AACN). "ACN" is
used in this document as a general term. ACN systems transmit some used in this document as a general term. ACN systems transmit some
amount of data specific to the incident, referred to generally as amount of data specific to the incident, referred to generally as
"crash data" (the term is commonly used even though there might not "crash data" (the term is commonly used even though there might not
have been a crash). While different systems transmit different have been a crash). While different systems transmit different
amounts of crash data, standardized formats, structures, and amounts of crash data, standardized formats, structures, and
mechanisms are needed to provide interoperability among systems and mechanisms are needed to provide interoperability among systems and
PSAPs. PSAPs.
Currently deployed in-vehicle telematics systems are circuit-switched As of the date of this document, currently deployed in-vehicle
and lack a standards-based ability to convey crash data directly to telematics systems are circuit-switched and lack a standards-based
the PSAP (generally relying on either a human call taker or an ability to convey crash data directly to the PSAP (generally relying
automated system to provide the PSAP call taker with some crash data on either a human call taker or an automated system to provide the
orally, or possibly a proprietary mechanism). The PSAP call taker PSAP call taker with some crash data orally, or possibly a
needs to first realize that the call is related to a vehicle proprietary mechanism). The PSAP call taker needs to first realize
incident, and in most cases must then listen to the data and that the call is related to a vehicle incident, and in most cases
transcribe it. must then listen to the data and transcribe it.
The transition to next-generation calling in general, and emergency The transition to next-generation calling in general, and emergency
calling in particular, provides an opportunity to vastly improve the calling in particular, provides an opportunity to vastly improve the
scope, breadth, reliability and usefulness of crash data during an scope, breadth, reliability and usefulness of crash data during an
emergency by allowing it to be presented alongside the call, and to emergency by allowing it to be presented alongside the call, and to
be automatically processed by the PSAP and made available to the call be automatically processed by the PSAP and made available to the call
taker in an integrated, automated way. In addition, vehicle taker in an integrated, automated way. In addition, vehicle
manufacturers are provided an opportunity to take advantage of the manufacturers are provided an opportunity to take advantage of the
same standardized mechanisms for data transmission for internal use same standardized mechanisms for data transmission for internal use
if they wish (such as telemetry between the vehicle and a service if they wish (such as telemetry between the vehicle and a service
center for both emergency and non-emergency uses, including location- center for both emergency and non-emergency uses, including location-
based services, multi-media entertainment systems, and road-side based services, multi-media entertainment systems, and road-side
assistance applications). assistance applications).
Next-generation ACN provides an opportunity for such calls to be Next-generation ACN provides an opportunity for such calls to be
recognized and processed as such during call set-up, and optionally recognized and processed as such during call set-up, and optionally
routed to an upgraded PSAP where the vehicle data is available to routed to an upgraded PSAP where the vehicle data is available to
assist the call taker in assessing and responding to the situation. assist the call taker in assessing and responding to the situation.
An ACN call may be either occupant-initiated or automatically An ACN call can be either occupant-initiated or automatically
triggered. (The "A" in "ACN" does stand for "Automatic," but the triggered. (The "A" in "ACN" does stand for "Automatic," but the
term is often used to refer to the class of calls that are placed by term is often used to refer to the class of calls that are placed by
an in-vehicle system (IVS) and that carry incident-related data as an in-vehicle system (IVS) and that carry incident-related data as
well as voice.) Automatically triggered calls indicate a car crash well as voice.) Automatically triggered calls indicate a car crash
or some other serious incident (e.g., a fire) and carry a greater or some other serious incident (e.g., a fire) and carry a greater
presumption of risk of injury. Manually triggered calls are often presumption of risk of injury. Manually triggered calls are often
reports of serious hazards (such as impaired drivers or roadway reports of serious hazards (such as impaired drivers or roadway
debris) and may require different responses depending on the debris) and might require different responses depending on the
situation. Manually triggered calls are also more likely to be false situation. Manually triggered calls are also more likely to be false
(e.g., accidental) calls and may thus be subject to different (e.g., accidental) calls and so might be subject to different
handling by the PSAP. operational handling by the PSAP.
This document describes how the IETF mechanisms for IP-based This document describes how the IETF mechanisms for IP-based
emergency calls, including [RFC6443] and emergency calls, including [RFC6443] and
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], are used to provide the realization [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], are used to provide the realization
of next-generation ACN. of next-generation ACN.
This document reuses the technical aspects of next-generation pan-
European eCall (a mandated and standardized system for emergency
calls by in-vehicle systems within Europe and other regions), as
described in [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. However, this document
specifies a different set of vehicle (crash) data, specifically, the
Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) rather than the eCall Minimum Set
of Data (MSD). This document is an extension of
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall], with the differences being that this document
makes the MSD data set optional and VEDS mandatory.
The Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) and The Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) and
the National Emergency Number Association (NENA) have jointly the National Emergency Number Association (NENA) have jointly
developed a standardized set of incident-related vehicle data for ACN developed a standardized set of incident-related vehicle data for ACN
use, called the Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) [VEDS]. Such data use, called the Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) [VEDS]. Such data
is often referred to as crash data although it is applicable in is often referred to as crash data although it is applicable in
incidents other than crashes. incidents other than crashes.
VEDS provides a standard data set for the transmission, exchange, and VEDS provides a standard data set for the transmission, exchange, and
interpretation of vehicle-related data. A standard data format interpretation of vehicle-related data. A standard data format
allows the data to be generated by an IVS, and interpreted by PSAPs, allows the data to be generated by an IVS, and interpreted by PSAPs,
emergency responders, and medical facilities (including those capable emergency responders, and medical facilities (including those capable
of providing trauma level patient care). It includes incident- of providing trauma level patient care). It includes incident-
related information such as airbag deployment, location of the related information such as airbag deployment, location of the
vehicle, if the vehicle was involved in a rollover, various sensor vehicle, if the vehicle was involved in a rollover, various sensor
data that can indicate the potential severity of the crash and the data that can indicate the potential severity of the crash and the
likelihood of severe injuries to the vehicle occupants, etc. This likelihood of severe injuries to the vehicle occupants, etc. This
data better informs the PSAP and emergency responders as to the type data better informs the PSAP and emergency responders as to the type
of response that may be needed. This information was recently of response that might be needed. This information was recently
included in the federal guidelines for field triage of injured included in the federal guidelines for field triage of injured
patients. These guidelines are designed to help responders at the patients. These guidelines are designed to help responders at the
accident scene identify the potential existence of severe internal accident scene identify the potential existence of severe internal
injuries and to make critical decisions about how and where a patient injuries and to make critical decisions about how and where a patient
needs to be transported. needs to be transported.
This document registers the 'application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' This document registers the 'application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml'
MIME content-type, and registers the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency MIME content-type, and registers the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency
Call Additional Data registry. Call Additional Data registry.
skipping to change at page 6, line 25 skipping to change at page 6, line 39
used to construct a 'purpose' parameter value for conveying VEDS data used to construct a 'purpose' parameter value for conveying VEDS data
in a Call-Info header (as described in in a Call-Info header (as described in
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]). [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]).
VEDS is a versatile structure that can accomodate varied needs. VEDS is a versatile structure that can accomodate varied needs.
However, if additional sets of data are determined to be needed However, if additional sets of data are determined to be needed
(e.g., in the future or in different regions), the steps to enable (e.g., in the future or in different regions), the steps to enable
each data block are very briefly summarized below: each data block are very briefly summarized below:
o A standardized format and encoding (such as XML) is defined and o A standardized format and encoding (such as XML) is defined and
published by a Standards Development Organization (SDO). published by a Standards Development Organization (SDO)
o A MIME Content-Type is registered for it (typically under the o A MIME Content-Type is registered for it (typically under the
'Application' media type and with a sub-type starting with 'Application' media type) with a sub-type starting with
'EmergencyCallData.'). 'EmergencyCallData.'
o An entry for the block is added to the Emergency Call Additional o An entry for the block is added to the Emergency Call Additional
Data Blocks sub-registry (established by Data Blocks sub-registry (established by
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]); the registry entry is the root [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]); the registry entry is the root
of the MIME sub-type (not including the 'EmergencyCallData' prefix of the MIME sub-type (not including the 'EmergencyCallData' prefix
and any suffix such as '+xml'). and any suffix such as '+xml')
A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by
encoding it in a standardized and registered format (such as VEDS) encoding it in a standardized and registered format (such as VEDS)
and attaching it to an INVITE as a MIME body part. The body part is and attaching it to an INVITE as a MIME body part. The body part is
identified by its MIME content-type (such as 'application/ identified by its MIME content-type (such as 'application/
EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml') in the Content-Type header field of the EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml') in the Content-Type header field of the
body part. The body part is assigned a unique identifier which is body part. The body part is assigned a unique identifier which is
listed in a Content-ID header field in the body part. The INVITE is listed in a Content-ID header field in the body part. The INVITE is
marked as containing the crash data by adding a Call-Info header marked as containing the crash data by adding a Call-Info header
field at the top level of the INVITE. This Call-Info header field field at the top level of the INVITE. This Call-Info header field
contains a CID URL referencing the body part's unique identifier, and contains a CID URL referencing the body part's unique identifier, and
a 'purpose' parameter identifying the data as the crash data per the a 'purpose' parameter identifying the data as the crash data per the
registry entry; the 'purpose' parameter's value is registry entry; the 'purpose' parameter's value is
'EmergencyCallData.' and the root of the MIME type (not including the 'EmergencyCallData.' and the root of the MIME type (the
'EmergencyCallData' prefix and any suffix such as '+xml' (e.g., 'EmergencyCallData' prefix is not repeated), omitting any suffix such
'purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS'). as '+xml' (e.g., 'purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS').
The mechanisms described here are thus used to place emergency calls These mechanisms are thus used to place emergency calls that are
that are identifiable as ACN calls and that carry one or more identifiable as ACN calls and that carry one or more standardized
standardized crash data objects in an interoperable way. crash data objects in an interoperable way.
3. Overview of Current Deployment Models 3. Document Scope
Current (circuit-switched or legacy) systems for placing emergency This document is focused on the interface to the PSAP, that is, how
calls by in-vehicle systems, including automatic crash notification an ACN emergency call is setup and incident-related data (including
systems, generally have a limited ability to convey at least location vehicle, sensor, and location data) is transmitted to the PSAP using
and in some cases telematics data to the PSAP. Most such systems use IETF specifications. (The goal is to re-use specifications rather
one of three architectural models, which are described here as: than to invent new.) For the direct model, this is the end-to-end
"Telematics Service Provider" (TSP), "direct", and "paired handset". description (between the vehicle and the PSAP). For the TSP model,
These three models are illustrated below. this describes the right-hand side (between the TSP and the PSAP),
leaving the left-hand side (between the vehicle and the TSP) up to
the entities involved (i.e., IVS and TSP vendors) who are then free
to use the same mechanism as for the right-hand side (or not).
Note that while ACN systems in the U.S. and other regions are not
currently (as of the date of this document) mandated, Europe has a
mandated and standardized system for emergency calls by in-vehicle
systems. This pan-European system is known as "eCall" and is the
subject of a separate document, [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall], which this
document build on. Vehicles designed to operate in multiple regions
might need to support eCall as well as the ACN described here. If
other regions devise their own specifications or data formats, a
multi-region vehicle might need to support those as well. This
document adopts the call set-up and other technical aspects of
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall], which uses [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data],
which makes it easy to substitute a different data set while keeping
other technical aspects unchanged. Hence, both NG-eCall and the NG-
ACN mechanism described here are fully compatible, differing only in
the specific data block that is sent (the eCall MSD in the case of
NG-eCall, and the APCO/NENA VEDS used in this document). If other
regions adopt their own data set, this can be similarly accomodated
without changing other technical aspects.
4. Overview of Legacy Deployment Models
Legacy (circuit-switched) systems for placing emergency calls by in-
vehicle systems, including automatic crash notification systems,
generally have some ability to convey at least location and in some
cases telematics data to the PSAP. Most such systems use one of
three architectural models, which are described here as: "Telematics
Service Provider" (TSP), "direct", and "paired". These three models
are illustrated below.
In the TSP model, both emergency and non-emergency calls are placed In the TSP model, both emergency and non-emergency calls are placed
to a Telematics Service Provider (TSP); a proprietary technique is to a Telematics Service Provider (TSP); a proprietary technique is
used for data transfer (such as proprietary in-band modems) to the used for data transfer (such as proprietary in-band modems) to the
TSP. TSP.
In an emergency, the TSP call taker bridges in the PSAP and In an emergency, the TSP call taker bridges in the PSAP and
communicates location, crash data (such as impact severity and trauma communicates location, crash data (such as impact severity and trauma
prediction), and other data (such as the vehicle description) to the prediction), and other data (such as the vehicle description) to the
PSAP call taker verbally. Typically, a three-way voice call is PSAP call taker verbally. Since the TSP knows the location of the
established between the vehicle, the TSP, and the PSAP, allowing vehicle (from on-board GNSS), location-based routing is usually used
communication between the PSAP call taker, the TSP call taker, and to route to the appropriate PSAP. In some cases, the TSP is able to
the vehicle occupants (who might be unconscious). transmit location automatically, using similar techniques as for
wireless calls. Typically, a three-way voice call is established
between the vehicle, the TSP, and the PSAP, allowing communication
between the PSAP call taker, the TSP call taker, and the vehicle
occupants (who might be unconscious).
///----\\\ proprietary +------+ 911 trunk +------+ ///----\\\ proprietary +------+ 911 trunk +------+
||| IVS |||-------------->+ TSP +------------------>+ PSAP | ||| IVS |||-------------->+ TSP +------------------>+ PSAP |
\\\----/// crash data +------+ +------+ \\\----/// crash data +------+ +------+
Figure 1: Legacy TSP Model. Figure 1: Legacy TSP Model.
In the paired model, the IVS uses a Bluetooth link with a previously- In the paired model, the IVS uses a Bluetooth link with a previously-
paired handset to establish an emergency call with the PSAP (by paired handset to establish an emergency call with the PSAP (by
dialing a standard emergency number such as 9-1-1), and then dialing a standard emergency number such as 9-1-1), and then
communicates location data to the PSAP via text-to-speech; crash data communicates location data to the PSAP via text-to-speech; crash data
is not conveyed. Some such systems use an automated voice prompt might or might not be conveyed also using text-to-speech in an
menu (e.g., "this is an automatic emergency call from a vehicle; initial voice greeting. Some such systems use an automated voice
press 1 to open a voice path to the vehicle; press 2 to hear the prompt menu for the PSAP call taker (e.g., "this is an automatic
location read out") to allow the call taker to request location data emergency call from a vehicle; press 1 to open a voice path to the
via text-to-speech. vehicle; press 2 to hear the location read out") to allow the call
taker to request location data via text-to-speech.
+---+ +---+
///----\\\ | H | 911/etc voice call via handset +------+ ///----\\\ | H | 911/etc voice call via handset +------+
||| IVS |||-->| S +----------------------------------->+ PSAP | ||| IVS |||-->| S +----------------------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// +---+ location via text-to-speech +------+ \\\----/// +---+ location via text-to-speech +------+
Figure 2: Legacy Paired Model Figure 2: Legacy Paired Model
In the direct model, the IVS directly places an emergency call with In the direct model, the IVS directly places an emergency call with
the PSAP by dialing a standard emergency number such as 9-1-1. Such the PSAP by dialing a standard emergency number such as 9-1-1. Such
systems might communicate location data to the PSAP via text-to- systems might communicate location data to the PSAP via text-to-
speech; crash data might not be conveyed. speech; crash data might or might not be conveyed using text-to-
speech in an initial voice greeting. Some such systems use an
automated voice prompt menu (e.g., "this is an automatic emergency
call from a vehicle; press 1 to open a voice path to the vehicle;
press 2 to hear the location read out") to allow the call taker to
request location data via text-to-speech.
///----\\\ 911/etc voice call via IVS +------+ ///----\\\ 911/etc voice call via IVS +------+
||| IVS |||---------------------------------------->+ PSAP | ||| IVS |||---------------------------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// location via text-to-speech +------+ \\\----/// location via text-to-speech +------+
Figure 3: Legacy Direct Model Figure 3: Legacy Direct Model
4. Document Scope
This document is focused on the interface to the PSAP, that is, how
an ACN emergency call is setup and incident-related data (including
vehicle, sensor, and location data) is transmitted to the PSAP using
IETF specifications. (The goal is to re-use specifications rather
than to invent new.) For the direct model, this is the end-to-end
description (between the vehicle and the PSAP). For the TSP model,
this describes the right-hand side (between the TSP and the PSAP),
leaving the left-hand side (between the vehicle and the TSP) up to
the entities involved (i.e., IVS and TSP vendors) who are then free
to use the same mechanism as for the right-hand side (or not).
Note that while ACN systems in the U.S. and other regions are not
currently mandated, Europe has a mandated and standardized system for
emergency calls by in-vehicle systems. This pan-European system is
known as "eCall" and is the subject of a separate document,
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. Vehicles designed to operate in multiple
regions may need to support eCall as well as the ACN described here.
If other regions devise their own specifications or data formats, a
multi-region vehicle may need to support those as well. This
document adopts the call set-up and other technical aspects of
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall], which uses [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data],
which makes it easy to substitute a different data set while keeping
other technical aspects unchanged. Hence, both NG-eCall and the ACN
mechanism described here are fully compatible, differing only in the
specific data block that is sent (the eCall MSD in the case of NG-
eCall, and the APCO/NENA VEDS used in this document). If other
regions adopt their own data set, this can be similarly accomodated
without changing other technical aspects.
5. Migration to Next-Generation 5. Migration to Next-Generation
Migration of emergency calls placed by in-vehicle systems to next- Migration of emergency calls placed by in-vehicle systems to next-
generation (all-IP) technology provides a standardized mechanism to generation (all-IP) technology provides a standardized mechanism to
identify such calls and to present crash data with the call. This identify such calls and to present crash data with the call, as well
allows ACN calls and crash data to be automatically processed by the as enabling additional communications modalities and enhanced
PSAP and made available to the call taker in an integrated, automated functionality. This allows ACN calls and crash data to be
way. Because the crash data is carried in the initial SIP INVITE automatically processed by the PSAP and made available to the call
(per [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]) the PSAP can present it to the taker in an integrated, automated way. Because the crash data is
call taker simultaneously with the appearance of the call. carried in the initial SIP INVITE (per
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]) the PSAP can present it to the call
taker simultaneously with the appearance of the call.
Vehicle manufacturers using the TSP model may choose to take Migration to next-generation (NG) thus provides an opportunity to
significantly improve the handling and response to vehicle-initiated
emergency calls. Such calls can be recognized as originating from a
vehicle, routed to a PSAP equipped both technically and operationally
to handle such calls, and the vehicle-determined location and crash
data can be made available to the call taker simultaneously with the
call appearance.
Vehicle manufacturers using the TSP model can choose to take
advantage of the same mechanism to carry telematics data between the advantage of the same mechanism to carry telematics data between the
vehicle and the TSP for both emergency and non-emergency calls. vehicle and the TSP for both emergency and non-emergency calls as are
used to convey this data to the PSAP.
A next-generation IVS establishes an emergency call using the A next-generation IVS establishes an emergency call using the
emergency call solution as described in [RFC6443] and [RFC6881], with emergency call solution as described in [RFC6443] and [RFC6881], with
the difference that the Request-URI indicates an ACN type of the difference that the Request-URI indicates an ACN type of
emergency call and a Call-Info header field indicates that vehicle emergency call and a Call-Info header field indicates that vehicle
crash data is attached. When an ESInet is deployed the MNO only crash data is attached. When an ESInet is deployed, the MNO only
needs to recognize the call as an emergency call and route it to an needs to recognize the call as an emergency call and route it to an
ESInet. The ESInet may recognize the call as an ACN with vehicle ESInet. The ESInet can recognize the call as an ACN with vehicle
data and may route the call to an NG-ACN capable PSAP. Such a PSAP data and can route the call to an NG-ACN capable PSAP. Such a PSAP
would interpret the vehicle data sent with the call and make it can interpret the vehicle data sent with the call and make it
available to the call taker. available to the call taker.
Because of the need to identify and specially process Next-Generation Because of the need to identify and specially process Next-Generation
ACN calls (as discussed above), [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] registers new ACN calls (as discussed above), [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] registers new
service URN children within the "sos" subservice. These URNs provide service URN children within the "sos" subservice. These URNs provide
a mechanism by which an NG-ACN call is identified, and differentiate a mechanism by which an NG-ACN call is identified, and differentiate
between manually and automatically triggered NG-ACN calls, which can between manually and automatically triggered NG-ACN calls, which
be subject to different treatment, depending on policy. (The two might be subject to different treatment depending on policy. (The
service URNs registered in [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] are: two service URNs registered in [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] are
urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic and urn:service:sos.ecall.manual.) urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic and urn:service:sos.ecall.manual.)
Note that in North America, routing queries performed by clients Note that in North America, routing queries performed by clients
outside of an ESInet are likely to treat all sub-services of "sos" outside of an ESInet typically treat all sub-services of "sos"
identically to "sos" with no sub-service. However, the Request-URI identically to "sos" with no sub-service. However, the Request-URI
header field retains the full sub-service; route and handling header field retains the full sub-service; route and handling
decisions within an ESInet or PSAP may take the sub-service into decisions within an ESInet or PSAP can take the sub-service into
account. For example, in a region with multiple cooperating PSAPs, account. For example, in a region with multiple cooperating PSAPs,
an NG-ACN call might be routed to a PSAP that is NG-ACN capable, or an NG-ACN call might be routed to a PSAP that is NG-ACN capable, or
one that specializes in vehicle-related incidents. one that specializes in vehicle-related incidents.
Migration of the three architectural models to next-generation (all- Migration of the three architectural models to next-generation (all-
IP) is described below. IP) is described below.
In the TSP model, the IVS transmits crash and location data to the In the TSP model, the IVS transmits crash and location data to the
TSP using either a protocol that is based on a proprietary design or TSP using either a protocol that is based on a proprietary design or
one that re-uses IETF specifications. In an emergency, the TSP call one that re-uses the mechanisms and data objects described here. In
taker bridges in the PSAP and the TSP transmits crash and other data an emergency, the TSP call taker bridges in the PSAP and the TSP
to the PSAP using IETF specifications. There is a three-way call transmits crash and other data to the PSAP using the mechanisms and
between the vehicle, the TSP, and the PSAP, allowing communication data objects described here. There is a three-way call between the
between the PSAP call taker, the TSP call taker, and the vehicle vehicle, the TSP, and the PSAP, allowing communication between the
occupants (who might be unconscious). PSAP call taker, the TSP call taker, and the vehicle occupants (who
might be unconscious).
proprietary proprietary
///----\\\ or standard +------+ standard +------+ ///----\\\ or standard +------+ standard +------+
||| IVS ||| ------------------->+ TSP +------------------->+ PSAP | ||| IVS ||| ------------------->+ TSP +------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// crash + other data +------+ crash + other data +------+ \\\----/// crash + other data +------+ crash + other data +------+
Figure 4: Next-Generation TSP Model Figure 4: Next-Generation TSP Model
The vehicle manufacturer and the TSP may choose to use the same IETF The vehicle manufacturer and the TSP can choose to use the same
specifications to transmit crash and location data from the vehicle mechanisms and data objects to transmit crash and location data from
to the TSP as is described here to transmit such data from the TSP to the vehicle to the TSP as are described here to transmit such data
the PSAP. from to the PSAP.
In the direct model, the IVS communicates crash data to the PSAP
directly using the mechanisms and data objects described here.
///----\\\ NG emergency call +------+
||| IVS |||----------------------------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// crash + other data +------+
Figure 5: Next-Generation Direct Model
In the paired model, the IVS uses a Bluetooth link to a previously- In the paired model, the IVS uses a Bluetooth link to a previously-
paired handset to establish an emergency call with the PSAP; it is paired handset to establish an emergency call with the PSAP; it is
not clear what facilities are or will be available for transmitting undefined what facilities are or will be available for transmitting
crash data through the Bluetooth link to the handset for inclusion in crash data through the Bluetooth link to the handset for inclusion in
an NG emergency call. an NG emergency call. Hence, manufacturers that use the paired model
for legacy calls might choose to adopt either the direct or TSP
models for next-generation calls.
+---+ +---+
///----\\\ (unclear) | H | (unclear) +------+ ///----\\\ (undefined) | H | standard +------+
||| IVS |||------------------>| S +------------------->+ PSAP | ||| IVS |||------------------>| S +------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// (unclear) +---+ (unclear) +------+ \\\----/// (undefined) +---+ crash + other data +------+
Figure 5: Next-Generation Paired Model
In the direct model, the IVS communicates crash data to the PSAP
directly using IETF specifications.
///----\\\ NG emergency call +------+
||| IVS |||----------------------------------------->+ PSAP |
\\\----/// crash + other data +------+
Figure 6: Next-Generation Model Figure 6: Next-Generation Paired Model
If the call is routed to a PSAP that is not capable of processing the If the call is routed to a PSAP that is not capable of processing the
vehicle data, the PSAP ignores (or does not receive) the vehicle vehicle data, the PSAP ignores (or does not receive) the vehicle
data. This is detectable by the IVS or TSP when it receives a 200 OK data. This is detectable by the IVS or TSP when it receives a 200 OK
to the INVITE that lacks an eCall control structure acknowledging to the INVITE which lacks an eCall control structure acknowledging
receipt of the data [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. The IVS or TSP then receipt of the data [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]. The IVS or TSP then
proceeds as it would for a non-NG ACN call (e.g., verbal conveyance proceeds as it would for a non-NG ACN call (e.g., verbal conveyance
of data) of data)
6. Profile 6. Profile
In the context of emergncy calls placed by an in-vehicle system it is In the context of emergncy calls placed by an in-vehicle system it is
assumed that the car is equipped with a built-in GNSS receiver. For assumed that the car is equipped with a built-in GNSS receiver. For
this reason only geodetic location information will be sent within an this reason only geodetic location information will be sent within an
emergency call. The following location shapes MUST be implemented: emergency call. The following location shapes MUST be implemented:
2d and 3d Point (see Section 5.2.1 of [RFC5491]), Circle (see 2d and 3d Point (see Section 5.2.1 of [RFC5491]), Circle (see
Section 5.2.3 of [RFC5491]), and Ellipsoid (see Section 5.2.7 of Section 5.2.3 of [RFC5491]), and Ellipsoid (see Section 5.2.7 of
[RFC5491]). The coordinate reference systems (CRS) specified in [RFC5491]). The coordinate reference systems (CRS) specified in
[RFC5491] are also mandatory for this document. The <direction> [RFC5491] are also mandatory for this document. The <direction>
element, as defined in [RFC5962] which indicates the direction of element, as defined in [RFC5962] which indicates the direction of
travel of the vehicle, is important for dispatch and hence it MUST be travel of the vehicle, is important for dispatch and hence it MUST be
included in the PIDF-LO [RFC4119]. The <heading> element specified included in the PIDF-LO [RFC4119]. The <heading> element specified
in [RFC5962] MUST be implemented and MAY be included. in [RFC5962] MUST be implemented and MAY be included.
Calls by in-vehicle systems are placed via cellular networks, which Calls by in-vehicle systems are placed via cellular networks, which
may ignore location sent by an originating device in an emergency might ignore location sent by an originating device in an emergency
call INVITE, instead attaching their own location (often determined call INVITE, instead attaching their own location (often determined
in cooperation with the originating device). Standardized crash data in cooperation with the originating device). Standardized crash data
structures often include location as determined by the IVS. A structures often include location as determined by the IVS. A
benefit of this is that it allows the PSAP to see both the location benefit of this is that it allows the PSAP to see both the location
as determined by the cellular network (often in cooperation with the as determined by the cellular network (often in cooperation with the
originating device) and the location as determined by the IVS. originating device) and the location as determined by the IVS.
This specification inherits the ability to utilize test call This specification inherits the ability to utilize test call
functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881]. functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881].
7. Call Setup 7. Call Setup
It is important that ACN calls be easily identifiable as such at all It is important that ACN calls be easily identifiable as such at all
stages of call handling, and that automatic versus manual triggering stages of call handling, and that automatic versus manual triggering
be known. ACN calls differ from general emergency calls in several be known. ACN calls differ from general emergency calls in several
aspects, including the presence of standardized crash data, the fact aspects, including the presence of standardized crash data, the fact
that the call is known to be placed by an in-vehicle system (which that the call is known to be placed by an in-vehicle system (which
has implications for PSAP operational processes), and, especially for has implications for PSAP operational processes), and, especially for
automatic calls, information that may indicate a likelihood of severe automatic calls, information that can indicate a likelihood of severe
injury and hence need for trauma services. Knowledge that a call is injury and hence need for trauma services. Knowledge that a call is
an ACN and further that it was automatically or manually invoked an ACN and further that it was automatically or manually invoked
carries a range of implications about the call, the circumstances, carries a range of implications about the call, the circumstances,
and the vehicle occupants. Calls by in-vehicle systems may be and the vehicle occupants. Calls by in-vehicle systems can be
considered a specific sub-class of general emergency calls and are considered a specific sub-class of general emergency calls and are
optimally handled by a PSAP with the technical and operational optimally handled by a PSAP with the technical and operational
capabilities to serve such calls. (This is especially so in capabilities to serve such calls. (This is especially so in
environments such as the U.S. where there are many PSAPs and where environments such as the U.S. where there are many PSAPs and where
individual PSAPs have a range of capabilities.) Technical individual PSAPs have a range of capabilities.) Technical
capabilities include the ability to recognize and process capabilities include the ability to recognize and process
standardized crash data. Operational capabilities include training standardized crash data. Operational capabilities include training
and processes for assessing severe injury likelihood and responding and processes for assessing severe injury likelihood and responding
appropriately (e.g., dispatching trauma-capable medical responders or appropriately (e.g., dispatching trauma-capable medical responders or
those trained and equipped to extract occupants from crashed vehicles those trained and equipped to extract occupants from crashed vehicles
and handle gasoline or other hazardous materials, transporting and handle gasoline or other hazardous materials, transporting
victims to a trauma center, alerting the receiving facility, etc.). victims to a trauma center, alerting the receiving facility, etc.).
Because ACN calls differ in significant ways from general emergency Because ACN calls differ in significant ways from general emergency
calls, and because such calls should be handled by specialized PSAPs calls, and because such calls typically generally are best handled by
(equipped technically to interpet and make use of crash data, and PSAPs equipped technically to interpet and make use of crash data,
operationally to handle emergency calls placed by in-vehicle and operationally to handle emergency calls placed by in-vehicle
systems), [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] registers SOS sub-services. Using a systems, [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] registers SOS sub-services. Using a
sub-service makes it readily obvious that the call is an ACN; a sub-service allows the call to be treated as an amergency call and
further child element distinguishes calls automatically placed due to makes it readily obvious that the call is an ACN; a further child
a crash or other serious incident (such as a fire) from those element distinguishes calls automatically placed due to a crash or
manually invoked by a vehicle occupant (specifically, other serious incident (such as a fire) from those manually invoked
"SOS.ecall.automatic" and "SOS.ecall.manual"). The distinction by a vehicle occupant (specifically, "SOS.ecall.automatic" and
between automatic and manual invocation is also significant; "SOS.ecall.manual"). The distinction between automatic and manual
automatically triggered calls indicate a car crash or some other invocation is also significant; automatically triggered calls
serious incident (e.g., a fire) and carry a greater presumption of indicate a car crash or some other serious incident (e.g., a fire)
risk of injury and hence need for specific responders (such as trauma and carry a greater presumption of risk of injury and hence need for
or fire). Manually triggered calls are often reports of serious specific responders (such as trauma or fire). Manually triggered
hazards (such as drunk drivers) and may require different responses calls are often reports of serious hazards (such as impaired drivers
depending on the situation. Manually triggered calls are also more or roadway debris) and might require different responses depending on
likely to be false (e.g., accidental) calls and may thus be subject the situation. Manually triggered calls also have a greater chance
to different handling by the PSAP. of being false (e.g., accidental) calls and might thus be subject to
different handling by the PSAP.
A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by A next-generation In-Vehicle System (IVS) transmits crash data by
encoding it in a standardized and registered format and attaching it encoding it in a standardized and registered format and attaching it
to an INVITE as an additional data block as specified in Section 4.1 to an INVITE as an additional data block as specified in Section 4.1
of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]. As described in that document, of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]. As described in that document,
the block is identified by its MIME content-type, and pointed to by a the block is identified by its MIME content-type, and pointed to by a
CID URL in a Call-Info header with a 'purpose' parameter value CID URL in a Call-Info header with a 'purpose' parameter value
corresponding to the block. corresponding to the block.
Specifically, the steps required during standardization are: Specifically, the steps required during standardization are:
skipping to change at page 13, line 46 skipping to change at page 14, line 40
* The crash data is referenced in the Call-Info header field by a * The crash data is referenced in the Call-Info header field by a
CID URL that contains the unique Content ID assigned to the CID URL that contains the unique Content ID assigned to the
crash data body part crash data body part
* The crash data is identified in the Call-Info header field by a * The crash data is identified in the Call-Info header field by a
'purpose' parameter whose value is 'EmergencyCallData.' 'purpose' parameter whose value is 'EmergencyCallData.'
concatenated with the specific crash data entry in the concatenated with the specific crash data entry in the
Emergency Call Additional Data registry Emergency Call Additional Data registry
* The Call-Info header field MAY be either solely to reference * The Call-Info header field MAY be either solely to reference
the crash data (and hence have only the one URL) or may also the crash data (and hence have only the one URL) or can also
contain other URLs referencing other data contain other URLs referencing other data
o Additional crash data sets MAY be included by following the same o Additional crash data sets MAY be included by following the same
steps steps
The Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) is an XML structure defined by The Vehicle Emergency Data Set (VEDS) is an XML structure defined by
the Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) and the Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) and
the National Emergency Number Association (NENA) [VEDS]. The the National Emergency Number Association (NENA) [VEDS]. The
'application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' MIME content-type is used to 'application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml' MIME content-type is used to
identify it. The 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional Data identify it. The 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional Data
skipping to change at page 14, line 27 skipping to change at page 15, line 19
Entities along the path between the vehicle and the PSAP are able to Entities along the path between the vehicle and the PSAP are able to
identify the call as an ACN call and handle it appropriately. The identify the call as an ACN call and handle it appropriately. The
PSAP is able to identify the crash data as well as any other PSAP is able to identify the crash data as well as any other
additional data attached to the INVITE by examining the Call-Info additional data attached to the INVITE by examining the Call-Info
header fields for 'purpose' parameters whose values start with header fields for 'purpose' parameters whose values start with
'EmergencyCallData.' The PSAP is able to access and the data it is 'EmergencyCallData.' The PSAP is able to access and the data it is
capable of handling and is interested in by checking the 'purpose' capable of handling and is interested in by checking the 'purpose'
parameter values. parameter values.
This document extends [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] by reusing the call set-
up and other normative requirements except that in this document,
support for the eCall MSD is OPTIONAL and support for VEDS in
REQUIRED.
8. Call Routing 8. Call Routing
An Emergency Services IP Network (ESInet) is a network operated by or An Emergency Services IP Network (ESInet) is a network operated by or
on behalf of emergency services authorities. It handles emergency on behalf of emergency services authorities. It handles emergency
call routing and processing before delivery to a PSAP. In the call routing and processing before delivery to a PSAP. In the
NG9-1-1 architecture adopted by NENA as well as the NG1-1-2 NG9-1-1 architecture adopted by NENA as well as the NG1-1-2
architecture adopted by EENA, each PSAP is connected to one or more architecture adopted by EENA, each PSAP is connected to one or more
ESInets. Each originating network is also connected to one or more ESInets. Each originating network is also connected to one or more
ESInets. The ESInets maintain policy-based routing rules which ESInets. The ESInets maintain policy-based routing rules which
control the routing and processing of emergency calls. The control the routing and processing of emergency calls. The
skipping to change at page 15, line 9 skipping to change at page 16, line 7
In an environment that uses ESInets, the originating network need In an environment that uses ESInets, the originating network need
only detect that the service URN of an emergency call is or starts only detect that the service URN of an emergency call is or starts
with "sos", passing all types of emergency calls to an ESInet. The with "sos", passing all types of emergency calls to an ESInet. The
ESInet is then responsible for routing such calls to an appropriate ESInet is then responsible for routing such calls to an appropriate
PSAP. In an environment without an ESInet, the emergency services PSAP. In an environment without an ESInet, the emergency services
authorities and the originating carriers would need to determine how authorities and the originating carriers would need to determine how
such calls are routed. such calls are routed.
9. Test Calls 9. Test Calls
This document uses [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall], which inherits the ability This document builds on [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall], which inherits the
to utilize test call functionality from Section 15 of [RFC6881]. ability to utilize test call functionality from Section 15 of
[RFC6881].
A service URN starting with "test." indicates a request for an A service URN starting with "test." indicates a request for an
automated test. Per [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall], automated test. Per [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall],
"urn:service:test.sos.ecall.automatic" indicates such a test feature. "urn:service:test.sos.ecall.automatic" indicates such a test feature.
This functionality is defined in [RFC6881]. This functionality is defined in [RFC6881].
Note that since test calls are placed using "test" as the parent Note that since test calls are placed using "test" as the parent
service URN and "sos" as a child, such calls are not treated as an service URN and "sos" as a child, such calls are not treated as an
emergency call and so some functionality will not apply (such as emergency call and so some functionality will not apply (such as
preemption or service availability for devices lacking service ("non- preemption or service availability for devices lacking service ("non-
service-initialized" or "NSI") if those are available for emergency service-initialized" or "NSI") if those are available for emergency
calls); this is by design. MNOs may recognize test calls and treat calls); this is by design. MNOs can recognize test calls and treat
them in a way that tests as much functionality as desired, but this them in a way that tests as much functionality as desired, but this
is outside the scope of this document. is outside the scope of this document.
10. Example 10. Example
Figure 7 shows an emergency call placed by a vehicle whereby location Figure 7 shows an emergency call placed by a vehicle whereby location
information and VEDS crash data are both attached to the SIP INVITE information and VEDS crash data are both attached to the SIP INVITE
message. The INVITE has a request URI containing the message. The INVITE has a request URI containing the
'urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic' service URN and is thus recognized 'urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic' service URN and is thus recognized
as an ACN type of emergency call, and is also recognized as a type of as an ACN type of emergency call, and is also recognizable as an
emergency call because the request URI starts with 'urn:service:sos'. emergency call because the request URI starts with 'urn:service:sos'.
The mobile network operator (MNO) routes the call to an Emergency The mobile network operator (MNO) routes the call to an Emergency
services IP Network (ESInet), as for any emergency call. The ESInet services IP Network (ESInet), as for any emergency call. The ESInet
processes the call as an ACN and routes the call to an appropriate processes the call as an ACN and routes the call to an appropriate
ACN-capable PSAP (using location information and the fact that that ACN-capable PSAP (using location information and the fact that that
it is an ACN). (In deployments where there is no ESInet, the MNO it is an ACN). The call is processed by the Emergency Services
itself needs to route directly to an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP.) Routing Proxy (ESRP), as the entry point to the ESInet. The ESRP
The call is processed by the Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP), routes the call to an appropriate ACN-capable PSAP, where the call is
as the entry point to the ESInet. The ESRP routes the call to an received by a call taker. (In deployments where there is no ESInet,
appropriate ACN-capable PSAP, where the call is received by a call the MNO itself routes the call directly to an appropriate ACN-capable
taker. PSAP.)
+---------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------+
| | | |
+------------+ | +-------+ | +------------+ | +-------+ |
| | | | PSAP2 | | | | | | PSAP2 | |
| | | +-------+ | | | | +-------+ |
| Originating| | | | Originating| | |
| Mobile | | +------+ +-------+ | | Mobile | | +------+ +-------+ |
Vehicle-->| Network |--+->| ESRP |---->| PSAP1 |--> Call-Taker | Vehicle-->| Network |--+->| ESRP |---->| PSAP1 |--> Call-Taker |
| | | +------+ +-------+ | | | | +------+ +-------+ |
| | | | | | | |
skipping to change at page 16, line 30 skipping to change at page 17, line 29
| | | |
| ESInet | | ESInet |
+---------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------+
Figure 7: Example of Vehicle-Placed Emergency Call Message Flow Figure 7: Example of Vehicle-Placed Emergency Call Message Flow
The example, shown in Figure 8, illustrates a SIP emergency call The example, shown in Figure 8, illustrates a SIP emergency call
INVITE that is being conveyed with location information (a PIDF-LO) INVITE that is being conveyed with location information (a PIDF-LO)
and crash data (as VEDS data). and crash data (as VEDS data).
INVITE urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic SIP/2.0 The example VEDS data structure shows information about about a
To: urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic crashed vehicle. The example communicates that the car is a model
From: <sip:+13145551111@example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl year 2015 Saab 9-5 (a car which does not exist). The front airbag
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com deployed as a consequence of the crash. The
Geolocation: <cid:target123@example.com> 'VehicleBodyCategoryCode' indicates that the crashed vehicle is a
Geolocation-Routing: no passenger car (the code is set to '101') and that it is not a
Call-Info: cid:1234567890@atlanta.example.com; convertible (the 'ConvertibleIndicator' value is set to 'false').
purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS
Accept: application/sdp, application/pidf+xml
CSeq: 31862 INVITE
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary1
Content-Length: ...
--boundary1 The 'VehicleCrashPulse' element provides further information about
the crash, namely that the force of impact based on the change in
velocity over the duration of the crash pulse was 100 MPH. The
principal direction of the force of the impact is set to '12' (which
refers to 12 O'Clock, corresponding to a frontal collision). This
value is described in the 'CrashPulsePrincipalDirectionOfForceValue'
element.
Content-Type: application/sdp The 'CrashPulseRolloverQuarterTurnsValue' indicates the number of
quarter turns in concert with a rollover expressed as a number; in
our case 1.
...Session Description Protocol (SDP) goes here No roll bar was deployed, as indicated in
'VehicleRollbarDeployedIndicator' being set to 'false'.
--boundary1 Next, there is information indicating seatbelt and seat sensor data
for individual seat positions in the vehicle. In our example,
information from the driver seat is available (value '1' in the
'VehicleSeatLocationCategoryCode' element), that the seatbelt was
monitored ('VehicleSeatbeltMonitoredIndicator' element), that the
seatbelt was fastened ('VehicleSeatbeltFastenedIndicator' element)
and the seat sensor determined that the seat is occupied
('VehicleSeatOccupiedIndicator' element).
Content-Type: application/pidf+xml Finally, information about the weight of the vehicle, which is 600
Content-ID: <target123@atlanta.example.com> kilogram in our example.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<presence
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf"
xmlns:dm="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:data-model"
xmlns:gp="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10"
xmlns:dyn="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:dynamic"
xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
xmlns:gs="http://www.opengis.net/pidflo/1.0"
entity="sip:+13145551111@example.com">
<dm:device id="123">
<gp:geopriv>
<gp:location-info>
<gml:Point srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326">
<gml:pos>-34.407 150.883</gml:pos>
</gml:Point>
<dyn:Dynamic>
<dyn:heading>278</dyn:heading>
<dyn:direction><dyn:direction>
</dyn:Dynamic>
</gp:location-info>
<gp:usage-rules/>
<method>gps</method>
</gp:geopriv>
<timestamp>2012-04-5T10:18:29Z</timestamp>
<dm:deviceID>1M8GDM9A_KP042788</dm:deviceID>
</dm:device>
</presence>
--boundary1 In addition to the information about the vehicle, further indications
are provided, namely the presence of fuel leakage
('FuelLeakingIndicator' element), an indication whether the vehicle
was subjected to multiple impacts ('MultipleImpactsIndicator'
element), the orientation of the vehicle at final rest
('VehicleFinalRestOrientationCategoryCode' element) and an indication
that there are no parts of the vehicle on fire (the
'VehicleFireIndicator' element).
Content-Type: application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml INVITE urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic SIP/2.0
Content-ID: 1234567890@atlanta.example.com To: urn:service:sos.ecall.automatic
From: <sip:+13145551111@example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com
Geolocation: <cid:target123@example.com>
Geolocation-Routing: no
Call-Info: cid:1234567890@atlanta.example.com;
purpose=EmergencyCallData.VEDS
Accept: application/sdp, application/pidf+xml
CSeq: 31862 INVITE
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=boundary1
Content-Length: ...
...VEDS data object goes here --boundary1
Content-Type: application/sdp
--boundary1-- ...Session Description Protocol (SDP) goes here
--boundary1
Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
Content-ID: <target123@atlanta.example.com>
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<presence
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf"
xmlns:dm="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:data-model"
xmlns:gp="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10"
xmlns:dyn="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:dynamic"
xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
xmlns:gs="http://www.opengis.net/pidflo/1.0"
entity="sip:+13145551111@example.com">
<dm:device id="123">
<gp:geopriv>
<gp:location-info>
<gml:Point srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326">
<gml:pos>-34.407 150.883</gml:pos>
</gml:Point>
<dyn:Dynamic>
<dyn:heading>278</dyn:heading>
<dyn:direction><dyn:direction>
</dyn:Dynamic>
</gp:location-info>
<gp:usage-rules/>
<method>gps</method>
</gp:geopriv>
<timestamp>2012-04-5T10:18:29Z</timestamp>
<dm:deviceID>1M8GDM9A_KP042788</dm:deviceID>
</dm:device>
</presence>
--boundary1
Content-Type: application/EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml
Content-ID: 1234567890@atlanta.example.com
Content-Disposition: by-reference;handling=optional
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<AutomatedCrashNotification xmlns="http://www.veds.org/acn/1.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
<Crash>
<CrashVehicle>
<ItemMakeName xmlns="http://niem.gov/niem/niem-core/2.0">
Saab
</ItemMakeName>
<ItemModelName xmlns="http://niem.gov/niem/niem-core/2.0">
9-5
</ItemModelName>
<ItemModelYearDate
xmlns="http://niem.gov/niem/niem-core/2.0">
2015
</ItemModelYearDate>
<Airbag>
<AirbagCategoryCode>FRONT</AirbagCategoryCode>
<AirbagDeployedIndicator>true
</AirbagDeployedIndicator>
</Airbag>
<ConvertibleIndicator>false</ConvertibleIndicator>
<PowerSourceCategoryCode>MAIN</PowerSourceCategoryCode>
<VehicleBodyCategoryCode
xmlns="http://niem.gov/niem/domains/jxdm/4.1">
101
</VehicleBodyCategoryCode>
<VehicleCrashPulse>
<CrashPulseChangeInVelocityMeasure>
<MeasurePointValue
xmlns="http://niem.gov/niem/niem-core/2.0">
100
</MeasurePointValue>
<MeasureUnitText
xmlns="http://niem.gov/niem/niem-core/2.0">
MPH</MeasureUnitText>
</CrashPulseChangeInVelocityMeasure>
<CrashPulsePrincipalDirectionOfForceValue>12
</CrashPulsePrincipalDirectionOfForceValue>
<CrashPulseRolloverQuarterTurnsValue>1
</CrashPulseRolloverQuarterTurnsValue>
</VehicleCrashPulse>
<VehicleRollbarDeployedIndicator>false
</VehicleRollbarDeployedIndicator>
<VehicleSeat>
<VehicleSeatLocationCategoryCode>1
</VehicleSeatLocationCategoryCode>
<VehicleSeatOccupiedIndicator>true
</VehicleSeatOccupiedIndicator>
<VehicleSeatbeltFastenedIndicator>true
</VehicleSeatbeltFastenedIndicator>
<VehicleSeatbeltMonitoredIndicator>true
</VehicleSeatbeltMonitoredIndicator>
</VehicleSeat>
<VehicleUnladenWeightMeasure
xmlns="http://niem.gov/niem/niem-core/2.0">
<MeasurePointValue
xmlns="http://niem.gov/niem/niem-core/2.0">
600
</MeasurePointValue>
<MeasureUnitText
xmlns="http://niem.gov/niem/niem-core/2.0">
kilogram
</MeasureUnitText>
</VehicleUnladenWeightMeasure>
</CrashVehicle>
<FuelLeakingIndicator>true</FuelLeakingIndicator>
<MultipleImpactsIndicator>false</MultipleImpactsIndicator>
<SevereInjuryIndicator>true</SevereInjuryIndicator>
<VehicleFinalRestOrientationCategoryCode>Driver
</VehicleFinalRestOrientationCategoryCode>
<VehicleFireIndicator>false</VehicleFireIndicator>
</Crash>
</AutomatedCrashNotification>
--boundary1--
Figure 8: SIP INVITE indicating a Vehicule-Initated Emergency Call Figure 8: SIP INVITE indicating a Vehicule-Initated Emergency Call
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
This document does not raise security considerations beyond those This document does not raise security considerations beyond those
described in [RFC5069]. As with emergency service systems with end described in [RFC5069]. As with emergency service systems with end
host provided location information there is the possibility that that host provided location information there is the possibility that that
location is incorrect, either intentially (in case of an a denial of location is incorrect, either intentially (in case of an a denial of
service attack against the emergency services infrastructure) or due service attack against the emergency services infrastructure) or due
to a malfunctioning device. The reader is referred to to a malfunctioning device. The reader is referred to [RFC7378] for
a discussion of some of these vulnerabilities.
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location] for a discussion of some of 12. Privacy Considerations
these vulnerabilities.
12. IANA Considerations Since this document builds on [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall], which itself
builds on [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data], the data structures
specified there, and the corresponding privacy considerations
discussed there, apply here as well. The VEDS data structure
contains optional elements that can carry identifying and personal
information, both about the vehicle and about the owner, as well as
location information, and so needs to be protected against
unauthorized disclosure. Local regulations may impose additional
privacy protection requirements.
12.1. MIME Content-type Registration for 'application/ 13. IANA Considerations
13.1. MIME Content-type Registration for 'application/
EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml' EmergencyCall.VEDS+xml'
This specification requests the registration of a new MIME type This specification requests the registration of a new MIME type
according to the procedures of RFC 4288 [RFC4288] and guidelines in according to the procedures of RFC 4288 [RFC4288] and guidelines in
RFC 3023 [RFC3023]. RFC 3023 [RFC3023].
MIME media type name: application MIME media type name: application
MIME subtype name: EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml MIME subtype name: EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml
skipping to change at page 18, line 22 skipping to change at page 22, line 4
This specification requests the registration of a new MIME type This specification requests the registration of a new MIME type
according to the procedures of RFC 4288 [RFC4288] and guidelines in according to the procedures of RFC 4288 [RFC4288] and guidelines in
RFC 3023 [RFC3023]. RFC 3023 [RFC3023].
MIME media type name: application MIME media type name: application
MIME subtype name: EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml MIME subtype name: EmergencyCallData.VEDS+xml
Mandatory parameters: none Mandatory parameters: none
Optional parameters: charset Optional parameters: charset
Indicates the character encoding of enclosed XML. Indicates the character encoding of enclosed XML.
Encoding considerations: Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit Encoding considerations: Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit
characters, depending on the character encoding used. See characters, depending on the character encoding used. See
Section 3.2 of RFC 3023 [RFC3023]. Section 3.2 of RFC 3023 [RFC3023].
Security considerations: This content type is designed to carry Security considerations: This content type is designed to carry
vehicle crash data during an emergency call. This data may vehicle crash data during an emergency call. This data can
contains personal information including vehicle VIN, location, contain personal information including vehicle VIN, location,
direction, etc. appropriate precautions need to be taken to limit direction, etc. Appropriate precautions need to be taken to limit
unauthorized access, inappropriate disclosure to third parties, unauthorized access, inappropriate disclosure to third parties,
and eavesdropping of this information. Please refer to Section 7 and eavesdropping of this information. Please refer to Section 7
and Section 8 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] for more and Section 8 of [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] for more
information. information.
Interoperability considerations: None Interoperability considerations: None
Published specification: [VEDS] Published specification: [VEDS]
Applications which use this media type: Emergency Services Applications which use this media type: Emergency Services
skipping to change at page 19, line 14 skipping to change at page 22, line 45
Person and email address for further information: Hannes Person and email address for further information: Hannes
Tschofenig, Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net Tschofenig, Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net
Intended usage: LIMITED USE Intended usage: LIMITED USE
Author: This specification is a work item of the IETF ECRIT Author: This specification is a work item of the IETF ECRIT
working group, with mailing list address <ecrit@ietf.org>. working group, with mailing list address <ecrit@ietf.org>.
Change controller: The IESG <ietf@ietf.org> Change controller: The IESG <ietf@ietf.org>
12.2. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional 13.2. Registration of the 'VEDS' entry in the Emergency Call Additional
Data registry Data registry
This specification requests IANA to add the 'VEDS' entry to the This specification requests IANA to add the 'VEDS' entry to the
Emergency Call Additional Data registry, with a reference to this Emergency Call Additional Data registry, with a reference to this
document. The Emergency Call Additional Data registry has been document. The Emergency Call Additional Data registry has been
established by [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]. established by [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data].
13. Contributors 14. Contributors
We would like to thank Ulrich Dietz for his help with earlier We would like to thank Ulrich Dietz for his help with earlier
versions of the original version of this document. versions of the original version of this document.
14. Acknowledgements 15. Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Michael Montag, Arnoud van Wijk, Ban Al-Bakri, We would like to thank Michael Montag, Arnoud van Wijk, Ban Al-Bakri,
and Gunnar Hellstrom for their feedback. and Gunnar Hellstrom for their feedback.
15. Changes from Previous Versions 16. Changes from Previous Versions
15.1. Changes from draft-ietf-01 to draft-ietf-02 16.1. Changes from draft-ietf-03 to draft-ietf-04
o Added example VEDS object
o Additional clarifications and corrections
o Removed references from Abstract
o Moved Document Scope section to follow Introduction
16.2. Changes from draft-ietf-02 to draft-ietf-03
o Additional clarifications and corrections
16.3. Changes from draft-ietf-01 to draft-ietf-02
o This document now refers to [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] for technical o This document now refers to [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] for technical
aspects including the service URN; this document no longer aspects including the service URN; this document no longer
proposes a unique service URN for non-eCall NG-ACN calls; the same proposes a unique service URN for non-eCall NG-ACN calls; the same
service URN is now used for all NG-ACN calls including NG-eCall service URN is now used for all NG-ACN calls including NG-eCall
and non-eCall and non-eCall
o Added discussion of an NG-ACN call placed to a PSAP that doesn't o Added discussion of an NG-ACN call placed to a PSAP that doesn't
support it support it
o Minor wording improvements and clarifications o Minor wording improvements and clarifications
15.2. Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01 16.4. Changes from draft-ietf-00 to draft-ietf-01
o Added further discussion of test calls o Added further discussion of test calls
o Added further clarification to the document scope o Added further clarification to the document scope
o Mentioned that multi-region vehicles may need to support other o Mentioned that multi-region vehicles may need to support other
crash notification specifications such as eCall crash notification specifications such as eCall
o Minor wording improvements and clarifications o Minor wording improvements and clarifications
15.3. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00 16.5. Changes from draft-gellens-02 to draft-ietf-00
o Renamed from draft-gellens- to draft-ietf- o Renamed from draft-gellens- to draft-ietf-
o Added text to Introduction to clarify that during a CS ACN, the o Added text to Introduction to clarify that during a CS ACN, the
PSAP call taker usually needs to listen to the data and transcribe PSAP call taker usually needs to listen to the data and transcribe
it it
15.4. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02 16.6. Changes from draft-gellens-01 to -02
o Fixed case of 'EmergencyCallData', in accordance with changes to o Fixed case of 'EmergencyCallData', in accordance with changes to
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
15.5. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01 16.7. Changes from draft-gellens-00 to -01
o Now using 'EmergencyCallData' for purpose parameter values and o Now using 'EmergencyCallData' for purpose parameter values and
MIME subtypes, in accordance with changes to MIME subtypes, in accordance with changes to
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
o Added reference to RFC 6443 o Added reference to RFC 6443
o Fixed bug that caused Figure captions to not appear o Fixed bug that caused Figure captions to not appear
16. References 17. References
16.1. Normative References 17.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-additional-data]
Randy, R., Rosen, B., Tschofenig, H., Marshall, R., and J. Gellens, R., Rosen, B., Tschofenig, H., Marshall, R., and
Winterbottom, "Additional Data related to an Emergency J. Winterbottom, "Additional Data Related to an Emergency
Call", draft-ietf-ecrit-additional-data-24 (work in Call", draft-ietf-ecrit-additional-data-37 (work in
progress), October 2014. progress), October 2015.
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall] [I-D.ietf-ecrit-ecall]
Gellens, R. and H. Tschofenig, "Next-Generation Pan- Gellens, R. and H. Tschofenig, "Next-Generation Pan-
European eCall", draft-ietf-ecrit-ecall (work in European eCall", draft-ietf-ecrit-ecall (work in
progress), March 2015. progress), March 2015.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/
RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3023] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media [RFC3023] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media
Types", RFC 3023, January 2001. Types", RFC 3023, DOI 10.17487/RFC3023, January 2001,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3023>.
[RFC4119] Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object [RFC4119] Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object
Format", RFC 4119, December 2005. Format", RFC 4119, DOI 10.17487/RFC4119, December 2005,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4119>.
[RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and [RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
Registration Procedures", RFC 4288, December 2005. Registration Procedures", RFC 4288, DOI 10.17487/RFC4288,
December 2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4288>.
[RFC5031] Schulzrinne, H., "A Uniform Resource Name (URN) for [RFC5031] Schulzrinne, H., "A Uniform Resource Name (URN) for
Emergency and Other Well-Known Services", RFC 5031, Emergency and Other Well-Known Services", RFC 5031, DOI
January 2008. 10.17487/RFC5031, January 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5031>.
[RFC5491] Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., and H. Tschofenig, "GEOPRIV [RFC5491] Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., and H. Tschofenig, "GEOPRIV
Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO) Presence Information Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)
Usage Clarification, Considerations, and Recommendations", Usage Clarification, Considerations, and Recommendations",
RFC 5491, March 2009. RFC 5491, DOI 10.17487/RFC5491, March 2009,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5491>.
[RFC5962] Schulzrinne, H., Singh, V., Tschofenig, H., and M. [RFC5962] Schulzrinne, H., Singh, V., Tschofenig, H., and M.
Thomson, "Dynamic Extensions to the Presence Information Thomson, "Dynamic Extensions to the Presence Information
Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)", RFC 5962, Data Format Location Object (PIDF-LO)", RFC 5962, DOI
September 2010. 10.17487/RFC5962, September 2010,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5962>.
[RFC6443] Rosen, B., Schulzrinne, H., Polk, J., and A. Newton, [RFC6443] Rosen, B., Schulzrinne, H., Polk, J., and A. Newton,
"Framework for Emergency Calling Using Internet "Framework for Emergency Calling Using Internet
Multimedia", RFC 6443, December 2011. Multimedia", RFC 6443, DOI 10.17487/RFC6443, December
2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6443>.
[RFC6881] Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for [RFC6881] Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for
Communications Services in Support of Emergency Calling", Communications Services in Support of Emergency Calling",
BCP 181, RFC 6881, March 2013. BCP 181, RFC 6881, DOI 10.17487/RFC6881, March 2013,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6881>.
[VEDS] "Vehicular Emergency Data Set (VEDS) version 3", July [VEDS] "Vehicular Emergency Data Set (VEDS) version 3", July
2012, <http://apcointl.org/resources/ 2012, <https://www.apcointl.org/resources/telematics/aacn-
aacn-and-veds/2012-07-25-19-24-06.html>. and-veds.html>.
16.2. Informative references
[I-D.ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-location] 17.2. Informative references
Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and B. Aboba,
"Trustworthy Location", draft-ietf-ecrit-trustworthy-
location-14 (work in progress), July 2014.
[RFC5012] Schulzrinne, H. and R. Marshall, "Requirements for [RFC5012] Schulzrinne, H. and R. Marshall, Ed., "Requirements for
Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies", Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies",
RFC 5012, January 2008. RFC 5012, DOI 10.17487/RFC5012, January 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5012>.
[RFC5069] Taylor, T., Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and M. [RFC5069] Taylor, T., Ed., Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and M.
Shanmugam, "Security Threats and Requirements for Shanmugam, "Security Threats and Requirements for
Emergency Call Marking and Mapping", RFC 5069, January Emergency Call Marking and Mapping", RFC 5069, DOI
2008. 10.17487/RFC5069, January 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5069>.
[RFC7378] Tschofenig, H., Schulzrinne, H., and B. Aboba, Ed.,
"Trustworthy Location", RFC 7378, DOI 10.17487/RFC7378,
December 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7378>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Randall Gellens Randall Gellens
Qualcomm Technologies, Inc Qualcomm Technologies, Inc
5775 Morehouse Drive 5775 Morehouse Drive
San Diego 92651 San Diego 92651
US US
Email: rg+ietf@qti.qualcomm.com Email: rg+ietf@randy.pensive.org
Brian Rosen Brian Rosen
NeuStar, Inc. NeuStar, Inc.
470 Conrad Dr 470 Conrad Dr
Mars, PA 16046 Mars, PA 16046
US US
Email: br@brianrosen.net Email: br@brianrosen.net
Hannes Tschofenig Hannes Tschofenig
(Individual)
Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@gmx.net
URI: http://www.tschofenig.priv.at URI: http://www.tschofenig.priv.at
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