draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-08.txt   draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-09.txt 
SACM Working Group H. Birkholz SACM Working Group H. Birkholz
Internet-Draft Fraunhofer SIT Internet-Draft Fraunhofer SIT
Intended status: Informational October 14, 2015 Intended status: Informational J. Lu
Expires: April 16, 2016 Expires: September 22, 2016 Oracle Corporation
N. Cam-Winget
Cisco Systems
March 21, 2016
Secure Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology Secure Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology
draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-08 draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-09
Abstract Abstract
This memo documents terminology used in the documents produced by This memo documents terminology used in the documents produced by
SACM (Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring). SACM (Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring).
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
skipping to change at page 1, line 31 skipping to change at page 1, line 34
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 16, 2016. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 22, 2016.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Appendix A. The Attic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Appendix A. The Attic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Our goal with this document is to improve our agreement on the Our goal with this document is to improve our agreement on the
terminology used in documents produced by the IETF Working Group for terminology used in documents produced by the IETF Working Group for
Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring. Agreeing on Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring. Agreeing on
terminology should help reach consensus on which problems we're terminology should help reach consensus on which problems we're
trying to solve, and propose solutions and decide which ones to use. trying to solve, and propose solutions and decide which ones to use.
2. Terms and Definitions 2. Terms and Definitions
skipping to change at page 3, line 10 skipping to change at page 3, line 10
installed on the endpoint." installed on the endpoint."
Asset: Defined in [RFC4949] as "a system resource that is (a) Asset: Defined in [RFC4949] as "a system resource that is (a)
required to be protected by an information system's security required to be protected by an information system's security
policy, (b) intended to be protected by a countermeasure, or (c) policy, (b) intended to be protected by a countermeasure, or (c)
required for a system's mission". In the scope of SACM, an asset required for a system's mission". In the scope of SACM, an asset
can be composed of other assets. Examples of Assets include: can be composed of other assets. Examples of Assets include:
Endpoints, Software, Guidance, or X.509 public key certificates. Endpoints, Software, Guidance, or X.509 public key certificates.
An asset is not necessarily owned by an organization. An asset is not necessarily owned by an organization.
Asset Characterization: Asset characterization is the process of
defining attributes that describe properties of an identified
asset.
Asset Management: The process by which assets are provisioned, Asset Management: The process by which assets are provisioned,
updated, maintained and deprecated. updated, maintained and deprecated.
Attribute: Defined in [RFC5209] as "data element including any Attribute: Defined in [RFC5209] as "data element including any
requisite meta-data describing an observed, expected, or the requisite meta-data describing an observed, expected, or the
operational status of an endpoint feature (e.g., anti-virus operational status of an endpoint feature (e.g., anti-virus
software is currently in use)." If not indicated otherwise, software is currently in use)." If not indicated otherwise,
attributes in SACM are represented and processed as attribute attributes in SACM are represented and processed as attribute
value pairs, and the terms attribute and endpoint attribute are value pairs.
synonyms.
Authentication: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the process of verifying a Authentication: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the process of verifying a
claim that a system entity or system resource has a certain claim that a system entity or system resource has a certain
attribute value." attribute value."
Authorization: Defined in [RFC4949] as "an approval that is granted Authorization: Defined in [RFC4949] as "an approval that is granted
to a system entity to access a system resource." to a system entity to access a system resource."
Broker: A broker is a specific controller type that contains control Broker: A broker is a specific controller type that contains control
plane functions to provide and/or connect services on behalf of plane functions to provide and/or connect services on behalf of
other SACM components via interfaces on the control plane. A other SACM components via interfaces on the control plane. A
broker may provide, for example, authorization services and find, broker may provide, for example, authorization services and find,
upon request, SACM components providing requested services. upon request, SACM components providing requested services.
Building Block: For SACM, a building block is a unit of
functionality that is used to compose SACM components. It
contains SACM functions and may apply to one or more use cases.
The functions of a building block can have interfaces on the data
plane, the control plane, or on the management plane.
Capability: The extent of an SACM component's ability enabled by the Capability: The extent of an SACM component's ability enabled by the
functions (bundled into building blocks) it is composed of. functions it is composed of. Capabilities are propagated by a
Capabilities are propagated by a SACM component and can be SACM component and can be discovered by or negotiated with other
discovered by or negotiated with other SACM components. For SACM components. For example, the capability of a SACM Provider
example, the capability of a SACM Provider may be to provide may be to provide endpoint management data, or only a subset of
endpoint management data, or only a subset of that data. that data.
Collection Result: Information about a target endpoint that is Collection Result: Information about a target endpoint that is
produced by a collector conducting a collection task. A produced by a collector conducting a collection task. A
collection result is composed of one or more endpoint attributes. collection result is composed of one or more endpoint attributes.
Collection Task: The task by which endpoint attributes and/or Collection Task: The task by which endpoint attributes and/or
corresponding attribute values about a target endpoint are corresponding attribute values about a target endpoint are
collected. There are three types of collection tasks, each collected. There are three types of collection tasks, each
requiring an appropriate set of functions to be included in the requiring an appropriate set of functions to be included in the
SACM component conducting the collection task: SACM component conducting the collection task:
Self-Reported: A SACM component located on the target endpoint Self-Reporting: A SACM component located on the target endpoint
itself conducts the collection task. itself conducts the collection task.
Remote: A SACM component located on an Endpoint different from the Remote-Acquisition: A SACM component located on an Endpoint
target endpoint conducts the collection task via interfaces different from the target endpoint conducts the collection task
available on the target endpoint, e.g. SNMP/NETCONF or WMI. via interfaces available on the target endpoint, e.g. SNMP/
NETCONF or WMI.
Observed: A SACM component located on an Endpoint different from Behavior-Observation: A SACM component located on an Endpoint
the target endpoint observes network traffic related to the target different from the target endpoint observes network traffic
endpoint and conducts the collection task via interpretation of related to the target endpoint and conducts the collection task
that network traffic. via interpretation of that network traffic.
Collector: A piece of software that acquires information about one Collector: A piece of software that acquires information about one
or more target endpoints by conducting collection tasks. A or more target endpoints by conducting collection tasks. A
collector provides acquired information to SACM components in the collector provides acquired information to SACM components in the
form of collection results. A SACM component that consumes form of collection results. A SACM component that consumes
collection results may take on the role of a provider and publish collection results may take on the role of a provider and publish
the collection results in a SACM domain. (TBD: A collector may the collection results in a SACM domain. (TBD: A collector may
not be a SACM component and therefore not part of a SACM domain). not be a SACM component and therefore not part of a SACM domain).
Consumer: A consumer is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM Consumer: A consumer is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM
component that contains functions to receive information from component that contains functions to receive information from
other SACM components. other SACM components.
Control Plane: An architectural component providing common control Control Plane: Typically used as a term in the context of routing,
functions to all SACM components, including authentication, e.g. [RFC6192]. In the context of SACM, the control plane is an
authorization, capability discovery or negotiation. The control architectural component providing common control functions to all
plane orchestrates the flow on the data plane according to SACM components, including authentication, authorization,
guidance and/or input from the management plane. capability discovery or negotiation. The control plane
orchestrates the flow on the data plane according to guidance and/
or input from the management plane. SACM components with
interfaces to the control plane have knowledge of the capabilities
of other SACM components within a SACM domain.
Controller: A controller is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM Controller: A controller is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM
component containing control plane functions that manage and component containing control plane functions that manage and
facilitate information sharing or execute on security functions. facilitate information sharing or execute on security functions.
There are three types of SACM controllers: Broker, Proxy, and There are three types of SACM controllers: Broker, Proxy, and
Repository. Depending on its type, a controller can also contain Repository. Depending on its type, a controller can also contain
functions that have interfaces on the data plane. functions that have interfaces on the data plane.
Data Confidentiality: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that Data Confidentiality: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that
data is not disclosed to system entities unless they have been data is not disclosed to system entities unless they have been
authorized to know the data." authorized to know the data."
Data Integrity: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that data has Data Integrity: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that data has
not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or
accidental manner." accidental manner."
Data Source: One or more properties that enable a SACM component to
identify an (target) endpoint that is claimed to be the original
source of received data.
Data Origin: One or more properties that enable a SACM component to Data Origin: One or more properties that enable a SACM component to
identify the SACM component that initially acquired or produced identify the SACM component that initially acquired or produced
data about a (target) endpoint (e.g. via collection from a data data about a (target) endpoint (e.g. via collection from a data
source). source).
Data Plane: Typically used as a term in the context of routing (and
used as a synonym for forwarding plane, e.g. [RFC6192]). In the
context of SACM, the data plane is an architectural component
providing operational functions to enable a SACM component to
provide and consume SACM statements and therefore SACM content
(the "payload"). The data plane is used to conduct distributed
SACM tasks by transporting SACM content using transporting
encodings and corresponding operations defined by SACM data
models.
Data Provenance: A historical record of the sources, origins and Data Provenance: A historical record of the sources, origins and
evolution of data that is influenced by inputs, entities, evolution of data that is influenced by inputs, entities,
functions and processes. functions and processes.
Data Source: One or more properties that enable a SACM component to
identify an (target) endpoint that is claimed to be the original
source of received data.
Endpoint: Defined in [RFC5209] as "any computing device that can be Endpoint: Defined in [RFC5209] as "any computing device that can be
connected to a network. Such devices normally are associated with connected to a network. Such devices normally are associated with
a particular link layer address before joining the network and a particular link layer address before joining the network and
potentially an IP address once on the network. This includes: potentially an IP address once on the network. This includes:
laptops, desktops, servers, cell phones, or any device that may laptops, desktops, servers, cell phones, or any device that may
have an IP address." have an IP address."
To further clarify the [RFC5209] definition, an endpoint is any To further clarify the [RFC5209] definition, an endpoint is any
physical or virtual device that may have a network address. Note physical or virtual device that may have a network address. Note
that, network infrastructure devices (e.g. switches, routers, that, network infrastructure devices (e.g. switches, routers,
skipping to change at page 5, line 47 skipping to change at page 5, line 49
endpoints within this document. endpoints within this document.
The SACM architecture differentiates two essential categories of The SACM architecture differentiates two essential categories of
endpoints: Endpoints whose security posture is intended to be endpoints: Endpoints whose security posture is intended to be
assessed (target endpoints) and endpoints that are specifically assessed (target endpoints) and endpoints that are specifically
excluded from endpoint posture assessment (excluded endpoints). excluded from endpoint posture assessment (excluded endpoints).
Based on the definition of an asset, an endpoint is a type of Based on the definition of an asset, an endpoint is a type of
asset. asset.
Endpoint Attribute: In the context of SACM, endpoint attribute is a Endpoint Attribute: In the context of SACM, endpoint attributes are
synonym for the term attribute. Endpoint Attributes are typically information elements that describe a characteristic of a target
represented as AVP. endpoint. Endpoint Attributes typically constitute atomic
information elements (AVP) that can be bundled into composite
information elements (e.g. information about a specific network
interface can be represented via a set of multiple AVP).
Endpoint Characterization: The task by which a profile is composed
out of endpoint attributes that describe the desired or expected
posture of a type or class of target endpoints or even an
individual target endpoint. The result of this task is an
endpoint profile that is required as guidance for the tasks of
endpoint classification or posture assessment.
Endpoint Classification: The task by which a discovered target
endpoint is classified. Endpoint classification requires guidance
in the form of an endpoint profile, discovery results and
potentially collection results. Types, classes or the
characteristics of an individual target endpoint are defined via
endpoint profiles.
Evaluation Task: The task by which endpoint attributes are Evaluation Task: The task by which endpoint attributes are
evaluated. evaluated.
Evaluation Result: The resulting value from having evaluated a set Evaluation Result: The resulting value from having evaluated a set
of posture attributes. of posture attributes.
Excluded Endpoint: A specific designation, which is assigned to an Excluded Endpoint: A specific designation, which is assigned to an
endpoint that is not supposed to be the subject of a collection endpoint that is not supposed to be the subject of a collection
task (and therefore is not a target endpoint). Typically but not task (and therefore is not a target endpoint). Typically but not
necessarily, endpoints that contain a SACM component (and are necessarily, endpoints that contain a SACM component (and are
therefore part of the SACM domain) are designated as excluded therefore part of the SACM domain) are designated as excluded
endpoints. Target endpoints that contain a SACM component cannot endpoints. Target endpoints that contain a SACM component cannot
be designated as excluded endpoints and are part of the SACM be designated as excluded endpoints and are part of the SACM
domain. domain.
Expected Endpoint State: The required state of an endpoint that is Expected Endpoint State: The required state of an endpoint that is
to be compared against. This, for example, can be a policy or a to be compared against. Sets of expected endpoint states are
recorded past state. A state is represented via a single or an transported as guidance in target endpoint profiles via the
associated set of attribute value pairs. management plane. This, for example, can be a policy, but also a
recorded past state. An expected state is represented can be
represented via a atomic information element or an composite
information element that represents a set of multiple attribute
value pairs.
SACM Function: A behavioral aspect or capacity of a particular SACM Function: A behavioral aspect or capacity of a particular SACM
building block that is part of a SACM component, which belies that component, which belies that SACM component's purpose. For
SACM component's purpose. For example, a SACM function with example, a SACM function with interfaces on the control plane can
interfaces on the control plane can provide a brokering function provide a brokering function to other SACM components. Via data
to other SACM components. Via data plane interfaces, a function plane interfaces, a function can act as a provider and/or as a
can act as a provider and/or as a consumer of information. SACM consumer of information. SACM functions can be propagated as the
functions can be propagated as the capabilities of a SACM capabilities of a SACM component and can be discovered by or
component and can be discovered by or negotiated with other SACM negotiated with other SACM components.
components.
Guidance: Input to processes and tasks, such as collecting,
assessing or reporting. Guidance influences the behavior of a
SACM component and is considered content of the management plane.
Guidance can be manually or automatically generated or provided.
Typically, the tasks that provide guidance to SACM components have
a low-frequency and tend to be be sporadic. A prominent example
of guidance are target endpoint profiles, but guidance can have
many forms, including:
Configuration, e.g. a SACM component's name, or a CMDB's IPv6
address.
Profiles, e.g. a set of expected states for network behavior
associated with target endpoints employed by specific users.
Policies, e.g. an interval to refresh the registration of a SACM
component, or a list of required capabilities for SACM components
in a specific location.
Information Model: An information model is an abstract Information Model: An information model is an abstract
representation of data, their properties, relationships between representation of data, their properties, relationships between
data and the operations that can be performed on the data. While data and the operations that can be performed on the data. While
there is some overlap with a data model, [RFC3444] distinguishes there is some overlap with a data model, [RFC3444] distinguishes
an information model as being protocol and implementation neutral an information model as being protocol and implementation neutral
whereas a data model would provide such details. whereas a data model would provide such details. The purpose of
the SACM information model is to ensure interoperability between
SACM data models (that are used as transport encoding) and to
provide a standardized set of information elements for
communication between SACM components.
Interaction Model: For now this is a Place-Holder. Is an
interaction model that defines, for example, the operations on the
control plane, such as registration or SACM component discovery,
required?
Internal Collector: Internal Collector: a collector that runs on a Internal Collector: Internal Collector: a collector that runs on a
target endpoint to acquire information from that target endpoint. target endpoint to acquire information from that target endpoint.
(TBD: An internal collector is not a SACM component and therefore (TBD: An internal collector is not a SACM component and therefore
not part of a SACM domain). not part of a SACM domain).
Management Plane: An architectural component providing common Management Plane: An architectural component providing common
functions to all SACM participants, including [TBD]. functions to steer the behavior of SACM components, e.g. its
behavior on the control plane. Prominent examples include:
modification of the configuration of a SACM component or updating
a target endpoint profile that resides on an evaluator. In
essence, guidance is transported via the management plane.
Typically, a SACM component can fulfill its purpose without
continuous input from the management plane. In contrast, without
continuous availability of control plane functions a typical SACM
component could not function properly. In general, interaction on
the management plane is less frequent and less regular than on the
control plane. Input via the management plane can be manual (e.g.
via a CLI), or can be automated via management plane functions
that are part of other SACM components.
Network Address: Network addresses are layer specific and follow Network Address: Network addresses are layer specific and follow
layer specific address schemes. Each interface of a specific layer specific address schemes. Each interface of a specific
layer can be associated with one or more addresses appropriate for layer can be associated with one or more addresses appropriate for
that layer. There is no guarantee that an address is globally that layer. There is no guarantee that an address is globally
unique. In general, there is a scope to an address in which it is unique. In general, there is a scope to an address in which it is
intended to be unique. intended to be unique.
Examples include: physical Ethernet port with a MAC address, layer Examples include: physical Ethernet port with a MAC address, layer
2 VLAN interface with a MAC address, layer 3 interface with 2 VLAN interface with a MAC address, layer 3 interface with
skipping to change at page 8, line 11 skipping to change at page 9, line 27
Provider: A provider is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM Provider: A provider is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM
component that contains functions to provide information to other component that contains functions to provide information to other
SACM components. SACM components.
Proxy: A proxy is a specific controller type that provides data Proxy: A proxy is a specific controller type that provides data
plane and control plane functions, information, or services on plane and control plane functions, information, or services on
behalf of another component, which is not directly participating behalf of another component, which is not directly participating
in the SACM architecture. in the SACM architecture.
Repository: A repository is a specific controller type that contains Repository: A repository is a specific controller type that contains
functions to store information of a particular kind - typically functions to consume, store and provide information of a
data transported on the data plane, but potentially also data and particular kind - typically data transported on the data plane,
metadata from the control and management plane. A single but potentially also data and metadata from the control and
repository may provide the functions of more than one specific management plane. A single repository may provide the functions
repository type (i.e. configuration baseline repository, of more than one specific repository type (i.e. configuration
assessment results repository, etc.) baseline repository, assessment results repository, etc.)
SACM Role: SACM roles are associated with SACM components and are SACM Role: SACM roles are associated with SACM components and are
defined by the set of functions and interfaces a SACM component defined by the set of functions and interfaces a SACM component
includes. There are three SACM roles: provider, consumer, and includes. There are three SACM roles: provider, consumer, and
controller. The roles associated with a SACM component are controller. The roles associated with a SACM component are
determined by the purpose of the functions and corresponding determined by the purpose of the functions and corresponding
interfaces the SACM component is composed of. interfaces the SACM component is composed of.
SACM Component: A composition of building blocks that contain SACM SACM Component: A set of SACM functions composes a SACM component.
functions (acting on control plane, data plane or management A SACM component conducts SACM tasks, acting on control plane,
plane). SACM defines a set of standard components (e.g. a data plane and/or management plane via corresponding SACM
interfaces. SACM defines a set of standard components (e.g. a
collector, a broker, or a data store). A SACM component contains collector, a broker, or a data store). A SACM component contains
at least a basic set of control plane building blocks and can at least a basic set of control plane functions and can contain
contain data plane and management plane building blocks. A SACM data plane and management plane functions. A SACM component
component residing on an endpoint assigns one or more SACM roles residing on an endpoint assigns one or more SACM roles to the
to the corresponding endpoint due to the SACM functions it is corresponding endpoint due to the SACM functions it is composed
composed of. A SACM component "resides on" an endpoint and an of. A SACM component "resides on" an endpoint and an endpoint
endpoint "contains" a SACM component, correspondingly. For "contains" a SACM component, correspondingly. For example, a SACM
example, a SACM component that is composed solely of building component that is composed solely of functions that provide
blocks that provide information is a provider. information would only take on the role of a provider.
SACM Component Discovery: The function by which a SACM component SACM Component Discovery: The function by which a SACM component
(e.g. by role, capabilities, or data provided/consumed) can be (e.g. by role, capabilities, or data provided/consumed) can be
discovered. discovered.
SACM Domain: Endpoints that include a SACM component compose a SACM SACM Domain: Endpoints that include a SACM component compose a SACM
domain. (To be revised, additional definition content TBD, domain. (To be revised, additional definition content TBD,
possible dependencies to SACM architecture) possible dependencies to SACM architecture)
Security Automation: The process of which security alerts can be Security Automation: The process of which security alerts can be
automated through the use of different tools to monitor, evaluate automated through the use of different tools to monitor, evaluate
and analyze endpoint and network traffic for the purposes of and analyze endpoint and network traffic for the purposes of
detecting misconfigurations, misbehaviors or threats. detecting misconfigurations, misbehaviors or threats.
Software Package: A generic software package (e.g. a text editor).
Software Component: A software package installed on an endpoint,
including a unique serial number if present (e.g. a text editor
associated with a unique license key).
Software Instance: A running instance of the software component
(e.g. on a multi-user system, one logged-in user has one instance
of a text editor running and another logged-in user has another
instance of the same text editor running, or on a single-user
system, a user could have multiple independent instances of the
same text editor running).
Statement: The output of a provider, e.g. a report or an assertion Statement: The output of a provider, e.g. a report or an assertion
acquired via a collection result from a collector, that includes acquired via a collection result from a collector, that includes
metadata about the data origin and the point in time the statement metadata about the data origin and the point in time the statement
was created at. A statement can be accompanied by evidence of the was created at. A statement can be accompanied by evidence of the
validity of its metadata. validity of its metadata.
Supplicant: The entity seeking to be authenticated by the Management Supplicant: The entity seeking to be authenticated by the Management
Plane for the purpose of participating in the SACM architecture. Plane for the purpose of participating in the SACM architecture.
System Resource: Defined in [RFC4949] as "data contained in an System Resource: Defined in [RFC4949] as "data contained in an
skipping to change at page 9, line 47 skipping to change at page 11, line 30
referring to a specific target endpoint. Depending on the referring to a specific target endpoint. Depending on the
available identifying attributes this reference can be ambiguous available identifying attributes this reference can be ambiguous
and is a "best-effort" mechanism. Every distinct set of and is a "best-effort" mechanism. Every distinct set of
identifying endpoint attributes can be associated with a unique identifying endpoint attributes can be associated with a unique
target endpoint label. target endpoint label.
Target Endpoint Label: An artificially created id that references a Target Endpoint Label: An artificially created id that references a
distinct set of identifying attributes (Target Endpoint distinct set of identifying attributes (Target Endpoint
Identifier). A target endpoint label is unique in a SACM domain Identifier). A target endpoint label is unique in a SACM domain
and created by a SACM component that contains an appropriate and created by a SACM component that contains an appropriate
building block of functions. function.
Target Endpoint Profile: A bundle of expected or desired
configurations and states (typically a composition of endpoint
attribute value pairs) that can be associated with a target
endpoint. The corresponding task by which the association with a
target endpoint takes places is the endpoint classification. The
task by which a endpoint profile is created is the endpoint
characterization. A type or class of target endpoints is defined
within a target endpoint profile, e.g. printer, smartphone, or an
office PC.
(SACM) Task: [TBD conflicts in definitions of specific tasks] A SACM
task is conducted by one or more SACM functions that reside on a
SACM component (e.g. a collection task or endpoint
characterization). A SACM task can be triggered by other
operations or functions (e.g. a query from another SACM component
or an unsolicited push due to a subscription on the data plane).
A task is part of a SACM process chain. A task starts at a given
point in time and ends in a deterministic state. With the
exception of a collection task, a SACM task consumes SACM content.
The output of a task is a result that can be provided (e.g.
published) on the data plane. There are six fundamental tasks
defined in SACM:
Asset Classification: Map the assets on the target endpoints to
asset classes. This enables identification of the attributes
needed to exchange information pertaining to the target endpoint.
[the label now conflicts with Endpoint Classification]
Attribute Definition: Define the attributes desired to be
collected from each target endpoint. This is what we want to know
about a target endpoint. For instance, organizations will want to
know what software is installed and its many critical security
attributes such as patch level.
Policy Definition: This is where an organization can express its
policy for acceptable or problematic values of an endpoint
attribute. The expected values of an endpoint attribute are
determined for later comparison against the actual endpoint
attribute values during the evaluation process. Expected values
may include both those values which are good as well as those
values which represent problems, such as vulnerabilities. The
organization can also specify the endpoint attributes that are to
be present for a given target endpoint.
Information Collection: Collect information (attribute values)
from the target endpoint to populate the endpoint data.
Endpoint Assessment: Evaluate the actual values of the endpoint
attributes against those expressed in the policy. (An evaluation
result may become additional endpoint data).
Result Reporting: Report the results of the evaluation for use by
other components. Examples of use of a report would be additional
evaluation, network enforcement, vulnerability detection, and
license management.
Timestamps : Defined in [RFC4949] as "with respect to a data object, Timestamps : Defined in [RFC4949] as "with respect to a data object,
a label or marking in which is recorded the time (time of day or a label or marking in which is recorded the time (time of day or
other instant of elapsed time) at which the label or marking was other instant of elapsed time) at which the label or marking was
affixed to the data object" and as "with respect to a recorded affixed to the data object" and as "with respect to a recorded
network event, a data field in which is recorded the time (time of network event, a data field in which is recorded the time (time of
day or other instant of elapsed time) at which the event took day or other instant of elapsed time) at which the event took
place.". place.".
This term is used in SACM to describe a recorded point in time at This term is used in SACM to describe a recorded point in time at
skipping to change at page 12, line 5 skipping to change at page 14, line 42
o Added Authentication, Authorization, Data Confidentiality, Data o Added Authentication, Authorization, Data Confidentiality, Data
Integrity, Data Origin, Data Provenance, SACM Component, SACM Integrity, Data Origin, Data Provenance, SACM Component, SACM
Component Discovery, Target Endpoint Discovery. Component Discovery, Target Endpoint Discovery.
o Major updates to Building Block, Function, SACM Role, Target o Major updates to Building Block, Function, SACM Role, Target
Endpoint. Endpoint.
o Minor updates to Broker, Capability, Collection Task, Evaluation o Minor updates to Broker, Capability, Collection Task, Evaluation
Task, Posture. Task, Posture.
o Relabled Role to SACM Role, Endpoint Target to Target Endpoint, o Relabeled Role to SACM Role, Endpoint Target to Target Endpoint,
Endpoint Discovery to Endpoint Identification. Endpoint Discovery to Endpoint Identification.
o Moved Asset Targeting, Client, Endpoint Identification to The o Moved Asset Targeting, Client, Endpoint Identification to The
Attic. Attic.
o Endpoint Attributes added as a TODO. o Endpoint Attributes added as a TODO.
o Changed the structure of the Change Log. o Changed the structure of the Change Log.
Changes from version 07 to version 08: Changes from version 07 to version 08:
skipping to change at page 12, line 32 skipping to change at page 15, line 20
o Major updates to Attributes, Broker, Collection Task, Consumer, o Major updates to Attributes, Broker, Collection Task, Consumer,
Controller, Control Plane, Endpoint Attributes, Expected Endpoint Controller, Control Plane, Endpoint Attributes, Expected Endpoint
State, SACM Function, Provider, Proxy, Repository, SACM Role, State, SACM Function, Provider, Proxy, Repository, SACM Role,
Target Endpoint. Target Endpoint.
o Minor updates to Asset, Building Block, Data Origin, Data Source, o Minor updates to Asset, Building Block, Data Origin, Data Source,
Data Provenance, Endpoint, Management Plane, Posture, Posture Data Provenance, Endpoint, Management Plane, Posture, Posture
Attribute, SACM Component, SACM Component Discovery, Target Attribute, SACM Component, SACM Component Discovery, Target
Endpoint Discovery. Endpoint Discovery.
o Relabled Function to SACM Function. o Relabeled Function to SACM Function.
Changes from version 08 to version 09:
o Updated author list.
o Added Data Plane, Endpoint Characterization, Endpoint
Classification, Guidance, Interaction Model, Software Component,
Software Instance, Software Package, Statement, Target Endpoint
Profile, SACM Task.
o Removed Building Block.
o Major updates to Control Plane, Endpoint Attribute, Expected
Endpoint State, Information Model, Management Plane.
o Minor updates to Attribute, Capabilities, SACM Function, SACM
Component, Collection Task.
o Moved Asset Characterization to The Attic.
7. Contributors 7. Contributors
David Waltermire David Waltermire
National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive 100 Bureau Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20877 Gaithersburg, MD 20877
USA USA
Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov
skipping to change at page 14, line 21 skipping to change at page 17, line 24
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", FYI [RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", FYI
36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007, 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.
[RFC5209] Sangster, P., Khosravi, H., Mani, M., Narayan, K., and J. [RFC5209] Sangster, P., Khosravi, H., Mani, M., Narayan, K., and J.
Tardo, "Network Endpoint Assessment (NEA): Overview and Tardo, "Network Endpoint Assessment (NEA): Overview and
Requirements", RFC 5209, DOI 10.17487/RFC5209, June 2008, Requirements", RFC 5209, DOI 10.17487/RFC5209, June 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5209>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5209>.
[RFC6192] Dugal, D., Pignataro, C., and R. Dunn, "Protecting the
Router Control Plane", RFC 6192, DOI 10.17487/RFC6192,
March 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6192>.
[X.1252] "ITU-T X.1252 (04/2010)", n.d.. [X.1252] "ITU-T X.1252 (04/2010)", n.d..
Appendix A. The Attic Appendix A. The Attic
The following terms are stashed for now and will be updated later: The following terms are stashed for now and will be updated later:
Asset Characterization: Asset characterization is the process of
defining attributes that describe properties of an identified
asset.
Asset Targeting: Asset targeting is the use of asset identification Asset Targeting: Asset targeting is the use of asset identification
and categorization information to drive human-directed, automated and categorization information to drive human-directed, automated
decision making for data collection and analysis in support of decision making for data collection and analysis in support of
endpoint posture assessment. endpoint posture assessment.
Client: An architectural component receiving services from another Client: An architectural component receiving services from another
architectural component. architectural component.
Endpoint Identification (TBD per list; was "Endpoint Discovery"): Endpoint Identification (TBD per list; was "Endpoint Discovery"):
The process by which an endpoint can be identified. The process by which an endpoint can be identified.
Author's Address Authors' Addresses
Henk Birkholz Henk Birkholz
Fraunhofer SIT Fraunhofer SIT
Rheinstrasse 75 Rheinstrasse 75
Darmstadt 64295 Darmstadt 64295
Germany Germany
Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de
Jarrett Lu
Oracle Corporation
4180 Network Circle
Santa Clara, CA 95054
USA
Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com
Nancy Cam-Winget
Cisco Systems
3550 Cisco Way
San Jose, CA 95134
USA
Email: ncamwing@cisco.com
 End of changes. 32 change blocks. 
85 lines changed or deleted 250 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.44. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/