draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-10.txt   draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-11.txt 
SACM Working Group H. Birkholz SACM Working Group H. Birkholz
Internet-Draft Fraunhofer SIT Internet-Draft Fraunhofer SIT
Intended status: Informational J. Lu Intended status: Informational J. Lu
Expires: January 9, 2017 Oracle Corporation Expires: March 16, 2017 Oracle Corporation
J. Strassner
Huawei Technologies
N. Cam-Winget N. Cam-Winget
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
July 08, 2016 September 12, 2016
Secure Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology Secure Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology
draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-10 draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-11
Abstract Abstract
This memo documents terminology used in the documents produced by This memo documents terminology used in the documents produced by
SACM (Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring). SACM (Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring).
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 9, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on March 16, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
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the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Appendix A. The Attic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Appendix A. The Attic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Our goal with this document is to improve our agreement on the Our goal with this document is to improve our agreement on the
terminology used in documents produced by the IETF Working Group for terminology used in documents produced by the IETF Working Group for
Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring. Agreeing on Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring. Agreeing on
terminology should help reach consensus on which problems we're terminology should help reach consensus on which problems we're
trying to solve, and propose solutions and decide which ones to use. trying to solve, and propose solutions and decide which ones to use.
2. Terms and Definitions 2. Terms and Definitions
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context of SACM, an assertion is a collection result that includes context of SACM, an assertion is a collection result that includes
metadata about the data source (and optionally a timestamp metadata about the data source (and optionally a timestamp
indicating the point in time the assertion was created at). The indicating the point in time the assertion was created at). The
validity of an assertion cannot be verified. validity of an assertion cannot be verified.
Assessment: Defined in [RFC5209] as "the process of collecting Assessment: Defined in [RFC5209] as "the process of collecting
posture for a set of capabilities on the endpoint (e.g., host- posture for a set of capabilities on the endpoint (e.g., host-
based firewall) such that the appropriate validators may evaluate based firewall) such that the appropriate validators may evaluate
the posture against compliance policy." the posture against compliance policy."
Within SACM the use of the term is expanded to support other uses Assessment is a specifc workflow that incorporates the SACM tasks
of collected posture (e.g. reporting, network enforcement, discovery, collection and evaluation. A prominent instance of the
vulnerability detection, license management). The phrase "set of assessment workflow is illustrated in the Vulnerability
capabilities on the endpoint" includes: hardware and software Assessement Scenario [I-D.ietf-sacm-vuln-scenario]
installed on the endpoint."
Asset: Defined in [RFC4949] as "a system resource that is (a) Asset: Defined in [RFC4949] as "a system resource that is (a)
required to be protected by an information system's security required to be protected by an information system's security
policy, (b) intended to be protected by a countermeasure, or (c) policy, (b) intended to be protected by a countermeasure, or (c)
required for a system's mission". In the scope of SACM, an asset required for a system's mission". In the scope of SACM, an asset
can be composed of other assets. Examples of Assets include: can be composed of other assets. Examples of Assets include:
Endpoints, Software, Guidance, or X.509 public key certificates. Endpoints, Software, Guidance, or X.509 public key certificates.
An asset is not necessarily owned by an organization. An asset is not necessarily owned by an organization.
Asset Management: The process by which assets are provisioned, Asset Management: The process by which assets are provisioned,
updated, maintained and deprecated. updated, maintained and deprecated.
Attribute: Defined in [RFC5209] as "data element including any Attribute: TODO, Update definition. Defined in [RFC5209] as "data
requisite meta-data describing an observed, expected, or the element including any requisite meta-data describing an observed,
operational status of an endpoint feature (e.g., anti-virus expected, or the operational status of an endpoint feature (e.g.,
software is currently in use)." If not indicated otherwise, anti-virus software is currently in use)." If not indicated
attributes in SACM are represented and processed as attribute otherwise, attributes in SACM are represented and processed as
value pairs. attribute value pairs.
Authentication: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the process of verifying a Authentication: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the process of verifying a
claim that a system entity or system resource has a certain claim that a system entity or system resource has a certain
attribute value." attribute value."
Authorization: Defined in [RFC4949] as "an approval that is granted Authorization: Defined in [RFC4949] as "an approval that is granted
to a system entity to access a system resource." to a system entity to access a system resource."
Broker: A broker is a specific controller type that contains control Broker: A broker is a specific controller type that contains control
plane functions to provide and/or connect services on behalf of plane functions to provide and/or connect services on behalf of
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Registration Interface." Registration Interface."
In the context of SACM, the extent of a SACM component's ability In the context of SACM, the extent of a SACM component's ability
is enabled by the functions it is composed of. Capabilities are is enabled by the functions it is composed of. Capabilities are
announced by a SACM component via the SACM component registration announced by a SACM component via the SACM component registration
task and can be discovered by or negotiated with other SACM task and can be discovered by or negotiated with other SACM
components. For example, the capability of a SACM Provider may be components. For example, the capability of a SACM Provider may be
to provide endpoint management data, or only a subset of that to provide endpoint management data, or only a subset of that
data. data.
The SACM Vulnerability Assessment Scenario
[I-D.ietf-sacm-vuln-scenario] defines the terms Endpoint
Management Capabilities, Vulnerability Management Capabilities,
and Vulnerability Assessment Capabilities, which illustrate
specific sets of SACM capabilities, which are required to conduct
workflows illustrated by the scenario definition.
Collection Result: Information about a target endpoint that is Collection Result: Information about a target endpoint that is
produced by a collector conducting a collection task. A produced by a collector conducting a collection task. A
collection result is composed of one or more endpoint attributes. collection result is composed as one or more content-elements.
Collection Task: The task by which endpoint attributes and/or Collection Task: The task by which endpoint attributes and/or
corresponding attribute values about a target endpoint are corresponding attribute values about a target endpoint are
collected. The collection tasks are targeted at specific target collected. The collection tasks are targeted at specific target
endpoints and therefore are targeted tasks. endpoints and therefore are targeted tasks.
There are three types of frequency collection tasks can be There are three types of frequency collection tasks can be
conducted with: conducted with:
ad-hoc, e.g. triggered by a specific event or a query ad-hoc, e.g. triggered by a specific event or a query
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via interfaces available on the target endpoint, e.g. SNMP/ via interfaces available on the target endpoint, e.g. SNMP/
NETCONF or WMI. NETCONF or WMI.
Behavior-Observation: A SACM component located on an Endpoint Behavior-Observation: A SACM component located on an Endpoint
different from the target endpoint observes network traffic different from the target endpoint observes network traffic
related to the target endpoint and conducts the collection task related to the target endpoint and conducts the collection task
via interpretation of that network traffic. via interpretation of that network traffic.
Collector: A piece of software that acquires information about one Collector: A piece of software that acquires information about one
or more target endpoints by conducting collection tasks. A or more target endpoints by conducting collection tasks. A
collector provides acquired information to SACM components in the collector provides acquired information in the form of collection
form of collection results. A SACM component that consumes results via a set of registered capabilities that can be
collection results may take on the role of a provider and publish discovered by other SACM components.
the collection results in a SACM domain. (TBD: A collector may
not be a SACM component and therefore not part of a SACM domain). A collector can be distributed across multiple endpoints, e.g.
across a target endpoint and a SACM component. The separate parts
of the collector can communicate with a specialized protocol, such
as PA-TNC [RFC5792]. At least one part of a distributed collector
has to take on the role of a provider of information by providing
SACM interfaces to propagate capabilities and to provide SACM
content in the form of collection results.
Configuration Drift: The discrepancy of endpoint attributes Configuration Drift: The discrepancy of endpoint attributes
representing the actual composition of a target endpoint (is- representing the actual composition of a target endpoint (is-
state) and its intended composition (should-state) in the scope of state) and its intended composition (should-state) in the scope of
a valid target endpoint composition (could-state) due to a valid target endpoint composition (could-state) due to
continuous alteration of a target endpoint's composition over continuous alteration of a target endpoint's composition over
time. Configuration drift exists for both hardware components and time. Configuration drift exists for both hardware components and
software components. Typically, the frequency and scale of software components. Typically, the frequency and scale of
configuration drift of software components is significantly higher configuration drift of software components is significantly higher
than the configuration drift of hardware components. than the configuration drift of hardware components.
Consumer: A consumer is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM Consumer: A consumer is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM
component that contains functions to receive information from component that contains functions to receive information from
other SACM components. other SACM components.
Content Element: Content elements constitute the payload data
(content) transfered via statement Subjects emitted by providers
of information. Every content element Subject includes a specific
content Subject and a corresponding content metadata Subject.
Content Metadata: Data about content Subjects. Every content-
element includes a content metadata Subject. The Subject can
include any information element that can annotate the content
transefered. Examples include time stamps or data provenance
Subjects.
Control Plane: Typically used as a term in the context of routing, Control Plane: Typically used as a term in the context of routing,
e.g. [RFC6192]. In the context of SACM, the control plane is an e.g. [RFC6192]. In the context of SACM, the control plane is an
architectural component providing common control functions to all architectural component providing common control functions to all
SACM components, including authentication, authorization, SACM components, including authentication, authorization,
capability discovery or negotiation. The control plane capability discovery or negotiation, and registration. The
orchestrates the flow on the data plane according to guidance and/ control plane orchestrates the flow on the data plane according to
or input from the management plane. SACM components with guidance received via the management plane. SACM components with
interfaces to the control plane have knowledge of the capabilities interfaces to the control plane have knowledge of the capabilities
of other SACM components within a SACM domain. of other SACM components within a SACM domain.
Controller: A controller is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM Controller: A controller is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM
component containing control plane functions that manage and component containing control plane functions that manage and
facilitate information sharing or execute on security functions. facilitate information sharing or execute on security functions.
There are three types of SACM controllers: Broker, Proxy, and There are three types of SACM controllers: Broker, Proxy, and
Repository. Depending on its type, a controller can also contain Repository. Depending on its type, a controller can also contain
functions that have interfaces on the data plane. functions that have interfaces on the data plane.
Data Confidentiality: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that Data Confidentiality: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that
data is not disclosed to system entities unless they have been data is not disclosed to system entities unless they have been
authorized to know the data." authorized to know the data."
Data In Motion: Data that is being transported via a network. Data Data In Motion: Data that is being transported via a network; also
in motion requires a data model to encode data in order to be referred to as Data in transit. Data in motion requires a data
transported. Typically, data in motion is serialized model to encode the data to be transferred. Typically, data in
(marshalling) into a transport encoding by a provider of motion is serialized (marshalling) into a transport encoding by a
information and deserialized (unmarshalling) by a consumer of provider of information and deserialized (unmarshalling) by a
information. consumer of information.
SACM architecture and corresponding models focus on data in SACM architecture and corresponding models focus on data in
motion. motion.
Data At Rest: Data that is stored in a repository. Data at rest Data At Rest: Data that is stored in a repository. Data at rest
requires a data model to encode data in order to be stored. In requires a data model to encode the data to be stored. In the
the context of SACM, data at rest located on a SACM component can context of SACM, data at rest located on a SACM component can be
be provided to other SACM components via discoverable provided to other SACM components via discoverable capabilities.
capabilities.
In the context of SACM, data models for data at rest are out of In the context of SACM, data models for data at rest are out of
scope. scope.
Data Integrity: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that data has Data Integrity: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that data has
not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or
accidental manner." accidental manner."
Data Origin: One or more properties that enable a SACM component to Data Origin: One or more properties that enable a SACM component to
identify the SACM component that initially acquired or produced identify the SACM component that initially acquired or produced
data about a (target) endpoint (e.g. via collection from a data data about a (target) endpoint (e.g. via collection from a data
source). source). Data Origin is expressed by an endpoint label.
Data Plane: Typically used as a term in the context of routing (and Data Plane: Typically used as a term in the context of routing (and
used as a synonym for forwarding plane, e.g. [RFC6192]). In the used as a synonym for forwarding plane, e.g. [RFC6192]). In the
context of SACM, the data plane is an architectural component context of SACM, the data plane is an architectural component
providing operational functions to enable a SACM component to providing operational functions to enable a SACM component to
provide and consume SACM statements and therefore SACM content provide and consume SACM statements and therefore SACM content
(the "payload"). The data plane is used to conduct distributed (the "payload"). The data plane is used to conduct distributed
SACM tasks by transporting SACM content using transporting SACM tasks by transporting SACM content using transporting
encodings and corresponding operations defined by SACM data encodings and corresponding operations defined by SACM data
models. models.
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The SACM architecture differentiates two essential categories of The SACM architecture differentiates two essential categories of
endpoints: Endpoints whose security posture is intended to be endpoints: Endpoints whose security posture is intended to be
assessed (target endpoints) and endpoints that are specifically assessed (target endpoints) and endpoints that are specifically
excluded from endpoint posture assessment (excluded endpoints). excluded from endpoint posture assessment (excluded endpoints).
Based on the definition of an asset, an endpoint is a type of Based on the definition of an asset, an endpoint is a type of
asset. asset.
Endpoint Attribute: In the context of SACM, endpoint attributes are Endpoint Attribute: In the context of SACM, endpoint attributes are
information elements that describe a characteristic of a target information elements that describe a characteristic of a target
endpoint. Endpoint Attributes typically constitute atomic endpoint. Endpoint Attributes typically constitute Attributes
information elements (AVP) that can be bundled into composite that can be bundled into Subject (e.g. information about a
information elements (e.g. information about a specific network specific network interface can be represented via a set of
interface can be represented via a set of multiple AVP). multiple AVP).
Endpoint Characterization: The task by which a profile is composed Endpoint Characterization: The task by which a profile is composed
out of endpoint attributes that describe the desired or expected out of endpoint attributes that describe the desired or expected
posture of a type or class of target endpoints or even an posture of a type or class of target endpoints or even an
individual target endpoint. The result of this task is an individual target endpoint. The result of this task is an
endpoint profile that is required as guidance for the tasks of endpoint profile that is required as guidance for the tasks of
endpoint classification or posture assessment. endpoint classification or posture assessment.
Endpoint Classification: The task by which a discovered target Endpoint Classification: The task by which a discovered target
endpoint is classified. Endpoint classification requires guidance endpoint is classified. Endpoint classification requires guidance
in the form of an endpoint profile, discovery results and in the form of an endpoint profile, discovery results and
potentially collection results. Types, classes or the potentially collection results. Types, classes or the
characteristics of an individual target endpoint are defined via characteristics of an individual target endpoint are defined via
endpoint profiles. endpoint profiles.
Endpoint Management Capability: An enterprise IT capability managing Endpoint Label: In a SACM domain, every endpoint can be identified
endpoint identity, endpoint information, and associated metadata by an endpoint label. There are two prominent uses of endpoint
on an ongoing basis. labels in a SACM domain: to identify SACM components and to
identify Target Endpoints. Both endpoint labels can be used in
SACM content or in content metadata:
SACM Components are identified by: SACM component label / Data
Origin
Target Endpoints are identified by: TE label / Data Source
An endpoint label is expressed as an artificially created ID that
references a distinct set of identifying attributes (Target
Endpoint Identifier). A target endpoint label is unique in a SACM
domain and created by a SACM component that provides the
appropriate function as a capability.
Endpoint Management Capabilities: An enterprise IT department's
ability to manage endpoint identity, endpoint information, and
associated metadata on an ongoing basis.
Evaluation Task: The task by which endpoint attributes are Evaluation Task: The task by which endpoint attributes are
evaluated. evaluated.
Evaluation Result: The resulting value from having evaluated a set Evaluation Result: The resulting value from having evaluated a set
of posture attributes. of posture attributes.
Excluded Endpoint: A specific designation, which is assigned to an Excluded Endpoint: A specific designation, which is assigned to an
endpoint that is not supposed to be the subject of a collection endpoint that is not supposed to be the subject of a collection
task (and therefore is not a target endpoint). Typically but not task (and therefore is not a target endpoint). Typically but not
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therefore part of the SACM domain) are designated as excluded therefore part of the SACM domain) are designated as excluded
endpoints. Target endpoints that contain a SACM component cannot endpoints. Target endpoints that contain a SACM component cannot
be designated as excluded endpoints and are part of the SACM be designated as excluded endpoints and are part of the SACM
domain. domain.
Expected Endpoint State: The required state of an endpoint that is Expected Endpoint State: The required state of an endpoint that is
to be compared against. Sets of expected endpoint states are to be compared against. Sets of expected endpoint states are
transported as guidance in target endpoint profiles via the transported as guidance in target endpoint profiles via the
management plane. This, for example, can be a policy, but also a management plane. This, for example, can be a policy, but also a
recorded past state. An expected state is represented can be recorded past state. An expected state is represented can be
represented via a atomic information element or an composite represented via an Attribute or an Subject that represents a set
information element that represents a set of multiple attribute of multiple attribute value pairs.
value pairs.
SACM Function: A behavioral aspect or capacity of a particular SACM SACM Function: A behavioral aspect or capacity of a particular SACM
component, which belies that SACM component's purpose. For component, which belies that SACM component's purpose. For
example, a SACM function with interfaces on the control plane can example, a SACM function with interfaces on the control plane can
provide a brokering function to other SACM components. Via data provide a brokering function to other SACM components. Via data
plane interfaces, a function can act as a provider and/or as a plane interfaces, a function can act as a provider and/or as a
consumer of information. SACM functions can be propagated as the consumer of information. SACM functions can be propagated as the
capabilities of a SACM component and can be discovered by or capabilities of a SACM component and can be discovered by or
negotiated with other SACM components. negotiated with other SACM components.
Guidance: Input instructions to processes and tasks, such as Guidance: Input instructions to processes and tasks, such as
collecting, assessing or reporting. Guidance influences the collection, evaluation or remediation. Guidance influences the
behavior of a SACM component and is considered content of the behavior of a SACM component and is considered content of the
management plane. Guidance can be manually or automatically management plane. In the context of SACM, guidance is machine-
generated or provided. Typically, the tasks that provide guidance readable and can be manually or automatically generated or
to SACM components have a low-frequency and tend to be be provided. Typically, the tasks that provide guidance to SACM
sporadic. A prominent example of guidance are target endpoint components have a low-frequency and tend to be be sporadic.
profiles, but guidance can have many forms, including:
Configuration, e.g. a SACM component's name, or a CMDB's IPv6 There are two types of guidance:
address.
Profiles, e.g. a set of expected states for network behavior Declarative Guidance: defines the configuration or state an
associated with target endpoints employed by specific users. endpoint is supposed to be in--without providing specific actions
or methods to produce that desired state. Examples include Target
Endpoint Profiles or network topology based requirements.
Policies, e.g. an interval to refresh the registration of a SACM Imperative Guidance: prescribes specific actions to be conducted
component, or a list of required capabilities for SACM components or methods to be used in order to achieve an outcome. Examples
in a specific location. include a targeted Collection Task or the IP-Address of a SACM
Component that provides a registration function.
Hardware Component: Hardware components are the distinguishable Hardware Component: Hardware components are the distinguishable
physical components that compose an endpoint. The composition of physical components that compose an endpoint. The composition of
an endpoint can be changed over time by adding or removing an endpoint can be changed over time by adding or removing
hardware components. In essence, every physical endpoint is hardware components. In essence, every physical endpoint is
potentially a composite of multiple hardware components, typically potentially a composite of multiple hardware components, typically
resulting in a hierarchical composition of hardware components. resulting in a hierarchical composition of hardware components.
The composition of hardware components is based on interconnects The composition of hardware components is based on interconnects
provided by specific hardware types (e.g. mainboard is a hardware provided by specific hardware types (e.g. mainboard is a hardware
type that provides local busses as an interconnect). In general, type that provides local busses as an interconnect). In general,
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Hardware Inventory: The list of hardware components that compose a Hardware Inventory: The list of hardware components that compose a
specific endpoint representing its hardware configuration. specific endpoint representing its hardware configuration.
Hardware Type: Hardware types define specific and distinguishable Hardware Type: Hardware types define specific and distinguishable
categories of hardware components that can be part of endpoints, categories of hardware components that can be part of endpoints,
e.g. CPU or 802.11p interface. Typically, hardware types can be e.g. CPU or 802.11p interface. Typically, hardware types can be
distinguished by their vendor assigned names, names of standards distinguished by their vendor assigned names, names of standards
used, or a model name. used, or a model name.
Information Element:
A representation of information about physical and virtual "objects
of interests". Information elements are the building blocks that
constitute the SACM information model. In the context of SACM, an
information element that expresses a single value with a specific
name is referred to as an Attribute (analogous to an attribute-value-
pair). A set of attributes that is bundled into a more complex
composite information element is referred to as a Subject. Every
information element in the SACM information model has a unique name.
Endpoint attributes or time stamps, for example, are represented as
information elements in the SACM information model.
Information Model: An information model is an abstract Information Model: An information model is an abstract
representation of data, their properties, relationships between representation of data, their properties, relationships between
data and the operations that can be performed on the data. While data and the operations that can be performed on the data. While
there is some overlap with a data model, [RFC3444] distinguishes there is some overlap with a data model, [RFC3444] distinguishes
an information model as being protocol and implementation neutral an information model as being protocol and implementation neutral
whereas a data model would provide such details. The purpose of whereas a data model would provide such details. The purpose of
the SACM information model is to ensure interoperability between the SACM information model is to ensure interoperability between
SACM data models (that are used as transport encoding) and to SACM data models (that are used as transport encoding) and to
provide a standardized set of information elements for provide a standardized set of information elements for
communication between SACM components. communication between SACM components.
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essence, guidance is transported via the management plane. essence, guidance is transported via the management plane.
Typically, a SACM component can fulfill its purpose without Typically, a SACM component can fulfill its purpose without
continuous input from the management plane. In contrast, without continuous input from the management plane. In contrast, without
continuous availability of control plane functions a typical SACM continuous availability of control plane functions a typical SACM
component could not function properly. In general, interaction on component could not function properly. In general, interaction on
the management plane is less frequent and less regular than on the the management plane is less frequent and less regular than on the
control plane. Input via the management plane can be manual (e.g. control plane. Input via the management plane can be manual (e.g.
via a CLI), or can be automated via management plane functions via a CLI), or can be automated via management plane functions
that are part of other SACM components. that are part of other SACM components.
Metadata: Data about data. In the SACM information model, data is
referred to as Content. Metadata about the content is referred to
as Content-Metadata, respectively. Content and Content-Metadata
are combined into Subjects called Content-Elements in the SACM
information model. Some information elements defined by the SACM
information model can be part of the Content or the Content-
Metadata. Therefore, if an information element is considered data
or data about data depends on which kind of Subject it is
associated with. The SACM information model also defines metadata
about the data origin via the Subject Statement-Metadata. Typical
examples of metadata are time stamps, data origin or data source.
Network Address: Network addresses are layer specific and follow Network Address: Network addresses are layer specific and follow
layer specific address schemes. Each interface of a specific layer specific address schemes. Each interface of a specific
layer can be associated with one or more addresses appropriate for layer can be associated with one or more addresses appropriate for
that layer. There is no guarantee that an address is globally that layer. There is no guarantee that an address is globally
unique. In general, there is a scope to an address in which it is unique. In general, there is a scope to an address in which it is
intended to be unique. intended to be unique.
Examples include: physical Ethernet port with a MAC address, layer Examples include: physical Ethernet port with a MAC address, layer
2 VLAN interface with a MAC address, layer 3 interface with 2 VLAN interface with a MAC address, layer 3 interface with
multiple IPv6 addresses, layer 3 tunnel ingress or egress with an multiple IPv6 addresses, layer 3 tunnel ingress or egress with an
IPv4 address. IPv4 address.
Network Interface: An endpoint is connected to a network via one or Network Interface: An endpoint is connected to a network via one or
more interfaces. Interfaces can be physical or virtual. more network interfaces. Network interfaces can be physical or
Interfaces of an endpoint can operate on different layers, most virtual. Network interfaces of an endpoint can operate on
prominently what is now commonly called layer 2 and 3. Within a different layers, most prominently what is now commonly called
layer, interfaces can be nested. On layer 2, a root interface is layer 2 and 3. Within a layer, interfaces can be nested.
typically associated with a physical interface port and nested
interfaces are virtual interfaces. In the case of a virtual On layer 2, a root interface is typically associated with a
endpoint, a root interface can be a virtual interface. Virtual physical interface port and nested interfaces are virtual
layer 2 interfaces of one or more endpoints can also constitute an interfaces. In the case of a virtual endpoint, a root interface
aggregated group of links that act as one. On layer 3, nested can be a virtual interface. Virtual layer 2 interfaces of one or
interfaces typically constitute virtual tunnels or networks. more endpoints can also constitute an aggregated group of links
that act as one.
On layer 3, nested interfaces typically constitute virtual tunnels
or virtual (mesh) networks.
Examples include: physical Ethernet port, layer 2 VLAN interface, Examples include: physical Ethernet port, layer 2 VLAN interface,
a MC-LAG setup, layer 3 Point-to-Point tunnel ingress or egress. a MC-LAG setup, layer 3 Point-to-Point tunnel ingress or egress.
Posture: Defined in [RFC5209] as "configuration and/or status of Posture: Defined in [RFC5209] as "configuration and/or status of
hardware or software on an endpoint as it pertains to an hardware or software on an endpoint as it pertains to an
organization's security policy." organization's security policy."
This term is used within the scope of SACM to represent the This term is used within the scope of SACM to represent the
configuration and state information that is collected from a configuration and state information that is collected from a
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that provide information would only take on the role of a that provide information would only take on the role of a
provider. provider.
SACM Component Discovery: The task of brokering appropriate SACM SACM Component Discovery: The task of brokering appropriate SACM
components according to their capabilities or roles on reques. components according to their capabilities or roles on reques.
Input: Query Input: Query
Output: a list of SACM components including metadata Output: a list of SACM components including metadata
SACM Component Label: A specific endpoint label that is used to
identify a SACM component. In content-metadata, this label is
called data origin.
SACM Domain: Endpoints that include a SACM component compose a SACM SACM Domain: Endpoints that include a SACM component compose a SACM
domain. (To be revised, additional definition content TBD, domain. (To be revised, additional definition content TBD,
possible dependencies to SACM architecture) possible dependencies to SACM architecture)
SACM Interface: An interface is defined in SACM Interface: An interface is defined in
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] as "A set of operations one object [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] as "A set of operations one object
knows it can invoke on, and expose to, another object. This knows it can invoke on, and expose to, another object. This
decouples the implementation of the operation from its decouples the implementation of the operation from its
specification. An interface is a subset of all operations that a specification. An interface is a subset of all operations that a
given object implements. The same object may have multiple types given object implements. The same object may have multiple types
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including a unique serial number if present (e.g. a text editor including a unique serial number if present (e.g. a text editor
associated with a unique license key). associated with a unique license key).
Software Instance: A running instance of the software component Software Instance: A running instance of the software component
(e.g. on a multi-user system, one logged-in user has one instance (e.g. on a multi-user system, one logged-in user has one instance
of a text editor running and another logged-in user has another of a text editor running and another logged-in user has another
instance of the same text editor running, or on a single-user instance of the same text editor running, or on a single-user
system, a user could have multiple independent instances of the system, a user could have multiple independent instances of the
same text editor running). same text editor running).
Statement: The output of a provider, e.g. a report or an assertion Statement: An output of a provider, e.g. a report or an assertion
acquired via a collection result from a collector, that includes about a collection result, that includes content-elements and
metadata about the data origin and the point in time the statement statement-metadata (e.g. data origin or the point in time at which
was created at. A statement can be accompanied by evidence of the the statement was created). A statement can be accompanied by
validity of its metadata. evidence of the validity of its metadata.
The structure of statements is defined in the SACM information
model.
Subject: TODO, incorporate definition from SACM IM
Supplicant: The entity seeking to be authenticated by the Management Supplicant: The entity seeking to be authenticated by the Management
Plane for the purpose of participating in the SACM architecture. Plane for the purpose of participating in the SACM architecture.
System Resource: Defined in [RFC4949] as "data contained in an System Resource: Defined in [RFC4949] as "data contained in an
information system; or a service provided by a system; or a system information system; or a service provided by a system; or a system
capacity, such as processing power or communication bandwidth; or capacity, such as processing power or communication bandwidth; or
an item of system equipment (i.e., hardware, firmware, software, an item of system equipment (i.e., hardware, firmware, software,
or documentation); or a facility that houses system operations and or documentation); or a facility that houses system operations and
equipment. equipment.
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the collection tasks can result in a set of identifying endpoint the collection tasks can result in a set of identifying endpoint
attributes added to a corresponding Characterization Record. This attributes added to a corresponding Characterization Record. This
subset of the endpoint attributes included in the record is used subset of the endpoint attributes included in the record is used
as a target endpoint identifier, by which a specific target as a target endpoint identifier, by which a specific target
endpoint can be referenced. Depending on the available endpoint can be referenced. Depending on the available
identifying attributes, this reference can be ambiguous and is a identifying attributes, this reference can be ambiguous and is a
"best-effort" mechanism. Every distinct set of identifying "best-effort" mechanism. Every distinct set of identifying
endpoint attributes can be associated with a target endpoint label endpoint attributes can be associated with a target endpoint label
that is unique in a SACM domain. that is unique in a SACM domain.
Target Endpoint Label: An artificially created id that references a Target Endpoint Label: A specific endpoint label that refers to a
distinct set of identifying attributes (Target Endpoint target endpoint identifier used to identify a specific target
Identifier). A target endpoint label is unique in a SACM domain endpoint (also referred to as TE label). In content-metadata,
and created by a SACM component that provides the appropriate this label is called data source.
function as a capability.
Target Endpoint Profile: A bundle of expected or desired Target Endpoint Profile: A bundle of expected or desired
configurations and states (typically a composition of endpoint configurations and states (typically a composition of endpoint
attribute value pairs) that can be associated with a target attribute value pairs) that can be associated with a target
endpoint. The corresponding task by which the association with a endpoint. The corresponding task by which the association with a
target endpoint takes places is the endpoint classification. The target endpoint takes places is the endpoint classification. The
task by which an endpoint profile is created is the endpoint task by which an endpoint profile is created is the endpoint
characterization. A type or class of target endpoints is defined characterization. A type or class of target endpoints is defined
within a target endpoint profile, e.g. printer, smartphone, or an within a target endpoint profile, e.g. printer, smartphone, or an
office PC. office PC.
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Timestamps : Defined in [RFC4949] as "with respect to a data object, Timestamps : Defined in [RFC4949] as "with respect to a data object,
a label or marking in which is recorded the time (time of day or a label or marking in which is recorded the time (time of day or
other instant of elapsed time) at which the label or marking was other instant of elapsed time) at which the label or marking was
affixed to the data object" and as "with respect to a recorded affixed to the data object" and as "with respect to a recorded
network event, a data field in which is recorded the time (time of network event, a data field in which is recorded the time (time of
day or other instant of elapsed time) at which the event took day or other instant of elapsed time) at which the event took
place.". place.".
This term is used in SACM to describe a recorded point in time at This term is used in SACM to describe a recorded point in time at
which an endpoint attribute is created or updated by a target which, for example, an endpoint attribute is created or updated by
endpoint and observed, transmitted or processed by a SACM a target endpoint and observed, transmitted or processed by a SACM
component. Timestamps can be created by target endpoints or SACM component. Timestamps can be created by target endpoints or SACM
components and are associated with endpoint attributes provided or components and are associated with endpoint attributes provided or
consumed by SACM components. Outside of the domain of SACM consumed by SACM components. Outside of the domain of SACM
components the assurance of correctness of time stamps is components the assurance of correctness of time stamps is
typically significantly lower than inside a SACM domain. In typically significantly lower than inside a SACM domain. In
general, it cannot be simply assumed that the source of time a general, it cannot be simply assumed that the source of time a
target endpoint uses is synchronized or trustworthy. target endpoint uses is synchronized or trustworthy.
Vulnerability Assessment: The process of determining whether a set Vulnerability Assessment: The process of determining whether a set
of endpoints is vulnerable according to the information contained of endpoints is vulnerable according to the information contained
in the vulnerability description information. in the vulnerability description information.
Vulnerability Description Information: Information pertaining to the Vulnerability Description Information: Information pertaining to the
existence of a flaw or flaws in software, hardware, and/or existence of a flaw or flaws in software, hardware, and/or
firmware, which could potentially have an adverse impact on firmware, which could potentially have an adverse impact on
enterprise IT functionality and/or security. Vulnerability enterprise IT functionality and/or security. Vulnerability
description information should contain enough information to description information should contain enough information to
support vulnerability detection. support vulnerability detection.
Vulnerability Detection Data: A type of guidance extracted from Vulnerability Detection Data: A type of guidance extracted or
vulnerability description information that describes the specific derived from vulnerability description information that describes
mechanisms of vulnerability detection that is used by an the specific mechanisms of vulnerability detection that is used by
enterprise's vulnerability management capability to determine if a an enterprise's vulnerability management capabilities to determine
vulnerability is present on an endpoint. if a vulnerability is present on an endpoint.
Vulnerability Management Capability: An enterprise IT capability Vulnerability Management Capabilities: An enterprise IT department's
managing endpoint vulnerabilities and associated metadata on an ability to manage endpoint vulnerabilities and associated metadata
ongoing basis by ingesting vulnerability description information on an ongoing basis by ingesting vulnerability description
and vulnerability detection data, and performing a vulnerability information and vulnerability detection data, and performing
assessment. vulnerability assessments.
Vulnerability assessment capabilities: An enterprise IT department's
ability to determine whether a set of endpoints is vulnerable
according to the information contained in the vulnerability
description information.
Workflow:
A workflow is a modular composiion of tasks. A workflow can contain
loops, conditionals, multiple starting points and multiple endpoints.
The most promiminant workflow in SACM is the assessment workflow.
3. IANA Considerations 3. IANA Considerations
This memo includes no request to IANA. This memo includes no request to IANA.
4. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
This memo documents terminology for security automation. While it is This memo documents terminology for security automation. While it is
about security, it does not affect security. about security, it does not affect security.
skipping to change at page 20, line 23 skipping to change at page 22, line 15
o Added references to i2nsf definitions in Capability, SACM o Added references to i2nsf definitions in Capability, SACM
Component, SACM Interface, SACM Role Component, SACM Interface, SACM Role
o Added i2nsf Terminology I-D Reference o Added i2nsf Terminology I-D Reference
o Major Updates to Endpoint, SACM Task, Target Endpoint Identifier o Major Updates to Endpoint, SACM Task, Target Endpoint Identifier
o Minor Updates to Guidance, SACM Component Discovery, Target o Minor Updates to Guidance, SACM Component Discovery, Target
Endpoint Label, Target Endpoint Profile Endpoint Label, Target Endpoint Profile
o Relabled SACM Task o Relabeled SACM Task
o Removed Target Endpoint Discovery o Removed Target Endpoint Discovery
7. Contributors Changes from version 10 to version 11:
John Strassner o Added Content Element, Content Metadata, Endpoint Label,
Huawei Information Element, Metadata, SACM Component Label, Workflow
Santa Clara, CA
USA
Email: john.sc.strassner@huawei.com o Major Updates to Assessment, Capability, Collector, Endpoint
Management Capabilities, Guidance, Vulnerability Assessment
Capabilities, Vulnerability Detection Data, Vulnerability
Assessment Capabilities
o Minor updates to Collection Result, Control Plane, Data in Motion,
Data at Rest, Data Origin, Network Interface, Statement, Target
Endpoint Label,
o Relabeled Endpoint Management Capability, Vulnerability Management
Capability, Vulnerability Assessment
7. Contributors
David Waltermire David Waltermire
National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive 100 Bureau Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20877 Gaithersburg, MD 20877
USA USA
Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov
Adam W. Montville Adam W. Montville
Center for Internet Security Center for Internet Security
skipping to change at page 21, line 33 skipping to change at page 24, line 8
Seattle, WA 98103 Seattle, WA 98103
USA USA
Email: merike@doubleshotsecurity.com Email: merike@doubleshotsecurity.com
8. Informative References 8. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology]
Hares, S., Strassner, J., Lopez, D., and L. Xia, Hares, S., Strassner, J., Lopez, D., and L. Xia,
"Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) "Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF)
Terminology", draft-ietf-i2nsf-terminology-00 (work in Terminology", draft-ietf-i2nsf-terminology-01 (work in
progress), May 2016. progress), July 2016.
[I-D.ietf-sacm-vuln-scenario]
Coffin, C., Cheikes, B., Schmidt, C., Haynes, D.,
Fitzgerald-McKay, J., and D. Waltermire, "SACM
Vulnerability Assessment Scenario", draft-ietf-sacm-vuln-
scenario-02 (work in progress), September 2016.
[RFC3444] Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between [RFC3444] Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444, Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3444, January 2003, DOI 10.17487/RFC3444, January 2003,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3444>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3444>.
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", [RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007, FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.
[RFC5209] Sangster, P., Khosravi, H., Mani, M., Narayan, K., and J. [RFC5209] Sangster, P., Khosravi, H., Mani, M., Narayan, K., and J.
Tardo, "Network Endpoint Assessment (NEA): Overview and Tardo, "Network Endpoint Assessment (NEA): Overview and
Requirements", RFC 5209, DOI 10.17487/RFC5209, June 2008, Requirements", RFC 5209, DOI 10.17487/RFC5209, June 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5209>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5209>.
[RFC5792] Sangster, P. and K. Narayan, "PA-TNC: A Posture Attribute
(PA) Protocol Compatible with Trusted Network Connect
(TNC)", RFC 5792, DOI 10.17487/RFC5792, March 2010,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5792>.
[RFC6192] Dugal, D., Pignataro, C., and R. Dunn, "Protecting the [RFC6192] Dugal, D., Pignataro, C., and R. Dunn, "Protecting the
Router Control Plane", RFC 6192, DOI 10.17487/RFC6192, Router Control Plane", RFC 6192, DOI 10.17487/RFC6192,
March 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6192>. March 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6192>.
[X.1252] "ITU-T X.1252 (04/2010)", n.d.. [X.1252] "ITU-T X.1252 (04/2010)", n.d..
Appendix A. The Attic Appendix A. The Attic
The following terms are stashed for now and will be updated later: The following terms are stashed for now and will be updated later:
skipping to change at page 23, line 4 skipping to change at page 25, line 30
Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de
Jarrett Lu Jarrett Lu
Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation
4180 Network Circle 4180 Network Circle
Santa Clara, CA 95054 Santa Clara, CA 95054
USA USA
Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com
John Strassner
Huawei Technologies
2330 Central Expressway
Santa Clara, CA 95138
USA
Email: john.sc.strassner@huawei.com
Nancy Cam-Winget Nancy Cam-Winget
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
3550 Cisco Way 3550 Cisco Way
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
USA USA
Email: ncamwing@cisco.com Email: ncamwing@cisco.com
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