draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-13.txt   draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-14.txt 
SACM Working Group H. Birkholz SACM Working Group H. Birkholz
Internet-Draft Fraunhofer SIT Internet-Draft Fraunhofer SIT
Intended status: Informational J. Lu Intended status: Informational J. Lu
Expires: January 5, 2018 Oracle Corporation Expires: June 13, 2018 Oracle Corporation
J. Strassner J. Strassner
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
N. Cam-Winget N. Cam-Winget
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
July 04, 2017 A. Montville
CIS
December 10, 2017
Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology
draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-13 draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-14
Abstract Abstract
This memo documents terminology used in the documents produced by This memo documents terminology used in the documents produced by
SACM (Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring). SACM (Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring).
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on June 13, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Appendix A. The Attic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Appendix A. The Attic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Our goal with this document is to improve our agreement on the Our goal with this document is to improve our agreement on the
terminology used in documents produced by the IETF Working Group for terminology used in documents produced by the IETF Working Group for
Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring. Agreeing on Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring. Agreeing on
terminology should help reach consensus on which problems we're terminology should help reach consensus on which problems we're
trying to solve, and propose solutions and decide which ones to use. trying to solve, and propose solutions and decide which ones to use.
2. Terms and Definitions 2. Terms and Definitions
This section describes terms that have been defined by other RFC's This section describes terms that have been defined by other RFC's
and defines new ones. The predefined terms will reference the RFC and defines new ones. The predefined terms will reference the RFC
and where appropriate will be annotated with the specific context by and where appropriate will be annotated with the specific context by
which the term is used in SACM. which the term is used in SACM. Note that explanatory or
informational augmentation to definitions are segregated from the
definitions themselves. The definition for the term immediately
follows the term on the same line, whereas expositional text is
contained in subsequent paragraphs immediately following the
definition.
Assertion: Defined by the ITU in [X.1252] as "a statement made by an Assertion: Defined by the ITU in [X.1252] as "a statement made by an
entity without accompanying evidence of its validity". In the entity without accompanying evidence of its validity".
context of SACM, an assertion is the output of a SACM component in
the form of a statement (including metadata about the data source
and data origin, e.g. timestamps). While the validity of an
assertion cannot be verified without, for example, an additional
attestation protocol, an assertion (and therefore a statement,
respectively) can be accompanied by evidence of the validity of
its metadata provided by a SACM component.
Assessment: Defined in [RFC5209] as "the process of collecting Assessment: Defined in [RFC5209] as "the process of collecting
posture for a set of capabilities on the endpoint (e.g., host- posture for a set of capabilities on the endpoint (e.g., host-
based firewall) such that the appropriate validators may evaluate based firewall) such that the appropriate validators may evaluate
the posture against compliance policy." the posture against compliance policy."
An assessment is a specific workflow that incorporates the SACM
tasks discovery, collection and evaluation. A prominent instance
of the assessment workflow is illustrated in the Vulnerability
Assessment Scenario [I-D.ietf-sacm-vuln-scenario].
Asset: Defined in [RFC4949] as "a system resource that is (a) Asset: Is a system resource, as defined in [RFC4949], that may be
required to be protected by an information system's security composed of other assets.
policy, (b) intended to be protected by a countermeasure, or (c)
required for a system's mission". In the scope of SACM, an asset
can be composed of other assets. Examples of Assets include:
Endpoints, Software, Guidance, or X.509 public key certificates.
An asset is not necessarily owned by an organization.
Asset Management: The process by which assets are provisioned, Examples of Assets include: Endpoints, Software, Guidance, or
X.509 public key certificates. An asset is not necessarily owned
by an organization.
Asset Management: The IT process by which assets are provisioned,
updated, maintained and deprecated. updated, maintained and deprecated.
Attribute: Defined in [RFC5209] as "data element including any Attribute: Is a data element, as defined in [RFC5209], that is
requisite meta-data describing an observed, expected, or the atomic.
operational status of an endpoint feature (e.g., anti-virus
software is currently in use)." In the context of SACM, In the context of SACM, attributes are "atomic" information
attributes are "atomic" information elements and an equivalent to elements and an equivalent to attribute-value-pairs. Attributes
attribute-value-pairs. Attributes can be components of Subjects. can be components of Subjects.
Authentication: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the process of verifying a Authentication: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the process of verifying a
claim that a system entity or system resource has a certain claim that a system entity or system resource has a certain
attribute value." attribute value."
Authorization: Defined in [RFC4949] as "an approval that is granted Authorization: Defined in [RFC4949] as "an approval that is granted
to a system entity to access a system resource." to a system entity to access a system resource."
Broker: A broker is a specific controller type that contains control Capability: A set of features that are available from a SACM
plane functions to provide and/or connect services on behalf of Component.
other SACM components via interfaces on the control plane. A
broker may provide, for example, authorization services and find,
upon request, SACM components providing requested services.
Capability: In [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] a capability is "a set See also "capability" in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology].
of features that are available from an I2NSF Component. These
functions may, but do not have to, be used. All Capabilities are
announced through the I2NSF Registration Interface. Examples are
Capabilities that are available from an NSF Server."
In the context of SACM, the extent of a SACM component's ability In the context of SACM, the extent of a SACM component's ability
is enabled by the functions it is composed of. Capabilities are is enabled by the functions it is composed of. Capabilities are
registered at a SACM broker (potentially also at a proxy or a registered at a SACM broker (potentially also at a proxy or a
repository component if it includes broker functions) by a SACM repository component if it includes broker functions) by a SACM
component via the SACM component registration task and can be component via the SACM component registration task and can be
discovered by or negotiated with other SACM components via the discovered by or negotiated with other SACM components via the
corresponding tasks. For example, the capability of a SACM corresponding tasks. For example, the capability of a SACM
provider may be to provide target endpoint records (declarative provider may be to provide target endpoint records (declarative
guidance about well-known or potential target endpoints), or only guidance about well-known or potential target endpoints), or only
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domain and how to use them in workflows. domain and how to use them in workflows.
The SACM Vulnerability Assessment Scenario The SACM Vulnerability Assessment Scenario
[I-D.ietf-sacm-vuln-scenario] defines the terms Endpoint [I-D.ietf-sacm-vuln-scenario] defines the terms Endpoint
Management Capabilities, Vulnerability Management Capabilities, Management Capabilities, Vulnerability Management Capabilities,
and Vulnerability Assessment Capabilities, which illustrate and Vulnerability Assessment Capabilities, which illustrate
specific sets of SACM capabilities on an enterprise IT specific sets of SACM capabilities on an enterprise IT
department's point of view and therefore compose sets of department's point of view and therefore compose sets of
declarative guidance. declarative guidance.
Collection Result: Information about a target endpoint that is Collection Result: Is a composition of one or more content elements
produced by a collector conducting a collection task. A carrying information about a target endpoint, that is produced by
collection result is composed as one or more content-elements. a collector when conducting a collection task.
Collection Task: The task by which endpoint attributes and/or Collection Task: A targeted task that collects attributes and/or
corresponding attribute values about a target endpoint are corresponding attribute values from target endpoint.
collected. The collection tasks are targeted at specific target
endpoints and therefore are targeted tasks.
There are four types of frequency collection tasks can be There are four types of frequency collection tasks can be
conducted with: conducted with:
ad-hoc, e.g. triggered by a unsolicited query ad-hoc, e.g. triggered by a unsolicited query
conditional, e.g. triggered in accordance with policies included conditional, e.g. triggered in accordance with policies included
in the compositions of workflows in the compositions of workflows
scheduled, e.g. in regular intervals, such as every minute or scheduled, e.g. in regular intervals, such as every minute or
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different from the target endpoint conducts the collection task different from the target endpoint conducts the collection task
via interfaces available on the target endpoint, e.g. SNMP/ via interfaces available on the target endpoint, e.g. SNMP/
NETCONF or WMI. NETCONF or WMI.
Behavior-Observation: A SACM component located on an Endpoint Behavior-Observation: A SACM component located on an Endpoint
different from the target endpoint observes network traffic different from the target endpoint observes network traffic
related to the target endpoint and conducts the collection task related to the target endpoint and conducts the collection task
via interpretation of that network traffic. via interpretation of that network traffic.
Collector: A piece of software that acquires information about one Collector: A piece of software that acquires information about one
or more target endpoints by conducting collection tasks. A or more target endpoints by conducting collection tasks.
collector provides acquired information in the form of collection
results via a set of registered capabilities that can be
discovered by other SACM components.
A collector can be distributed across multiple endpoints, e.g. A collector can be distributed across multiple endpoints, e.g.
across a target endpoint and a SACM component. The separate parts across a target endpoint and a SACM component. The separate parts
of the collector can communicate with a specialized protocol, such of the collector can communicate with a specialized protocol, such
as PA-TNC [RFC5792]. At least one part of a distributed collector as PA-TNC [RFC5792]. At least one part of a distributed collector
has to take on the role of a provider of information by providing has to take on the role of a provider of information by providing
SACM interfaces to propagate capabilities and to provide SACM SACM interfaces to propagate capabilities and to provide SACM
content in the form of collection results. content in the form of collection results.
Configuration: A non-volatile subset of the endpoint attributes of a Configuration: A non-volatile subset of the endpoint attributes of a
(target) endpoint that is intended to be unaffected by a normal endpoint that is intended to be unaffected by a normal reboot-
reboot-cycle. Configuration is a type of imperative guidance that cycle.
is stored in files (files dedicated to contain configuration and/
or files that are software components), directly on block devices, Configuration is a type of imperative guidance that is stored in
or on specific hardware components that can be accessed via files (files dedicated to contain configuration and/ or files that
are software components), directly on block devices, or on
specific hardware components that can be accessed via
corresponding software components. Modification of configuration corresponding software components. Modification of configuration
can be conducted manually or automatically via management (plane) can be conducted manually or automatically via management (plane)
interfaces that support management protocols, such as SNMP or WMI. interfaces that support management protocols, such as SNMP or WMI.
A change of configuration can occur during both run-time and down- A change of configuration can occur during both run-time and down-
time of an endpoint. It is common practice to scheduled a change time of an endpoint. It is common practice to scheduled a change
of configuration during or directly after the completion of a of configuration during or directly after the completion of a
boot-cycle via corresponding software components located on the boot-cycle via corresponding software components located on the
target endpoint itself. target endpoint itself.
Examples: The static association of an IP address and a MAC Examples: The static association of an IP address and a MAC
address in a DHCP server configuration, a directory-path that address in a DHCP server configuration, a directory-path that
identifies a log-file directory, a registry entry. identifies a log-file directory, a registry entry.
Configuration Drift: The discrepancy of a target endpoint's endpoint Configuration Drift: The disposition of endpoint characteristics to
attributes representing the actual composition of a target change over time.
endpoint (is-state) and its intended composition (should-state) in
the scope of a valid target endpoint composition (could-state) due Configuration drift exists for both hardware components and
to continuous alteration of a target endpoint's composition over
time. Configuration drift exists for both hardware components and
software components. Typically, the frequency and scale of software components. Typically, the frequency and scale of
configuration drift of software components is significantly higher configuration drift of software components is significantly higher
than the configuration drift of hardware components. than the configuration drift of hardware components.
Consumer: A consumer is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM Consumer: Is a SACM Role that contains functions to receive
component that contains functions to receive information from information from other SACM Components.
other SACM components.
Content Element: Content elements constitute the payload data (SACM Content Element: Content elements constitute the payload data (SACM
content) transferred via statement Subjects emitted by providers content) transferred via statement Subjects emitted by providers
of information. Every content element Subject includes a specific of information. Every content element Subject includes a specific
content Subject and a corresponding content metadata Subject. content Subject and a corresponding content metadata Subject.
Content Metadata: Data about content Subjects. Every content- Content Metadata: Data about content Subjects. Every content-
element includes a content metadata Subject. The Subject can element includes a content metadata Subject. The Subject can
include any information element that can annotate the content include any information element that can annotate the content
transeferred. Examples include time stamps or data provenance transferred. Examples include time stamps or data provenance
Subjects. Subjects.
Control Plane: Typically used as a term in the context of routing, Control Plane: An architectural component that provides common
e.g. [RFC6192]. In the context of SACM, the control plane is an control functions to all SACM components.
architectural component providing common control functions to all
SACM components, including authentication, authorization, Typically used as a term in the context of routing, e.g.
(capability) discovery or negotiation, registration and [RFC6192]. SACM components may include authentication,
subscription. The control plane orchestrates the flow on the data authorization, (capability) discovery or negotiation, registration
plane according to imperative guidance (i.e. configuration) and subscription. The control plane orchestrates the flow on the
data plane according to imperative guidance (i.e. configuration)
received via the management plane. SACM components with received via the management plane. SACM components with
interfaces to the control plane have knowledge of the capabilities interfaces to the control plane have knowledge of the capabilities
of other SACM components within a SACM domain. of other SACM components within a SACM domain.
Controller: A controller is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM Controller: A controller is a SACM Role that is assigned to a SACM
component containing control plane functions that manage and component containing control plane functions managing and
facilitate information sharing or execute on security functions. facilitating information sharing or execute on security functions.
There are three types of SACM controllers: Broker, Proxy, and There are three types of SACM controllers: Broker, Proxy, and
Repository. Depending on its type, a controller can also contain Repository. Depending on its type, a controller can also contain
functions that have interfaces on the data plane. functions that have interfaces on the data plane.
Data Confidentiality: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that Data Confidentiality: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that
data is not disclosed to system entities unless they have been data is not disclosed to system entities unless they have been
authorized to know the data." authorized to know the data."
Data In Motion: Data that is being transported via a network; also Data In Motion: Data that is being transported via a network; also
referred to as "Data in Transit" or "Data in Flight". Data in referred to as "Data in Transit" or "Data in Flight".
motion requires a data model to transfer the data using a specific
encoding. Typically, data in motion is serialized (marshalling) Data in motion requires a data model to transfer the data using a
into a transport encoding by a provider of information and specific encoding. Typically, data in motion is serialized
deserialized (unmarshalling) by a consumer of information. The (marshalling) into a transport encoding by a provider of
termination points of provider of information and consumer of information and deserialized (unmarshalling) by a consumer of
information data is transferred between are interfaces. In regard information. The termination points of provider of information
to data in motion, the interpretation of the roles consumer of and consumer of information data is transferred between are
information and provider of information depends on the interfaces. In regard to data in motion, the interpretation of
corresponding OSI layer (e.g. on layer2: between interfaces the roles consumer of information and provider of information
connected to a broadcast domain, on layer4: between interfaces depends on the corresponding OSI layer (e.g. on layer2: between
that maintain a TCP connection). In the context of SACM, consumer interfaces connected to a broadcast domain, on layer4: between
of information and provider of information are SACM components. interfaces that maintain a TCP connection). In the context of
SACM, consumer of information and provider of information are SACM
components.
The SACM architecture and corresponding models focus on data in The SACM architecture and corresponding models focus on data in
motion. motion.
Data At Rest: Data that is stored in a repository. Data at rest Data At Rest: Data that is stored.
requires a data model to encode the data to be stored. In the
context of SACM, data at rest located on a SACM component can be Data at rest requires a data model to encode the data to be
provided to other SACM components via discoverable capabilities. stored. In the context of SACM, data at rest located on a SACM
component can be provided to other SACM components via
discoverable capabilities.
In the context of SACM, data models for data at rest are out of In the context of SACM, data models for data at rest are out of
scope. scope.
Data Integrity: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that data has Data Integrity: Defined in [RFC4949] as "the property that data has
not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or
accidental manner." accidental manner."
Data Origin: One or more properties (i.e. endpoint attributes) that Data Origin: The SACM Component that initially acquired or produced
enable a SACM component to identify the SACM component that data about an endpoint.
initially acquired or produced data about a (target) endpoint
(e.g. via collection from a data source) and made it available to
a SACM domain via a SACM statement. Data Origin can be expressed
by an endpoint label information element (e.g. to be used as
metadata in statement).
Data Plane (fix statement): Typically used as a term in the context Data Origin enables a SACM component to identify the SACM
of routing (and used as a synonym for forwarding plane, e.g. component that initially acquired or produced data about a
[RFC6192]). In the context of SACM, the data plane is an (target) endpoint (e.g. via collection from a data source) and
architectural component providing operational functions to enable made it available to a SACM domain via a SACM statement. Data
a SACM component to provide and consume SACM statements and Origin can be expressed by an endpoint label information element
therefore SACM content, which composes the actual SACM content. (e.g. to be used as metadata in statement).
The data plane in a SACM domain is used to conduct distributed
SACM tasks by transporting SACM content via specific transport
encodings and corresponding operations defined by SACM data
models.
Data Provenance: A historical record of the sources, origins and Data Plane: Is an architectural component providing operational
evolution of data that is influenced by inputs, entities, functions enabling information exchange that is not command and
functions and processes. In the context of SACM, data provenance control or management related.
Typically used as a term in the context of routing (and used as a
synonym for forwarding plane, e.g. [RFC6192]). In the context of
SACM, the data plane is an architectural component providing
operational functions to enable a SACM component to provide and
consume SACM statements and therefore SACM content, which composes
the actual SACM content. The data plane in a SACM domain is used
to conduct distributed SACM tasks by transporting SACM content via
specific transport encodings and corresponding operations defined
by SACM data models.
Data Provenance: An historical record of the sources, origins and
evolution, as it pertains to data, that is influenced by inputs,
entities, functions and processes.
Additional Information - In the context of SACM, data provenance
is expressed as metadata that identifies SACM statements and is expressed as metadata that identifies SACM statements and
corresponding content elements a new statement is created from. corresponding content elements a new statement is created from.
In a downstream process, this references can cascade, creating a In a downstream process, this references can cascade, creating a
data provenance tree that enables SACM components to trace back data provenance tree that enables SACM components to trace back
the original data sources involved in the creation of SACM the original data sources involved in the creation of SACM
statements and take into account their characteristics and statements and take into account their characteristics and
trustworthiness. trustworthiness.
Data Source: One or more properties (i.e. endpoint attributes) that Data Source: Is an endpoint from which a particular set of
enable a SACM component to identify - and potentially characterize attributes and/or attribute values have been collected.
- a (target) endpoint that is claimed to be the original source of
endpoint attributes in a SACM statement. Data Source can be Data Source enables a SACM component to identify - and potentially
expressed as metadata by an endpoint label information element or characterize - a (target) endpoint that is claimed to be the
a corresponding subject of identifying endpoint attributes. original source of endpoint attributes in a SACM statement. Data
Source can be expressed as metadata by an endpoint label
information element or a corresponding subject of identifying
endpoint attributes.
Endpoint: Defined in [RFC5209] as "any computing device that can be Endpoint: Defined in [RFC5209] as "any computing device that can be
connected to a network. Such devices normally are associated with connected to a network."
a particular link layer address before joining the network and
potentially an IP address once on the network. This includes: Additional Information - The [RFC5209] definition continues, "Such
laptops, desktops, servers, cell phones, or any device that may devices normally are associated with a particular link layer
have an IP address." address before joining the network and potentially an IP address
once on the network. This includes: laptops, desktops, servers,
cell phones, or any device that may have an IP address."
To further clarify the [RFC5209] definition, an endpoint is any To further clarify the [RFC5209] definition, an endpoint is any
physical or virtual device that may have a network address. Note physical or virtual device that may have a network address. Note
that, network infrastructure devices (e.g. switches, routers, that, network infrastructure devices (e.g. switches, routers,
firewalls), which fit the definition, are also considered to be firewalls), which fit the definition, are also considered to be
endpoints within this document. endpoints within this document.
Physical endpoints are always composites that are composed of Physical endpoints are always composites that are composed of
hardware components and software components. Virtual endpoints hardware components and software components. Virtual endpoints
are composed entirely of software components and rely on software are composed entirely of software components and rely on software
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components. components.
The SACM architecture differentiates two essential categories of The SACM architecture differentiates two essential categories of
endpoints: Endpoints whose security posture is intended to be endpoints: Endpoints whose security posture is intended to be
assessed (target endpoints) and endpoints that are specifically assessed (target endpoints) and endpoints that are specifically
excluded from endpoint posture assessment (excluded endpoints). excluded from endpoint posture assessment (excluded endpoints).
Based on the definition of an asset, an endpoint is a type of Based on the definition of an asset, an endpoint is a type of
asset. asset.
Endpoint Attribute: In the context of SACM, endpoint attributes are Endpoint Attribute: Is a discreet endpoint characteristic that is
information elements that describe an endpoint characteristic of a computably observable.
target endpoint. Endpoint Attributes typically constitute
Attributes that can be bundled into Subject (e.g. information Endpoint Attributes typically constitute Attributes that can be
about a specific network interface can be represented via a set of bundled into Subject (e.g. information about a specific network
multiple AVP). interface can be represented via a set of multiple AVP).
Endpoint Characteristics: The state, configuration and composition Endpoint Characteristics: The state, configuration and composition
of the software components and (virtual) hardware components a of the software components and (virtual) hardware components a
target endpoint is composed of, including observable behavior, target endpoint is composed of, including observable behavior,
e.g. sys-calls, log-files, or PDU emission on a network. e.g. sys-calls, log-files, or PDU emission on a network.
Endpoint Characterization: The task by which a profile is composed Endpoint Characterization: The description of the distinctive nature
out of endpoint attributes that describe the desired or expected of an endpoint, that is based on its characteristics.
posture of a type or class of target endpoints or even an
individual target endpoint. The result of this task is an
endpoint profile that is required as declarative guidance for the
tasks of endpoint classification or posture assessment.
Endpoint Classification: The task by which a discovered target Endpoint Characterization Task: The task of endpoint
endpoint is classified. Endpoint classification requires characterization that uses endpoint attributes that represent
declarative guidance in the form of an endpoint profile, discovery distinct endpoint characteristics.
results and potentially collection results. Types, classes or the
characteristics of an individual target endpoint are defined via
endpoint profiles.
Endpoint Label: In a SACM domain, every endpoint can be identified Endpoint Classification: The categorization of of the endpoint into
by an endpoint label. There are two prominent uses of endpoint one or more taxonomic structures.
labels in a SACM domain: to identify SACM components and to
identify Target Endpoints. Both endpoint labels can be used in
SACM content or in content metadata:
SACM Components are identified by: SACM component label / Data Endpoint classification requires declarative guidance in the form
Origin of an endpoint profile, discovery results and potentially
collection results. Types, classes or the characteristics of an
individual target endpoint are defined via endpoint profiles.
Target Endpoints are identified by: TE label / Data Source Endpoint Classification Task: The task of endpoint classification
that uses an endpoint's characteristics to determine how to
categorize the given endpoint into one or more taxonomic
structures.
An endpoint label is expressed as an artificially created ID that Endpoint Label: A unique label associated with a unique endpoint.
references a distinct set of identifying attributes (Target
Endpoint Identifier). A target endpoint label is unique in a SACM
domain and created by a SACM component that provides the
appropriate function as a capability.
Endpoint Management Capabilities: An enterprise IT department's Endpoint specializations have corresponding endpoint label
ability to manage endpoint identity, endpoint information, and specializations. For example, an endpoint label used on a SACM
associated metadata on an ongoing basis. Component is a SACM Component Label.
Evaluation Task: The task by which endpoint attributes are Endpoint Management Capabilities: Enterprise IT management
evaluated. capabilities that are tailored to manage endpoint identity,
endpoint information, and associated metadata.
Evaluation Task: A task by which an endpoint's asserted attribute
value is evaluated against a policy-compliant attribute value.
Evaluation Result: The resulting value from having evaluated a set Evaluation Result: The resulting value from having evaluated a set
of posture attributes. of posture attributes.
Event: The change of a target endpoint characteristics at a specific Expected Endpoint Attribute State: The policy-compliant state of an
point in time. In the context of SACM, an event is a statement endpoint attribute that is to be compared against.
(and therefore data in motion) that includes the new target
endpoint characteristics and optional also the past ones,
annotated with corresponding metedata (most prominently, the
collection time of the data that constitutes the observation of
the event regarding the target endpoint).
Excluded Endpoint: A specific designation, which is assigned to an
endpoint that is not supposed to be the subject of a collection
task (and therefore is not a target endpoint). Typically but not
necessarily, endpoints that contain a SACM component (and are
therefore part of the SACM domain) are designated as excluded
endpoints. Target endpoints that contain a SACM component cannot
be designated as excluded endpoints and are part of the SACM
domain.
Expected Endpoint State: The required state of an endpoint that is
to be compared against. Sets of expected endpoint states are
transported as declarative guidance in target endpoint profiles
via the management plane. This, for example, can be a policy, but
also a recorded past state. An expected state is represented can
be represented via an Attribute or an Subject that represents a
set of multiple attribute value pairs.
SACM Function: A behavioral aspect or capacity of a particular SACM
component, which belies that SACM component's purpose. For
example, a SACM function with interfaces on the control plane can
provide a brokering function to other SACM components. Via data
plane interfaces, a function can act as a provider and/or as a
consumer of information. SACM functions can be propagated as the
capabilities of a SACM component and can be discovered by or
negotiated with other SACM components.
Guidance: Input instructions to processes, such as automated device Guidance: Input directing SACM processes or tasks.
management or remediation, and SACM tasks, such as collection or
evaluation. Guidance influences the behavior of a SACM component
and is considered content of the management plane. In the context
of SACM, guidance is machine-readable and can be manually or
automatically generated or provided. Typically, the tasks that
provide guidance to SACM components have a low-frequency and tend
to be be sporadic.
There are two types of guidance: There are two types of guidance:
Declarative Guidance: defines the configuration or state an Declarative Guidance: Guidance that defines the configuration or
endpoint is supposed to be in--without providing specific actions state an endpoint is supposed to be in, without providing specific
or methods to produce that desired state. Examples include Target actions or methods to produce that desired state. Examples
Endpoint Profiles or network topology based requirements. include Target Endpoint Profiles or network topology based
requirements.
Imperative Guidance: prescribes specific actions to be conducted
or methods to be used in order to achieve an outcome. Examples
include a targeted Collection Task or the IP-Address of a SACM
Component that provides a registration function.
Hardware Component: Hardware components are the distinguishable
physical components that compose an endpoint. The composition of
an endpoint can be changed over time by adding or removing
hardware components. In essence, every physical endpoint is
potentially a composite of multiple hardware components, typically
resulting in a hierarchical composition of hardware components.
The composition of hardware components is based on interconnects
provided by specific hardware types (e.g. a mainboard is a
hardware type that provides local busses as an interconnect or an
FRU is a hardware type that is itself connected via an
interconnect to a chassis and can provide further interconnects
for additional hardware components, such as interfaces modules).
In general, a hardware component can be distinguished by its
serial number. Occasionally, hardware components are referred to
as power sucking aliens.
The Entity MIB version 4 [RFC6933] and the YANG Data Model for Imperative Guidance: Guidance that prescribes specific actions to
Hardware Management [I-D.ietf-netmod-entity] provide common be conducted or methods to be used in order to achieve an outcome.
examples of target endpoint characteristics about hardware Examples include a targeted Collection Task or the IP-Address of a
components. SACM Component that provides a registration function.
Hardware Inventory: The list of hardware components that compose a Endpoint Hardware Inventory: The set of hardware components that
specific endpoint representing its hardware configuration. compose a specific endpoint representing its hardware
configuration.
Hardware Type: Hardware types define specific and distinguishable Information Element: A representation of information about physical
categories of hardware components that can be part of endpoints, and virtual "objects of interest".
e.g. CPU or 802.11p interface. Typically, hardware types can be
distinguished by their vendor assigned names, names of standards
used, or a model name.
The IANAPhysicalClass [RFC6933] and corresponding iana-entity YANG Information elements are the building blocks that constitute the
module [I-D.ietf-netmod-entity] provide the standard references SACM information model. In the context of SACM, an information
for physical hardware types. element that expresses a single value with a specific name is
referred to as an Attribute (analogous to an attribute-value-
pair). A set of attributes that is bundled into a more complex
composite information element is referred to as a Subject. Every
information element in the SACM information model has a unique
name. Endpoint attributes or time stamps, for example, are
represented as information elements in the SACM information model.
Information Element: A representation of information about physical Information Model: An abstract representation of data, their
and virtual "objects of interests". Information elements are the properties, relationships between data and the operations that can
building blocks that constitute the SACM information model. In be performed on the data.
the context of SACM, an information element that expresses a
single value with a specific name is referred to as an Attribute
(analogous to an attribute-value-pair). A set of attributes that
is bundled into a more complex composite information element is
referred to as a Subject. Every information element in the SACM
information model has a unique name. Endpoint attributes or time
stamps, for example, are represented as information elements in
the SACM information model.
Information Model: An information model is an abstract While there is some overlap with a data model, [RFC3444]
representation of data, their properties, relationships between distinguishes an information model as being protocol and
data and the operations that can be performed on the data. While implementation neutral whereas a data model would provide such
there is some overlap with a data model, [RFC3444] distinguishes details. The purpose of the SACM information model is to ensure
an information model as being protocol and implementation neutral interoperability between SACM data models (that are used as
whereas a data model would provide such details. The purpose of transport encoding) and to provide a standardized set of
the SACM information model is to ensure interoperability between information elements for communication between SACM components.
SACM data models (that are used as transport encoding) and to
provide a standardized set of information elements for
communication between SACM components.
Interaction Model: The definition of specific sequences regarding Interaction Model: The definition of specific sequences regarding
the exchange of messages (data in motion), including, for exmaple, the exchange of messages (data in motion), including, for example,
conditional branching, thresholds and timers. An interaction conditional branching, thresholds and timers. An interaction
model, for example, can be used to define operations, such as model, for example, can be used to define operations, such as
registration or discovery, on the control plane. A composition of registration or discovery, on the control plane. A composition of
data models for data in motion and a corresponding interaction data models for data in motion and a corresponding interaction
model is a protocol. model is a protocol.
Internal Collector: Internal Collector: a collector that runs on a Internal Collector: Internal Collector: a collector that runs on a
target endpoint to acquire information from that target endpoint. target endpoint to acquire information from that target endpoint.
(TBD: An internal collector is not a SACM component and therefore
not part of a SACM domain).
Management Plane: An architectural component providing common Management Plane: Is an architectural component providing common
functions to steer the behavior of SACM components, e.g. its functions to steer the behavior of SACM components, e.g. their
behavior on the control plane. Prominent examples include: behavior on the control plane.
modification of the configuration of a SACM component or updating
a target endpoint profile that resides on an evaluator. In
essence, guidance is transported via the management plane.
Typically, a SACM component can fulfill its purpose without
continuous input from the management plane. In contrast, without
continuous availability of control plane functions a typical SACM
component could not function properly. In general, interaction on
the management plane is less frequent and less regular than on the
control plane. Input via the management plane can be manual (e.g.
via a CLI), or can be automated via management plane functions
that are part of other SACM components.
Metadata: Data about data. In the SACM information model, data is Prominent examples include: modification of the configuration of a
referred to as Content. Metadata about the content is referred to SACM component or updating a target endpoint profile that resides
as Content-Metadata, respectively. Content and Content-Metadata on an evaluator. In essence, guidance is transported via the
are combined into Subjects called Content-Elements in the SACM management plane. Typically, a SACM component can fulfill its
information model. Some information elements defined by the SACM purpose without continuous input from the management plane. In
information model can be part of the Content or the Content- contrast, without continuous availability of control plane
Metadata. Therefore, if an information element is considered data functions a typical SACM component could not function properly.
or data about data depends on which kind of Subject it is In general, interaction on the management plane is less frequent
associated with. The SACM information model also defines metadata and less regular than on the control plane. Input via the
about the data origin via the Subject Statement-Metadata. Typical management plane can be manual (e.g. via a CLI), or can be
examples of metadata are time stamps, data origin or data source. automated via management plane functions that are part of other
SACM components.
Network Address: Network addresses are layer specific and follow Metadata: Data about data.
layer specific address schemes. Each interface of a specific
layer can be associated with one or more addresses appropriate for In the SACM information model, data is referred to as Content.
that layer. There is no guarantee that an address is globally Metadata about the content is referred to as Content-Metadata,
unique. In general, there is a scope to an address in which it is respectively. Content and Content-Metadata are combined into
intended to be unique. Subjects called Content-Elements in the SACM information model.
Some information elements defined by the SACM information model
can be part of the Content or the Content-Metadata. Therefore, if
an information element is considered data or data about data
depends on which kind of Subject it is associated with. The SACM
information model also defines metadata about the data origin via
the Subject Statement-Metadata. Typical examples of metadata are
time stamps, data origin or data source.
Examples include: physical Ethernet port with a MAC address, layer Examples include: physical Ethernet port with a MAC address, layer
2 VLAN interface with a MAC address, layer 3 interface with 2 VLAN interface with a MAC address, layer 3 interface with
multiple IPv6 addresses, layer 3 tunnel ingress or egress with an multiple IPv6 addresses, layer 3 tunnel ingress or egress with an
IPv4 address. IPv4 address.
Network Interface: An endpoint is connected to a network via one or
more network interfaces. Network interfaces can be physical or
virtual. Network interfaces of an endpoint can operate on
different layers, most prominently what is now commonly called
layer 2 and 3. Within a layer, interfaces can be nested.
On layer 2, a root interface is typically associated with a
physical interface port and nested interfaces are virtual
interfaces. In the case of a virtual endpoint, a root interface
can be a virtual interface. Virtual layer 2 interfaces of one or
more endpoints can also constitute an aggregated group of links
that act as one.
On layer 3, nested interfaces typically constitute virtual tunnels
or virtual (mesh) networks.
Examples include: physical Ethernet port, layer 2 VLAN interface,
a MC-LAG setup, layer 3 Point-to-Point tunnel ingress or egress.
Posture: Defined in [RFC5209] as "configuration and/or status of Posture: Defined in [RFC5209] as "configuration and/or status of
hardware or software on an endpoint as it pertains to an hardware or software on an endpoint as it pertains to an
organization's security policy." organization's security policy."
This term is used within the scope of SACM to represent the This term is used within the scope of SACM to represent the
configuration and state information that is collected from a configuration and state information that is collected from a
target endpoint in the form of endpoint attributes (e.g. software/ target endpoint in the form of endpoint attributes (e.g. software/
hardware inventory, configuration settings, dynamically assigned hardware inventory, configuration settings, dynamically assigned
addresses). This information may constitute one or more posture addresses). This information may constitute one or more posture
attributes. attributes.
skipping to change at page 14, line 13 skipping to change at page 12, line 17
endpoint. A Posture Attribute represents a single property of an endpoint. A Posture Attribute represents a single property of an
observed state. For example, a Posture Attribute might describe observed state. For example, a Posture Attribute might describe
the version of the operating system installed on the system." the version of the operating system installed on the system."
Within this document this term represents a specific assertion Within this document this term represents a specific assertion
about endpoint configuration or state (e.g. configuration setting, about endpoint configuration or state (e.g. configuration setting,
installed software, hardware) represented via endpoint attributes. installed software, hardware) represented via endpoint attributes.
The phrase "features of the endpoint" highlighted above refers to The phrase "features of the endpoint" highlighted above refers to
installed software or software components. installed software or software components.
Provider: A provider is a SACM role that is assigned to a SACM Provider: A provider is a SACM role assigned to a SACM component
component that contains functions to provide information to other that provides role-specific functions to provide information to
SACM components. other SACM components.
Proxy: A proxy is a specific controller type that provides data Repository: A repository is a controller that contains functions to
plane and control plane functions, information, or services on consume, store and provide information of a particular kind.
behalf of another component, which is not directly participating
in the SACM architecture.
Repository: A repository is a specific controller type that contains Such information is typically data transported on the data plane,
functions to consume, store and provide information of a
particular kind - typically data transported on the data plane,
but potentially also data and metadata from the control and but potentially also data and metadata from the control and
management plane. A single repository may provide the functions management plane. A single repository may provide the functions
of more than one specific repository type (i.e. configuration of more than one specific repository type (i.e. configuration
baseline repository, assessment results repository, etc.) baseline repository, assessment results repository, etc.)
SACM Component: A component is defined in SACM Broker Controller: A SACM Broker Controller is a controller
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] as "an encapsulation of software that that contains control plane functions to provide and/or connect
communicates using Interfaces. A Component may be implemented by services on behalf of other SACM components via interfaces on the
hardware and/or Software, and be represented using a set of control plane.
classes. In general, a Component encapsulates a set of data
structures as well as a set of algorithms that implement the A broker may provide, for example, authorization services and
functions that it provides." find, upon request, SACM components providing requested services.
SACM Component: Is a component, as defined in
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology], that is composed of SACM
capabilities.
In the context of SACM, a set of SACM functions composes a SACM In the context of SACM, a set of SACM functions composes a SACM
component. A SACM component conducts SACM tasks, acting on component. A SACM component conducts SACM tasks, acting on
control plane, data plane and/or management plane via control plane, data plane and/or management plane via
corresponding SACM interfaces. SACM defines a set of standard corresponding SACM interfaces. SACM defines a set of standard
components (e.g. a collector, a broker, or a data store). A SACM components (e.g. a collector, a broker, or a data store). A SACM
component contains at least a basic set of control plane functions component contains at least a basic set of control plane functions
and can contain data plane and management plane functions. A SACM and can contain data plane and management plane functions. A SACM
component residing on an endpoint assigns one or more SACM roles component residing on an endpoint assigns one or more SACM roles
to the corresponding endpoint due to the SACM functions it is to the corresponding endpoint due to the SACM functions it is
composed of. A SACM component "resides on" an endpoint and an composed of. A SACM component "resides on" an endpoint and an
endpoint "contains" a SACM component, correspondingly. For endpoint "contains" a SACM component, correspondingly. For
example, a SACM component that is composed solely of functions example, a SACM component that is composed solely of functions
that provide information would only take on the role of a that provide information would only take on the role of a
provider. provider.
SACM Component Discovery: The task of brokering appropriate SACM SACM Component Discovery: The task of brokering appropriate SACM
components according to their capabilities or roles on reques. components according to their capabilities or roles on request.
Input: Query Input: Query
Output: a list of SACM components including metadata Output: a list of SACM components including metadata
SACM Component Label: A specific endpoint label that is used to SACM Component Label: A specific endpoint label that is used to
identify a SACM component. In content-metadata, this label is identify a SACM component.
called data origin.
In content-metadata, this label is called data origin.
SACM Content: The payload provided by SACM components to the SACM SACM Content: The payload provided by SACM components to the SACM
domain on the data plane. SACM content includes the SACM data domain on the data plane.
models.
SACM content includes the SACM data models.
SACM Domain: Endpoints that include a SACM component compose a SACM SACM Domain: Endpoints that include a SACM component compose a SACM
domain. (To be revised, additional definition content TBD, domain.
possible dependencies to SACM architecture)
SACM Interface: An interface is defined in (To be revised, additional definition content TBD, possible
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] as "A set of operations one object dependencies to SACM architecture)
knows it can invoke on, and expose to, another object. This
decouples the implementation of the operation from its SACM Interface: An interface, as defined in
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology], that provides SACM-specific
operations.
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] defines interface as a "set of
operations one object knows it can invoke on, and expose to,
another object," and further defines interface by stating that an
interface "decouples the implementation of the operation from its
specification. An interface is a subset of all operations that a specification. An interface is a subset of all operations that a
given object implements. The same object may have multiple types given object implements. The same object may have multiple types
of interfaces to serve different purposes." of interfaces to serve different purposes."
In the context of SACM, SACM Functions provide SACM Interfaces on In the context of SACM, SACM Functions provide SACM Interfaces on
the management, control, or data plane. Operations a SACM the management, control, or data plane. Operations a SACM
Interface provides are based on corresponding data model defined Interface provides are based on corresponding data model defined
by SACM. SACM Interfaces are used for communication between SACM by SACM. SACM Interfaces are used for communication between SACM
components. components.
SACM Role: A role is defined in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] as "an SACM Proxy Controller: A SACM Proxy Controller is a controller that
abstraction of a Component that models context-specific views and provides data plane and control plane functions, information, or
responsibilities of an object as separate role objects that can be services on behalf of another component, which is not directly
statically or dynamically attached to (and removed from) the participating in the SACM architecture.
object that the role object describes. This provides three
important benefits. First, it enables different behavior to be SACM Role: Is a role, as defined in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology],
supported by the same Component for different contexts. Second, that requires the SACM Component assuming the role to bear a set
it enables the behavior of a Component to be adjusted dynamically of SACM functions or interfaces.
(i.e., at runtime, in response)to changes in context, by using one
or more Roles to define the behavior desired for each context. SACM Roles provide three important benefits. First, it enables
Third, it decouples the Roles of a Component from the Applications different behavior to be supported by the same Component for
that use that Component." different contexts. Second, it enables the behavior of a
Component to be adjusted dynamically (i.e., at runtime, in
response)to changes in context, by using one or more Roles to
define the behavior desired for each context. Third, it decouples
the Roles of a Component from the Applications that use that
Component."
In the context of SACM, SACM roles are associated with SACM In the context of SACM, SACM roles are associated with SACM
components and are defined by the set of functions and interfaces components and are defined by the set of functions and interfaces
a SACM component includes. There are three SACM roles: provider, a SACM component includes. There are three SACM roles: provider,
consumer, and controller. The roles associated with a SACM consumer, and controller. The roles associated with a SACM
component are determined by the purpose of the SACM functions and component are determined by the purpose of the SACM functions and
corresponding SACM interfaces the SACM component is composed of. corresponding SACM interfaces the SACM component is composed of.
SACM Statement: Is SACM component output that represents an
assertion.
Security Automation: The process of which security alerts can be Security Automation: The process of which security alerts can be
automated through the use of different components to monitor, automated through the use of different components to monitor,
analyze and assess endpoints and network traffic for the purposes analyze and assess endpoints and network traffic for the purposes
of detecting miss-configurations, miss-behaviors or threats. of detecting misconfigurations, misbehaviors or threats.
Security Automation is intended to identify target endpoints that Security Automation is intended to identify target endpoints that
cannot be trusted (see "trusted" in [RFC4949]. This goal is cannot be trusted (see "trusted" in [RFC4949]. This goal is
achieved by creating and processing evidence (assessment achieved by creating and processing evidence (assessment
statements) that a target endpoint is not a trusted system statements) that a target endpoint is not a trusted system
[RFC4949]. [RFC4949].
Software Package: A generic software package (e.g. a text editor). Software Package: A generic software package (e.g. a text editor).
Software Component: A software package installed on an endpoint, Software Component: A software package installed on an endpoint.
including a unique serial number if present (e.g. a text editor
associated with a unique license key).
Software Instance: A running instance of the software component The software component may include a unique serial number (e.g. a
(e.g. on a multi-user system, one logged-in user has one instance text editor associated with a unique license key).
of a text editor running and another logged-in user has another
instance of the same text editor running, or on a single-user
system, a user could have multiple independent instances of the
same text editor running).
State: A volatile subset endpoint attributes of a (target) endpoint Software Instance: A running instance of a software component.
that is affected by a reboot-cycle. Local state is created by the
interaction of components with other components via the control For example, on a multi-user system, one logged-in user has one
plane, via processing data plane payload, or via the functional instance of a text editor running and another logged-in user has
properties of local hardware and software components. Dynamic another instance of the same text editor running, or on a single-
configuration (e.g. IP address distributed dynamically via an user system, a user could have multiple independent instances of
address distribution and management services, such as DHCP) is the same text editor running.
considered state that is the result of the interaction with
another component that provides configuration via the control State: A volatile set of endpoint attributes of a (target) endpoint
plane (e.g. provided by a DHCP server with a specific that is affected by a reboot-cycle.
configuration).
Local state is created by the interaction of components with other
components via the control plane, via processing data plane
payload, or via the functional properties of local hardware and
software components. Dynamic configuration (e.g. IP address
distributed dynamically via an address distribution and management
services, such as DHCP) is considered state that is the result of
the interaction with another component that provides configuration
via the control plane (e.g. provided by a DHCP server with a
specific configuration).
Examples: The static association of an IP address and a MAC Examples: The static association of an IP address and a MAC
address in a DHCP server configuration, a directory-path that address in a DHCP server configuration, a directory-path that
identifies a log-file directory, a registry entry. identifies a log-file directory, a registry entry.
Statement: A statement is a subject defined in the SACM information Statement: A statement is a subject defined in the SACM information
model. model.
When a statement is used to provide content to a SACM domain, it When a statement is used to provide content to a SACM domain, it
is a top-level subject that bundles Content Elements into one is a top-level subject that bundles Content Elements into one
subject and includes metadata about the data origin. subject and includes metadata about the data origin.
Subject: A composite information element. Like Attributes, subjects Subject: A semantic composite information element pertaining to a
have a name and are composed of attributes and/or other subjects. system entity that is a target endpoint.
Every IE that is part of a subject can have a quantitiy associated
with it (e.g. zero-one, none-unbounded). The content IE of a Like Attributes, subjects have a name and are composed of
subject can be an unordered or an ordered list. attributes and/or other subjects. Every IE that is part of a
subject can have a quantitiy associated with it (e.g. zero-one,
none-unbounded). The content IE of a subject can be an unordered
or an ordered list.
In contrast to the definitions of subject provided by [RFC4949], a In contrast to the definitions of subject provided by [RFC4949], a
subject in the scope of SACM is neither "a system entity that subject in the scope of SACM is neither "a system entity that
causes information to flow among objects or changes the system causes information to flow among objects or changes the system
state" nor "a name of a system entity that is bound to the data state" nor "a name of a system entity that is bound to the data
items in a digital certificate". items in a digital certificate".
In the context of SACM, a subject is a semantic composite of In the context of SACM, a subject is a semantic composite of
information elements about a system entity that is a target information elements about a system entity that is a target
endpoint. Every acquirable subject--as defined in the scope of endpoint. Every acquirable subject-as defined in the scope of
SACM--about a target endpoint represents and therefore identifies SACM-about a target endpoint represents and therefore identifies
every subject--as defined by [RFC4949]--that is a component of every subject-as defined by [RFC4949]-that is a component of that
that target endpoint. The semantic difference between both target endpoint. The semantic difference between both definitions
definitions can be subtle in practice and is in consequence can be subtle in practice and is in consequence important to
important to highlight. highlight.
Supplicant: A SACM component seeking to be authenticated via the Supplicant: A component seeking to be authenticated via the control
control plane for the purpose of participating in a SACM domain. plane for the purpose of participating in a SACM domain.
System Resource: Defined in [RFC4949] as "data contained in an System Resource: Defined in [RFC4949] as "data contained in an
information system; or a service provided by a system; or a system information system; or a service provided by a system; or a system
capacity, such as processing power or communication bandwidth; or capacity, such as processing power or communication bandwidth; or
an item of system equipment (i.e., hardware, firmware, software, an item of system equipment (i.e., hardware, firmware, software,
or documentation); or a facility that houses system operations and or documentation); or a facility that houses system operations and
equipment. equipment."
Target Endpoint: A target endpoint is an "endpoint under assessment" Target Endpoint: Is an endpoint that is under assessment at some
(even if it is not actively under assessment at all times) or point in, or region of, time.
"endpoint of interest". Every endpoint that is not specifically
designated as an excluded endpoint is a target endpoint. A target Every endpoint that is not specifically designated as an excluded
endpoint is not part of a SACM domain unless it contains a SACM endpoint is a target endpoint. A target endpoint is not part of a
component (e.g. a SACM component that publishes collection results SACM domain unless it contains a SACM component (e.g. a SACM
coming from an internal collector). component that publishes collection results coming from an
internal collector).
A target endpoint is similar to a device that is a Target of A target endpoint is similar to a device that is a Target of
Evaluation (TOE) as defined in Common Criteria and as referenced Evaluation (TOE) as defined in Common Criteria and as referenced
by {{RFC4949}. by {{RFC4949}.
In respect to [RFC4949] a target endpoint is an information system
and therefore a composite that is a system entity composed of
system components or system entities, respectively.
Target Endpoint Characterization Record: A set of endpoint Target Endpoint Characterization Record: A set of endpoint
attributes about a target endpoint that was encountered in a SACM attributes about a target endpoint that was encountered in a SACM
domain, which are associated with a target endpoint by being domain, which are associated with that target endpoint as a result
included in the corresponding record. A characterization record of a Target Endpoint Characterization Task.
is intended to be a representation of an endpoint. It cannot be
assured that a record distinctly represents a single target A characterization record is intended to be a representation of an
endpoint unless a set of one or more endpoint attributes that endpoint. It cannot be assured that a record distinctly
compose a unique set of identifying endpoint attributes are represents a single target endpoint unless a set of one or more
included in the record. Otherwise, the set of identifying endpoint attributes that compose a unique set of identifying
attributes included in a record can match more than one target endpoint attributes are included in the record. Otherwise, the
endpoints, which are - in consequence - indistinguishable to a set of identifying attributes included in a record can match more
SACM domain until more qualifying endpoint attributes can be than one target endpoints, which are - in consequence -
acquired and added to the record. A characterization record is indistinguishable to a SACM domain until more qualifying endpoint
maintained over time in order to assert that acquired endpoint attributes can be acquired and added to the record. A
attributes are either about an endpoint that was encountered characterization record is maintained over time in order to assert
before or an endpoint that has not been encountered before in a that acquired endpoint attributes are either about an endpoint
SACM domain. A characterization record can include, for example, that was encountered before or an endpoint that has not been
acquired configuration, state or observed behavior of a specific encountered before in a SACM domain. A characterization record
target endpoint. Multiple and even conflicting instances of this can include, for example, acquired configuration, state or
information can be included in a characterization record by using observed behavior of a specific target endpoint. Multiple and
timestamps and/or data origins to differentiate them. The even conflicting instances of this information can be included in
endpoint attributes included in a characterization record can be a characterization record by using timestamps and/or data origins
used to re-identify a distinct target endpoint over time. Classes to differentiate them. The endpoint attributes included in a
or profiles can be associated with a characterization record via characterization record can be used to re-identify a distinct
the Classification Task in order to guide collection, evaluation target endpoint over time. Classes or profiles can be associated
or remediation tasks. with a characterization record via the Classification Task in
order to guide collection, evaluation or remediation tasks.
Target Endpoint Characterization Task: An ongoing task of Target Endpoint Characterization Task: An ongoing task of
continuously adding acquired endpoint attributes to a continuously adding acquired endpoint attributes to a
corresponding record. The TE characterization task manages the corresponding record. The TE characterization task manages the
representation of encountered target endpoints in the SACM domain representation of encountered target endpoints in the SACM domain
in the form of characterization records. For example, the output in the form of characterization records. For example, the output
of a target endpoint discovery task or a collection task can be of a target endpoint discovery task or a collection task can be
processed by the characterization task and added to the record. processed by the characterization task and added to the record.
The TE characterization Task also manages these representations of The TE characterization Task also manages these representations of
target endpoints encountered in the SACM domain by splitting or target endpoints encountered in the SACM domain by splitting or
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"best-effort" mechanism. Every distinct set of identifying "best-effort" mechanism. Every distinct set of identifying
endpoint attributes can be associated with a target endpoint label endpoint attributes can be associated with a target endpoint label
that is unique in a SACM domain. that is unique in a SACM domain.
Target Endpoint Label: A specific endpoint label that refers to a Target Endpoint Label: A specific endpoint label that refers to a
target endpoint identifier used to identify a specific target target endpoint identifier used to identify a specific target
endpoint (also referred to as TE label). In content-metadata, endpoint (also referred to as TE label). In content-metadata,
this label is called data source. this label is called data source.
Target Endpoint Profile: A bundle of expected or desired component Target Endpoint Profile: A bundle of expected or desired component
composition, configurations and states--therefore a composition of composition, configurations and states that is associated with a
information elements that constitute declarative guidance-- target endpoint.
associated with a target endpoint.
The corresponding task by which the association with a target The corresponding task by which the association with a target
endpoint takes places is the endpoint classification task. The endpoint takes places is the endpoint classification task. The
task by which an endpoint profile is created is the endpoint task by which an endpoint profile is created is the endpoint
characterization task. A type or class of target endpoints can be characterization task. A type or class of target endpoints can be
defined via a target endpoint profile. Examples include: defined via a target endpoint profile. Examples include:
printers, smartphones, or an office PC. printers, smartphones, or an office PC.
In respect to [RFC4949], a target endpoint profile is a protection In respect to [RFC4949], a target endpoint profile is a protection
profile as defined by Common Criteria (analogous to the target profile as defined by Common Criteria (analogous to the target
endpoint being the target of evaluation). endpoint being the target of evaluation).
SACM Task: A SACM task is conducted by one or more SACM functions SACM Task: Is a task conducted within the scope of a SACM domain by
that reside on a SACM component (e.g. a collection task or one or more SACM functions that achieves a SACM-defined outcome.
endpoint characterization). A SACM task can be triggered by other
operations or functions (e.g. a query from another SACM component A SACM task can be triggered by other operations or functions
or an unsolicited push on the data plane due to an ongoing (e.g. a query from another SACM component or an unsolicited push
subscription). A task is part of a SACM process chain. A task on the data plane due to an ongoing subscription). A task is part
starts at a given point in time and ends in a deterministic state. of a SACM process chain. A task starts at a given point in time
With the exception of a collection task, a SACM task consumes SACM and ends in a deterministic state. With the exception of a
statements provided by other SACM components. The output of a collection task, a SACM task consumes SACM statements provided by
task is a result that can be provided (e.g. published) on the data other SACM components. The output of a task is a result that can
plane. There following tasks are defined by SACM: be provided (e.g. published) on the data plane.
The following tasks are defined by SACM:
Target Endpoint Discovery Target Endpoint Discovery
Target Endpoint Characterization Target Endpoint Characterization
Target Endpoint Classification Target Endpoint Classification
Collection Collection
Evaluation [TBD] Evaluation [TBD]
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on a target endpoint, and observed, transmitted or processed by a on a target endpoint, and observed, transmitted or processed by a
SACM component. Timestamps can be created by target endpoints or SACM component. Timestamps can be created by target endpoints or
SACM components and are associated with SACM statements provided SACM components and are associated with SACM statements provided
or consumed by SACM components. Outside of the domain of SACM or consumed by SACM components. Outside of the domain of SACM
components the assurance of correctness of time stamps is components the assurance of correctness of time stamps is
typically significantly lower than inside a SACM domain. In typically significantly lower than inside a SACM domain. In
general, it cannot be simply assumed that the source of time a general, it cannot be simply assumed that the source of time a
target endpoint uses is synchronized or trustworthy. target endpoint uses is synchronized or trustworthy.
Virtual Component: A target endpoint can be composed entirely of Virtual Component: A target endpoint can be composed entirely of
logical system entities (see [RFC4949]. The most common example logical system entities (see [RFC4949].
is a virtual machine/host running on a target endpoint.
The most common example is a virtual machine/host running on a
target endpoint.
Effectively, target endpoints can be nested and at the time of Effectively, target endpoints can be nested and at the time of
this writing the most common example of target endpoint this writing the most common example of target endpoint
characteristics about virtual components is the EntLogicalEntry in characteristics about virtual components is the EntLogicalEntry in
[RFC6933]. [RFC6933].
Vulnerability Assessment: The process of determining whether a set Vulnerability Assessment: An assessment specifically tailored to
of endpoints is vulnerable according to the information contained determining whether a set of endpoints is vulnerable according to
in the vulnerability description information. the information contained in the vulnerability description
information.
Vulnerability Description Information: Information pertaining to the Vulnerability Description Information: Information pertaining to the
existence of a flaw or flaws in software, hardware, and/or existence of a flaw or flaws in software, hardware, and/or
firmware, which could potentially have an adverse impact on firmware, which could potentially have an adverse impact on
enterprise IT functionality and/or security. Vulnerability enterprise IT functionality and/or security.
description information should contain enough information to
support vulnerability detection. Vulnerability description information should contain enough
information to support vulnerability detection.
Vulnerability Detection Data: A type of imperative guidance Vulnerability Detection Data: A type of imperative guidance
extracted or derived from vulnerability description information extracted or derived from vulnerability description information
that describes the specific mechanisms of vulnerability detection that describes the specific mechanisms of vulnerability detection
that is used by an enterprise's vulnerability management that is used by an enterprise's vulnerability management
capabilities to determine if a vulnerability is present on an capabilities to determine if a vulnerability is present on an
endpoint. endpoint.
Vulnerability Management Capabilities: An enterprise IT department's Vulnerability Management Capabilities: An IT management capability
ability to manage endpoint vulnerabilities and associated metadata tailored toward managing endpoint vulnerabilities and associated
on an ongoing basis by ingesting vulnerability description metadata on an ongoing basis by ingesting vulnerability
information and vulnerability detection data, and performing description information and vulnerability detection data, and
vulnerability assessments. performing vulnerability assessments.
Vulnerability assessment capabilities: An enterprise IT department's Vulnerability assessment capabilities: An assessment capability that
ability to determine whether a set of endpoints is vulnerable is tailored toward determining whether a set of endpoints is
according to the information contained in the vulnerability vulnerable according to vulnerability description information.
description information.
Workflow: A workflow is a modular composition of tasks. A workflow Workflow: A workflow is a modular composition of tasks that can
can contain loops, conditionals, multiple starting points and contain loops, conditionals, multiple starting points and multiple
multiple endpoints. The most prominant workflow in SACM is the endpoints.
assessment workflow.
The most prominent workflow in SACM is the assessment workflow.
3. IANA Considerations 3. IANA Considerations
This memo includes no request to IANA. This memo includes no request to IANA.
4. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
This memo documents terminology for security automation. While it is This memo documents terminology for security automation. While it is
about security, it does not affect security. about security, it does not affect security.
skipping to change at page 26, line 13 skipping to change at page 24, line 42
Changes from version 12 to version 13: Changes from version 12 to version 13:
o Added Virtual Component. o Added Virtual Component.
o Major Updates to Capability, Collection Task, Hardware Component, o Major Updates to Capability, Collection Task, Hardware Component,
Hardware Type, Security Automation, Subject, Target Endpoint, Hardware Type, Security Automation, Subject, Target Endpoint,
Target Endpoint Profile. Target Endpoint Profile.
o Minor Updates to Assertion, Data Plane, Endpoint Characteristics. o Minor Updates to Assertion, Data Plane, Endpoint Characteristics.
Changes from version 13 to version 14:
o Handled a plethora of issues listed in GitHub.
o Pruned some commonly understood terms.
o Narrowing term labels per their definitions.
o In some cases, excised expositional text.
o Where expositional text was left intact, it has been separated
from the actual definition of a term.
7. Contributors 7. Contributors
David Waltermire David Waltermire
National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive 100 Bureau Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20877 Gaithersburg, MD 20877
USA USA
Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov Email: david.waltermire@nist.gov
Adam W. Montville Adam W. Montville
Center for Internet Security Center for Internet Security
skipping to change at page 28, line 4 skipping to change at page 26, line 6
Merike Kaeo Merike Kaeo
Double Shot Security Double Shot Security
3518 Fremont Avenue North, Suite 363 3518 Fremont Avenue North, Suite 363
Seattle, WA 98103 Seattle, WA 98103
USA USA
Email: merike@doubleshotsecurity.com Email: merike@doubleshotsecurity.com
8. References 8. References
8.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC5792] Sangster, P. and K. Narayan, "PA-TNC: A Posture Attribute [RFC5792] Sangster, P. and K. Narayan, "PA-TNC: A Posture Attribute
(PA) Protocol Compatible with Trusted Network Connect (PA) Protocol Compatible with Trusted Network Connect
(TNC)", RFC 5792, DOI 10.17487/RFC5792, March 2010, (TNC)", RFC 5792, DOI 10.17487/RFC5792, March 2010,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5792>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5792>.
[RFC6933] Bierman, A., Romascanu, D., Quittek, J., and M. [RFC6933] Bierman, A., Romascanu, D., Quittek, J., and M.
Chandramouli, "Entity MIB (Version 4)", RFC 6933, Chandramouli, "Entity MIB (Version 4)", RFC 6933,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6933, May 2013, DOI 10.17487/RFC6933, May 2013,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6933>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6933>.
8.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology]
Hares, S., Strassner, J., Lopez, D., Xia, L., and H. Hares, S., Strassner, J., Lopez, D., Xia, L., and H.
Birkholz, "Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) Birkholz, "Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF)
Terminology", draft-ietf-i2nsf-terminology-03 (work in Terminology", draft-ietf-i2nsf-terminology-04 (work in
progress), March 2017. progress), July 2017.
[I-D.ietf-netmod-entity] [I-D.ietf-netmod-entity]
Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Dong, J., and D. Romascanu, "A Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Dong, J., and D. Romascanu, "A
YANG Data Model for Hardware Management", draft-ietf- YANG Data Model for Hardware Management", draft-ietf-
netmod-entity-03 (work in progress), March 2017. netmod-entity-05 (work in progress), October 2017.
[I-D.ietf-sacm-vuln-scenario] [I-D.ietf-sacm-vuln-scenario]
Coffin, C., Cheikes, B., Schmidt, C., Haynes, D., Coffin, C., Cheikes, B., Schmidt, C., Haynes, D.,
Fitzgerald-McKay, J., and D. Waltermire, "SACM Fitzgerald-McKay, J., and D. Waltermire, "SACM
Vulnerability Assessment Scenario", draft-ietf-sacm-vuln- Vulnerability Assessment Scenario", draft-ietf-sacm-vuln-
scenario-02 (work in progress), September 2016. scenario-02 (work in progress), September 2016.
[RFC3444] Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between [RFC3444] Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444, Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3444, January 2003, DOI 10.17487/RFC3444, January 2003,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3444>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3444>.
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", [RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007, FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.
[RFC5209] Sangster, P., Khosravi, H., Mani, M., Narayan, K., and J. [RFC5209] Sangster, P., Khosravi, H., Mani, M., Narayan, K., and J.
Tardo, "Network Endpoint Assessment (NEA): Overview and Tardo, "Network Endpoint Assessment (NEA): Overview and
Requirements", RFC 5209, DOI 10.17487/RFC5209, June 2008, Requirements", RFC 5209, DOI 10.17487/RFC5209, June 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5209>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5209>.
[RFC6192] Dugal, D., Pignataro, C., and R. Dunn, "Protecting the [RFC6192] Dugal, D., Pignataro, C., and R. Dunn, "Protecting the
Router Control Plane", RFC 6192, DOI 10.17487/RFC6192, Router Control Plane", RFC 6192, DOI 10.17487/RFC6192,
March 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6192>. March 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6192>.
[X.1252] "ITU-T X.1252 (04/2010)", n.d.. [X.1252] "ITU-T X.1252 (04/2010)", n.d..
Appendix A. The Attic Appendix A. The Attic
The following terms are stashed for now and will be updated later: The following terms are stashed for now and will be updated later:
Asset Characterization: Asset characterization is the process of Asset Characterization: Asset characterization is the process of
defining attributes that describe properties of an identified defining attributes that describe properties of an identified
asset. asset.
skipping to change at page 29, line 43 skipping to change at page 28, line 4
Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de Email: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de
Jarrett Lu Jarrett Lu
Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation
4180 Network Circle 4180 Network Circle
Santa Clara, CA 95054 Santa Clara, CA 95054
USA USA
Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com Email: jarrett.lu@oracle.com
John Strassner John Strassner
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
2330 Central Expressway 2330 Central Expressway
Santa Clara, CA 95138 Santa Clara, CA 95138
USA USA
Email: john.sc.strassner@huawei.com Email: john.sc.strassner@huawei.com
Nancy Cam-Winget Nancy Cam-Winget
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
3550 Cisco Way 3550 Cisco Way
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
USA USA
Email: ncamwing@cisco.com Email: ncamwing@cisco.com
Adam Montville
Center for Internet Security
31 Tech Valley Drive
East Greenbush, NY 12061
USA
Email: adam.w.montville@gmail.com
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