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Internet Draft

Intended status: Informational                       J.J. Garcia Aranda
Expires: January 2020                                             Nokia
                                                             M. Cortes
                                                          J. Salvachua
                                            Univ. Politecnica de Madrid
                                                            M. Narganes
                                                               Tecnalia
                                                  I. Martinez Sarriegui
                                                           Optiva Media



                                                           July 5, 2019

                    The Quality for Service Protocol
                    draft-aranda-dispatch-q4s-10.txt

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with
   the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2020.



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   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents



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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
   respect to this document.



Abstract

   This memo describes an application level protocol for the
   communication of end-to-end QoS compliance information based on
   the   Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Session
   Description Protocol (SDP).  The Quality for Service Protocol
   (Q4S) provides a mechanism to negotiate and monitor latency,
   jitter, bandwidth, and packet, and to alert whenever one of the
   negotiated conditions is violated.

   Implementation details on the actions to be triggered upon
   reception/detection of QoS alerts exchanged by the protocol are
   out of scope of this document, it is application dependent (e.g.,
   act to increase quality or reduce bit-rate) or network dependent
   (e.g., change connection's quality profile).

   This protocol specification is the product of research conducted
   over a number of years, and is presented here as a permanent
   record and to offer a foundation for future similar work.  It does
   not represent a standard protocol and does not have IETF
   consensus.







Table of Contents


   1  Introduction...................................................5
      1.1   Scope....................................................6
      1.2   Motivation...............................................7
      1.3   Summary of Features......................................8
      1.4   Differences with OWAMP/TWAMP.............................9
   2  Terminology....................................................9
   3  Overview of Operation.........................................10
   4  Q4S Messages..................................................21
      4.1   Requests................................................21
      4.2   Responses...............................................22
      4.3   Header Fields...........................................23
         4.3.1    Common Q4S Header Fields..........................23
         4.3.2    Specific Q4S Request Header Fields................24
         4.3.3    Specific Q4S Response Header Fields...............25
      4.4   Bodies..................................................26


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         4.4.1    Encoding..........................................26
   5  Q4S Method Definitions........................................26
      5.1   BEGIN...................................................27
      5.2   READY...................................................27
      5.3   PING....................................................27
      5.4   BWIDTH..................................................28
      5.5   Q4S-ALERT...............................................28
      5.6   Q4S-RECOVERY............................................28
      5.7   CANCEL..................................................29
   6  Response Codes................................................29
      6.1   100 Trying..............................................30
      6.2   Success 2xx.............................................30
         6.2.1    200 OK............................................30
      6.3   Redirection 3xx.........................................30
      6.4   Request Failure 4xx.....................................30
         6.4.1    400 Bad Request...................................30
         6.4.2    404 Not Found.....................................30
         6.4.3    405 Method Not Allowed............................31
         6.4.4    406 Not Acceptable................................31
         6.4.5    408 Request Timeout...............................31
         6.4.6    413 Request Entity Too Large......................31
         6.4.7    414 Request-URI Too Long..........................31
         6.4.8    415 Unsupported Media Type........................31
         6.4.9    416 Unsupported URI Scheme........................31
      6.5   Server Failure 5xx......................................32
         6.5.1    500 Server Internal Error.........................32
         6.5.2    501 Not Implemented...............................32
         6.5.3    503 Service Unavailable...........................32
         6.5.4    504 Server Time-out...............................32
         6.5.5    505 Version Not Supported.........................32
         6.5.6    513 Message Too Large.............................33
      6.6   Global Failures 6xx.....................................33
         6.6.1    600 session does not exist........................33
         6.6.2    601 quality level not allowed.....................33
         6.6.3    603 Session not allowed...........................33
         6.6.4    604 authorization not allowed.....................33
   7  Protocol......................................................33
      7.1   Protocol Phases.........................................33
      7.2   SDP Structure...........................................35
         7.2.1    "qos-level" attribute.............................36
         7.2.2    "alerting-mode" attribute.........................37
         7.2.3    "alert-pause" attribute...........................37
         7.2.4    "recovery-pause" attribute........................37
         7.2.5    "public-address" attributes.......................38
         7.2.6    "latency" attribute...............................38
         7.2.7    "jitter" attribute................................38
         7.2.8    "bandwidth" attribute.............................38
         7.2.9    "packetloss" attribute............................39
         7.2.10   "flow" attributes.................................39
         7.2.11   "measurement" attributes..........................40
         7.2.12   "max-content-length" attribute....................42


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      7.3   Measurements............................................42
         7.3.1    Latency...........................................42
         7.3.2    Jitter............................................43
         7.3.3    Bandwidth.........................................43
         7.3.4    Packet loss.......................................46
      7.4   Handshake Phase.........................................46
      7.5   Negotiation Phase.......................................47
         7.5.1    Stage 0: Measurement of Latencies and Jitter......49
         7.5.2    Stage 1: Measurement of Bandwidth and Packet Loss.52
         7.5.3    Quality Constraints Not Reached...................55
            7.5.3.1  Actuator Role..................................57
            7.5.3.2  Policy Server Role.............................58
         7.5.4    QoS Level Changes.................................58
      7.6   Continuity Phase........................................59
      7.7   Termination Phase.......................................62
      7.8   Dynamic Constraints And Flows...........................63
      7.9   Qos-level Upgrade And Downgrade Operation...............64
   8  General User Agent Behavior...................................66
      8.1   Roles in Peer-to-Peer Scenarios.........................66
      8.2   Multiple Quality Sessions in Parallel...................67
      8.3   General Client bBhavior.................................67
         8.3.1    Generating Requests...............................68
      8.4   General Server Behavior.................................69
   9  Implementation Recommendations................................70
      9.1   Default Client Constraints..............................70
      9.2   Latency and Jitter Measurements.........................70
      9.3   Bandwidth Measurements..................................71
      9.4   Packet Loss Measurement Resolution......................72
      9.5   Measurements and Reactions..............................72
      9.6   Instability Treatments..................................72
         9.6.1    Loss of Control Packets...........................73
         9.6.2    Outlier Samples...................................73
      9.7   Scenarios...............................................73
         9.7.1    Client to ACP.....................................74
         9.7.2    Client to Client..................................74
   10 Security Considerations.......................................74
      10.1  Confidentiality Issues..................................74
      10.2  Integrity of Measurements and Authentication............75
      10.3  Privacy of Measurements.................................75
      10.4  Availability Issues.....................................75
      10.5  Bandwidth Occupancy Issues..............................75
   11 Future Code Point Requirements................................76
      11.1  Service Port............................................76
   12 References....................................................77
      12.1  Normative References....................................77
      12.2  Informative References..................................78
   13 Acknowledgments...............................................80
   14 Contributors..................................................81
   15 Authors' Addresses............................................83




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1  Introduction

     The World Wide Web (WWW) is a distributed hypermedia system
   which has gained widespread acceptance among Internet users.
   Although WWW browsers support other, preexisting Internet
   application protocols, the primary protocol used between WWW
   clients and servers became the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
   (RFC 7230 [1], RFC 7231 [2], RFC 7232 [3], RFC 7233 [4], RFC 7234
   [5], and RFC 7235 [6]).  Since then, HTTP over TLS (known as HTTPS
   and described in RFC 2818 [7]) has become an imperative for
   providing secure and authenticated WWW access.  The mechanisms
   described in this document are equally applicable to HTTP and
   HTTPS.

   The ease of use of the Web has prompted its widespread employment
   as a client/server architecture for many applications.  Many of
   such applications require the client and the server to be able to
   communicate each other and exchange information with certain
   quality constraints.

   Quality in communications at the application level consists of
   four measurable parameters:

     o  Latency: The time a message takes to travel from source to
        destination. It may be approximated to RTT/2 (Round trip
        time), assuming the networks are symmetrical. In this context
        we will consider the statistical median formula.

     o  Jitter: latency variation. There are some formulas to
        calculate Jitter, and in this context we will consider the
        arithmetic mean formula.

     o  Bandwidth: bit rate of communication. To assure quality, a
        protocol must assure the availability of the bandwidth needed
        by the application.

     o  Packet loss: The percentage of packet loss is closely related
        to bandwidth and jitter. Affects bandwidth because a high
        packet loss implies sometimes retransmissions that also
        consumes extra bandwidth, other times the retransmissions are
        not achieved (for example in video streaming over UDP) and
        the information received is less than the required bandwidth.
        In terms of jitter, a packet loss sometimes is seen by the
        destination like a larger time between arrivals, causing a
        jitter growth.

   Any other communication parameter such as throughput, is not a
   network parameter because it depends on protocol window size and
   other implementation-dependent aspects.




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   The Quality for Service Protocol (Q4S) provides a mechanism for
   quality monitoring based on an HTTP syntax and the Session
   Description protocol (SDP) in order to be easily integrated in
   WWW, but it may be used by any type of application, not only those
   based on HTTP. Quality requirements may be needed by any type of
   application that communicates using any kind of protocol,
   especially those with real-time constraints. Depending on the
   nature of each application the constraints may be different
   leading to different parameter thresholds that need to be met.

   Q4S is an application level Client/Server protocol that
   continuously measures session quality for a given flow (or set of
   flows), end-to-end (e2e) and in real-time; raising alerts if
   quality parameters are below a given pre-negotiated threshold and
   sending recoveries when quality parameters are restored. Q4S
   describes when these notifications, alerts and recoveries, need to
   be sent and the entity receiving them. The actions undertaken by
   the receiver of the alert are out of scope of the protocol.

   Q4S is session-independent from the application flows, to minimize
   the impact on them. To perform the measurements, two control flows
   are created on both communication paths (forward and reverse
   directions).

   This protocol specification is the product of research conducted
   over a number of years, and is presented here as a permanent
   record and to offer a foundation for future similar work.  It does
   not represent a standard protocol and does not have IETF
   consensus.



1.1   Scope

   The purpose of Q4S is to measure end-to-end network quality in
   real-time. Q4S does not transport any application data. It means
   that Q4S is designed to be used jointly with other transport
   protocols such as Real Time Protocol (RTP)(RFC 3550 [8]),
   Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) (RFC 793 [16]), Quick UDP
   Internet Connections (QUIC)[9] , HTTP [1], etc.

   Some existent transport protocols are focused in real-time media
   transport and certain connection metrics are available, which is
   the case of RTP and Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP)[8]. Other
   protocols such as QUIC provide low connection latencies as well as
   advanced congestion control. These protocols transport data
   efficiently and provide lot of functionalities. However, there are
   currently no other quality measurement protocols offering the same
   level of function as Q4S.  See Section 1.4 for a discussion of the
   IETF's OWAMP and TWAMP quality measurement protocols.



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   Q4S enable applications to become reactive under e2e network
   quality changes. To achieve it, an independent Q4S stack
   application must run in parallel to target application. Then, Q4S
   metrics may be used to trigger actions on target application such
   as speed adaptation to latency in multiuser games, bitrate control
   at streaming services, intelligent commutation of delivery node at
   Content Delivery Networks, and whatever target application allow.

1.2   Motivation

   Monitoring quality of service (QoS) in computer networks is useful
   for several reasons:

     o  Enable real-time services and applications to verify whether
        network resources achieve a certain QoS level. This helps
        real-time services and applications to run through the
        Internet, allowing the existence of Application Content
        Providers (ACPs) which offer guaranteed real-time services to
        the final users.

     o  Real-time monitoring allows applications to adapt themselves
        to network conditions (Application-based QoS) and/or request
        more network quality to the Internet Service Provider (ISP)
        (if the ISP offers this possibility).

     o  Monitoring may also be required by Peer to Peer (P2P) real-
        time applications for which Q4S can be used

     o  Enable ISPs to offer QoS to any ACP or final user application
        in an accountable way

     o  Enable e2e negotiation of QoS parameters, independently of
        the ISPs of both endpoints.

   A protocol to monitor QoS must address the following issues:

     o  Must be ready to be used in conjunction with current standard
        protocols and applications, without forcing a change on them.

     o  Must have a formal and compact way to specify quality
        constraints desired by the application to run.

     o  Must have measurement mechanisms avoiding application
        disruption and minimizing network resources consumption.

     o  Must have specific messages to alert about the violation of
        quality constraints in different directions (forward and
        reverse), because network routing may not be symmetrical, and
        of course, quality constraints may not be symmetrical.




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     o  After having alerted about the violation of quality
        constraints, must have specific messages to inform about
        recovery of quality constraints in corresponding directions
        (forward and reverse).

     o  Must protect the data (constrains, measurements, QoS levels
        demanded from the network) in order to avoid the injection of
        malicious data in the measurements.



1.3   Summary of Features

      The Quality for Service Protocol (Q4S) is a message-oriented
   communication protocol that can be used in conjunction with any
   other application-level protocol. Q4S is a measurement protocol.
   Any action taken derived from its measurements are out of scope of
   the protocol. These actions depend on application provider and may
   be application-level adaptive reactions, may involve requests to
   ISP, or whatever application provider decide.

   The benefits in quality measurements provided by Q4S can be used
   by any type of application that uses any type of protocol for data
   transport. It provides a quality monitoring scheme for any
   communication that takes place between the client and the server,
   not only for the Q4S communication itself.

   Q4S does not establish multimedia sessions and it does not
   transport application data. It monitors the fulfillment of the
   quality requirements of the communication between the client and
   the server, and therefore does not impose any restrictions on the
   type of application, protocol or the type of usage of the
   monitored quality connection.

   Some applications may vary their quality requirements dynamically
   for any given quality parameter. Q4S is able to adapt to the
   changing application needs modifying the parameter thresholds to
   the new values and monitoring the network quality according to the
   new quality constraints. It will raise alerts if the new
   constraints are violated.

   Q4S session lifetime is composed of four phases with different
   purposes: Handshake, Negotiation, Continuity and Termination.
   Negotiation and Continuity phases perform network parameter
   measurements as per a negotiated measurement procedure. Different
   measurement procedures could be used inside Q4S, although one
   default measurement mechanism is needed for compatibility reasons
   and is the one defined in this document. Basically, Q4S defines
   how to transport application quality requirements and measurement
   results between client and server and providing monitoring and
   alerting too.


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   Q4S must be executed just before starting a client-server
   application which needs a quality connection in terms of latency,
   jitter, bandwidth and/or packet loss. Once client and server have
   succeeded in establishing communication under quality constraints,
   the application can start, and Q4S continues measuring and
   alerting if necessary.

   The quality parameters can be suggested by the client in the first
   message of the handshake phase, but it's the server that accepts
   these parameter values or forces others. The server is in charge
   of deciding the final values of quality connection.

1.4   Differences with OWAMP/TWAMP

   OWAMP (RFC 4656) [27] and TWAMP (RFC 5357) [28] are two protocols
   to measure network quality in terms of RTT, but has a different
   goal than Q4S. The main difference is the scope: Q4S is designed
   to assist reactive applications, while OWAMP/TWAMP is designed
   just to measure network delay.

   Differences can be summarized in the following points:

     .  OWAMP/TWAMP is not intended for measuring availability of
        resources (certain Bandwidth availability for example) but
        only RTT. However, Q4S is intended for measuring required
        bandwidth, packet-loss, jitter and latency in both
        directions. Available bandwidth is not measured by Q4S, but
        required bandwidth for specific application.

     .  OWAMP/TWAMP does not have responsivity control (which
        defines the speed of protocol reactions under network quality
        changes), because this protocol is designed to measure
        network performance, not to assist reactive applications and
        does not detect the fluctuations of quality in certain time
        intervals to take reactive actions. However, responsivity
        control is a key feature of Q4S.

     .  OWAMP/TWAMP is not intended to run in parallel with reactive
        applications, but Q4S' goal is to run in parallel and assist
        reactive applications to take decisions based on Q4S ALERT
        packets which may trigger actions.




2  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
   NOT",   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED",
   "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as



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   described in BCP 14  RFC 2119 [11] RFC 8174 [21] when, and only
   when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here.



3  Overview of Operation

      This section introduces the basic operation of Q4S using simple
   examples.  This section is of tutorial nature and does not contain
   any normative statements.

   The first example shows the basic functions of a Q4S:
   communication establishment between a client and a server, quality
   requirement negotiations for the requested application,
   application start and continuous quality parameter measurements,
   and finally communication termination.

   The client triggers the establishment of the communication
   requesting a specific service or application from the server. This
   first message must have a special URI (RFC 3986)[12], which may
   force the use of the Q4S protocol if it is implemented in a
   standard web browser. This message consists of a Q4S BEGIN method,
   which can optionally include a proposal for the communication
   quality requirements in an SDP body. This option gives the client
   a certain negotiation capacity about quality requirements, but it
   will be the server who finally decides about the stated
   requirements.

   This request is answered by the server with a Q4S 200 OK response
   letting the client know that it accepts the request. This response
   message must contain an SDP body with:

     o  The assigned Q4S session id.

     o  The quality constraints required by the requested
        application.

     o  The measurement procedure to use.

     o  The alerting mode: there are two different scenarios for
        sending alerts that trigger actions either on the network or
        in the application when measurements identify violated
        quality constraints. In both cases, alerts are triggered by
        the server.

          o a) Q4S-aware-network scenario: the network is Q4S aware,
            and reacts by itself to these alerts. In this scenario
            Q4S ALERT messages are sent by the server to the client,
            and network elements inspect and process these alert
            messages. The alerting mode in this scenario is called
            Q4S-aware-network alerting mode.


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          o b) Reactive scenario: As shown in Figure 1, the network
            is not Q4S aware. In this scenario alert notifications
            are sent to a specific node, called an Actuator, which is
            in charge of taking decisions regarding what actions to
            trigger: either to change application behavior to adapt
            it to network conditions and/or invoke a network policy
            server in order to reconfigure the network and request
            more quality for application flows.


            +------+                           +-----------+
            |  App |<----- app flows---------->|Application|
            |Client|                           +-----------+
            +------+                                 A
                                                     |
            +------+             +------+       +--------+
            | Q4S  |<----Q4S---->| Q4S  |<----->|Actuator|
            |Client|             |Server|       +--------+
            +------+             +------+            |
                                                     V
                                              +-------------+
                                              |policy server|
                                              +-------------+

                       Figure 1 Reactive scenario


     o  The format of messages exchanged between the server stack and
        the Actuator, doesn't follow Q4S codification rules, but
        their format will be implementation dependent. In this way,
        we will call the messages sent from the server stack to the
        Actuator "notifications" (e.g., alert notifications), and the
        messages sent from the Actuator to the server stack in
        response to notifications "acknowledges" (e.g., alert
        acknowledges).

     o  alert-pause: The amount of time between consecutive alerts.
        In the Q4S-aware-network scenario, the server has to wait
        this period of time between Q4S ALERT messages sent to the
        client. In the Reactive scenario, the server stack has to
        wait this period of time between alert notifications sent to
        the Actuator. Measurements are not stopped in Negotiation or
        Continuity Phases during this period of time, but no alerts
        are sent even with violated network quality constraints in
        order to leave time for network reconfiguration or for
        application adjustments.







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     o  recovery-pause: The amount of time the Q4S server waits
        before trying to recover the initial qos-level. After having
        detected violation of quality constraints several times, the
        qos-level will have been increased accordingly. If this
        violation detection finally stops, the server waits for a
        period of time (recovery time) and if the situation persists,
        it tries to recover to previous qos-level values gradually by
        sending Q4S RECOVERY messages to the client, in the Q4S-
        aware-network scenario, or recovery notifications to the
        Actuator, in the Reactive scenario.



   It is important to highlight that any Q4S 200 OK response sent by
   the server to the client at any time during the life of a quality
   session may contain an SDP body with new values of quality
   constraints required by the application. Depending on the phase
   and the state of the measurement procedure within the specific
   phase, the client will react accordingly so as to take into
   account the new quality constraints in the measurement procedure.

   Once the communication has been established (handshake phase is
   finished), the protocol will verify that the communication path
   between the client and the server meets the quality constraints on
   both directions, from and to the server (negotiation phase). This
   negotiation phase requires taking measurements of the quality
   parameters: latencies, jitter, bandwidth and packet loss. This
   phase is initiated with a client message containing a Q4S READY
   method, which will be answered by the server with a Q4S 200 OK
   response.

   Negotiation measurements are achieved in two sequential stages:

     o  Stage 0: latency and jitter measurements

     o  Stage 1: bandwidth and packet loss measurements

   Stage 0 measurements are being taken through Q4S PING messages
   sent both from both the client and the server. All Q4S PING
   requests will be answered by Q4S 200 OK messages to allow for
   bidirectional measurements.

   Different client and server implementations may send a different
   number of PING messages for measuring, although at least 255
   messages should be considered to perform the latency measurement.
   The Stage 0 measurements only may be considered ended when neither
   client nor server receive new PING messages after an
   implementation-dependent guard time. Only after, client can send a
   "READY 1" message.




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   After a pre-agreed number of measurements have been performed,
   determined by the measurement procedure sent by the server, three
   scenarios may be possible:

   a) Measurements do not meet the requirements: in this case the
      stage 0 is repeated after sending an alert from the server to
      the client or from the server stack to the Actuator, depending
      on the alerting mode defined in the Handshake phase. Notice
      that measurements continue to be taken but no alerts are sent
      during the alert-pause time. In the Reactive scenario, the
      Actuator will decide either to forward the alert notification
      to the network policy server or to the application, depending
      on where reconfiguration actions have to be taken.

   b) Measurements do meet the requirements: in this case client
      moves to stage 1 sending a new READY message.

   c) At any time during the measurement procedure, the Q4S 200 OK
      message sent by the server to the client, in response to a Q4S
      PING message, contains an SDP body with new values of quality
      constraints required by the application; this means the
      application has varied their quality requirements dynamically
      and therefore quality thresholds used while monitoring quality
      parameters have to be changed to the new constraints. In this
      case the client moves to the beginning of the Stage 0 for
      initiating the negotiation measurements again.

   Stage 1 is optional. Its purpose is to measure the availability of
   application needed bandwidth. This stage can be skipped by client
   sending a "READY 2" message after completion of stage 0 when
   bandwidth requirements is set to cero kbps in the SDP. Stage 1
   measurements are achieved through Q4S BWIDTH messages sent both
   from the client and the server. Unlike PING messages, Q4S BWIDTH
   requests will not be answered.

   If Stage 0 and 1 meet the application quality constraints, the
   application may start. Q4S will enter the continuity phase
   measuring the network quality parameters through the Q4S PING
   message exchange on both connection paths, and raising alerts in
   case of violation. .

   Once the client wants to terminate the quality session it sends a
   Q4S CANCEL message, which will be acknowledged by the server with
   another Q4S CANCEL message. Termination of quality sessions are
   always initiated by the client because Q4S TCP requests follow the
   client server schema.

   Figure 2 depicts the message exchange in a successful scenario.





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               +-------------------------------------------+
               |                                           |
               | Client                             Server |
               |                                           |
   Handshake   |     --------- Q4S BEGIN ----------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |                                           |
   Negotiation |                                           |
   (Stage 0)   |     --------- Q4S READY 0---------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |                                           |
               |     --------- Q4S PING ------------>      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |     <-------- Q4S PING -------------      |
               |      -------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->      |
               |     --------- Q4S PING ------------>      |
               |     <-------- Q4S PING -------------      |
               |     --------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |                    ...                    |
   Negotiation |                                           |
   (Stage 1)   |     --------- Q4S READY 1---------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |                                           |
               |     --------- Q4S BWITDH ---------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S BWIDTH------------      |
               |     --------- Q4S BWITDH ---------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S BWIDTH------------      |
               |                    ...                    |
   Continuity  |     --------- Q4S READY 2 --------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      | app
   start
               |                                           |
               |     --------- Q4S PING ------------>      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |     <-------- Q4S PING -------------      |
               |      -------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->      |
               |                                           |
   Termination |     --------- Q4S CANCEL ---------->      | app end
               |     <-------- Q4S CANCEL -----------      |
               |                                           |
               +-------------------------------------------+
               Figure 2 Successful Q4S message exchange.





   Client and server measurements are included into PING and BWIDTH
   messages, allowing both sides of the communication to be are aware
   of all measurements in both directions.


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   The following two examples show the behavior of the Q4S protocol
   when: quality constraints are violated, alerts are generated; and,
   later on, violation of quality constraints stops leading to the
   execution of the recovery process. The first example (Figure 3)
   shows the Q4S-aware-network alerting mode scenario:
















































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               +-------------------------------------------+
               |                                           |
               | Client                             Server |
               |                                           |
   Handshake   |     --------- Q4S BEGIN ----------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |                                           |
   Negotiation |                                           |
   (Stage 0)   |     --------- Q4S READY 0---------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |                                           |
               |     --------- Q4S PING ------------>      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |     <-------- Q4S PING -------------      |
               |      -------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->      |
               |                    ...                    |
               |                                           |
               |     <-------- Q4S ALERT ------------      |
               |     -------- Q4S ALERT ------------>      |
               |          (alert-pause start)              |
   Repetition  |                                           |
   of Stage 0  |     --------- Q4S READY 0---------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |                                           |
               |     --------- Q4S PING ------------>      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |     <-------- Q4S PING -------------      |
               |                    ...                    |
   Negotiation |                                           |
   (Stage 1)   |     --------- Q4S READY 1---------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |                                           |
               |     --------- Q4S BWITDH ---------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S BWIDTH------------      |
               |                    ...                    |
               |                                           |
   Continuity  |     --------- Q4S READY 2 --------->      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      | app
   start
               |                                           |
               |     --------- Q4S PING ------------>      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |     <-------- Q4S PING -------------      |
               |      -------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->      |
               |                    ...                    |
               |(alert-pause expires &                     |
               |                   violated constraints)   |
               |     <-------- Q4S ALERT ------------      |
               |     --------- Q4S ALERT ----------->      |
               |                                           |
               |           (alert-pause start)             |


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               |     --------- Q4S PING ------------>      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |     <-------- Q4S PING -------------      |
               |     --------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->      |
               |                    ...                    |
               |(alert-pause expires &                     |
               |                   violated constraints)   |
               |     <-------- Q4S ALERT ------------      |
               |     --------- Q4S ALERT ----------->      |
               |           (alert-pause)                   |
               |     --------- Q4S PING ------------>      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |     <-------- Q4S PING -------------      |
               |      -------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->      |
               |                    ...                    |
               |(alert-pause expires &                     |
               |                 Fullfilled constraints)   |
               |                                           |
               |           (recovery-pause start)          |
               |                                           |
               |     --------- Q4S PING ------------>      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |     <-------- Q4S PING -------------      |
               |      -------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->      |
               |                    ...                    |
               |(recovery-pause expires &                  |
               |                 Fullfilled constraints)   |
               |     <--------- Q4S RECOVERY ---------     |
               |     -------- Q4S RECOVERY ----------->    |
               |                                           |
               |          (recovery-pause start)           |
               |     --------- Q4S PING ------------>      |
               |     <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------      |
               |     <-------- Q4S PING -------------      |
               |      -------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->      |
               |                    ...                    |
               |                                           |
   Termination |     --------- Q4S CANCEL ---------->      | app end
               |     <-------- Q4S CANCEL -----------      |
               |                                           |
               +-------------------------------------------+
               Figure 3 Q4S-aware-network alerting mode.



   In this Q4S-aware-network alerting mode scenario, the server may
   send Q4S alerts to the client at any time on detection of violated
   quality constraints. This alerting exchange must not interrupt the
   continuity quality parameter measurements between client and
   server.



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   The second example depicted in the figure 4 represents the
   Reactive scenario, in which alert notifications are sent from the
   server stack to the Actuator which is in charge of deciding either
   to act over application behavior and/or invoke a network policy
   server. The Actuator is an entity that has a pre-defined set of
   different quality levels and decides how to act depending on the
   actions stated for each of these levels; it can take actions for
   making adjustments on the application or it can send a request to
   the policy server for acting on the network. The policy server
   also has a pre-defined set of different quality levels pre-agreed
   upon between the Application Content Provider and the ISP. The
   Reactive alerting mode is the default mode.








































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               +-------------------------------------------+
               |                                           |
               | Client               Server      Actuator |
   Handshake   |   ----- Q4S BEGIN ----->                  |
               |   <---- Q4S 200 OK -----                  |
               |                                           |
   Negotiation |                                           |
   (Stage 0)   |   ----- Q4S READY 0---->                  |
               |   <---- Q4S 200 OK -----                  |
               |                                           |
               |   ----- Q4S PING ------>                  |
               |   <---- Q4S 200 OK -----                  |
               |   <---- Q4S PING -------                  |
               |    ---- Q4S 200 OK ---->                  |
               |              ...                          |
               |  (alert-pause start)                      |
               |                          --alert          |
               |                         notification-->   |
               |                                           |
               |                         <--alert          |
               |                          acknowledge---   |
               |                                           |
   Repetition  |                                           |
   of Stage 0  |   ----- Q4S READY 0---->                  |
               |   <---- Q4S 200 OK -----                  |
               |                                           |
               |   ----- Q4S PING ------>                  |
               |   <---- Q4S 200 OK -----                  |
               |   <---- Q4S PING -------                  |
               |              ...                          |
               |(alert-pause expires &                     |
               |                   violated constraints)   |
               |                                           |
               |                         --alert           |
               |                         notification-->   |
               |                                           |
               |                         <--alert          |
               |                          acknowledge---   |
               |                                           |
               |   ----- Q4S PING ------>                  |
               |   <---- Q4S 200 OK -----                  |
               |   <---- Q4S PING -------                  |
               |              ...                          |
   Negotiation |                                           |
   (Stage 1)   |   ----- Q4S READY 1---->                  |
               |   <---- Q4S 200 OK -----                  |
               |                                           |
               |   ----- Q4S BWITDH ---->                  |
               |   <---- Q4S BWIDTH------                  |
               |              ...                          |


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   Continuity  |   ----- Q4S READY 2 --->                  |
               |   <---- Q4S 200 OK -----                  | app
   start
               |                                           |
               |(alert-pause expires &                     |
               |                  fulfilled constraints)   |
               |                                           |
               |(recovery-pause start)                     |
               |   ----- Q4S PING ------>                  |
               |   <---- Q4S 200 OK -----                  |
               |   <---- Q4S PING -------                  |
               |   ----- Q4S PING ------>                  |
               |                                           |
               |(recovery-pause expires &                  |
               |                  fulfilled constraints)   |
               |                                           |
               |                         --recovery        |
               |                         notification-->   |
               |                                           |
               |                         <--recovery       |
               |                          acknowledge---   |
               |                                           |
               |(recovery-pause start)                     |
               |   <---- Q4S 200 OK -----                  |
               |   <---- Q4S PING -------                  |
               |   ----- Q4S 200 OK ---->                  |
               |   ----- Q4S PING ------>                  |
               |              ...                          |
               |                                           |
   Termination |   ----- Q4S CANCEL ---->                  | app end
               |                          --cancel         |
               |                          notification-->  |
               |                                           |
               |                          <--cancel        |
               |                           acknowledge--   |
               |   <---- Q4S CANCEL -----                  |
               |                                           |
               +-------------------------------------------+
                    Figure 4 Reactive alerting mode.

   At the end of any Negotiation phase stage, the server sends an
   alert notification to the Actuator if quality constraints are
   violated. During the period of time defined by the alert-pause
   parameter, no further alert notifications are sent, but
   measurements are not interrupted. This way, both the client and
   the server will detect network improvements as soon as possible.
   In a similar way, during the continuity phase, the server may send
   alert notifications at any time to the Actuator on detection of
   violated quality constraints. This alerting exchange must not
   interrupt the continuity measurements between client and server.



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   Finally, in the Termination phase, Q4S CANCEL messages sent from
   the client to the server must be forwarded from the server to the
   Actuator in order to release possible assigned resources for the
   session.



4  Q4S Messages

   Q4S is a text-based protocol and uses the UTF-8 charset (RFC 3629
   [19]). A Q4S message is either a request or a response.

   Both Request and Response messages use the basic format of
   Internet Message Format (RFC 5322 [20]). Both types of messages
   consist of a start-line, one or more header fields, an empty line
   indicating the end of the header fields, and an optional message-
   body.

   The start-line, each message-header line, and the empty line MUST
   be terminated by a carriage-return line-feed sequence (CRLF).
   Note that the empty line MUST be present even if the message-body
   is not.


         generic-message  =  start-line CRLF
                             *message-header CRLF
                             CRLF
                             [ message-body ]
         start-line       =  Request-Line / Status-Line

      Much of Q4S's messages and header field syntax are identical to
   HTTP/1.1. However, Q4S is not an extension of HTTP.



4.1   Requests

   Q4S requests are distinguished by having a Request-Line for a
   start-line. A Request-Line contains a method name, a Request-URI,
   and the protocol version separated by a single space (SP)
   character.

   The Request-Line ends with CRLF. No CR or LF are allowed except in
   the end-of-line CRLF sequence. No linear whitespace (LWS) is
allowed
   in any of the elements.

         Request-Line  =  Method SP Request-URI SP Q4S-Version CRLF



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   Method: This specification defines seven methods: BEGIN for
          starting and negotiate quality sessions, READY for
          synchronization of measurements, PING and BWIDTH for
          quality measurements purpose, CANCEL for terminating
          sessions, Q4S-ALERT for quality violations reporting, and
          Q4S-RECOVERY for quality recovery reporting.

   Request-URI: The Request-URI is a Q4S URI (RFC 2396) as described
          in 7.4. The Request-URI MUST NOT contain unescaped spaces
          or control characters and MUST NOT be enclosed in "<>".

   Q4S-Version: Both request and response messages include the
          version of Q4S in use. To be compliant with this
          specification, applications sending Q4S messages MUST
          include a Q4S-Version of "Q4S/1.0".  The Q4S-Version string
          is case-insensitive, but implementations MUST send upper-
          case. Unlike HTTP/1.1, Q4S treats the version number as a
          literal string.  In practice, this should make no
          difference.

4.2   Responses

   Q4S responses are distinguished from requests by having a Status-
   Line as their start-line. A Status-Line consists of the protocol
   version followed by a numeric Status-Code and its associated
   textual phrase, with each element separated by a single SP
   character. No CR or LF is allowed except in the final CRLF
   sequence.

     Status-Line  =  Q4S-Version SP Status-Code SP Reason-Phrase CRLF

   The Status-Code is a 3-digit integer result code that indicates
   the outcome of an attempt to understand and satisfy a request. The
   Reason-Phrase is intended to give a short textual description of
   the Status-Code.  The Status-Code is intended for use by automata,
   whereas the Reason-Phrase is intended for the human user. A client
   is not required to examine or display the Reason-Phrase.

   While this specification suggests specific wording for the reason
   phrase, implementations MAY choose other text, for example, in the
   language indicated in the Accept-Language header field of the
   request.

   The first digit of the Status-Code defines the class of response.
   The last two digits do not have any categorization role.  For this
   reason, any response with a status code between 100 and 199 is
   referred to as a "1xx response", any response with a status code
   between 200 and 299 as a "2xx response", and so on.  Q4S/1.0
   allows following values for the first digit:


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         1xx: Provisional -- request received, continuing to process
   the request;

         2xx: Success -- the action was successfully received,
              understood, and accepted;

         3xx: Redirection -- further action needs to be taken in
   order
              to complete the request;

         4xx: Request Failure -- the request contains bad syntax or
              cannot be fulfilled at this server;

         5xx: Server Error -- the server failed to fulfill an
              apparently valid request;

         6xx: Global Failure -- the request cannot be fulfilled at
   any
              server.

   The status codes are the same described in HTTP (RFC 7231 [2]). In
   the same way as HTTP, Q4S applications are not required to
   understand the meaning of all registered status codes, though such
   understanding is obviously desirable. However, applications MUST
   understand the class of any status code, as indicated by the first
   digit, and treat any unrecognized response as being equivalent to
   the x00 status code of that class.

   The Q4S-ALERT, Q4S-RECOVERY and CANCEL requests do not have to be
   responded. However, after receiving a Q4S-ALERT, Q4S-RECOVERY or
   CANCEL request, the server SHOULD send a Q4S-ALERT, Q4S-RECOVERY
   or CANCEL request to the client


4.3   Header Fields

   Q4S header fields are identical to HTTP header fields in both
   syntax and semantics.

   Some header fields only make sense in requests or responses. These
   are called request header fields and response header fields,
   respectively.  If a header field appears in a message not matching
   its category (such as a request header field in a response), it
   MUST be ignored.



4.3.1 Common Q4S Header Fields

   These fields may appear in Request and Response messages.


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     o  Session-Id: the value for this header is the same session id
        used in SDP (embedded in "o" SDP parameter) and is assigned
        by the server. The messages without SDP MUST include this
        header. If a message has and SDP body, this header is
        optional. The method of <session id> allocation is up to the
        creating tool, but it is suggested that a UTC timestamp be
        used to ensure uniqueness.

     o  Sequence-Number: sequential and cyclic positive integer
        number assigned to PING and BWIDTH messages, and acknowledged
        in 200 OK responses.

     o  Timestamp: this optional header contains the system time
        (with the best possible accuracy). It indicates the time in
        which the PING request was sent. If this header is present in
        PING messages, then the 200 OK response messages MUST include
        this value.

     o  Stage: this is used in client's READY requests and server's
        200 OK responses during the Negotiation and Continuity phases
        in order to synchronize the initiation of the measurements.
        Example:  Stage: 0



4.3.2 Specific Q4S Request Header Fields

   In addition to HTTP header fields, these are the specific Q4S
   request header fields

     o  User-Agent: this header contains information about the
        implementation of the user agent. This is for statistical
        purposes, the tracing of protocol violations, and the
        automated recognition of user agents for the sake of
        tailoring responses to avoid particular user agent
        limitations. User agents SHOULD include this field with
        requests. The field MAY contain multiple product tokens and
        comments identifying the agent and any sub-products which
        form a significant part of the user agent. By convention, the
        product tokens are listed in order of their significance for
        identifying the application.












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     o  Signature: this header contains a digital signature that can
        be used by the network, actuator or policy server to validate
        the SDP, preventing security attacks. The signature is an
        optional header generated by the server according to the pre-
        agreed security policies between the Application Content
        Provider and the ISP. For example, a hash algorithm and
        encryption method such as SHA256 (RFC 4634 [14]) and RSA (RFC
        8017 [15]) based on the server certificate could be used.
        This certificate is supposed to be delivered by a
        Certification Authority (CA) or policy owner to the server.
        The signature is applied to the SDP body.

         Signature= RSA ( SHA256 (<sdp>), <certificate> )

        If the signature is not present, other validation mechanism
        MAY be implemented in order to provide assured quality with
        security and control.

     o  Measurements: this header carries the measurements of the
        quality parameters in PING and BWIDTH requests. The format
        is:

        Measurements: "l=" " "|[0..9999] ", j=" " "|[0..9999] ", pl="
        " "|[0.00 .. 100.00] ", bw=" " "|[0..999999]

        Where "l" stands for latency followed by the measured value
        (in milliseconds)or an empty space, "j" stands for jitter
        followed by the measured value (in milliseconds) or an empty
        space, "pl" stands for packetloss  followed by the measured
        value (in percentage with two decimals)  or an empty space
        and "bw" stands for bandwidth followed by the measured value
        (in kbps) or an empty space.


4.3.3 Specific Q4S Response Header Fields

     o  Expires: its purpose is to provide a sanity check and allow
        the server to close inactive sessions. If the client does not
        send a new request before the expiration time, the server MAY
        close the session. The value MUST be an integer and the
        measurement units are milliseconds.

        In order to keep the session open the server MUST send a Q4S
        alert before the session expiration (Expires header), with
        the same quality levels and an alert cause of "keep-alive".
        The purpose of this alert is to avoid TCP sockets (which were
        opened with READY message) from being closed, specially in
        NAT scenarios.





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4.4   Bodies

     Requests, including new requests defined in extensions to this
   specification, MAY contain message bodies unless otherwise noted.
   The interpretation of the body depends on the request method.

   For response messages, the request method and the response status
   code determine the type and interpretation of any message body.
   All responses MAY include a body.

   The Internet media type of the message body MUST be given by the
   Content-Type header field.

4.4.1 Encoding

      The body MUST NOT be compressed. This mechanism is valid for
   other protocols such as HTTP and SIP (RFC 3261 [22]), but
   a compression/coding scheme will limit certain logical
   implementations of the way the request is parsed, thus, making the
   protocol concept more implementation dependent. In addition,
   bandwidth calculation may not be valid if compression is used.
   Therefore, the HTTP request header "Accept-Encoding" cannot be
   used in Q4S with different values than "identity" and if it is
   present in a request, the server MUST ignore it. In addition, the
   response header "Content-Encoding" is optional, but if present,
   the unique permitted value is "identity".

   The body length in bytes MUST be provided by the Content-Length
   header field. The "chunked" transfer encoding of HTTP/1.1 MUST NOT
   be used for Q4S (Note: The chunked encoding modifies the body of a
   message in order to transfer it as a series of chunks, each one
   with its own size indicator.)



5  Q4S Method Definitions

   The Method token indicates the method to be performed on the
   resource identified by the Request-URI. The method is case-
   sensitive.

          Method  = "BEGIN" | "READY" | "PING" | "BWIDTH" |
                    "Q4S-ALERT" | "Q4S-RECOVERY" | "CANCEL" |
   extension-method

          extension-method = token

   The list of methods allowed by a resource can be specified in an
   "Allow" header field (RFC 7231 [2]). The return code of the
   response always notifies the client when a method is currently
   allowed on a resource, since the set of allowed methods can change


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   dynamically. Any server application SHOULD return the status code
   405 (Method Not Allowed) if the method is known, but not allowed
   for the requested resource, and 501 (Not Implemented) if the
   method is unrecognized or not implemented by the server.

5.1   BEGIN

   The BEGIN method requests information from a resource identified
   by a Q4S URI. The semantics of this method is the starting of a
   quality session.

   This method is only used during the handshake phase to retrieve
   the SDP containing session id and all quality and operation
   parameters for the desired application to run.

   When a BEGIN message is received by the server, any current
   quality session MUST be cancelled, and a new session should be
   created.

   The response to a Q4S BEGIN request is not cacheable.

5.2   READY

   The READY method is used to synchronize the starting time for
   sending of PING and BWIDTH messages over UDP between clients and
   servers. The stage header included in this method is mandatory.

   This message is only used in negotiation and continuity phases,
   and only just before making a measurement. Otherwise (out of this
   context), the server MUST ignore this method.

5.3   PING

   This message is used during the negotiation and continuity phases
   to measure the RTT and jitter of a session. The message MUST be
   sent only over UDP ports.

   The fundamental difference between the PING and BWIDTH requests is
   reflected in the different measurements achieved with them. PING
   is a short message, and MUST be answered in order to measure RTT
   and jitter, whereas BWIDTH is a long message and MUST NOT be
   answered.

   PING is a request method that can be originated by client but also
   by server. Client MUST also answer the server PING messages,
   assuming a "server role" for these messages during measurement
   process.

   The Measurements header included in this method is mandatory, and
   provides updated measurements values for latency, jitter and
   packet loss to the counterpart.


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5.4   BWIDTH

   This message is used only during the Negotiation phase to measure
   the bandwidth and packet loss of a session. The message MUST be
   sent only over UDP ports.

   BWIDTH is a request method that can be originated by the client
   but also by server. Both (client and server) MUST NOT answer
   BWIDTH messages.

   The Measurements header included in this method is mandatory and
   provides updated measurements values for bandwidth and packet loss
   to the counterpart.



5.5   Q4S-ALERT

   This is the request message that Q4S generates when the
   measurements indicate that quality constraints are being violated.
   It is used during the negotiation and continuity phases.

   This informative message indicates that the user experience is
   being degraded and includes the details of the problem (bandwidth,
   jitter, packet loss measurements). The Q4S-ALERT message does not
   contain any detail on the actions to be taken, which depends on
   the agreements between all involved parties.

   Q4S-ALERT request does not have to be answered with a response
   message unless there is an error condition, but with an answer
   formatted as a request Q4S-ALERT message. The response to a Q4S-
   ALERT request is not cacheable.

   This method MUST be initiated by the server in both alerting
   modes. In Q4S-aware-network alerting mode, the Q4S-ALERT messages
   are fired by the server and sent to the client, advising the
   network to react by itself. In Reactive alerting mode, alert
   notifications are triggered by the server stack and sent to the
   Actuator(see Figure1 "Reactive Scenario").

   Client----q4s----SERVER STACK--->ACTUATOR-->APP OR POLICY SERVER

   The way in which the server stack notifies the Actuator is
   implementation dependent, and the communication between the
   Actuator and the network policy server is defined by the protocol
   and API that the policy server implements.

5.6   Q4S-RECOVERY

   This is the request message that Q4S generates when the
   measurements indicate that quality constraints were being violated


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   but they have been fulfilled during a period of time already
   (recovery pause). It is used during the negotiation and continuity
   phases.

   This informative message indicates that the qos-level could be
   increased gradually until the initial qos-level is recovered (the
   qos-level established at the beginning os the session of that was
   decreased during violation of constraints). The Q4S-RECOVERY
   message does not contain any detail on the actions to be taken,
   which depends on the agreements between all involved parties.

   Q4S-RECOVERY request MUST NOT be answered with a response message
   unless there is an error condition, but with an answer formatted
   as a request Q4S-RECOVERY message. The response to a Q4S-RECOVERY
   request is not cacheable.

   As for the Q4S-ALERT message, the Q4S-RECOVERY method is always
   initiated by the server in both alerting modes. In Q4S-aware-
   network alerting mode, the Q4S-RECOVERY messages are fired by the
   server and sent to the client, advising the network to react by
   itself. In Reactive alerting mode, recovery notifications are
   triggered by the server stack and sent to the Actuator(see Figure1
   "Reactive Scenario").

5.7   CANCEL

   The semantics of CANCEL message is the release of the Q4S session
   id and the possible resources assigned to the session. This
   message could be triggered by Q4S stack or by the application
   using the stack (through an implementation dependent API).

   In the same way as Q4S-ALERT, CANCEL must not be answered with a
   response message, but with an answer formatted as a request Q4S-
   CANCEL message.

   In the Reactive scenario, the server stack MUST react to the Q4S
   CANCEL messages received from the client by forwarding a cancel
   notification to the Actuator, in order to release possible
   assigned resources for the session (at application or at policy
   server). The Actuator MUST answer the cancel notification with a
   cancel acknowledge towards the server stack, acknowledging the
   reception.



6  Response Codes

   Q4S response codes are used for TCP and UDP. However, in UDP only
   the response code 200 is used.




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   The receiver of an unknown response code must take a generic
   action for the received error group (1XX, 2XX, 3XX, 4XX, 5XX,
   6XX). In case of unknown error group, the expected action should
   be the same as with 6XX error group.

6.1   100 Trying

   This response indicates that the request has been received by the
   next-hop server and that some unspecified action is being taken on
   behalf of this request (for example, a database is being
   consulted). This response, like all other provisional responses,
   stops retransmissions of a Q4S-ALERT during the alert-pause time.

6.2   Success 2xx

   2xx responses give information about success of a request.

6.2.1 200 OK

   The request has succeeded.



6.3   Redirection 3xx

   3xx responses give information about the user's new location, or
   about alternative services that might be able to satisfy the
   request.

   The requesting client SHOULD retry the request at the new
   address(es) given by the Location header field.

6.4   Request Failure 4xx

   4xx responses are definite failure responses from a particular
   server. The client SHOULD NOT retry the same request without
   modification (for example, adding appropriate headers or SDP
   values). However, the same request to a different server might be
   successful.

6.4.1 400 Bad Request

   The request could not be understood due to malformed syntax. The
   Reason-Phrase SHOULD identify the syntax problem in more detail,
   for example, "Missing Sequence-Number header field".

6.4.2 404 Not Found

   The server has definitive information that the user does not exist
   at the domain specified in the Request-URI. This status is also



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   returned if the domain in the Request-URI does not match any of
   the domains handled by the recipient of the request.

6.4.3 405 Method Not Allowed

   The method specified in the Request-Line is understood, but not
   allowed for the address identified by the Request-URI.

   The response MUST include an Allow header field containing a list
   of valid methods for the indicated address.

6.4.4 406 Not Acceptable

   The resource identified by the request is only able of generating
   response entities that have content characteristics not acceptable
   according to the Accept header field sent in the request.

6.4.5 408 Request Timeout

   The server could not produce a response within a suitable amount
   of time, and the client MAY repeat the request without
   modifications at any later time

6.4.6 413 Request Entity Too Large

   The server is refusing to process a request because the request
   entity-body is larger than the one that the server is willing or
   able to process. The server MAY close the connection to prevent
   the client from continuing the request.

6.4.7 414 Request-URI Too Long

   The server is refusing to process the request because the Request-
   URI is longer than the one that the server accepts.

6.4.8 415 Unsupported Media Type

   The server is refusing to process the request because the message
   body of the request is in a format not supported by the server for
   the requested method. The server MUST return a list of acceptable
   formats using the Accept, Accept-Encoding, or Accept-Language
   header field, depending on the specific problem with the content.

6.4.9 416 Unsupported URI Scheme

   The server cannot process the request because the scheme of the
   URI in the Request-URI is unknown to the server.






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6.5   Server Failure 5xx

   5xx responses are failure responses given when a server itself is
   having trouble.

6.5.1 500 Server Internal Error

   The server encountered an unexpected condition that prevented it
   from fulfilling the request. The client MAY display the specific
   error condition and MAY retry the request after several seconds.

6.5.2 501 Not Implemented

   The server does not support the functionality required to fulfill
   the request. This is the appropriate response when a Server does
   not recognize the request method and it is not capable of
   supporting it for any user.

   Note that a 405 (Method Not Allowed) is sent when the server
   recognizes the request method, but that method is not allowed or
   supported.

6.5.3 503 Service Unavailable

   The server is temporarily unable to process the request due to a
   temporary overloading or maintenance of the server. The server MAY
   indicate when the client should retry the request in a Retry-After
   header field. If no Retry-After is given, the client MUST act as
   if it had received a 500 (Server Internal Error) response.

   A client receiving a 503 (Service Unavailable) SHOULD attempt to
   forward the request to an alternate server. It SHOULD NOT forward
   any other requests to that server for the duration specified in
   the Retry-After header field, if present.

   Servers MAY refuse the connection or drop the request instead of
   responding with 503 (Service Unavailable).

6.5.4 504 Server Time-out

   The server did not receive a timely response from an external
   server it accessed in attempting to process the request.

6.5.5 505 Version Not Supported

   The server does not support, or refuses to support, the Q4S
   protocol version that was used in the request. The server is
   indicating that it is unable or unwilling to complete the request
   using the same major version as the client, other than with this
   error message.



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   In the case that Q4S version is not supported, this error may be
   sent by the server in handshake phase just after receiving the
   first BEGIN message from client.

6.5.6 513 Message Too Large

   The server was unable to process the request since the message
   length exceeded its capabilities.

6.6   Global Failures 6xx

   6xx responses indicate that a server has definitive information
   about a particular policy not satisfied for processing the
   request.

6.6.1 600 session does not exist

   The Session-Id is not valid

6.6.2 601 quality level not allowed

   The QOS level requested is not allowed for the pair client/server

6.6.3 603 Session not allowed

   The session is not allowed due to some policy (number of sessions
   allowed for the server is exceeded, or the time band of the Q4S-
   ALERT is not allowed for the pair client/server, etc.).

6.6.4 604 authorization not allowed

   The policy server does not authorize the Q4S-ALERT quality session
   improvement operation due to an internal or external reason.

7  Protocol

   This section describes the measurement procedures, the SDP
   structure of the Q4S messages, the different Q4S protocol phases
   and the messages exchanged in them.



7.1   Protocol Phases

      All elements of the IP network contribute to the quality in
   terms of latency, jitter, bandwidth and packet loss. All these
   elements have their own quality policies in terms of priorities,
   traffic mode, etc. and each element has its own way to manage the
   quality. The purpose of a quality connection is to establish an
   end-to-end communication with enough quality for the application
   to function flawlessly.


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   To monitor quality constraints of the application, four phases are
   defined and can be seen in figure 5:

   +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   | Handshake ---> Negotiation -+--> Continuity ----> Termination |
   |                   A         |    (app start) |    (app end)   |
   |                   |         V        A       V       A        |
   |                   |     violated     |     violated  |        |
   |                   |    constraints   |   constraints |        |
   |                   |      |     |     |_______|   ____|        |
   |                   |      |     |     +-------+       |        |
   |                   |      |     |                     |        |
   |                   +------+     +---------------------+        |
   |                                                               |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

                   Figure 5 Session lifetime phases.



     o  Handshake phase: in which the server is contacted by the
        client and in the answer message the quality constraints for
        the application is communicated embedded in an SDP.

     o  Negotiation phase: in which the quality of the connection is
        measured in both directions (latency, jitter, bandwidth and
        packet loss), and Q4S messages may be sent in order to alert
        if the measured quality does not meet the constraints. This
        phase is iterative until quality constraints are reached, or
        the session is cancelled after a number of measurement cycles
        with consistent violation of the quality constraints. The
        number of measurement cycles executed depends on the qos-
        level which is incremented in each cycle until a maximum qos-
        level value is reached. Just after reaching the quality
        requirements, Q4S provides a simple optional mechanism using
        HTTP to start the application.

     o  Continuity phase: in which quality is continuously measured.
        In this phase the measurements MUST avoid disturbing the
        application by consuming network resources. If quality
        constraints are not met, the server stack will notify the
        Actuator with an alert notification. If later the quality
        improves, the server stack will notify the Actuator, in this
        case with a recovery notification. After several alert
        notifications with no quality improvements, the Q4S stack
        SHOULD move to Termination phase.

     o  Termination phase: in which the Q4S session is terminated.
        The application may be closed too or may not start.


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7.2   SDP Structure

   The original goal of SDP was to announce necessary information for
   the participants and multicast MBONE (Multicast Backbone)
   applications. Right now, its use has been extended to the
   announcement and the negotiation of multimedia sessions. The
   purpose of Q4S is not to establish media stream sessions, but to
   monitor a quality connection. This connection may be later used to
   establish any type of session including media sessions; Q4S does
   not impose any conditions on the type of communication requiring
   quality parameters.

   SDP will be used by Q4S to exchange quality constraints and will
   therefore always have all the media attributes ("m") set to zero.

   The SDP embedded in the messages is the container of the quality
   parameters. As these may vary depending on the direction of the
   communication (to and from the client) all quality parameters need
   to specify the uplink and downlink values: <uplink> / <downlink>.
   When one or both of these values are empty, it MUST be understood
   as needing no constraint on that parameter and/or that direction.

   The uplink direction MUST be considered as being the communication
   from the client to the server. The downlink direction MUST be
   considered as being the communication from the server to the
   client.

   The SDP information can comprise all or some of the following
   parameters shown in the example below. This is an example of an
   SDP message used by Q4S included in the 200 OK response to a Q4S
   BEGIN request.




















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   v=0
   o=q4s-UA 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 192.0.2.33
   s=Q4S
   i=Q4S parameters
   t=0 0
   a=qos-level:0/0
   a=alerting-mode:Reactive
   a=alert-pause:5000
   a=public-address:client IP4 198.51.100.51
   a=public-address:server IP4 198.51.100.58
   a=measurement:procedure default(50/50,75/75,5000,40/80,100/256)
   a=latency:40
   a=jitter:10/10
   a=bandwidth:20/6000
   a=packetloss:0.50/0.50
   a=flow:app clientListeningPort TCP/10000-20000
   a=flow:app clientListeningPort UDP/15000-18000
   a=flow:app serverListeningPort TCP/56000
   a=flow:app serverListeningPort UDP/56000
   a=flow:q4s clientListeningPort UDP/55000
   a=flow:q4s clientListeningPort TCP/55001
   a=flow:q4s serverListeningPort UDP/56000
   a=flow:q4s serverListeningPort TCP/56001


   As quality constraints may be changed by applications at any time
   during the Q4S session lifetime, any Q4S 200 OK response sent by
   the server to the client in the Negotiation and Continuity phases
   could also include an SDP body with the new quality requirements
   stated by the applications from then on. Therefore, in response to
   any PING request sent by the client to the server, the server
   could send a Q4S 200 OK with an SDP message embedded that
   specifies new quality constraints requested by the application.


7.2.1 "qos-level" attribute

   The "qos-level" attribute contains the QoS level for uplink and
   downlink. Default values are 0 for both directions. The meaning of
   each level is out of scope of Q4S, but a higher level SHOULD
   correspond to a better service quality.

   Appropriate attribute values: [0..9] "/" [0..9]


   The "qos-level" attribute may be changed during the session
   lifetime raising or lowering the value as necessary following the
   network measurements and the application needs.





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7.2.2 "alerting-mode" attribute

   The "alerting-mode" attribute specifies the player in charge of
   triggering Q4S alerts in case of constraint violation. There are
   two possible values:

   Appropriate attribute values: <"Q4S-aware-network"|"Reactive">


   a) Q4S-aware-network: Q4S ALERT messages are triggered by the
      server to the client. In this case the network is supposed to
      be Q4S aware, and reacts by itself to these alerts.

   b) Reactive: alert notifications are sent by the server stack to
      the Actuator. In this case the network is not Q4S aware and a
      specific node (Actuator) is in charge of triggering tuning
      mechanisms., either on the network or in the application.

   The "alerting-mode" attribute is optional and if not present
   Reactive alerting mode is assumed.

7.2.3 "alert-pause" attribute

   In the Q4S-aware-network scenario, the "alert-pause" attribute
   specifies the amount of time (in milliseconds) the server waits
   between consecutive Q4S ALERT messages sent to the client. In the
   Reactive scenario, the "alert-pause" attribute specifies the
   amount of time (in milliseconds) the server stack waits between
   consecutive alert notifications sent to the Actuator. Measurements
   are not stopped in Negotiation or Continuity Phases during this
   period of time, but no Q4S ALERT messages or alert notifications
   are fired, even with violated quality constraints, allowing either
   network reconfigurations or application adjustments.

   Appropriate attribute values: [0..60000]




7.2.4  "recovery-pause" attribute

   In the Q4S-aware-network scenario, the "recovery-pause" attribute
   specifies the amount of time (in milliseconds) the server waits
   for initiating the qos-level recovery process. Once the recovery
   process has started, the "recovery-pause" attribute also states
   the amount of time (in milliseconds) between consecutive Q4S-
   RECOVERY messages sent by the server to the client (in the Q4S-
   aware-network scenario), or between recovery notifications sent by
   the server stack to the Actuator (in the Reactive scenario).




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   Appropriate attribute values: [0..60000]


7.2.5 "public-address" attributes

   This attribute contains the public IP address of the client and
   the server. The server fills these attributes with his own public
   IP address and the public IP address of the first message received
   from the client in the handshake phase.

   The purpose of these attributes is to make available the
   addressing information to network policy server or other external
   entities in charge of processing Q4S-ALERT messages.

   Appropriate attribute values:<"client"|"server"><"IP4"|"IP6">
   <value of IP address>


7.2.6 "latency" attribute

   The maximum latency (considered equal for uplink and downlink)
   tolerance are specified in the "latency" attribute, expressed in
   milliseconds. In the Q4S-aware-network scenario, if the latency
   constraints are not met, a Q4S-ALERT method will be sent to the
   client. In the Reactive scenario, if the latency constraints are
   not met, an alert notification will be sent to the Actuator. If
   the "latency" attribute is not present or has a 0 value, no
   latency constraints need to be met and no measurements MAY be
   taken.

   Appropriate attribute values: [0..9999]


7.2.7 "jitter" attribute

   The maximum uplink and downlink jitter tolerance are specified in
   the "jitter" attribute, expressed in milliseconds. In the Q4S-
   aware-network scenario, if the jitter constraints are not met, a
   Q4S-ALERT method will be sent to the client. In the Reactive
   scenario, if the latency constraints are not met, an alert
   notification will be sent to the Actuator. If "jitter" attribute
   is not present or has a 0 value, no jitter constraints need to be
   met and no measurements MAY be taken.

   Appropriate attribute values: [0..9999] "/" [0..9999]


7.2.8 "bandwidth" attribute

   The minimum uplink and downlink bandwidth are specified in the
   "bandwidth" attribute, expressed in kbps. In the Q4S-aware-network


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   scenario, if the bandwidth constraints are not met, a Q4S-ALERT
   method will be sent to the client. In the Reactive scenario, an
   alert notification will be sent to the Actuator. If "bandwidth"
   attribute is not present or has a 0 value, no bandwidth
   constraints need to be met and no measurements MAY be taken.

   Appropriate attribute values: [0..99999] "/" [0..99999]

7.2.9 "packetloss" attribute

   The maximum uplink and downlink packet loss tolerance are
   specified in the "packetloss" attribute expressed in percentage
   (two decimal accuracy). In the Q4S-aware-network scenario, if the
   packetloss constraints are not met, a Q4S-ALERT method will be
   sent to the client. In the Reactive scenario, an alert
   notification will be sent to the Actuator. If "packetloss"
   attribute is not present or has a 0 value, no packetloss
   constraints need to be met and no measurements MAY be taken.

   Appropriate attribute values: [0.00 ..100.00] "/"[0.00 ..100.00]


7.2.10   "flow" attributes

   These attributes specify the flows (protocol, destination
   IP/ports) of data over TCP and UDP ports to be used in uplink and
   downlink communications.

   Several "flow" attributes can be defined. These flows identify the
   listening port (client or server), the protocol (TCP or UDP) (RFC
   793 [16] and RFC 768 [17]) with the range of ports that are going
   to be used by the application and, of course, by the Q4S protocol
   (for quality measurements). All defined flows (app and q4s) will
   be considered within the same quality profile, which is determined
   by the qos-level attribute in each direction. This allows to
   assume that measurements on q4s flows are the same experimented by
   the application which is using app flows.

   During negotiation and continuity phases the specified Q4S ports
   in the "flow:q4s" attributes of SDP will be used for Q4S messages.

   The Q4S flows comprise two UDP flows and two TCP flows (one uplink
   and one downlink for each one) whereas application traffic MAY
   consist of many flows, depending on its nature. The handshake
   phase takes place through the Q4S Contact URI, using the standard
   Q4S TCP port. However, the negotiation and continuity phases will
   take place on the specified Q4S ports (UDP and TCP) specified in
   the SDP.





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   The "clientListeningPort" is a port in which the client listens
   for server requests and MUST be used as origin port of client
   responses. The "serverListeningPort" is a port in which server is
   listening for incoming messages from the client. The origin port
   of server responses may be different than "serverListeningPort"
   value.

   If "clientListeningPort" is zero (a=flow:q4s clientListeningPort
   TCP/0), the client MAY choose one randomly as per OS standard
   rules. Client ports inside the SDP must always be matched against
   actual received port values on the server side in order to deal
   with NAT/NATP devices. If zero value or incorrect value is
   present, server must set the value to the received origin port in
   the next message with SDP (200 OK, ALERT and CANCEL messages).


   Attribute values:
      <"q4s"|"app"> <"serverListeningPort"|"clientListeningPort">
   <"UDP"|"TCP"> <0..65535>[ "-" [0..65535]]




7.2.11   "measurement" attributes

   These attributes contain the measurement procedure and the results
   of the quality measurements.

   Measurement parameters are included using the session attribute
   "measurement". The first measurement parameter is the procedure.
   Q4S provides a "default" procedure for measurements, but others
   like RTP/RTCP might be used and defined later. This document will
   only define and explain the "default" procedure.

   In the initial client request a set of measurement procedures can
   be sent to the server for negotiation. One measurement procedure
   line MUST be included in the SDP message for each proposed method.
   The server MUST answer with only one line with the chosen
   procedure.

   For each procedure, a set of values of parameters separated by ","
   can be included in the same attribute line. The amount and type of
   parameters depends on the procedure type.

   In the following example the "default" procedure type is chosen:

   a=measurement:procedure default(50/50,75/75,5000,40/80,100/256)


   In the "default" procedure, the meaning of these parameters is:



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     o  The first parameter is the interval of time (in milliseconds)
        between PING requests during the negotiation phase. Uplink
        and downlink values from the client's point of view are
        separated by "/". This allows having different responsiveness
        values depending on the control resources used in each
        direction.

     o  The second parameter is the time interval (in milliseconds)
        between PING requests during the continuity phase. Uplink and
        downlink values are separated by "/". This allows having two
        different responsiveness values depending on the control
        resources used in each direction.

     o  The third parameter is the time interval to be used to
        measure bandwidth during the negotiation phase.

     o  The fourth parameter indicates the window size for jitter and
        latency calculations. Uplink and downlink values are
        separated by "/".

     o  The fifth parameter indicates the window size for packet loss
        calculations. Uplink and downlink values are separated by
        "/".

   There are four more measurement attributes:

   a=measurement:latency 45
   a=measurement:jitter 3/12
   a=measurement:bandwidth 200/9800
   a=measurement:packetloss 0.00/1.00


   The latency, jitter, bandwidth and packet-loss measurement
   attributes contain the values measured for each of these quality
   parameters in uplink and downlink directions. Notice that latency
   is considered equal for uplink and downlink directions. Quality
   parameter values in these measurement attributes provide a
   snapshot of the quality reached and MUST only be included in Q4S-
   ALERT messages in the SDP body such that they can be protected
   from malicious attacks as these alerts include a signature of the
   SDP body in the header. The rest of messages will include the
   measured values in the Measurements header.

   In the case of procedure "default", the valid values are:

   a=measurement:procedure default,[0..999]"/" [0..999]  "," [0..999]
   "/" [0..999] "," [0..9999] "," [0..999]/[0..999] ","
   [0..999]/[0..999]





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7.2.12   "max-content-length" attribute

   The adaptation of measurement traffic to approximate the actual
   data streams' characteristics is convenient to accurately estimate
   the expected QoS for applications. Particularly, packet size can
   have a remarkable effect on bandwidth estimations. Moreover, this
   can produce problems depending on the MTU of the end hosts and
   links along the path.

   Therefore, the maximum content length MAY be set in an attribute
   denoted as "max-content-length". Its value MUST be given in bytes
   and MUST NOT include application, transport, network or link layer
   headers, i.e., size of the content length at the application
   layer. If not set, the value MUST be 1000 bytes.

   Furthermore, this attribute MAY be used to inform about MTU limits
   in end points, hence reducing possible bias as a result of
   network-layer fragmentation.

   For instance:

   a=max-content-length:1300



7.3   Measurements

   This section describes the way quality parameters are measured as
   defined by the "default" procedure. Measurements MUST be taken for
   any quality parameter with constraints, that is, specified in the
   SDP attributes with non-zero values. For non-present attributes
   measurements MAY be omitted.

7.3.1 Latency

   Latency measurements will be performed if the latency attribute
   and/or the application latency attribute are present and with non-
   zero values.

   Q4S defines a PING method in order to exchange packets between the
   client and the server. Based on this PING exchange the client and
   the server are able to calculate the round-trip time (RTT). The
   RTT is the sum of downlink latency (normally named "reverse
   latency") and uplink latency (normally named "forward latency").

   At least 255 samples of RTT MUST be taken by the client and
   server. As the forward and reverse latencies are impossible to
   measure, client and server will assume that both latencies are
   identical (symmetric network assumption). The latency will
   therefore be calculated as the statistical median value of all the
   RTT samples divided by 2.


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7.3.2 Jitter

   Jitter measurements will be performed if the jitter attribute
   and/or the application jitter attribute are present and with non-
   zero values.

   The jitter can be calculated independently by the client and by
   the server. The downlink jitter is calculated by the client taking
   into account the time interval between PING requests as defined by
   the measurement procedure attribute in the first or second
   parameter depending on the Q4S protocol phase. The client and the
   server MUST send these PING requests at the specified intervals.
   The client measures the downlink jitter whereas the server
   measures the uplink jitter. Note that PING responses are not taken
   into account when calculating jitter values.

   Every time a PING request message is received by an endpoint
   (either server or client), the corresponding jitter value is
   updated using the Statistical Jitter value calculated on the first
   255 packets received using the arithmetic mean of the absolute
   values of elapsed times.

   Each endpoint sends a PING periodically with a fixed interval,
   each value of "elapsed time" (ET) should be very close to this
   interval. If a PING message is lost, the elapsed time value is
   doubled. Identifying lost PING messages, however, is not an issue
   because all PING messages are labeled with a Sequence-Number
   header. Therefore the receiver can discard this elapsed time
   value.

   In order to have the first jitter sample, the receiver MUST wait
   until it receives 3 PING requests, because each ET is the time
   between two PINGs and a Jitter needs at least two ET.

   The client measures the values of RTT and downlink jitter and the
   server measures RTT and uplink jitter, but all measurements are
   shared with the counterpart by means of "Measurements" header of
   PING message.

7.3.3 Bandwidth

   Bandwidth measurements will be performed if the bandwidth
   attribute and/or the application bandwidth attribute is present
   and with non-zero values.

   In order to measure the available bandwidth, both the client and
   the server MUST start sending BWIDTH messages simultaneously using
   the UDP control ports exchanged during the handshake phase in the
   SDP message, at the needed rate to verify the availability of the


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   bandwidth constraint in each direction. The messages are sent
   during the period of time defined in the third parameter of the
   SDP measurement default procedure attribute in millisecond units.

   a=measurement:procedure default(50/50,75/75,5000,256/256,256/256)





           +------------------------------------------------+
           |             Rate                               |
           |              A                                 |
           |              |                                 |
           |downlink rate-|-------------------+ <-- traffic |
           |              |                   |     sent by |
           |              |                   |     server  |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |  uplink rate-|-------------------+ <-- traffic |
           |              |                   |     sent by |
           |              |                   |     client  |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |                   |             |
           |              |---|---|---|---|---|----> time   |
           |              0   1   2   3   4   5     (sec.)  |
           |                                                |
           +------------------------------------------------+

           Figure 6  Bandwidth and packet loss measurements.

   The goal of these measurements is not to identify the available
   bandwidth of the communication path but to determine if the
   required bandwidth is available, meeting the application's
   constraints. Therefore, the requested bandwidth MUST be measured
   sending only the highest bit rate required by the bandwidth
   attribute. This is illustrated in Figure 6.

   During bandwidth measurement time, ALERTS are not expected, but
   only at the end of the measurement time.



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   When measuring bandwidth, all BWIDTH requests sent MUST be 1
   kilobyte in length (UDP payload length by default), and MUST
   include a Sequence-Number header with a sequential number starting
   at 0, and their content MUST consist of randomly generated values
   to minimize the effect of compression elements along the path. The
   Sequence-Number MUST be incremented by 1 with each BWIDTH packet
   sent. If any measurement stage needs to be repeated, the sequence
   number MUST start at zero again. BWIDTH requests MUST NOT be
   answered. Examples:

   Client message:
   =========================
          BWIDTH q4s://www.example.com Q4S/1.0
          User-Agent: q4s-ua-experimental-1.0
          Session-Id: 53655765
          Sequence-Number: 0
          Content-Type: text
          Content-Length: XXXX
          Measurements: l=22, j=10, pl=0.00, bw=3000


          VkZaU1FrNVZNVlZSV0doT1ZrZ (to complete up to "max-content-
                                    length" bytes UDP payload length)
   =========================

   The client MUST send BWIDTH packets to the server to allow the
   server to measure the uplink bandwidth. The server MUST send
   BWIDTH packets to the client to allow the client to measure the
   downlink bandwidth.

   Server message:
   =========================
          BWIDTH q4s://www.example.com Q4S/1.0
          Session-Id: 53655765
          Sequence-Number: 0
          Content-Type: text
          Content-Length: XXXX
          Measurements: l=22, j=7, pl=0.00, bw=200


          ZY0VaT1ZURlZVVmhyUFE9PQ (to complete up to max-content-
   length
                                   UDP payload length)
   =========================









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7.3.4 Packet loss

   Packet loss and bandwidth are measured simultaneously using the
   BWIDTH packets sent by both the client and the server. Because the
   BWIDTH packets contain a Sequence-Number header incremented
   sequentially with each sent packet, lost packets can be easily
   identified. The lost packets MUST be counted during the
   measurement time.



7.4   Handshake Phase

   The first phase consists of a Q4S BEGIN method issued from the
   client to the server as shown in Figure 7.

   The first Q4S message MUST have a special URI (RFC 3986 [12]),
   which forces the use of the Q4S protocol if it is implemented in a
   standard web browser.

   This URI, named "Contact URI", is used to request the start of a
   session. Its scheme MUST be:

         "q4s:" "//" host [":" port] [path["?" query]

   Optionally, the client can send the desired quality parameters
   enclosed in the body of the message as an SDP document. The server
   MAY take them into account when building the answer message with
   the final values in the SDP body, following a request / response
   schema (RFC 3264 [13]).

   If the request is accepted, the server MUST answer it with a Q4S
   200 OK message, which MUST contain an SDP body (RFC 4566 [10])
   with the assigned session id (embedded in the "o" SDP parameter),
   the IP addresses to be used, the flow ports to be used, the
   measurement procedure to be followed and information about the
   required quality constraints. Additionally, the alerting-mode and
   alert-pause time parameters may be included. Q4S responses should
   use the protocol designator "Q4S/1.0".

   After these two messages are exchanged, the first phase is
   completed. The quality parameter thresholds have been sent to the
   client. The next step is to measure the actual quality of the
   communication path between the client and the server and alert if
   the Service Level Agreement (SLA) is being violated.








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           +------------------------------------------------+
           |                                                |
           | Client                            Server       |
           |                                                |
           |     ------- Q4S BEGIN ------------>            |
           |                                                |
           |     <------ Q4S 200 OK ------------            |
           |                                                |
           |                                                |
           +------------------------------------------------+

                       Figure 7 Handshake phase.

   Example of Client Request and Server Answer:

   Client Request:
   =========================
   BEGIN q4s://www.example.com Q4S/1.0
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   User-Agent: q4s-ua-experimental-1.0
   Content-Length: 142

   (SDP not shown)
   =========================


   Server Answer:
   =========================
   Q4S/1.0 200 OK
   Date: Mon, 10 Jun 2010 10:00:01 GMT
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Expires: 3000
   Signature: 6ec1ba40e2adf2d783de530ae254acd4f3477ac4
   Content-Length: 131

   (SDP not shown)
   =========================


   The headers used are explained in section 4.3.

7.5   Negotiation Phase

   The negotiation phase is in charge of measuring the quality
   parameters and verifying that the communication paths meet the
   required quality constraints on both directions as specified in
   the SDP body.

   The measured parameters will be compared with the quality
   constraints specified in the SDP body. If the quality session is



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   compliant with all the quality constraints the application can
   start.

     o  If the quality constraints are not met, a higher quality
        service level will be demanded. Depending on the scenario,
        this quality upgrade will be managed as follows: In the Q4S-
        aware-network scenario: a Q4S-ALERT method will be triggered
        by the server to the client and the client will answer with
        the same Q4S-ALERT method. After receiving the same Q4S-ALERT
        from the counterpart, no other alerts will be triggered by
        the server during the "alert-pause" period of time, in order
        to allow the network to react, but measurements will continue
        to be taken to achieve early detection of improved network
        quality conditions and a fast application start.

     o  In the Reactive scenario: an alert notification will be sent
        by the server stack to the Actuator, and the Actuator will
        answer with an alert acknowledgement. After receiving the
        alert acknowledgement from the Actuator, the server stack
        will not send other alert notifications during the "alert-
        pause" period of time, in order to allow the Actuator to
        react and trigger actions on the application or on the policy
        server, but measurements will continue to be taken to achieve
        early detection of improved network quality conditions and a
        fast application start.

   In both scenarios stated above, if after several measurement
   cycles, the network constraints cannot be met the quality session
   is terminated. Concretely when under all possible actions taken by
   Actuator the quality remains below requirements, the session must
   be terminated.

   The steps to be taken in this phase depend on the measurement
   procedure exchanged during the handshake phase. This document only
   describes the "default" procedure, but others can be used, like
   RTP/RTCP (RFC 3550 [18]).

   Measurements of latency and jitter are done calculating the
   differences in arrival times of packets and can be achieved with
   little bandwidth consumption. The bandwidth measurement, on the
   other hand, involves higher bandwidth consumption in both
   directions (uplink and downlink).

   To avoid wasting unnecessary network resources these two types of
   measurements will be performed in two separate stages. If the
   required latencies and jitters cannot be reached, it makes no
   sense to waste network resources measuring bandwidth. In addition,
   if achieving the required latency and jitter thresholds implies
   upgrading the quality session level, the chance of obtaining
   compliant bandwidth measurements without retries is higher, saving



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   network traffic again. Therefore, the default procedure,
   determines that the measurements are taken in two stages:

     o  Stage 0: Measurement of latencies, jitters and packet loss

     o  Stage 1: Measurement of bandwidths and packet loss

   Notice that packet loss can be measured in both stages, as all
   messages exchanged include a sequence-number header that allows
   for easy packet loss detection.

   The client starts the negotiation phase sending a READY request
   using the TCP Q4S ports defined in the SDP. This READY request
   includes a "Stage" header that indicates the measurement stage.

   If either jitter, latency or both are specified, the negotiation
   phase begins with the measurement of latencies and jitters (stage
   0). If none of those attributes are specified, stage 0 is skipped.



7.5.1 Stage 0: Measurement of Latencies and Jitter

   The Stage 0 MUST start with a synchronization message exchange
   initiated with the client's READY message.


   Client request, READY message:
   =========================
          READY q4s://www.example.com Q4S/1.0
          Stage: 0
          Session-Id: 53655765
          User-Agent: q4s-ua-experimental-1.0
          Content-Length: 0
   =========================

   Server Response:
   =========================
     Q4S/1.0 200 OK
          Session-Id: 53655765
          Stage:0
          Content-Length: 0
   =========================


   This triggers the exchange of a sequence of PING requests and
   responses that will lead to the calculation of RTT (latency),
   jitter and packet loss.





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   After receiving 200 OK, the client must send the first PING
   message and the server will wait to send PINGs until the reception
   of this first client PING.

   Client and server MUST send PING requests to each other. The
   Sequence-Number header of the first PING MUST be set to 0. Client
   and server will manage their own sequence numbers.



           +------------------------------------------------+
           |                                                |
           | Client                                Server   |
           |                                                |
           |      --------- Q4S READY 0 --------->          |
           |      <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------          |
           |                                                |
           |      --------- Q4S PING ------------>          |
           |      <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------          |
           |      <-------- Q4S PING -------------          |
           |       -------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->          |
           |      --------- Q4S PING ------------>          |
           |      <-------- Q4S PING -------------          |
           |      --------- Q4S 200 OK ---------->          |
           |      <-------- Q4S 200 OK -----------          |
           |                     ...                        |
           |                                                |
           +------------------------------------------------+

     Figure 8 Simultaneous exchange of PING request and responses.



   Figure 8 shows an example of the PING request sent from the client
   and the server's response:


















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   Client Request:
   =========================
          PING q4s://www.example.com Q4S/1.0
          Session-Id: 53655765
          Sequence-Number: 0
          User-Agent: q4s-ua-experimental-1.0
          Measurements: l=22, j=12, pl=0.20, bw=
          Content-Length: 0
   =========================

   Server Response:
   =========================
     Q4S/1.0 200 OK
          Session-Id: 53655765
          Sequence-Number: 0
          Content-Length: 0
   =========================

   The function of the PING method is similar to the ICMP echo
   request message. The server MUST answer as soon as it receives the
   message.

   Both endpoints MUST send Q4S PING messages with the periodicity
   specified in the first parameter of SDP measurement procedure
   attribute, using always the same UDP ports and incrementing the
   Sequence-Number with each message.

   In the following example, the SDP measurement procedure attribute,
   this value is 50 milliseconds (from the client to the server) and
   60ms (from the server to the client).

   a=measurement:procedure default(50/60,50/50,5000,256/256,256/256)

   They MUST NOT wait for a response to send the next PING request.
   The "Sequence-Number" header value is incremented sequentially and
   MUST start at zero. If this stage is repeated, the initial
   Sequence-Number MUST start at zero again.

   All PING requests MUST contain a "Measurements" header, with the
   values of the latency, jitter and packet loss measured by each
   entity up to that moment. The client will send its measurements to
   the server and the server his measurements to the client. Example:

      Measurements: l=22, j=13, pl=0.10, bw=

   Where l stands for latency, j for jitter, pl for packetloss and bw
   for bandwidth. The bandwidth value is omitted, as it is not
   measured at this stage.

   Optionally the PING request can include a "Timestamp" header, with
   the time in which the message has been sent. In case the header is


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   present, the server MUST include the header in the response
   without changing the value.

   A minimum number of PING messages MUST be exchanged in order to be
   able to measure latency, jitter and packet-loss with certain
   accuracy (at least 256 samples are RECOMMENDED to get a accurate
   packet loss measurement). Both the client and the server calculate
   the respective measured parameter values. The mechanisms to
   calculate the different parameters are described in section 7.3.

   At the end of this stage 0, there are three possibilities:

     o  The latency, jitter and packet loss constraints are reached
        in both directions

     o  The latency, jitter and packet loss constraints are not
        reached in one or both directions



   In the first case, Stage 0 is finished. Client and server are
   ready for Stage 1: bandwidth and packet loss measurement. The
   client moves to stage 1 by sending a READY message including the
   header "Stage: 1".


   If the bandwidth constraints are empty or with value zero, the
   negotiation phase MUST terminate and both client and server may
   initiate the Continuity Phase. In this case client moves to
   Continuity phase by sending a READY message including the header
   "Stage: 2".

   The second case, in which one or more quality constraints have not
   been met, is detailed in section 7.5.4.



7.5.2 Stage 1: Measurement of Bandwidth and Packet Loss

   This stage begins in a similar way to stage 0, sending a READY
   request over TCP. This READY message "Stage" header value is 1.
   The server answers with a Q4S 200 OK message to synchronize the
   initiation of the measurements as shown in Figure 9.










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           +------------------------------------------------+
           |                                                |
           | Client                                Server   |
           |                                                |
           |      --------- Q4S READY 1 ----------->        |
           |      <-------- Q4S 200 OK -------------        |
           |                                                |
           |      --------- Q4S BWIDTH  ----------->        |
           |      <-------- Q4S BWIDTH  ------------        |
           |      --------- Q4S BWIDTH  ----------->        |
           |      <-------- Q4S BWIDTH  ------------        |
           |                  ...                           |
           |                                                |
           +------------------------------------------------+
        Figure 9 Starting bandwidth and packet loss measurement



   Client Request:
   =========================
          READY q4s://www.example.com Q4S/1.0
          User-Agent: q4s-ua-experimental-1.0
          Stage: 1
          Session-Id: 53655765
          Content-Length: 0

   =========================

   Server Response:
   =========================
     Q4S/1.0 200 OK
          Session-Id: 53655765
          Stage: 1
          Content-Length: 0

   =========================


   Just after receiving the 200 OK, both the client and the server
   MUST start sending BWIDTH messages simultaneously using the UDP
   q4s ports. Section 7.3.3 describes the bandwidth measurement in
   detail.



   At the end of this stage 1, there are three possibilities:

     o  The bandwidth and packet loss constraints are reached in both
        directions




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     o  The bandwidth and packet loss constraints are not reached in
        one both directions.

   In the first case, Stage 1 is finished. Client and server are
   ready for Continuity phase. The client moves to this phase by
   sending a READY message including the header "Stage: 2". The
   server answer MUST be 200 OK as shown in Figure 10.


           +------------------------------------------------+
           |                                                |
           | Client                                Server   |
           |                                                |
           |     ---------  Q4S READY 2 -------------->     |
           |     <---- Q4S 200 OK with trigger URI-----     |
           |                                                |
           |     ---------   HTTP GET ---------------->     |
           |                                                |
           |            (Application starts)                |
           |                                                |
           +------------------------------------------------+

          Figure 10    Trigger the application using HTTP URI






























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   Client Request:
   =========================
   READY q4s://www.example.com Q4S/1.0
   User-Agent: q4s-ua-experimental-1.0
   Stage: 2
   Session-Id: 53655765
   Content-Length: 0

   =========================


   Server Answer:
   =========================
   Q4S/1.0 200 OK
   Date: Mon, 10 Jun 2010 10:00:01 GMT
   Session-Id: 53655765
   Trigger-URI: http://www.example.com/app_start
   Expires: 3000
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Signature: 6ec1ba40e2adf2d783de530ae254acd4f3477ac4
   Content-Length: 131

   (SDP not shown)
   =========================


   If the "Trigger-URI" header is present, the client SHOULD send an
   HTTP request to this URI.

   The second case, with violated network constraints is explained in
   7.5.4.




7.5.3 Quality Constraints Not Reached

   After finishing Stage 1 of the Negotiation phase, the client and
   the server have each other measured parameter values as these have
   been exchanged in the "Measurements" headers of the PING and
   BWIDTH messages. If there is one or more parameters that do not
   comply with the uplink or downlink application constraints
   required both the server and the client are aware of it.

   If there is any quality parameter that does not meet the uplink or
   downlink quality constraints specified in the SDP message, two
   scenarios are possible depending on the specified alerting-mode
   (if not present, default value is "Reactive" alerting mode):


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   a) Q4S-aware-network alerting mode: the server MUST send a Q4S-
      ALERT message to the client including the digital signature
      header, and the client MUST answer with the same Q4S-ALERT
      message. The Signature header contains the signed hash value of
      the SDP body in order to protect all the SDP the data and
      therefore it MUST contain the measurement parameters in the
      body.

   Server request
   =========================
   Q4S-ALERT q4s://www.example.com Q4S/1.0
   Host: www.example.com
   User-Agent: q4s-ua-experimental-1.0
   Session-Id: 53655765
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: 142

   v=0
   o=q4s-UA 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 192.0.2.33
   s=Q4S
   i=Q4S parameters
   t=0 0
   a=qos-level:1/2
   a=alerting-mode: Q4S-aware-network
   a=alert-pause:5000
   a=public-address:client IP4 198.51.100.51
   a=public-address:server IP4 198.51.100.58
   a=latency:40
   a=jitter:10/10
   a=bandwidth:20/6000
   a=packetloss:0.50/0.50
   a=flow:app downlink TCP/10000-20000
   a=flow:app uplink TCP/56000
   a=flow:q4s downlink UDP/55000
   a=flow:q4s downlink TCP/55001
   a=flow:q4s uplink UDP/56000
   a=flow:q4s uplink TCP/56001
   a=measurement:procedure default(50/50,50/50,5000,256/256,256/256)
   a=measurement:latency 30
   a=measurement:jitter 6/4
   a=measurement:bandwidth 200/4000
   a=measurement:packetloss 0.20/0.33
   =========================


   At this point, both client and server keep on measuring but
   without sending new Q4S ALERT messages during the "alert-pause"
   milliseconds.





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   b) Reactive alerting mode: the server stack MUST send an alert
      notification to the Actuator, and the Actuator MUST answer with
      an acknowledgement to the received alert notification. The
      alert notification sent to the Actuator by the server stack
      doesn't follow Q4S message style but should have all the
      information the Actuator will need for the actions to be taken,
      which will be implementation dependent.

   At this point, during Negotiation phase, both client and server
   keep on measuring without sending new alert notifications to the
   Actuator during the "alert-pause" milliseconds specified in the
   SDP. This way, both client and server will detect any improvement
   in network conditions as soon as the network reacts. The
   application can start as soon as the number of measurements
   indicated in the measurement procedure attribute indicates that
   the quality parameters are met.

   Same applies to Continuity phase: the measurement dialog between
   client and server must not be interrupted by any possible ALERT
   message.



7.5.3.1  Actuator Role

   Actuator receives notifications of unmet requirements from the Q4S
   server stack, and act upon the application or the network policy
   server, according to logic out of scope of this protocol.

   The Actuator logic activates mechanisms at application level
   or/and network level based on a quality level dictionary, in which
   each level meaning is implementation dependent and each level
   involve different actions based on rules to keep certain user
   experience quality.

   The type of actions that an Actuator can take at application level
   are application dependent and MAY involve:

     o  Reduction of application functionalities, such as limitation
        of application speed or application options.

     o  Reduction of application resources usage, such as reduction
        of frames per second in a video app or any other parameter
        modification in order to adapt to network conditions.

   Apart from actions at application level, the Actuator MAY act at
   network level if a network policy server is available.




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7.5.3.2  Policy Server Role

   A network policy server may be part of the reactive scenario and
   it is in charge of managing network quality provision. Network
   policy server may implement all or some of these features (but not
   exclusive to):

     o  Server validation in terms of quality constraints.

     o  Authentication (Signature validation) and security (block
        malicious clients)

     o  Policy rules (following rules are only examples):

          - Maximum quality level allowed for the ACP

          - Time bands allowed for providing quality sessions

          - Number of simultaneous quality sessions allowed

          - Maximum time used by allowed quality sessions

          - Etc.

   If any of the policy rules fail, a Q4S-ALERT message MUST be
   answered by a 6XX error, indicating the cause.



7.5.4 QoS Level Changes

   If any constraint was violated, server MAY trigger a Q4S-ALERT
   asking for higher qos-level attribute. The maximum qos-level
   allowed is 9, both uplink and downlink.

   If the qos-level has reached the maximum value for downlink or
   uplink without matching the constraints, then a CANCEL request
   MUST be sent by the client using the TCP port determined in the
   handshake phase in order to release the session. In reaction to
   the reception of the CANCEL request, the server MUST send a CANCEL
   request too. If no CANCEL request is received, the expiration time
   cancels the session at server side.











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   Client Request:
   =========================
   CANCEL q4s://www.example.com Q4S/1.0
   User-Agent: q4s-ua-experimental-1.0
   Session-Id: 53655765
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: 142

   (SDP not shown)
   =========================

   Server Request in reaction to Client Request:
   =========================
   CANCEL q4s://www.example.com Q4S/1.0
   Session-Id: 53655765
   Expires: 0
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Signature: 6ec1ba40e2adf2d783de530ae254acd4f3477ac4
   Content-Length: 131

   (SDP not shown)
   =========================


7.6   Continuity Phase

   During the negotiation phase, latency, jitter, bandwidth and
   packet loss have been measured. During the continuity phase
   bandwidth will not be measured again because bandwidth
   measurements may disturb application performance.

   This phase is supposed to be executed at the same time as the
   real-time application is being used.


   This document only covers the default procedure. The continuity
   operation with default procedure is based on a sliding window of
   samples. The number of samples involved in the sliding window may
   be different for jitter and latency than for packet-loss
   calculations according to the fifth and sixth parameters of the
   measurement procedure attribute. In the example, shown in Figure
   11, the jitter and latency sliding window comprises 40 samples
   whereas the size of the packet-loss sliding window is 100 samples:

   a=measurement:procedure default(50/50,75/75,5000,40/40,100/100)

   In addition, the sizes of these windows are configurable per
   direction: uplink and downlink values may differ.

   PING requests are sent continuously (in both directions) and when
   the Sequence-Number header reaches the maximum value, the client


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   continues sending PING messages with the Sequence-Number header
   starting again at zero. When the server PING Sequence-Number
   header reaches the maximum value, it does the same, starting again
   from zero.

   On the client side, the measured values of downlink jitter,
   downlink packet loss and latency are calculated using the last
   samples, discarding older ones, in a sliding window schema.

          +--------------------------------------------------+
          |                                                  |
          | 55 56 57 . . . 253 254 255 0 1 2 . . . 55 56     |
          |        A                                   A     |
          |        |                                   |     |
          |        +-----------------------------------+     |
          |                                                  |
          +--------------------------------------------------+

                  Figure 11    Sliding samples window

   Only if the server detects that the measured values (downlink or
   uplink jitter, packet loss or latency) are not reaching the
   quality constraints, a Q4S ALERT is triggered and sent either to
   the client or to the Actuator, depending on the alerting mode, and
   the alert-pause timer is started.

   In Q4S-aware-network alerting mode shown in Figure 12, if the
   client receives a Q4S ALERT message, it MUST answer sending the
   Q4S ALERT request message back to the server including the SDP
   (with its corresponding digital signature).

   Both client and server will keep performing measurements but no
   other Q4S ALERT message MUST be sent during "alert-pause"
   milliseconds.  The operations needed to act on the network and the
   agents in charge of them are out of scope of this draft.


















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           +------------------------------------------------+
           |                                                |
           | Client                      Server             |
           |                                                |
           |               ...                              |
           |   ----------- PING ---------->                 |
           |   <--------- 200 OK ----------                 |
           |   <------- Q4S-ALERT ---------                 |
           |   -------- Q4S-ALERT -------->                 |
           |   <---------- PING -----------                 |
           |   ---------- 200 OK --------->                 |
           |   ----------- PING ---------->                 |
           |   <--------- 200 OK ----------                 |
           |   <---------- PING -----------                 |
           |   ---------- 200 OK --------->                 |
           |        ...                                     |
           |                                                |
           +------------------------------------------------+

       Figure 12   Continuity in Q4S-aware-network alerting mode



   In the Reactive scenario shown in Figure 13, if the server detects
   that the measured values (downlink or uplink jitter, packet loss
   or latency) are not reaching the quality constraints, an alert
   notification is triggered and sent to the Actuator. The Actuator
   MUST then answer to the server stack with an alert acknowledgement

   The measurement dialog between the client and the server MUST NOT
   be interrupted by any possible ALERT message.






















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           +------------------------------------------------+
           |                                                |
           | Client             Server             Actuator |
           |        ...                                     |
           |   --- PING ---------->                         |
           |   <-- 200 OK----------                         |
           |   <----- PING --------                         |
           |   <--- 200 OK -------- ---- alert              |
           |                            notification -->    |
           |                                                |
           |   --- PING ----------> <--- alert              |
           |                             acknowledge ---    |
           |   <-- 200 OK----------                         |
           |   <----- PING --------                         |
           |   --- 200 OK -------->                         |
           |        ...                                     |
           |                                                |
           +------------------------------------------------+

   Figure 13   Continuity in Reactive alerting mode


7.7   Termination Phase

   The Termination phase is the end point for the established Q4S
   session that is reached in the following cases:

     .  A CANCEL message has been received. The client sends a
        CANCEL message due to the impossibility of the network to
        meet the required quality constraints. The client and server
        application will be notified by the respective Q4S stack.

     .  Session expires: if after the Expires time no client or
        server activity is detected, that end cancels the session.

     .  A BEGIN message has been received by the server. The pre-
        existing Q4S quality session is cancelled and a new session
        will be initiated.

   The meaning of Termination phase in terms of release of resources
   or accounting is application dependent and out of scope of the Q4S
   protocol.

   In Reactive alerting mode, Q4S CANCEL messages received by the Q4S
   server must cause the sending of cancel notifications sent from
   the server stack to the Actuator in order to release possible
   assigned resources for the session.

      7.7.1. Sanity Check of Quality Sessions




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   A session may finish due to several reasons (client shutdown,
   client CANCEL request, constraints not reached, etc), and any
   session finished MUST release the assigned resources.

   In order to release the assigned server resources for the session,
   the "Expires" header indicates the maximum interval of time
   without exchanging any Q4S message.





7.8   Dynamic Constraints And Flows

   Depending on the nature of the application, the quality
   constraints to be reached may evolve, changing some or all quality
   constraint values in any direction.

   The client MUST be able to deal with this possibility. When the
   server sends an SDP document attached to a response (200 OK, or
   Q4S-ALERT, etc), the client MUST take all the new received values,
   overriding any previous value in use.

   The dynamic changes on the quality constraints can be as a result
   of two possibilities:

     o  The application communicates to the Q4S server a change in
        the constraints. In this case the application requirements
        can evolve and the Q4S server will be aware of them.

     o  The application uses TCP flows. In that case, in order to
        guarantee a constant throughput, the nature of TCP behavior
        forces the use of a composite constraint function, which
        depends on RTT, packet loss and window control mechanism
        implemented in each TCP stack.

   TCP throughput can be less than actual bandwidth if the
   Bandwidth-Delay Product (BDP) is large or if the network suffers
   from a high packet loss rate. In both cases, TCP congestion
   control algorithms may result in a suboptimal performance.

   Different TCP congestion control implementations like Reno [23],
   High Speed TCP (RFC 3649 [24]), CUBIC [25], Compound TCP (CTCP
   [26]), etc. reach different throughputs under the same network
   conditions of RTT and packet loss. In all cases, depending on the
   RTT measured value, the Q4S server could change dynamically the
   packetloss constraints (defined in SDP) in order to make possible
   to reach a required throughput or vice versa (use packetloss
   measurement to change dynamically latency constraints).




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   A general guideline to calculate the packetloss constraint and RTT
   constraint consists in approximating the throughput using a
   simplified formula, which should take into account the TCP stack
   implementation of the receiver, in addition to RTT and packet
   loss:

             Th= Function( RTT, packet loss, ...)

   Then, depending on RTT measured values, set dynamically the
   packetloss constraint.

   It is possible to easily calculate a worst-case boundary for the
   Reno algorithm, which should ensure for all algorithms that the
   target throughput is actually achieved. Except that, high-speed
   algorithms will then have even a larger throughput, if more
   bandwidth is available.

   For the Reno algorithm, the Mathis' formula may be used [23] for
   the upper bound on the throughput:

            Th <= (MSS/RTT)*(1 / sqrt{p})

   In absence of packet loss, a practical limit for the TCP
   throughput is the receiver_window_size divided by the round-trip
   time. However, if the TCP implementation uses a window scale
   option, this limit can reach the available bandwidth value.

7.9   Qos-level Upgrade And Downgrade Operation

   Each time the server detects violation of constraints, the alert
   mechanism is triggered, the alert-pause timer is started, and the
   qos-level is increased. When this happens repeatedly, and the qos-
   level reaches its maximum value (value 9), the session is
   cancelled. But when the violation of constraints stops before
   reaching qos-level maximum value, the recovery mechanism allows
   for the qos-level upgrade gradually.

   Following, this downgrade and upgrade of qos-level is explained
   with an example:

     1. A Q4S session is initiated successfully with qos-level=0.

     2. During the continuity phase, violation of constraints is
        detected; qos-level is increased to 1, a Q4S-ALERT is sent by
        the server to the client and alert-pause timer is started.

     3. Alert-pause timer expires and still violation of constraints
        is detected; qos-level is increased to 2, a Q4S-ALERT is sent
        by the server to the client and alert-pause timer is started.




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     4. Alert-pause timer expires but violation of constraints has
        stopped; recovery-pause is started.

     5. Recovery-pause timer expires, and no violation of
        constraints has been detected meanwhile; qos-level is
        decreased to 1, a Q4S-RECOVERY is sent by the server to the
        client and recovery-pause timer is started again.

     6. Recovery-pause timer expires again and no violation of
        constraints has been detected meanwhile; qos-level is
        decreased to 0 and a Q4S-RECOVERY is sent by the server to
        the client;  recovery-pause timer is not started this time as
        qos-level has reached its initial value.



   When the network configuration allows for the possibility of
   managing Q4S flows and application flows independently (either is
   a network-based QoS or a Q4S aware network), the qos-level
   downgrade process could be managed more efficiently using a
   strategy that allows for carrying out qos-level downgrades
   excluding app flows from SDP dynamically. The Q4S flows would be
   downgraded to allow for measurements on a lower quality level
   without interference of the application flows. A Q4S client MUST
   allow this kind of SDP modifications by the server.

   Periodically (every several minutes, depending on the
   implementation) a Q4S-ALERT could be triggered, in which the level
   is downgraded for Q4S flows, excluding application flows from the
   embedded SDP of that request.

   This mechanism allows to measure at lower levels of quality while
   application flows continue using a higher qos level value.

     o  If the measurements in the lower level meet the quality
        constraints, then a Q4S-RECOVERY message to this lower qos-
        level may be triggered, in which the SDP includes the
        application flows in addition to Q4S flows.

     o  If the measurements in the lower level do not meet the
        constraints, then a new Q4S-ALERT to the previous qos-level
        MUST be triggered, in which the SDP includes only the Q4S
        flows.










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           +------------------------------------------------+
           |                                                |
           | qos-level                                      |
           |   A                                            |
           |   |                                            |
           |  4|                                            |
           |   |                                            |
           |  3|             +------+                       |
           |   |             |      |                       |
           |  2|        +----+      +----+     +---         |
           |   |        |                |     |            |
           |  1|   +----+                +-----+            |
           |   |   |                                        |
           |  0+---+---------------------------------> time |
           |                                                |
           +------------------------------------------------+

              Figure 14    Possible evolution of qos-level

   This mechanism, illustrated in Figure 14, avoids the risk of
   disturbing the application, while the measurements are being run
   in lower levels. However, this optional optimization of resources
   MUST be used carefully.

   The chosen period to measure a lower qos level is implementation
   dependent. Therefore, it is not included as a measurement
   procedure parameter. It is RECOMMENDED to use a large value, such
   as 20 minutes.



8  General User Agent Behavior

8.1   Roles in Peer-to-Peer Scenarios

   In order to allow peer to peer applications, a Q4S User Agent (UA)
   MUST be able to assume both client and server role. The role
   assumed depends on who sends the first message.

   In a communication between two UAs, the UA that sends the Q4S
   BEGIN request in the first place, for starting the handshake
   phase, shall assume the client role.

   If both UASs send the BEGIN request at the same time, they will
   wait for a random time to restart again as shown in Figure 15.

   Otherwise, an UA may be configured to act only as server (e.g.,
   content provider's side).





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           +-----------------------------------------------+
           |                                               |
           | UA(Client)                         UA(Server) |
           |                                               |
           |     -------- Q4S BEGIN ------------->         |
           |     <------- Q4S BEGIN --------------         |
           |                                               |
           |     ------- Q4S BEGIN -------------->         |
           |     <------ Q4S 200 OK --------------         |
           |                                               |
           |                                               |
           +-----------------------------------------------+

                        Figure 15    P2P roles.

8.2   Multiple Quality Sessions in Parallel

   A Q4S session is intended to be used for an application. It means
   that for using the application, the client MUST establish only one
   Q4S session against the server. Indeed, the relation between
   session-id and application is 1 to 1.

   If a user wants to participate in several independent Q4S sessions
   simultaneously against different servers (or against the same
   server) it can execute different Q4S clients to establish
   separately different Q4S sessions but it is NOT RECOMMENDED,
   because:

     o  The establishment of a new Q4S session may affect other
        running applications over other Q4S sessions during bandwidth
        measurement.

     o  If the negotiation phase is executed separately before
        running any application, the summation of bandwidth
        requirements could not be met when the applications are
        running in parallel.



8.3   General Client bBhavior

   A Q4S Client has different behaviors. We will use letters X,Y,Z to
   designate each different behavior (follow the letter bullets in
   figure 16).

     X) When it sends messages over TCP (methods BEGIN, READY, Q4S-
     ALERT, Q4S-RECOVERY and CANCEL) it behaves strictly like a state
     machine that sends requests and waits for responses. Depending
     on the response type it enters in a new state.




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   When it sends UDP messages (methods PING and BWIDTH), a Q4S client
   is not strictly a state machine that sends messages and waits for
   responses because:


     Y) At latency, jitter and packet loss measurement, the PING
     requests are sent periodically, not after receiving the response
     to the previous request. In addition, the client MUST answer the
     PING requests coming from the server, therefore the client
     assumes temporarily the role of a server.

     Z) At bandwidth and packet loss measurement stage, the client
     does not expect to receive responses when sending BWIDTH
     requests to the server. In addition, it MUST receive and process
     all server messages in order to achieve the downlink
     measurement.

   The Q4S-ALERT and CANCEL may have a conventional answer if an
   error is produced, otherwise the corresponding answer is formatted
   as a request message.


     +-----------+------------------------+-----------+-----------+
     | Handshake |    Negotiation         |Continuity |Termination|
     |   Phase   |      Phase             |   Phase   |  Phase    |
     |           |                        |           |           |
     | X ---------> Y --> X --> Z --> X ---> Y --> X ---> X       |
     |           |  A     |     A     |   |  A     |  |           |
     |           |  |     |     |     |   |  |     |  |           |
     |           |  +-----+     +-----+   |  +-----+  |           |
     |           |                        |           |           |
     +------------------------------------------------+-----------+

                Figure 16    Phases & client behaviors.



8.3.1 Generating Requests

   A valid Q4S request formulated by a Client MUST, at a minimum,
   contains the following header fields:

     o  If no SDP is included: the header Session-Id and Sequence-
        Number are mandatory.

     o  If SDP is included: Session-Id is embedded into SDP,
        therefore the inclusion of Session-Id header is optional but
        if present must have the same value. Measurements are
        embedded into the SDP only for Q4S-ALERT messages in order to
        be signed.



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   At any time, if the server sends a new SDP with updated values,
   client MUST take it into account.

8.4   General Server Behavior

   If a server does not understand a header field in a request (that
   is, the header field is not defined in this specification or in
   any supported extension), the server MUST ignore that header field
   and continue processing the message.

   The role of the server is changed at negotiation and continuity
   phases, in which server MUST send packets to measure jitter,
   latency and bandwidth. Therefore, the different behaviors of
   server are (follow the letter bullets in the figure 17):

      R) When the client sends messages over TCP (methods BEGIN,
      READY Q4S-ALERT, Q4S-RECOVERY and CANCEL) it behaves strictly
      like a state machine that receives messages and sends
      responses.

   When the client begins to send UDP messages (methods PING and
   BWIDTH), a Q4S server is not strictly a state machine that
   receives messages and sends responses because:

      S) At latency, jitter and packet loss measurement, the PING
      requests are sent periodically by the client but also by the
      server. In this case the server behaves as a server answering
      client requests but also behaves temporarily as a client,
      sending PING requests toward the client and receiving
      responses.

      T) At bandwidth and packet loss measurement, the server sends
      BWIDTH requests to the client. In addition, it MUST receive and
      process client messages in order to achieve the uplink
      measurement.

   The Q4S-ALERT and CANCEL may have a conventional answer if an
   error is produced, otherwise the corresponding answer is formatted
   as a request message.














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     +-----------+------------------------+-----------+-----------+
     | Handshake |    Negotiation         |Continuity |Termination|
     |   Phase   |      Phase             |   Phase   |  Phase    |
     |           |                        |           |           |
     | R ---------> S --> R --> T --> R ---> S --> R ---> R       |
     |           |  A     |     A     |   |  A     |  |           |
     |           |  |     |     |     |   |  |     |  |           |
     |           |  +-----+     +-----+   |  +-----+  |           |
     |           |                        |           |           |
     +------------------------------------------------+-----------+

                Figure 17    Phases & server behaviours.




9  Implementation Recommendations

9.1   Default Client Constraints

   To provide a default configuration, it would be good that the
   client had a configurable set of Quality headers in the
   implementation settings menu. Otherwise these quality headers will
   not be present in the first message.

   Different business models (out of scope of this proposal) may be
   achieved: depending on who pays for the quality session, the
   server can accept certain Client parameters sent in the first
   message, or force billing parameters on the server side.

9.2   Latency and Jitter Measurements

   Different client and server implementations may send a different
   number of PING messages for measuring, although at least 255
   messages should be considered to perform the latency measurement.
   The Stage 0 measurements only may be considered ended when neither
   client nor server receive new PING messages after an
   implementation-dependent guard time. Only after, client can send a
   "READY 1" message.

   In execution systems, where the timers are not accurate, a
   recommended approach consists of including the optional header
   "Timestamp" in the PING request with the time in which the message
   has been sent. This allows an accurate measurement of the jitter
   even with no identical intervals of time between PINGs.







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9.3   Bandwidth Measurements

   In programming languages or Operating Systems with limited timers
   or clock resolution, it is recommended to use an approach based on
   several intervals to send messages of 1KB (= 8000 bits), in order
   to reach the required bandwidth consumption using a rate as close
   as possible to a constant rate.

   For example, if the resolution is 1 millisecond, and the bandwidth
   to reach is 11Mbps, a good approach consists of sending:

     1 message of 1KB every 1 millisecond +

     1 message of 1KB every 3 milliseconds +

     1 message of 1KB every 23 milliseconds

   The number of intervals depends on required bandwidth and accuracy
   that the programmer wants to achieve.

   Considering messages of 1KB (= 8000 bits), a general approach to
   determine these intervals is

   1) Compute Target bandwidth / 8000 bits. In the example above is
     11Mbps/8000 = 1375 messages per second

   2) Divide the number of messages per second by 1000 to determine
     the number of messages per millisecond. 1375/1000 = 1'375. The
     integer value is the number of messages per millisecond (in this
     case, one). The pending bandwidth is now 375 messages per second

   3) To achieve the 375 messages per second, use a sub-multiple of
     1000 which must be less than 375

          1000/2 = 500 > 375

          1000/3 = 333 < 375

      In this case a message every 3 ms is suitable. The new pending
   target bandwidth is 375 -333 = 42 messages per second

   4) Repeat the same strategy as point 3, to reach the pending
     bandwidth. In this case, 23 ms is suitable because:

          1000/22 = 45 >42

          1000/23 = 43 >42

       1000 / 24 = 41.6 < 42




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   We can choose 24 ms but then we need to cover additional 0.4
   messages per second (42-41.6=0.4) and 43 is a number higher than
   42 but very close to it.

   In execution systems where the timers are not accurate, a
   recommended approach consists of checking at each interval the
   number of packets that should have been sent at this timestamp
   since origin and send the needed number of packets in order to
   reach the required bandwidth.

   The shorter packets are used, the more constant is the rate of
   bandwidth measurement. However, this may stress the execution
   system in charge of receiving and processing packets. As a
   consequence, some packets may be lost because of stack overflows.
   To deal with this potential issue, a larger packet is RECOMMENDED
   (2KB or more) taking into account the overhead produced by the
   chunks headers.



9.4   Packet Loss Measurement Resolution

   Depending on application nature and network conditions, a packet
   loss resolution less than 1% may be needed. In such cases, there
   is no limit to the number of samples used for this calculation. A
   tradeoff between time and resolution should be reached in each
   case. For example, in order to have a resolution of 1/10000, the
   last 10000 samples should be considered in the packet loss
   measured value.

   The problem of this approach is the reliability of old samples. If
   the interval used between PING messages is 50ms, then to have a
   resolution of 1/1000 it takes 50 seconds and a resolution of
   1/10000 takes 500 seconds (more than 8 minutes). The reliability
   of a packet loss calculation based on a sliding window of 8
   minutes depends on how fast network conditions evolve.

9.5   Measurements and Reactions

   Q4S can be used as a mechanism to measure and trigger network
   tuning and application level actions (i.e. lowering video bit-
   rate, reduce multiplayer interaction speed, etc) in real-time in
   order to reach the application constraints, addressing measured
   possible network degradation.



9.6   Instability Treatments

   There are two scenarios in which Q4S can be affected by network
   problems: loss of Q4S packets and outlier samples.


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9.6.1 Loss of Control Packets

   Lost UDP packets (PING or BWIDTH messages) don't cause any
   problems for the Q4S state machine, but if TCP packets are
   delivered too late (which we will consider as "lost"), some
   undesirable consequences could arise.

   Q4S does have protection mechanisms to overcome these situations.
   Examples:

     o  If a BEGIN packet is lost or its corresponding answer, after
        a certain timeout, the client SHOULD resend another BEGIN
        packet, resetting the session

     o  If a READY packet is lost, after a certain timeout, the
        client SHOULD resend another READY packet.

     o  If a QOS ALERT request is lost or its corresponding answer,
        after a certain timeout, the originator SHOULD resend another
        Q4S-ALERT packet.

     o  If a CANCEL request is lost or its corresponding answer,
        after a certain timeout, the originator SHOULD resend another
        CANCEL packet.



9.6.2 Outlier Samples



   Outlier samples are those jitter or latency values far from the
   general/average values of most samples.

   Hence Q4S default measurement method uses the statistical median
   formula for latency calculation, the outlier samples are
   neutralized. This is a very common filtering for noise or errors
   on signal and image processing.



9.7   Scenarios

   Q4S could be used in two scenarios:

     o  client to ACP (Application content provider)

     o  client to client (peer to peer scenario)



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9.7.1 Client to ACP

   One server:

   It is the common scenario in which client contact server to
   establish a Q4S session.



   N servers:

   In Content Delivery Networks and in general applications where
   delivery of contents can be achieved by different delivery nodes,
   two working mechanisms can be defined

     o  Starting mode: End-user may run Q4S against several delivery
        nodes and after some seconds choose the best one to start the
        multimedia session

     o  Prevention mode: During streaming session, user keeps several
        Q4S dialogs against different alternative delivery nodes. In
        case of congestion, end-user MAY change to the best
        alternative delivery node



9.7.2 Client to Client

   In order to solve the client to client scenario, a Q4S register
   function MUST be implemented. This allows clients contact each
   other for sending the BEGIN message. In this scenario, the
   Register server would be used by peers to publish their Q4S-
   Resource-Server header and their public IP address to make
   possible the assumption of  server role.

   The register function is out of scope of this protocol version,
   because different HTTP mechanisms can be used and Q4S MUST NOT
   force any.

10 Security Considerations

10.1  Confidentiality Issues

   Hence Q4S does not transport any application data, Q4S does not
   jeopardize the security of application data. However, other
   certain considerations may take place, like identity impersonation
   and measurements privacy and integrity.




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10.2  Integrity of Measurements and Authentication

   Identity impersonation could potentially produce anomalous Q4S
   measurements. If this attack is based on spoofing of server IP
   address, it can be avoided using the digital signature mechanism,
   included in the SDP. The network can easily validate this digital
   signature using the public key of the server certificate.

   Integrity of Q4S measurements under any malicious manipulation
   (such as Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack) relay on the same
   mechanism, the SDP signature.

   The Signature header contains the signed hash value of the SDP
   body in order to protect all the SDP data, including the
   measurements. This signature not only protects the integrity of
   data but also authenticates the server.

10.3  Privacy of Measurements

   This protocol could be supported over IPSec. Q4S relays on UDP and
   TCP, and IPSec supports both. If Q4S is used for application-based
   QoS, then IPsec is operationally valid but if Q4S is used to
   trigger network-based actions, then measurements could be wrong,
   unless IPSec ports be considered at any potential action over the
   network (such as prioritization of certain application flows).

10.4  Availability Issues

   Any loss of connectivity may interrupt the availability of Q4S
   service, and results in higher packet-loss measurements, which is
   just the desired behavior in these situations.

   In order to mitigate availability issues caused by malicious
   attacks (such as DoS and DDoS), a good practice is to enable Q4S
   service only for authenticated users. Q4S can be launched after
   user is authenticated by the application. At this moment, his IP
   address is known and the Q4S service may be enabled for this IP
   address. Otherwise Q4S service should appear unreachable.

10.5  Bandwidth Occupancy Issues

   Q4S bandwidth measurement is limited to the application needs. It
   means that all available bandwidth is not measured, but only the
   fraction required by the application. This allows other
   applications to use normally the rest of available bandwidth.

   However, a malicious Q4S client could re-starts Q4S sessions just
   after finishing the negotiation phase. The consequence would be to
   waste bandwidth for nothing.




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   In order to mitigate this possible anomalous behavior, it is
   RECOMMENDED to configure the server to reject sessions from the
   same end-point when this situation is detected.



11 Future Code Point Requirements

   If the ideas described in this document are pursued to become a
   protocol specification, then the code points described in this
   document will need to be assigned by IANA.

11.1  Service Port

   The need for an assigned PORT is to make possible a future Q4S
   aware network, capable of react by itself to Q4S alerts. A
   specific port would simplify the identification of the protocol by
   network elements in charge of take possible reactive decisions.
   Therefore, the need for a port by IANA may be postponed to the
   need for a future Q4S aware network.

   Service Name: Q4S

   Transport Protocol(s): TCP

   Assignee :

      Name : Jose Javier Garcia Aranda

      Email: jose_javier.garcia_aranda@nokia.com

   Contact :

      Name : Jose Javier Garcia Aranda

      Email: jose_javier.garcia_aranda@nokia.com



   Description : The service associated with this request is in
   charge of the establishment of new Q4S sessions, and during the
   session manages the pass to a new protocol stage (handshake,
   negotiation and continuity) as well as inform of alerts when
   measurements do not meet the requirements.

   Reference : this document. This service does not use IP-layer
   broadcast, multicast, or anycast communication.






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12 References

12.1  Normative References

  [1]      Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
        Transfer              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax
        and Routing", RFC 7230, June 2014.

  [2]      Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
        Transfer              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and
        Content", RFC 7231, June 2014.

  [3]      Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
        Transfer              Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional
        Requests", RFC 7232, June 2014.

  [4]      Fielding, R., Ed., Y. Lafon, Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed.
        "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests",
        RFC 7233, June 2014.

  [5]      Fielding, R., Ed., M. Nottingham, Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed.
        "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching", RFC 7234,
        June 2014.

  [6]      Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed. "Hypertext Transfer
        Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication", RFC 7235, June 2014.

  [7]      Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000

  [8]      Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
        Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
        Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003.

  [9]      Thomson, M., "Version-Independent Properties of QUIC",
        April 2019

  [10]     Handley, M. and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description
        Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

  [11]     Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
        RequirementLevels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

  [12]     Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R. and L. Masinter, "Uniform
        Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 3986,
        January 2005.

  [13]     Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model
        with SDP", RFC 3264, June 2002.

  [14]     Eastlake, D. and Hansen, T. "US Secure Hash Algorithms",
        RFC 4634, May 1992.


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  [15]     Moriarty, K., Johnsson, J., B. Kaliski, "Public-Key
        Cryptography Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography
        Specifications version 2.2", RFC 8017, November 2016.

  [16]     Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, " Transmission
        Control Protocol", RFC 793, September 1981.

  [17]     Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
        August 1980.

  [18]     Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., Jacobson, V.
        "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", RFC
        3550, july 2003.

  [19]     Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
        10646", RFC 3629, November 2003.

  [20]  Resnick, P., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322, October
        2008

  [21]  Leiba, S., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119
        Key Words", RFC 8174, May 2007





12.2  Informative References

  [22]     Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
        A. Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M. and Schooler, E. ,
        "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

  [23]     Mathis, M., Semke, J., Mahdavi, J., Ott, T., "The
        Macroscopic Behavior of the TCP Congestion Avoidance
        Algorithm", Computer Communications Review, 27(3), July
        1997.

  [24]     Floyd, S., "HighSpeed TCP for a Large Congestion
        Windows", RFC 3649, December 2003.

  [25]     Rhee, I., Xu, L., Ha, S., "CUBIC for Fast Long-Distance
        Networks", Internet-draft draft-rhee-tcpm-cubic-02, February
        2009.

  [26]     Sridharan, M., Tan, K., Bansal, D., Thaler, D., "Compound
        TCP: A New TCP Congestion Control for High-Speed and Long
        Distance Networks", Internet-draft draft-sridharan-tcpm-
        ctcp-02, November, 2008.




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  [27]     Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and M.
        Zekauskas, "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol (OWAMP)",
        RFC 4656, September 2006.

  [28]     Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J.
        Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)",
        RFC 5357, October 2008.














































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13 Acknowledgments

   Many people have made comments and suggestions contributing to
   this document. In particular, we would like to thank:

   Victor Villagra, Sonia Herranz, Clara Cubillo Pastor, Francisco
   Duran Pina, Michael Scharf, Jesus Soto Viso and Federico Guillen.

   Additionally, we want to thank the Spanish Centre for the
   Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI) as well as the Spanish
   Science and Tech Ministry which funds this initiative through
   their innovation programs.







































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14 Contributors

   Jacobo Perez Lajo
   Nokia Spain
   Email: jacobo.perez@nokia.com

   Luis Miguel Diaz Vizcaino
   Nokia Spain
   Email: Luismi.Diaz@nokia.com

   Gonzalo Munoz Fernandez
   Nokia Spain
   Email: gonzalo.munoz_fernandez.ext@nokia.com

   Manuel Alarcon Granero
   Nokia Spain
   Email: manuel.alarcon_granero.ext@nokia.com

   Francisco Jose juan Quintanilla
   Nokia Spain
   Email: francisco_jose.juan_quintanilla.ext@nokia.com

   Carlos Barcenilla
   Universidad Politecnica de Madrid

   Juan Quemada
   Universidad Politecnica de Madrid
   Email: jquemada@dit.upm.es

   Ignacio Maestro
   Tecnalia Research & Innovation
   Email: ignacio.maestro@tecnalia.com

   Lara Fajardo Ibanez
   Optiva Media
   Email: lara.fajardo@optivamedia.com

   Pablo Lopez Zapico
   Optiva Media
   Email: Pablo.lopez@optivamedia.com

   David Muelas Recuenco
   Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
   Email: dav.muelas@uam.es









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   Jesus Molina Merchan
   Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
   jesus.molina@uam.es

   Jorge E. Lopez de Vergara Mendez
   Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
   Email: jorge.lopez_vergara@uam.es

   Victor Manuel Maroto Ortega
   Optiva Media
   Email: victor.maroto@optivamedia.com










































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15 Authors' Addresses

   Jose Javier Garcia Aranda
   Nokia
   C/Maria Tubau 9
   28050 Madrid
   Spain
   Phone: +34 91 330 4348
   Email: jose_javier.garcia_aranda@nokia.com

   Monica Cortes
   Universidad Politecnica de Madrid
   Avenida Complutense 30
   28040 Madrid
   Spain
   Email: cortesm@dit.upm.es

   Joaquin Salvachua
   Universidad Politecnica de Madrid
   Avenida Complutense 30
   28040 Madrid
   Spain
   Phone: +34 91 0672134
   Email: jsalvachua@dit.upm.es

   Maribel Narganes
   Tecnalia Research & Innovation
   Parque Cientifico y Tecnologico de Bizkaia
   Geldo Auzoa, Edificio 700
   E-48160 Derio (Bizkaia)
   Spain
   Phone: +34 946 430 850
   Email: maribel.narganes@tecnalia.com

   Inaki Martinez Sarriegui
   Optiva Media
   Edificio Europa II,
   Calle Musgo 2, 1G,
   28023 Madrid
   Spain
   Phone: +34 91 297 7271
   Email: inaki.martinez@optivamedia.com











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