draft-ietf-mif-current-practices-02.txt   draft-ietf-mif-current-practices-03.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force M. Wasserman, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force M. Wasserman, Ed.
Internet-Draft Painless Security, LLC Internet-Draft Painless Security, LLC
Intended status: Informational P. Seite, Ed. Intended status: Informational P. Seite, Ed.
Expires: December 30, 2010 France Telecom - Orange Expires: February 12, 2011 France Telecom - Orange
June 28, 2010 August 11, 2010
Current Practices for Multiple Interface Hosts Current Practices for Multiple Interface Hosts
draft-ietf-mif-current-practices-02 draft-ietf-mif-current-practices-03
Abstract Abstract
An increasing number of hosts are operating in multiple-interface An increasing number of hosts are operating in multiple-interface
environments, where different network interfaces are providing environments, where different network interfaces are providing
unequal levels of service or connectivity. This document summarizes unequal levels of service or connectivity. This document summarizes
current practices in this area, and describes in detail how some current practices in this area, and describes in detail how some
common operating systems cope with these challenges. common operating systems cope with these challenges.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on December 30, 2010. This Internet-Draft will expire on February 12, 2011.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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2.1. Centralized Connection Management . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1. Centralized Connection Management . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2. Per Application Connection Settings . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2. Per Application Connection Settings . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3. Stack-Level Solutions to Specific Problems . . . . . . . . 4 2.3. Stack-Level Solutions to Specific Problems . . . . . . . . 4
2.3.1. DNS Resolution Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3.1. DNS Resolution Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3.2. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3.2. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3.3. Address Selection Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3.3. Address Selection Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Current Practices in Some Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Current Practices in Some Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1. Mobile Handset Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Mobile Handset Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.1. Nokia S60 3rd Edition, Feature Pack 2 . . . . . . . . 7 3.1.1. Nokia S60 3rd Edition, Feature Pack 2 . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.2. Microsoft Windows Mobile 2003 Second Edition . . . . . 8 3.1.2. Microsoft Windows Mobile 2003 Second Edition . . . . . 8
3.1.3. BlackBerry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.3. Window Phone 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.4. Google Android . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.4. BlackBerry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1.5. Qualcomm Brew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1.5. Google Android . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.1.6. Arena Connection Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.1.6. Qualcomm Brew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.1.7. Access selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.1.7. Arena Connection Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1.8. Access selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2. Desktop Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2. Desktop Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.1. Microsoft Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2.1. Microsoft Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.1.1. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2.1.1. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.1.2. Outbound and Inbound Addresses . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2.1.2. Outbound and Inbound Addresses . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.2.1.3. DNS Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2.1.3. DNS Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.2.2. Linux and BSD-based Operating Systems . . . . . . . . 15 3.2.2. Linux and BSD-based Operating Systems . . . . . . . . 15
3.2.3. Apple Mac OS X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.2.3. Apple Mac OS X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Multiple-interface hosts face several challenges not faced by single- Multiple-interface hosts face several challenges not faced by single-
interface hosts, some of which are described in the MIF problem interface hosts, some of which are described in the MIF problem
statement, [I-D.ietf-mif-problem-statement]. This document statement, [I-D.ietf-mif-problem-statement]. This document
summarizes how current implementations deal with the problems summarizes how current implementations deal with the problems
identified in the MIF problem statement. identified in the MIF problem statement.
Publicly-available information about the multiple-interface solutions Publicly-available information about the multiple-interface solutions
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During operation, Connection Manager opens new connections as needed, During operation, Connection Manager opens new connections as needed,
and also disconnects unused or idle connections. and also disconnects unused or idle connections.
To optimize resource use, such as battery power and bandwidth, To optimize resource use, such as battery power and bandwidth,
Connection Manager enables applications to synchronize network Connection Manager enables applications to synchronize network
connection usage by allowing applications to register their connection usage by allowing applications to register their
requirements for periodic connectivity. An application is notified requirements for periodic connectivity. An application is notified
when a suitable connection becomes available for its use. when a suitable connection becomes available for its use.
3.1.3. BlackBerry 3.1.3. Window Phone 7
In comparison to Windows Mobile 2003 SE, Windows phone 7 brings
update of the routing functionnality which is worth to be mentioned
in a MIF context. Actually, Windows Phone 7 routes the traffic
through a preferred interface, which has a lower metric. When there
are multiple interfaces, the applications system will, by default,
choose from an ordered list of available interfaces. The default
connection policy will prefer wired over wireless and WiFi over
cellular. Hence, if an application wants to use cellular 3G as the
active interface when WiFi is available, the application needs to
override the default connection mapping policy. An application
specific mapping policy can be set via API or provisioned by the
Mobile Operator. The application, in compliance with the security
model, can request connection type by interface (WiFi, cellular), by
minimum interface speed (x kbps, y mbps), or by name (Access Point
Name).
3.1.4. BlackBerry
In BlackBerry devices [BLACKBERRY] Java applications can use one of In BlackBerry devices [BLACKBERRY] Java applications can use one of
two wireless gateways to proxy the connection to the Internet or to a two wireless gateways to proxy the connection to the Internet or to a
corporate network. The application can be designed to always use the corporate network. The application can be designed to always use the
default Internet gateway, or to use a more preferred enterprise default Internet gateway, or to use a more preferred enterprise
gateway when available. The intent is to hide connectivity issues gateway when available. The intent is to hide connectivity issues
from users. from users.
A BlackBerry device [BLACKBERRY] can access different destinations A BlackBerry device [BLACKBERRY] can access different destinations
using multiple access (wireless/wired) networks simultaneously. A using multiple access (wireless/wired) networks simultaneously. A
device can also access the same destination using multiple access device can also access the same destination using multiple access
networks simultaneously. The device can select the network interface networks simultaneously. The device can select the network interface
to be used in various ways. For instance, it can use the default to be used in various ways. For instance, it can use the default
network interface (or the default access network) or choose from network interface (or the default access network) or choose from
available active network interfaces based on cost, type-of-service available active network interfaces based on cost, type-of-service
and/or use preference. Multiple network interfaces can be associated and/or use preference. Multiple network interfaces can be associated
with a single IP stack or multiple IP stacks. with a single IP stack or multiple IP stacks.
3.1.4. Google Android 3.1.5. Google Android
The Android reference documentation describes the android.net package The Android reference documentation describes the android.net package
[ANDROID] and the ConnectivityManager class that applications can use [ANDROID] and the ConnectivityManager class that applications can use
to request a route to a specified destination address via a specified to request a route to a specified destination address via a specified
network interface (3GPP or Wifi). Applications also ask Connection network interface (3GPP or Wifi). Applications also ask Connection
Manager for permission to start using a network feature. The Manager for permission to start using a network feature. The
Connectivity Manager monitors changes in network connectivity and Connectivity Manager monitors changes in network connectivity and
attempts to failover to another network if connectivity to an active attempts to failover to another network if connectivity to an active
network is lost. When there are changes in network connectivity, network is lost. When there are changes in network connectivity,
applications are notified. Applications are also able to ask for applications are notified. Applications are also able to ask for
information about all network interfaces, including their information about all network interfaces, including their
availability, type and other information. availability, type and other information.
Applications are bound to use one network type at a time. For Applications are bound to use one network type at a time. For
example, on a 3G/Wifi HTC Dream (Android 1.5), web browsing uses only example, on a 3G/Wifi HTC Dream (Android 1.5), web browsing uses only
the Wifi access when both 3G and WiFi are available. However the Wifi access when both 3G and WiFi are available. However
different applications can use different access at the same time. different applications can use different access at the same time.
For instance, the HTC Dream can utilize WLAN access for web browsing For instance, the HTC Dream can utilize WLAN access for web browsing
and GPRS access for transferring multimedia messages (MMS). and GPRS access for transferring multimedia messages (MMS).
3.1.5. Qualcomm Brew 3.1.6. Qualcomm Brew
This section describes how multi-interface support is handled by This section describes how multi-interface support is handled by
Advanced Mobile Station Software (AMSS) that comes with Brew OS for Advanced Mobile Station Software (AMSS) that comes with Brew OS for
all Qualcomm chipsets (e.g., MSM, Snapdragon etc). AMSS is a low all Qualcomm chipsets (e.g., MSM, Snapdragon etc). AMSS is a low
level connectivity platform, on top of which manufacturers can build level connectivity platform, on top of which manufacturers can build
to provide the necessary connectivity to applications. The to provide the necessary connectivity to applications. The
interaction model between AMSS, the Operating System, and the interaction model between AMSS, the Operating System, and the
applications is not unique and depend on the design chosen by the applications is not unique and depend on the design chosen by the
manufacturer. The Mobile OS can let an application invoke the AMSS manufacturer. The Mobile OS can let an application invoke the AMSS
directly (via API), or provide its own connection manager that will directly (via API), or provide its own connection manager that will
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which application making the DNS query is bound. Applications can which application making the DNS query is bound. Applications can
also specify a different netpolicy as part of DNS request to select also specify a different netpolicy as part of DNS request to select
another interface for DNS resolution. Regardless, all the DNS another interface for DNS resolution. Regardless, all the DNS
queries are sent only over this selected interface using the DNS queries are sent only over this selected interface using the DNS
configuration from the interface. DNS resolution is first attempted configuration from the interface. DNS resolution is first attempted
with the primary server configured in the interface. If a response with the primary server configured in the interface. If a response
is not received, the queries are sent to all the other servers is not received, the queries are sent to all the other servers
configured in the interface in a sequential manner using a backoff configured in the interface in a sequential manner using a backoff
mechanism. mechanism.
3.1.6. Arena Connection Manager 3.1.7. Arena Connection Manager
Arena, a mobile OS based on Linux, provides a Connection Manager, Arena, a mobile OS based on Linux, provides a Connection Manager,
which is described in [I-D.zhang-mif-connection-manager-arena] and which is described in [I-D.zhang-mif-connection-manager-arena] and
[I-D.yang-mif-connection-manager-impl-req]. The arena connection [I-D.yang-mif-connection-manager-impl-req]. The arena connection
manager provides a means for applications to register their manager provides a means for applications to register their
connectivity requirement. The Connection Manager can then choose an connectivity requirement. The Connection Manager can then choose an
interface that matches the application's needs while considering interface that matches the application's needs while considering
other factors such as availability, cost and stability. Also, the other factors such as availability, cost and stability. Also, the
Connection Manager can handle multi-interface issues such as Connection Manager can handle multi-interface issues such as
connection sharing. connection sharing.
3.1.7. Access selection 3.1.8. Access selection
This section describes the behavior of connection managers in This section describes the behavior of connection managers in
presence of multiple points of attachment for a same interface. The presence of multiple points of attachment for a same interface. The
section focuses on Wifi interface, it is described how does the section focuses on Wifi interface, it is described how does the
connection manager deal with the list of preferred SSID and how does connection manager deal with the list of preferred SSID and how does
it select the SSID for attachment. Current implementation of it select the SSID for attachment. Current implementation of
connection managers are considered for the following handsets: LG connection managers are considered for the following handsets: LG
Pathfinder, HTC Android, RIM BlackBerry , iPhone (3G and 3GS). Pathfinder, HTC Android, RIM BlackBerry , iPhone (3G and 3GS).
When the terminal is under coverage of different WiFi networks with When the terminal is under coverage of different WiFi networks with
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o Shunan Fan, Huawei Technology o Shunan Fan, Huawei Technology
o Jian Yang, Huawei Technology o Jian Yang, Huawei Technology
o Gabriel Montenegro, Microsoft Corporation o Gabriel Montenegro, Microsoft Corporation
o Shyam Seshadri, Microsoft Corporation o Shyam Seshadri, Microsoft Corporation
o Dave Thaler, Microsoft Corporation o Dave Thaler, Microsoft Corporation
o Kevin Chin, Microsoft Corporation
o Teemu Savolainen, Nokia o Teemu Savolainen, Nokia
o Tao Sun, China Mobile o Tao Sun, China Mobile
o George Tsirtsis, Qualcomm. o George Tsirtsis, Qualcomm.
o David Freyermuth, France telecom. o David Freyermuth, France telecom.
o Aurelien Collet, Altran. o Aurelien Collet, Altran.
o Giyeong Son, RIM. o Giyeong Son, RIM.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-mif-problem-statement] [I-D.ietf-mif-problem-statement]
Blanchet, M. and P. Seite, "Multiple Interfaces Problem Blanchet, M. and P. Seite, "Multiple Interfaces Problem
Statement", draft-ietf-mif-problem-statement-04 (work in Statement", draft-ietf-mif-problem-statement-05 (work in
progress), May 2010. progress), July 2010.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[ANDROID] Google Inc., "Android developers: package android.net", [ANDROID] Google Inc., "Android developers: package android.net",
2009, <http://developer.android.com/reference/android/net/ 2009, <http://developer.android.com/reference/android/net/
ConnectivityManager.html>. ConnectivityManager.html>.
[BLACKBERRY] [BLACKBERRY]
Research In Motion Limited, "BlackBerry Java Development Research In Motion Limited, "BlackBerry Java Development
Environment - Fundamentals Guide: Wireless gateways", Environment - Fundamentals Guide: Wireless gateways",
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