Network Working Group                              J.L. Le Roux (Editor)
Internet Draft                                            France Telecom
Category: Informational
Expires: January March 2006

                                                               July

                                                            October 2005

        Requirements for Path Computation Element (PCE) Discovery

               draft-ietf-pce-discovery-reqs-01.txt

               draft-ietf-pce-discovery-reqs-02.txt

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Abstract

   This document presents a set of requirements for a Path Computation
   Element (PCE) discovery mechanism that would allow a Path Computation
   Client (PCC) to discover dynamically and automatically a set of PCEs
   along with certain information relevant for PCE selection. It is
   intended that solutions that specify procedures and protocol(s) or
   protocol(s)
   extensions to existing protocol(s) for such PCE discovery satisfy
   these requirements.

Conventions used in this document
   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119.

Table of Contents

   1.      Contributors................................................2
   2.      Terminology.................................................3
   3.      Introduction................................................3
   4.      Problem Statement and Requirements overview.................4
   4.1.    Problem Statement...........................................4
   4.2.    Requirements overview.......................................5
   5.      Example of application scenario.............................6
   6.      Detailed Requirements.......................................7
   6.1.    PCE Information to be disclosed.............................7
   6.1.1.  General PCE Information (Mandatory support).................7
   6.1.1.1.  Discovery of PCE Location...................................7
   6.1.2. Location.................................7
   6.1.1.2.  Discovery of PCE computation scope(s) and domain(s)
           under control...............................................7
   6.1.3. and inter-domain functions.....7
   6.1.2.  Detailed PCE Information (Optional support).................8
   6.1.2.1.  Discovery of PCE Capabilities...............................8
   6.1.4. Capabilities.............................8
   6.1.2.2.  Discovery of Alternate PCEs.................................8 PCEs...............................9
   6.2.    Scope of PCE Discovery......................................9
   6.3.    PCE Information Synchronization.............................9 Synchronization............................10
   6.4.    Detecting PCE Liveliness....................................9 Liveliness...................................10
   6.5.    Discovery of PCE capacity and congestion...................10
   6.6.    Security Requirements......................................10
   6.6.    Extensibility..............................................11
   6.7.    Extensibility..............................................10    Scalability................................................11
   6.8.    Scalability................................................10    Operational orders of magnitudes...........................11
   7.      Security Considerations....................................11 Considerations....................................12
   8.      Acknowledgments............................................11      Acknowledgments............................................12
   9.      References.................................................11      References.................................................12
   10.     Authors' Addresses:........................................11 Addresses:........................................12
   11.     Intellectual Property Statement............................12 Statement............................13

1. Contributors

   The following are the authors that contributed to the present
   document:

   Jean-Louis Le Roux (France Telecom)
   Paul Mabey (Qwest Communications)
   Eiji Oki (NTT)
   Richard Rabbat (Fujitsu)
   Ting Wo Chung (Bell Canada)
   Raymond Zhang (BT Infonet)

2. Terminology

   Terminology used in this document

      LSR: Label Switch Router

      TE-LSP: Traffic Engineered Label Switched Path

      PCE: Path Computation Element: an entity (component, application,
      or network node) that is capable of computing a network path or
      route based on a network graph, and applying computational
      constraints.

      PCC: Path Computation Client: any client application requesting a
      path computation to be performed by a Path Computation Element.

      IGP Area: OSPF Area or ISIS level/area

      ABR: IGP Area Border Router (OSPF ABR or ISIS L1L2 router)

      AS: Autonomous System

      ASBR: AS Border Router

      Intra-area TE LSP: A TE LSP whose path does not cross IGP area
      boundaries.

      Inter-area TE LSP: A TE LSP whose path transits through
      two or more IGP areas.

      Inter-AS MPLS TE LSP: A TE LSP whose path transits
      through two or more ASes or sub-ASes (BGP confederations).

      Domain: any collection of network elements within a common sphere
      of address management or path computational responsibility.
      Examples of domains include IGP areas and Autonomous Systems.

3. Introduction

   The PCE Architecture [PCE-ARCH] defines a Path Computation Element
   (PCE) as an entity capable of computing TE-LSPs paths satisfying based on a
   set of
   network graph, and applying computational constraints. A PCE serves
   path computation requests sent by Path Computation Clients (PCC).
   A PCC is a client application requesting a path computation to be
   performed by a PCE. This can be, for instance, an LSR requesting a
   path for a TE-LSP for which it is the head-end, or a PCE requesting a
   path computation of another PCE (inter-PCE communication). The
   communication between a PCC and a PCE requires a client-server
   protocol whose generic requirements are listed in [PCE-COM-REQ].

   There are several motivations for the adoption of a PCE-based
   architecture to perform a path computation. They are listed in [PCE-
   ARCH]. This includes applications such as CPU intensive path
   computation, inter-domain path computation and backup path
   computation.

   The PCE architecture requires, of course, that a PCC be aware of the
   location of one or more PCEs in its domain, and also potentially of
   some PCEs in other domains, for e.g. in case of inter-domain path
   computation.

   In that context it would be highly desirable to define a mechanism
   for automatic and dynamic PCE discovery, which would allow PCCs to
   automatically discover a set of PCEs, including information required
   for PCE selection, and to dynamically detect new PCEs or any
   modification of PCE's information. This includes the discovery by a
   PCC of a set of one or more PCEs in its domain, and potentially in
   some other domains. The latter is a desirable function in the case of
   inter-domain path computation for example.

   This document lists a set of functional requirements for such an
   automatic and dynamic PCE discovery mechanism. Section 3 4 points out
   the problem statement. Section 4 5 illustrates an application scenario.
   Finally section 5 6 addresses detailed requirements.

   It is intended that solutions that specify procedures and protocol(s)
   or protocol(s) extensions for such PCE discovery satisfy these
   requirements. There is no intent either to specify solution specific solution-specific
   requirements or to make any assumption on the protocol(s) that could
   be used for the discovery.

   Note that requirements listed in this document apply equally to MPLS-
   TE PCEs
   that are capable of computing paths in MPLS-TE-enabled networks and GMPLS-capable PCEs.
   PCEs that are capable of computing paths in GMPLS-enabled networks
   (and PCEs capable of both).

   It is also important to note that the notion of a PCC encompasses a
   PCE acting as PCC when requesting a path computation of another PCE
   (inter-PCE communication). Hence, this document does not make the
   distinction between PCE discovery by PCCs and PCE discovery by PCEs.

4. Problem Statement and Requirements overview

4.1. Problem Statement

   A routing domain may in practice be comprised of multiple PCEs:
        -The path computation load may be balanced among a set of PCEs
         to improve scalability;
        -For the purpose of redundancy, primary and backup PCEs may be
         used;
        -PCEs may have distinct path computation capabilities (multi-
         constrained path computation, backup path computation...);
        -In an inter-domain context there can be several PCEs with
         distinct path computation scopes (intra-area, inter-area, inter-domain functions (inter-area,
         inter-AS, inter-layer), each PCE being responsible for path
         computation in one or more domains within its scope. domains.

   As an example, in a multi-area network made of one backbone area and
   N peripheral areas, and where inter-area MPLS-TE path computation
   relies on multiple-PCE path computation with ABRs acting as PCEs, the
   backbone area would comprise at least N PCEs. In existing multi-area
   networks, N can be quite large (e.g. beyond fifty).

   In order to allow for efficient effective PCE selection by PCCs and efficient
   load balancing of requests, a PCC has to know the location of PCEs in
   its domain, along with some information relevant for to PCE selection,
   and also potentially of some PCEs in other domains, for inter-domain
   path computation purpose.
   Such PCE information could be learnt through manual configuration, on
   each PCC, of the set of PCEs along with their capabilities. Such
   manual configuration approach may be sufficient, and even desired in
   some particular situations, but it obviously faces several
   limitations:
        -This may imply a substantial configuration overhead (see the
         above example with N PCEs);
        -This would not allow a PCC to dynamically detect that a new
         PCE is available, that an existing PCE is no longer available,
         or that there is a change in the PCE's information.

   Furthermore, as with any manual configuration approach, this may lead
   to undesirable configuration errors.

   Hence, an automated PCE discovery mechanism allowing a PCC to
   dynamically discover a set of PCEs is highly desirable.

4.2. Requirements overview

   A PCE discovery mechanism that satisfies the requirements set forth
   in this document MUST allow a PCC to automatically discover the
   location of one or more PCEs in its domain and also, potentially, of
   PCEs in other domains, of interest for inter-domain path computation
   purpose.

   A PCE discovery mechanism MUST allow discovering the path computation
   scope(s) of a PCE (intra-area, inter-area, inter-ASŕ). It MUST also
   allow a PCC to discover the set of one
   or more domains under the path computation responsibility of a PCE.
   It MUST also allow the discovery of the potential inter-domain
   function(s) of a PCE (inter-area, inter-AS, inter-layer…).

   A PCE discovery mechanism MUST allow PCCs to dynamically discover
   that a new PCE has appeared or that there is a change in PCE's
   information. It MUST also allow PCCs to dynamically discover that a
   PCE is no longer available.

   The PCE discovery MUST be secure. In particular, key consideration
   MUST be given in terms of how to establish a trust model for PCE
   discovery.

   OPTIONALLY a PCE discovery mechanism MAY be used so as to disclose a
   set of detailed PCE capabilities.

5. Example of application scenario

   <----------------AS1-------------------->           <----AS2---
    Area 1           Area 0        Area 2
  R1---------R3-----R5-------R6-----------R9----------R11----R13
  |          |               |             |           |
  |          |               |             |           |
  R2---------R4-----R7-------R8-----------R10---------R12----R14

      S1
       |
       |
       --
      |S1|
       --

                          Figure 1

   Figure 1 above illustrates a multi-area/AS network with several PCEs:
   -The ABR R3 is a PCE that can take part in inter area path
   computation. It can compute paths in area 1 and area 0;
   -The ABR R6 is a PCE that can take part in inter-area path
   computation. It can compute paths in area 0 and area2;
   -The ASBR R9 is a PCE that can take part in inter-AS path
   computation, responsible for path computation in AS1 towards AS2;
   -The ASBR R12 is a PCE that can take part in inter-AS path
   computation, responsible for path computation in AS2 towards AS1;
   -The server S1 is a PCE that can be used to compute diverse paths and
   backup paths in area 1.

   The PCE discovery mechanism will allow:
   -each LSR in area areas 1 and 0 to dynamically discover R3, as a PCE for
   inter-area path computation as well as its path computation domains:
   area1 and area0;
   -each LSR in area areas 0 and 2 to dynamically discover R6, as a PCE for
   inter-area path computation, as well as its path computation domains:
   area2 and area0;
   -each LSR in AS1 and some PCEs in AS2 to dynamically discover R9 as a
   PCE for inter-AS path computation in AS1 towards AS2;
   -each LSR in AS2 and some PCEs in AS1 to dynamically discover R12 as
   a PCE for inter-AS path computation in AS2 towards AS1;
   -each LSR in area 1 to dynamically discover S1, as a PCE for diverse
   path computation and backup path computation in area1.

6. Detailed Requirements

6.1. PCE Information to be disclosed

   We distinguish two levels of PCE information to be disclosed by the
   PCE discovery mechanism:
       -General information, whose disclosure MUST be supported by the
        PCE discovery mechanism.
       -Detailed information, whose disclosure MAY be supported by the
        PCE discovery mechanism.

   The PCE discovery mechanism MUST allow disclosing some general PCE
   information that will allow PCCs to select appropriate PCEs.

   We distinguish two levels of information to be disclosed by the PCE
   discovery mechanism:
       -Mandatory information: This
   comprises discovery of PCE location, PCE computation scopes domain(s) and domains under control
       -Optional information: potential PCE
   inter-domain function(s).

   The PCE discovery mechanism MAY also allow disclosing detailed PCE
   information. This comprises discovery of PCE path computation
   capabilities and alternate PCEs.

   Note This information is not strictly
   speaking part of PCE discovery; this is additional information that
   can facilitate the latter selection of a PCE. Support of this information is
   optional in the context of the PCE discovery mechanism. It mechanism itself. This
   does not mean that this is optional in the PCE architecture. Such
   information could also be obtained by other mechanisms, such as for
   instance the PCC-PCE communication protocol.

6.1.1. Discovery General PCE Information (Mandatory support)

6.1.1.1. Discovery of PCE Location

   The PCE discovery mechanism MUST allow discovering, for a given PCE,
   the IPv4 and/or IPv6 address to be used to reach the PCE. This
   address will typically be a loop-back address that is always
   reachable, if there is any connectivity to the PCE.
   This address will be used by PCCs to communicate with a PCE, thanks
   to a PCC-PCE communication protocol.

6.1.2.

6.1.1.2. Discovery of PCE computation scope(s) and domain(s) under
       control and inter-domain functions

   Inter-domain path computation is a key application of the PCE
   architecture.  This can rely on a multiple-PCE path computation,
   where PCEs in each domain compute a part of the end-to-end path and
   collaborate with each other to find the end-to-end-path. This can
   also rely on a single-PCE path computation where a PCE has visibility
   inside multiple domains and can compute an inter-domain path.

   Hence the PCE discovery mechanism MUST allow discovering the path
   computation scope of a PCE, i.e. if a PCE can be used to compute or
   to take part in the computation of intra-area, inter-area or inter-AS
   TE-LSP. Note that these path computation scopes are not mutually
   exclusive.

   Also the PCE discovery mechanism MUST allow discovering the set of
   one or more domains under the path computation responsibility of a
   PCE, i.e. where a PCE has visibility and can compute paths. These
   domains can be identified using a domain identifier: For instance, an
   IGP area can be identified by the Area ID (OSPF or ISIS), and an AS
   can be identified by the AS number.
   It

   Also the PCE discovery mechanism MUST allow discovering the potential
   inter-domain function(s) of a PCE, i.e. if a PCE can be used to
   compute or to take part in the computation of end-to-end paths across
   domains. The inter-domain functions include: inter-area, inter-AS or
   inter-layer path computation. Note that these functions are not
   mutually exclusive.
   Note that the inter-domain functions differ from the set of domains
   under control of a PCE. For instance a PCE may have visisbility
   limited to a single domain, but may be able to take part into the
   computation of inter-domain paths, by collaborating with PCEs in
   other domains.

   The PCE discovery mechanisms MUST also allow discovering the set of
   one or more domain(s) towards which a PCE can compute paths.

6.1.3. For
   instance in an inter-AS path computation context, there may be
   several PCEs in an AS, each one responsible for taking part in the
   computation of inter-AS path towards a set of one or more destination
   ASes, and a PCC must discover the destination ASes each PCE is
   responsible for.

6.1.2. Detailed PCE Information (Optional support)

6.1.2.1. Discovery of PCE Capabilities

   In the case where there are several PCEs with distinct capabilities
   available, a PCC has to select one or more appropriate PCEs.

   For that purpose the PCE discovery mechanism MAY be used so as to
   disclose some PCE capabilities.

   For the sake of illustration this could include for instance some
   path computation related PCE capabilities:
        -The capability to compute MPLS-TE and/or GMPLS paths;
        -The type of link and path constraints supported: e.g.
         bandwidth, affinities, delay;
        -The objective functions supported: e.g. shortest constrained
         path, shortest bounded delay path;
        -The capability to compute multiple paths in a synchronized
         manner: e.g. diverse path computation, load balancing balanced paths
         computation;
        -Some GMPLS specific capabilities: e.g. the supported interface
         switching capabilities, the support for multi-layer
         path computation;

   And this could also include some general specific PCE capabilities:
        -The capability to handle request prioritization;
        -The capability to authenticate PCCs and to be authenticated.
        -The maximum number of path computation requests per message
        -The PCE computation power (static parameters to be used for
         weighted load balancing of requests)
   Such information regarding PCE capabilities could then be used by a
   PCC to select an appropriate PCE from a list of candidate PCEs.

   Note that the exact definition and description of general and path computation specific PCE capabilities is
   out of the scope of this document. It is expected that this will be
   described in a one or more separate document. document(s) which may be
   application specific.

   It is paramount that dynamic discovery of PCE capabilities MUST NOT
   generate an excessive amount of information and SHOULD be limited to
   a small set of generic capabilities.
   If required, the exhaustive discovery of all detailed PCE
   capabilities could be ensured by means of the PCC-PCE communication
   protocol.
   Actually a tradeoff should be found between capability discovery by
   the PCE discovery mechanism and by the PCC-PCE communication
   protocol. One of the objectives of the PCE discovery mechanism is to
   help PCCs to select appropriate PCEs and limit the likelihood of PCC-
   PCE communication session rejections that may occur in case a PCE cannot support a
   given capability.

6.1.4.

6.1.2.2. Discovery of Alternate PCEs

   In the case of a PCE failure, a PCC has to select another PCE, if one
   is available. It could be useful in various situations, to indicate a
   set of one or more alternate PCEs that can be selected in case a
   given PCE fails.
   Hence the PCE Discovery mechanism SHOULD MAY allow the advertising, discovery, for a
   given PCE PCE, of the location of one or more assigned alternate PCEs.

6.2. Scope of PCE Discovery
   The PCE Discovery mechanism MUST MAY also allow the control discovery, for a given
   PCE, of the set of one ore more PCEs for which it acts as alternate
   PCE.

6.2. Scope of PCE Discovery

   The PCE Discovery mechanism MUST allow the control of the scope of
   the PCE information discovery (IGP Area, AS, set of AS) on a per PCE
   basis. In other words it MUST allow to control to which PCC or group
   of PCCs the information related to a PCE may be disclosed.

   The choice for the discovery scope of a given PCE MUST include the
   followings:

        -All PCCs in a single IGP area

        -All PCCs in a set of adjacent IGP areas

        -All PCCs in a single AS

        -All PCCs in a set of ASes
        -A set of one or more PCCs in a set of one or more ASes

   Particularly this also implies that the PCE Discovery mechanism MUST
   allow for the discovery of PCE information across IGP areas and
   across AS boundaries.

   Note that it MUST be possible to deactivate PCE discovery on a per
   PCE basis.

6.3. PCE Information Synchronization

   The PCE discovery mechanism MUST allow a PCC to detect any change in
   the information related to a PCE. This includes both general
   information (e.g. PCE domain(s) modification), and detailed
   information if supported (e.g. capability modifications). modification).
   In addition it MUST be possible to dynamically detect new PCEs.

   The PCE Discovery Mechanism SHOULD allow such detection under 60
   seconds.

   Note that PCE information is relatively static and is expected to be
   fairly stable and not to change frequently.

 6.4. Detecting PCE Liveliness

   The PCE discovery mechanism MUST allow a PCC to detect when a PCE is
   no longer alive. alive or is deactivated. This allows a PCC to rapidly
   switch to another PCE (for instance a predefined alternate PCE), and
   thus minimizes path computation service disruption.

   The PCE discovery mechanism SHOULD allow such detection under 60
   seconds.

   Note that such detection could also be ensured by the PCC-PCE
   communication protocol (see [PCE-COM-REQ]).

6.5. Discovery Security Requirements

   The three major threats related to PCE discovery mechanisms are:
        -Impersonation of PCE capacity and congestion
        -Interception of PCE WG feedback is requested on the following items:
        -Is there a need for the discovery information
        -Falsification of PCE capacity in terms of
         computation power? This static parameter could discovery information
        -Information disclosure to non-authorized PCCs.

   Hence mechanisms MUST be used defined to ensure weighted load balancing authentication, integrity
   and privacy of requests in case PCEs do not
         have the same capacity.
        -May the PCE discovery mechanism information:
        -There MUST be used so that a PCE report
         its status as "congested" in case it is too busy? PCCs may then
         use this dynamic information mechanism to prefer authenticate discovery information
        -There MUST be a different PCE.

6.6. Security Requirements

   The PCE Discovery mechanism to verify discovery information
         integrity
        -There MUST address security issues across
   multiple ASes.

   Key consideration be a mechanism to encrypt discovery information
        -There MUST be given in terms a mechanism to restrict the scope of how discovery to establish
         a trust
   model for set of authorized PCCs. In particular, the identity of any
         PCE discovery. The MUST only be learnt by authorized PCCs (see also 6.2).

   This is of particular importance in an inter-AS context, where PCE
   discovery mechanism MUST explicitly
   support a specific set may increase the vulnerability to attacks and the
   consequences of one ore more trust model(s). these attacks.

   The PCE discovery mechanism MUST deliver the operational security
   objectives where required. The overall security objectives of
   privacy, authentication, and integrity may take on varying level of
   importance. These objectives MAY be met by other established means
   and protocols.

   Particularly, mechanisms

   Also, key consideration MUST be defined to ensure authentication,
   integrity and privacy given in terms of how to establish a
   trust model for PCE discovery. The PCE discovery information.

   It mechanism MUST be possible to restrict the scope of discovery to
   explicitly support a specific set of
   authorized PCCs. In particular, the identity of any PCE MUST only be
   learnt by authorized PCCs.

   It MUST be possible for PCEs to authenticate PCCs and for PCCs to
   authenticate PCEs. It MUST also be possible to encrypt discovery
   information.

6.7. one ore more trust model(s).

6.6. Extensibility

   The PCE discovery mechanism MUST be flexible and extensible so as to
   easily allow for the inclusion of some additional PCE information
   that could be defined in the future.

6.8.

6.7. Scalability

   The PCE discovery mechanism MUST be designed to scale well with an
   increase of any of the following parameters:
        -Number of PCCs; PCCs discovering a given PCE;
        -Number of PCEs; PCEs to be discovered by a given PCC;
        -Number of IGP Areas domains in the discovery scope;
        -Number of ASs in the discovery scope.

   Particularly, in case routing protocols (IGP, BGP) are extended to
   support PCE discovery, the extensions MUST NOT cause a degradation in
   routing protocol performance. The same applies to a signaling
   solution that could serve for this discovery.

6.8. Operational orders of magnitudes

   This section gives minimum order of magnitude estimates of what the
   PCE discovery mechanism should support

   Number of PCCs discovering a given PCE: 1000
   Number of PCEs to be discovered by a given PCC: 100 (e.g. inter-area
   case with ABRs acting as PCE).
   Number of IGP areas in the discovery scope: 100
   Number of ASes in the discovery scope: 100

   Information disclosed in the PCE discovery mechanism is relatively
   static. Changes in PCE information may occur as result of PCE
   configuration updates, PCE deployment/activation or PCE
   deactivation/suppression, and should not occur as a result of the PCE
   activity itself.

   Hence, this information is quite stable and will not change
   frequently.

7. Security Considerations

   This document is a requirement document and hence does not raise by
   itself any particular security issue.

   A set of security requirements that MUST be addressed when
   considering the design and deployment of a PCE Discovery mechanism
   have been identified in section 6.6. 6.5.

8. Acknowledgments

   We would like to thank Benoit Fondeviole, Thomas Morin, Emile
   Stephan, Jean-Philippe Vasseur, Dean Cheng, Adrian Farrel, Renhai
   Zhang, Mohamed Boucadair, Eric Gray, Igor Bryskin and Bryskin, Dimitri
   Papadimitriou, Arthi Ayyangar and Andrew Dolganow for their useful
   comments and suggestions.

9. References

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
   Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3667] Bradner, S., "IETF Rights in Contributions", BCP 78, RFC
   3667, February 2004.

   [RFC3668] Bradner, S., "Intellectual Property Rights in IETF
   Technology", BCP 79, RFC 3668, February 2004.

   [PCE-ARCH] Farrel, A., Vasseur, J.P., Ash, J., "Path Computation
   Element (PCE) Architecture", draft-ietf-pce-architecture, work in
   progress.

   [PCE-COM-REQ] Ash, J., Le Roux, J.L., " PCE Communication Protocol
   Generic Requirements", draft-ietf-pce-comm-protocol-gen-reqs, work in
   progress.

10. Authors' Addresses:

   Jean-Louis Le Roux
   France Telecom
   2, avenue Pierre-Marzin
   22307 Lannion Cedex
   FRANCE
   Email: jeanlouis.leroux@francetelecom.com
   Paul Mabey
   Qwest Communications
   950 17th Street,
   Denver, CO 80202,
   USA
   Email: pmabey@qwest.com

   Eiji Oki
   NTT
   Midori-cho 3-9-11
   Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8585,
   JAPAN
   Email: oki.eiji@lab.ntt.co.jp

   Richard Rabbat
   Fujitsu Laboratories of America
   1240 East Arques Ave, MS 345
   Sunnyvale, CA 94085
   USA
   Email: richard@us.fujitsu.com

   Ting Wo Chung
   Bell Canada
   181 Bay Street, Suite 350
   Toronto, Ontario, M5J 2T3
   CANADA,
   Email: ting_wo.chung@bell.ca

   Raymond Zhang
   BT Infonet
   2160 E. Grand Ave.
   El Segundo, CA 90025
   USA
   Email: raymond_zhang@infonet.com

11. Intellectual Property Statement

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
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