draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-06.txt   draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-07.txt 
Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring WG D. Waltermire SACM Working Group H. Birkholz
Internet-Draft NIST Internet-Draft Fraunhofer SIT
Intended status: Informational A. Montville Intended status: Informational July 06, 2015
Expires: August 15, 2015 CIS Expires: January 7, 2016
D. Harrington
Effective Software
N. Cam-Winget
Cisco Systems
J. Lu
Oracle Corporation
B. Ford
Lancope
M. Kaeo
Double Shot Security
February 11, 2015
Terminology for Security Assessment Secure Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology
draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-06 draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-07
Abstract Abstract
This memo documents terminology used in the documents produced by This memo documents terminology used in the documents produced by
SACM (Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring). SACM (Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring).
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
skipping to change at page 1, line 42 skipping to change at page 1, line 31
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 15, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 7, 2016.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.1. ietf-sacm-terminology-01- to -02- . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.2. ietf-sacm-terminology-01- to -02- . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.3. ietf-sacm-terminology-02- to -03- . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Appendix A. The Attic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.4. ietf-sacm-terminology-03 to -04- . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.5. ietf-sacm-terminology-04 to -05- . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.6. ietf-sacm-terminology-05 to -06- . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Our goal with this document is to improve our agreement on the Our goal with this document is to improve our agreement on the
terminology used in documents produced by the IETF Working Group for terminology used in documents produced by the IETF Working Group for
Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring. Agreeing on Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring. Agreeing on
terminology should help reach consensus on which problems we're terminology should help reach consensus on which problems we're
trying to solve, and propose solutions and decide which ones to use. trying to solve, and propose solutions and decide which ones to use.
2. Terms and Definitions 2. Terms and Definitions
This section describes terms that have been defined by other RFC's This section describes terms that have been defined by other RFC's
and defines new ones. The predefined terms will reference the RFC and defines new ones. The predefined terms will reference the RFC
and where appropriate will be annotated with the specific context by and where appropriate will be annotated with the specific context by
which the term is used in SACM. which the term is used in SACM.
Assessment Assessment: Defined in [RFC5209] as "the process of collecting
posture for a set of capabilities on the endpoint (e.g., host-
Defined in [RFC5209] as "the process of collecting posture for a based firewall) such that the appropriate validators may evaluate
set of capabilities on the endpoint (e.g., host-based firewall) the posture against compliance policy."
such that the appropriate validators may evaluate the posture
against compliance policy."
Within this document the use of the term is expanded to support
other uses of collected posture (e.g. reporting, network
enforcement, vulnerability detection, license management). The
phrase "set of capabilities on the endpoint" includes: hardware
and software installed on the endpoint."
Asset
Defined in [RFC4949] as "a system resource that is (a) required to
be protected by an information system's security policy, (b)
intended to be protected by a countermeasure, or (c) required for
a system's mission.
Asset characterization
Asset characterization is the process of defining attributes that
describe properties of an identified asset.
Asset Management
The process by which assets are provisioned, updated, maintained
and deprecated.
Asset Targeting Within SACM the use of the term is expanded to support other uses
of collected posture (e.g. reporting, network enforcement,
vulnerability detection, license management). The phrase "set of
capabilities on the endpoint" includes: hardware and software
installed on the endpoint."
Asset targeting is the use of asset identification and Asset: Defined in [RFC4949] as "a system resource that is (a)
categorization information to drive human-directed, automated required to be protected by an information system's security
decision making for data collection and analysis in support of policy, (b) intended to be protected by a countermeasure, or (c)
endpoint posture assessment. required for a system's mission.
Attribute Asset Characterization: Asset characterization is the process of
defining attributes that describe properties of an identified
asset.
Defined in [RFC5209] as "data element including any requisite Asset Management: The process by which assets are provisioned,
meta-data describing an observed, expected, or the operational updated, maintained and deprecated.
status of an endpoint feature (e.g., anti-virus software is
currently in use)."
Broker Attribute: Defined in [RFC5209] as "data element including any
requisite meta-data describing an observed, expected, or the
operational status of an endpoint feature (e.g., anti-virus
software is currently in use)."
An entity providing and/or connecting services on the behalf of Authentication: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the process of verifying a
other architectural components. Within the SACM Architecture, for claim that a system entity or system resource has a certain
example, a broker may provide authorization services and find, attribute value."
upon request, entities providing requested services.
Building Block Authorization: Defined in [RFC4949] as "an approval that is granted
For SACM, a building block is a unit of functionality that may to a system entity to access a system resource."
apply to more than one use case and can be supported by different
components of an architectural model.
Capability Broker: A standard SACM component providing and/or connecting
services on the behalf of other SACM components via the control
plane. Within the SACM Architecture, for example, a broker may
provide authorization services and find, upon request, SACM
components providing requested services.
The extent of an architectural component's ability. For example, Building Block: For SACM, a building block is a unit of
a Posture Information Provider may only provide endpoint functionality that is used to compose SACM components. It
management data, and then only a subset of that data. contains functions and may apply to one or more use cases. A
Building Block can have interfaces on the data plane, the control
plane, or on the management plane.
Client Capability: The extent of an SACM component's ability enabled by the
building blocks it is composed of. For example, a Posture
Information Provider may only provide endpoint management data,
and then only a subset of that data.
An architectural component receiving services from another Collection Task: The task by which endpoint attributes and/or
architectural component. corresponding attribute values are collected.
Collection Task Consumer: An architectural component receiving information from
another architectrual component.
The process by which posture attributes or values are collected. Data Confidentiality: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that
data is not disclosed to system entities unless they have been
authorized to know the data."
Consumer Data Integrity: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that data has
not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or
accidental manner."
An architectural component receiving information from another Data Origin: One or more properties that enable a SACM component to
architectrual component. identify an Endpoint that is claimed to be the original source of
received data.
Endpoint Data Provenance: A historical record of the origins and evolution of
data that is influenced by inputs, entities, functions and
processes.
Defined in [RFC5209] as "any computing device that can be Endpoint: Defined in [RFC5209] as "any computing device that can be
connected to a network. Such devices normally are associated with connected to a network. Such devices normally are associated with
a particular link layer address before joining the network and a particular link layer address before joining the network and
potentially an IP address once on the network. This includes: potentially an IP address once on the network. This includes:
laptops, desktops, servers, cell phones, or any device that may laptops, desktops, servers, cell phones, or any device that may
have an IP address." have an IP address."
To further clarify the [RFC5209] definition, an endpoint is any To further clarify the [RFC5209] definition, an endpoint is any
physical or virtual device that may have a network address. Note physical or virtual device that may have a network address. Note
that, network infrastructure devices (e.g. switches, routers, that, network infrastructure devices (e.g. switches, routers,
firewalls), which fit the definition, are also considered to be firewalls), which fit the definition, are also considered to be
endpoints within this document. endpoints within this document.
Based on the previous definition of an asset, an endpoint is a Based on the previous definition of an asset, an endpoint is a
type of asset. type of asset.
Evaluation Task Endpoint Attributes: [TODO] (Definition of content, structure, and
relationship to Posture Attributes)
The process by which posture attributes are evaluated.
Endpoint Target
The endpoint of interest.
Endpoint Discovery
The process by which an endpoint can be identified.
Evaluation Result
The resulting value from having evaluated a set of posture
attributes.
Expected Endpoint State
The required state of an endpoint that is to be compared against.
Function
A behavioral aspect of a particular architectural component, which
belies that component's purpose. For example, the Management
Plane can provide a brokering function to other SACM architectrual
components.
Information Model Evaluation Task: The task by which endpoint attributes are
evaluated.
An information model is an abstract representation of data, their Evaluation Result: The resulting value from having evaluated a set
properties, relationships between data and the operations that can of posture attributes.
be performed on the data. While there is some overlap with a data
model, [RFC3444] distinguished an information model as being
protocol and implementation neutral whereas a data model would
provide such details.
Management Plane (TBD per list; was "Control Plane") Expected Endpoint State: The required state of an endpoint that is
to be compared against.
Architectural component providing common functions to all SACM Function: A behavioral aspect or capacity of a particular building
participants, including authentication, authorization, block, which belies that building blocks's purpose. For example,
capabilities mappings, and the like. a building block on the control plane can provide a brokering
function to other SACM components. On the data plane, a function
can act as a provider and/or as a consumer of information.
Posture Information Model: An information model is an abstract
representation of data, their properties, relationships between
data and the operations that can be performed on the data. While
there is some overlap with a data model, [RFC3444] distinguishes
an information model as being protocol and implementation neutral
whereas a data model would provide such details.
Defined in [RFC5209] as "configuration and/or status of hardware Management Plane (TBD per list; was "Control Plane"): Architectural
or software on an endpoint as it pertains to an organization's component providing common functions to all SACM participants,
security policy." including authentication, authorization, capabilities mappings,
and the like.
This term is used within the scope of this document to represent Posture: Defined in [RFC5209] as "configuration and/or status of
the state information that is collected from an endpoint (e.g. hardware or software on an endpoint as it pertains to an
software/hardware inventory, configuration settings). The state organization's security policy."
information may constitute one to many Posture Attributes.
Posture Attributes This term is used within the scope of SACM to represent the
configuration and state information that is collected from an
endpoint (e.g. software/hardware inventory, configuration
settings, dynamically assigned addresses). This information may
constitute one to many Posture Attributes.
Defined in [RFC5209] as "attributes describing the configuration Posture Attributes: Defined in [RFC5209] as "attributes describing
or status (posture) of a feature of the endpoint. A Posture the configuration or status (posture) of a feature of the
Attribute represents a single property of an observed state. For endpoint. A Posture Attribute represents a single property of an
example, a Posture Attribute might describe the version of the observed state. For example, a Posture Attribute might describe
operating system installed on the system." the version of the operating system installed on the system."
Within this document this term represents a specific assertion Within this document this term represents a specific assertion
about endpoint state (e.g. configuration setting, installed about endpoint configuration or state (e.g. configuration setting,
software, hardware). The phrase "features of the endpoint" refers installed software, hardware). The phrase "features of the
to installed software or software components. endpoint" refers to installed software or software components.
Provider
An architectural component providing information to another
architectrual component.
Proxy Provider: An architectural component providing information to
another architectrual component.
An architectural component providing functions, information, or Proxy: An architectural component providing functions, information,
services on behalf of another component, which is not directly or services on behalf of another component, which is not directly
participating in the architecture. participating in the architecture.
Repository Repository: An architectural component intended to store information
of a particular kind. A single repository may provide the
functions of more than one repository type (i.e. configuration
baseline repository, assessment results repository, etc.)
An architectural component intended to store information of a SACM Role: A label representing a collection of building blocks
particular kind. A single repository may provide the functions of (containing functions and composing SACM components) residing on a
more than one repository type (i.e. configuration baseline particular endpoint. If a particular endpoint does not contain
repository, assessment results repository, etc.) any SACM components it takes on the role of a target endpoint
unless indicated otherwise.
Role SACM Component: A composition of building blocks that contain
control plane, data plane or management plane functions. SACM
defines a set of standard components (e.g. a collector, a broker,
or a data store). A SACM component MUST contain at least a basic
set of control plane building blocks and MAY contain data plane
and managment plane building blocks. A SACM component residing on
an endpoint assigns one or more SACM roles to the corresponding
endpoint. A SACM component "resides on" an endpoint and an
endpoint "contains" a SACM component, correspondingly.
A label representing a collection of functions provided by a SACM Component Discovery: The function by which a SACM component (or
particular architectural component. subsets, such as SACM roles or other functions) can be discovered.
Security Automation Security Automation: The process of which security alerts can be
automated through the use of different tools to monitor, evaluate
and analyze endpoint and network traffic for the purposes of
detecting misconfigurations, misbehaviors or threats.
The process of which security alerts can be automated through the Supplicant: The entity seeking to be authenticated by the Management
use of different tools to monitor, evaluate and analyze endpoint Plane for the purpose of participating in the SACM architecture.
and network traffic for the purposes of detecting
misconfigurations, misbehaviors or threats.
Supplicant System Resource: Defined in [RFC4949] as "data contained in an
information system; or a service provided by a system; or a system
capacity, such as processing power or communication bandwidth; or
an item of system equipment (i.e., hardware, firmware, software,
or documentation); or a facility that houses system operations and
equipment.
The entity seeking to be authenticated by the Management Plane for Target Endpoint: A target endpoint is a SACM Role. An endpoint that
the purpose of participating in the SACM architecture. takes on the target endpoint role either contains no SACM
component or contains an internal SACM component. A target
endpoint is an "endpoint under assessment" (even if it is not
actively under assessment at all times). If an endpoint takes on
both the role of target endpoint and _Not A Target Endpoint_ [TBD]
it is not a Target Endpoint.
System Resource A target endpoint is similar to a device that is a Target of
Evaluation (TOE) as defined in Common Criteria.
Defined in [RFC4949] as "data contained in an information system; Target Endpoint Discovery: The function by which target endpoints
or a service provided by a system; or a system capacity, such as can be discovered.
processing power or communication bandwidth; or an item of system
equipment (i.e., hardware, firmware, software, or documentation);
or a facility that houses system operations and equipment.
3. IANA Considerations 3. IANA Considerations
This memo includes no request to IANA. This memo includes no request to IANA.
4. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
This memo documents terminology for security automation. While it is This memo documents terminology for security automation. While it is
about security, it does not affect security. about security, it does not affect security.
5. Acknowledgements 5. Acknowledgements
6. Change Log 6. Change Log
6.1. ietf-sacm-terminology-01- to -02- Changes from version 00 to version 01:
Added simple list of terms extracted from UC draft -05. It is o Added simple list of terms extracted from UC draft -05. It is
expected that comments will be received on this list of terms as to expected that comments will be received on this list of terms as
whether they should be kept in this document. Those that are kept to whether they should be kept in this document. Those that are
will be appropriately defined or cited. kept will be appropriately defined or cited.
6.2. ietf-sacm-terminology-01- to -02- Changes from version 01 to version 02:
Added Vulnerability, Vulnerability Management, xposure, o Added Vulnerability, Vulnerability Management, xposure,
Misconfiguration, and Software flaw. Misconfiguration, and Software flaw.
6.3. ietf-sacm-terminology-02- to -03- Changes from version 02 to version 03:
Removed Section 2.1. Cleaned up some editing nits; broke terms into o Removed Section 2.1. Cleaned up some editing nits; broke terms
2 sections (predefined and newly defined terms). Added some of the into 2 sections (predefined and newly defined terms). Added some
relevant terms per the proposed list discussed in the IETF 89 of the relevant terms per the proposed list discussed in the IETF
meeting. 89 meeting.
6.4. ietf-sacm-terminology-03 to -04- Changes from version 03 to version 04:
TODO o TODO
6.5. ietf-sacm-terminology-04 to -05- Changes from version 04 to version 05:
TODO o TODO
6.6. ietf-sacm-terminology-05 to -06- Changes from version 05 to version 06:
Updated author information. o Updated author information.
Combined "Pre-defined Terms" with "New Terms and Definitions". o Combined "Pre-defined Terms" with "New Terms and Definitions".
Removed "Requirements language". o Removed "Requirements language".
Removed unused reference to use case draft; resulted in removal of o Removed unused reference to use case draft; resulted in removal of
normative references. normative references.
Removed introductory text from Section 1 indicating that this o Removed introductory text from Section 1 indicating that this
document is intended to be temporary. document is intended to be temporary.
Added placeholders for missing change log entries. o Added placeholders for missing change log entries.
7. Informative References Changes from version 06 to version 07:
[RFC3444] Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between o Added Contributors section.
Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444, January
2003.
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", RFC o Updated author list.
4949, August 2007.
[RFC5209] Sangster, P., Khosravi, H., Mani, M., Narayan, K., and J. o Changed title from "Terminology for Security Assessment" to
Tardo, "Network Endpoint Assessment (NEA): Overview and "Secure Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology".
Requirements", RFC 5209, June 2008.
Authors' Addresses o Changed abbrev from "SACM-Terms" to "SACM Terminology".
o Added appendix The Attic to stash terms for future updates.
o Added Authentication, Authorization, Data Confidentiality, Data
Integrity, Data Origin, Data Provenance, SACM Component, SACM
Component Discovery, Target Endpoint Discovery.
o Major updates to Building Block, Function, SACM Role, Target
Endpoint.
o Minor updates to Broker, Capability, Collection Task, Evaluation
Task, Posture.
o Relabled Role to SACM Role, Endpoint Target to Target Endpoint,
Endpoint Discovery to Endpoint Identification.
o Moved Asset Targeting, Client, Endpoint Identification to The
Attic.
o Endpoint Attributes added as a TODO.
o Changed the structure of the Change Log.
7. Contributors
David Waltermire David Waltermire
National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive 100 Bureau Drive
Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877 Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877
USA USA
Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov
Adam W. Montville Adam W. Montville
Center for Internet Security Center for Internet Security
31 Tech Valley Drive 31 Tech Valley Drive
East Greenbush, New York 12061 East Greenbush, New York 12061
USA USA
Email: adam.w.montville@gmail.com Email: adam.w.montville@gmail.com
David Harrington David Harrington
Effective Software Effective Software
50 Harding Rd 50 Harding Rd
Portsmouth, NH 03801 Portsmouth, NH 03801
USA USA
Email: ietfdbh@comcast.net Email: ietfdbh@comcast.net
skipping to change at page 9, line 25 skipping to change at page 9, line 19
Portsmouth, NH 03801 Portsmouth, NH 03801
USA USA
Email: ietfdbh@comcast.net Email: ietfdbh@comcast.net
Nancy Cam-Winget Nancy Cam-Winget
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
3550 Cisco Way 3550 Cisco Way
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
US US
Jarrett Lu
Oracle Corporation
4180 Network Circle
Santa Clara, California 95054
Email: ncamwing@cisco.com Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com
Jarrett Lu Jarrett Lu
Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation
4180 Network Circle 4180 Network Circle
Santa Clara, California 95054 Santa Clara, California 95054
Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com
Brian Ford Brian Ford
Lancope Lancope
skipping to change at page 10, line 4 skipping to change at page 9, line 39
Santa Clara, California 95054 Santa Clara, California 95054
Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com
Brian Ford Brian Ford
Lancope Lancope
3650 Brookside Parkway, Suite 500 3650 Brookside Parkway, Suite 500
Alpharetta, Georgia 30022 Alpharetta, Georgia 30022
Email: bford@lancope.com Email: bford@lancope.com
Merike Kaeo Merike Kaeo
Double Shot Security Double Shot Security
3518 Fremont Avenue North, Suite 363 3518 Fremont Avenue North, Suite 363
Seattle, Washington 98103 Seattle, Washington 98103
Email: merike@doubleshotsecurity.com Email: merike@doubleshotsecurity.com
8. Informative References
[RFC3444] Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444, January
2003.
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", RFC
4949, August 2007.
[RFC5209] Sangster, P., Khosravi, H., Mani, M., Narayan, K., and J.
Tardo, "Network Endpoint Assessment (NEA): Overview and
Requirements", RFC 5209, June 2008.
Appendix A. The Attic
The following terms are stashed for now and will be updated later:
Asset Targeting: Asset targeting is the use of asset identification
and categorization information to drive human-directed, automated
decision making for data collection and analysis in support of
endpoint posture assessment.
Client: An architectural component receiving services from another
architectural component.
Endpoint Identification (TBD per list; was "Endpoint Discovery"):
The process by which an endpoint can be identified.
Author's Address
Henk Birkholz
Fraunhofer SIT
Rheinstrasse 75
Darmstadt 64295
Germany
Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de
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