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Versions: 00 01

Network Working Group                                  A. Chernyakhovsky
Internet-Draft                                                 D. McCall
Intended status: Informational                               D. Schinazi
Expires: 12 July 2021                                         Google LLC
                                                          8 January 2021


         Requirements for a MASQUE Protocol to Proxy IP Traffic
                   draft-ietf-masque-ip-proxy-reqs-01

Abstract

   There is interest among MASQUE working group participants in
   designing a protocol that can proxy IP traffic over HTTP.  This
   document describes the set of requirements for such a protocol.

   Discussion of this work is encouraged to happen on the MASQUE IETF
   mailing list masque@ietf.org or on the GitHub repository which
   contains the draft: https://github.com/ietf-wg-masque/draft-ietf-
   masque-ip-proxy-reqs.

Discussion Venues

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
   https://github.com/ietf-wg-masque/draft-ietf-masque-ip-proxy-reqs.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 12 July 2021.







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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text
   as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Consumer VPN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Point to Point Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.3.  Point to Network Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.4.  Network to Network Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  IP Session Establishment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Proxying of IP packets  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  Maximum Transmission Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.4.  IP Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.5.  Route Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.6.  Identity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.7.  Transport Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.8.  Flow Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.9.  Indistinguishability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.10. Support HTTP/2 and HTTP/3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.11. Multiplexing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.1.  Load balancing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.3.  Reliable Transmission of IP Packets . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.4.  Configuration of Congestion and Flow Control  . . . . . .   7
     4.5.  Data Transport Compression  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   5.  Non-requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.1.  Addressing Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.2.  Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.3.  IP Packet Extraction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9



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   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10

1.  Introduction

   There exist several IETF standards for proxying IP in a way that is
   authenticated and confidential, such as IKEv2/IPsec [IKEV2].
   However, those are distinguishable from common Internet traffic and
   often blocked.  Additionally, large server deployments have expressed
   interest in using a VPN solution that leverages existing security
   protocols such as QUIC [QUIC] or TLS [TLS] to avoid adding another
   protocol to their security posture.

   This document describes the set of requirements for a protocol that
   can proxy IP traffic over HTTP.  The requirements outlined below are
   similar to the considerations made in designing the CONNECT-UDP
   method [CONNECT-UDP], additionally including IP-specific
   requirements, such as a means of negotiating the routes that should
   be advertised on either end of the connection.

   Discussion of this work is encouraged to happen on the MASQUE IETF
   mailing list masque@ietf.org or on the GitHub repository which
   contains the draft: https://github.com/ietf-wg-masque/draft-ietf-
   masque-ip-proxy-reqs.

1.1.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

1.2.  Definitions

   *  Data Transport: The mechanism responsible for transmitting IP
      packets over HTTP.  This can involve streams or datagrams.

   *  IP Session: An association between client and server whereby both
      agree to proxy IP traffic given certain configuration properties.
      This is similar to a Child Security Association in IKEv2
      terminology.  An IP Session uses Data Transports to transmit
      packets.





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2.  Use Cases

   There are multiple reasons to deploy an IP proxying protocol.  This
   section discusses some examples of use cases that MUST be supported
   by the protocol.  Note that while the protocol needs to support these
   use cases, the protocol elements that allow them may be optional.

2.1.  Consumer VPN

   Consumer VPNs refer to network applications that allow a user to hide
   some properties of their traffic from some network observers.  In
   particular, it can hide the identity of servers the client is
   connecting to from the client's network provider, and can hide the
   client's IP address (and derived geographical information) from the
   servers they are communicating with.  Note that this hidden
   information is now available to the VPN service provider, so is only
   beneficial for clients who trust the VPN service provider more than
   other entities.

2.2.  Point to Point Connectivity

   Point-to-point connectivity creates a private, encrypted and
   authenticated network between two IP addresses.  This is useful, for
   example, with container networking to provide a virtual (overlay)
   network with addressing separate from the physical transport.  An
   example of this is Wireguard.

2.3.  Point to Network Connectivity

   Point-to-Network connectivity is the more traditional remote-access
   "VPN" use case, frequently used when a user needs to connect to a
   different network (such as an enterprise network) for access to
   resources that are not exposed to the public Internet.

2.4.  Network to Network Connectivity

   Network-to-Network connectivity is also called a site-to-site VPN.
   Similar to the point-to-network use case, the goal is to connect two
   networks that are not exposed publicly.  The site-to-site aspects
   make this transparent to the user; the entire networks are connected
   to each other and route packets transparently without a VPN client
   installed on the user's device.  This style of connectivity can also
   be used to connect devices that cannot run VPN clients through to the
   network.







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3.  Requirements

   This section lists requirements for a protocol that can proxy IP over
   an HTTP connection.

3.1.  IP Session Establishment

   The protocol will allow the client to request establishment of an IP
   Session, along with configuration options and one or more associated
   Data Transports.  The server will have the ability to accept or deny
   the client's request.

3.2.  Proxying of IP packets

   The protocol will establish Data Transports, which will be able to
   forward IP packets.  The Data Transports MUST be able to forward
   packets in their unmodified entirety, although extensions may enable
   the use of modified packet formats (e.g., compression).  The protocol
   will support both IPv6 [IPV6] and IPv4 [IPV4].

3.3.  Maximum Transmission Unit

   The protocol will allow endpoints to inform each other of the Maximum
   Transmission Unit (MTU) they are willing to forward.  This will allow
   avoiding IP fragmentation, especially as IPv6 does not allow IP
   fragmentation by nodes along the path.

3.4.  IP Assignment

   The client will be able to request to be assigned an IP address
   range, optionally specifying a preferred range.  In response to that
   request, the server will either assign a range of its choosing to the
   client, or decline the request.  For symmetry, the server may request
   assignment of an IP address range from the client, and the client
   will either assign a range or decline the request.

3.5.  Route Negotiation

   At any point in an IP Session (not limited to its initial
   negotiation), the protocol will allow both client and server to
   inform its peer that it can route a set of IP prefixes.  Both
   endpoints can also request a route to a given prefix, and the peer
   can choose to provide that route or not.

   Note that if an endpoint provides its peer with a route, the peer is
   in no way obligated to route its traffic through the endpoint.





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3.6.  Identity

   When negotiating the creation of an IP Session, the protocol will
   allow both endpoints to exchange an identifier.  As examples, the
   identity could be a user name, an email address, a token, or a fully-
   qualified domain name.  Note that this requirement does not cover
   authenticating the identifier.

3.7.  Transport Security

   The protocol MUST be run over a protocol that provides mutual
   authentication, confidentiality and integrity.  Using QUIC or TLS
   would meet this requirement.

3.8.  Flow Control

   The protocol will allow the ability to proxy IP packets without flow
   control, at least when HTTP/3 is in use.  QUIC DATAGRAM frames are
   not flow controlled and would meet this requirement.  The document
   defining the protocol will provide guidance on how best to use flow
   control to improve IP Session performance.

3.9.  Indistinguishability

   A passive network observer not participating in the encrypted
   connection should not be able to distinguish IP proxying from regular
   encrypted HTTP Web traffic by only observing non-encrypted parts of
   the traffic.  Specifically, any data sent unencrypted (such as
   headers, or parts of the handshake) should look like the same
   unencrypted data that would be present for Web traffic.  Traffic
   analysis is out of scope for this requirement.

3.10.  Support HTTP/2 and HTTP/3

   The IP proxying protocol discussed in this document will run over
   HTTP.  The protocol SHOULD strongly prefer to use HTTP/3 [H3] and
   SHOULD use the QUIC DATAGRAM frames [DGRAM] when available to improve
   performance.  The protocol SHOULD also support HTTP/2 [H2] as a
   fallback when UDP is blocked on the network path.  Proxying IP over
   HTTP/2 MAY result in lower performance than over HTTP/3.

3.11.  Multiplexing

   Since recent HTTP versions support concurrently running multiple
   requests over the same connection, the protocol SHOULD support
   multiple independent instances of IP proxying over a given HTTP
   connection.




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4.  Extensibility

   The protocol will provide a mechanism by which clients and servers
   can add extension information to the exchange that establishes the IP
   Session.  If the solution uses an HTTP request and response, this
   could be accomplished using HTTP headers.

   Once the IP Session is established, the protocol will provide a
   mechanism that allows reliably exchanging extension messages in both
   directions at any point in the lifetime of the IP Session.

   The subsections below list possible extensions that designers of the
   protocol will keep in mind to ensure it will be possible to design
   such extensions.

4.1.  Load balancing

   This extension would allow for load balancing of the traffic sent
   across the IP Session, such as to another server.  This allows the IP
   proxying mechanisms to scale-out to multiple servers.

4.2.  Authentication

   Since the protocol will offer a way to convey identity, extensions
   will allow authenticating that identity, from both the client and
   server, during the establishment of the IP Session.  For example, an
   extension could allow a client to offer an OAuth Access Token [OAUTH]
   when requesting an IP Session.  As another example, another extension
   could allow an endpoint to demonstrate knowledge of a cryptographic
   secret.

4.3.  Reliable Transmission of IP Packets

   While it is desirable to transmit IP packets unreliably in most
   cases, an extension could provide a mechanism to allow forwarding
   some packets reliably.  For example, when using HTTP/3, this can be
   accomplished by allowing Data Transports to run over both DATAGRAM
   and STREAM frames.

4.4.  Configuration of Congestion and Flow Control

   An extension will allow exchanging congestion and flow control
   parameters to improve performance.  For example, an extension could
   disable congestion control for non-retransmitted Data Transports if
   it knows that the proxied traffic is itself congestion-controlled.






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4.5.  Data Transport Compression

   While the core protocol Data Transports will transmit IP packets in
   their unmodified entirety, an extension can allow compressing these
   packets.

5.  Non-requirements

   This section discusses topics that are explicitly out of scope for
   the IP Proxying protocol.  These topics MAY be handled by
   implementers or future extensions.

5.1.  Addressing Architecture

   This document only describes the requirements for a protocol that
   allows IP proxying.  It does not discuss how the IPs assigned are
   determined, managed, or translated.  While these details are
   important for producing a functional system, they do not need to be
   handled by the protocol beyond the ability to convey those
   assignments.

   Similarly, "ownership" of an IP range is out of scope.  If an
   endpoint communicates to its peer that it can allocate addresses from
   a range, or route traffic to a range, the peer has no obligation to
   trust that information.  Whether or not to trust this information is
   left to individual implementations and deployments.

5.2.  Translation

   Some servers may wish to perform Network Address Translation (NAT) or
   any other modification to packets they forward.  Doing so is out of
   scope for the proxying protocol.  In particular, the ability to
   discover the presence of a NAT, negotiate NAT bindings, or check
   connectivity through a NAT is explicitly out of scope and left to
   future extensions.

   Servers that do not perform NAT will commonly forward packets
   similarly to how a traditional IP router would, but the specific of
   that are considered out of scope.  In particular, decrementing the
   Hop Limit (or TTL) field of the IP header is out of scope for MASQUE
   and expected to be performed by a router behind the MASQUE server, or
   collocated with it.









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5.3.  IP Packet Extraction

   How packets are forwarded between the IP proxying connection and the
   physical network is out of scope.  For example, this can be
   accomplished on some operating systems using a TUN interface.  How
   this is done is deliberately not specified and will be left to
   individual implementations.

6.  Security Considerations

   This document only discusses requirements on a protocol that allows
   IP proxying.  That protocol will need to document its security
   considerations.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests no actions from IANA.

Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank participants of the MASQUE working
   group for their feedback.

References

Normative References

   [DGRAM]    Pauly, T., Kinnear, E., and D. Schinazi, "An Unreliable
              Datagram Extension to QUIC", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-ietf-quic-datagram-01, 24 August 2020,
              <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-quic-
              datagram-01.txt>.

   [H2]       Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol Version 2 (HTTP/2)", RFC 7540,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7540, May 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7540>.

   [H3]       Bishop, M., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol Version 3
              (HTTP/3)", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              quic-http-33, 15 December 2020, <http://www.ietf.org/
              internet-drafts/draft-ietf-quic-http-33.txt>.

   [IPV4]     Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc791>.





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   [IPV6]     Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>.

   [QUIC]     Iyengar, J. and M. Thomson, "QUIC: A UDP-Based Multiplexed
              and Secure Transport", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-quic-transport-33, 13 December 2020,
              <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-quic-
              transport-33.txt>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [TLS]      Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

Informative References

   [CONNECT-UDP]
              Schinazi, D., "The CONNECT-UDP HTTP Method", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-masque-connect-udp-
              03, 5 January 2021, <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/
              draft-ietf-masque-connect-udp-03.txt>.

   [IKEV2]    Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T.
              Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
              (IKEv2)", STD 79, RFC 7296, DOI 10.17487/RFC7296, October
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7296>.

   [OAUTH]    Hardt, D., Ed., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework",
              RFC 6749, DOI 10.17487/RFC6749, October 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6749>.

Authors' Addresses









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   Alex Chernyakhovsky
   Google LLC
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, California 94043,
   United States of America

   Email: achernya@google.com


   Dallas McCall
   Google LLC
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, California 94043,
   United States of America

   Email: dallasmccall@google.com


   David Schinazi
   Google LLC
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, California 94043,
   United States of America

   Email: dschinazi.ietf@gmail.com


























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