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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 RFC 7427

IP Security Maintenance and Extensions                        T. Kivinen
(ipsecme)                                                  INSIDE Secure
Internet-Draft                                            April 16, 2013
Updates: RFC 5996 (if approved)
Intended status: Standards Track
Expires: October 18, 2013


                   Signature Authentication in IKEv2
              draft-kivinen-ipsecme-signature-auth-01.txt

Abstract

   The Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2) protocol has limited
   support for the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA).
   The current version only includes support for three Elliptic Curve
   groups, and there is fixed hash algorithm tied to each curve.  This
   document generalizes the IKEv2 signature support so it can support
   any signature method supported by the PKIX and also adds signature
   hash algorithm negotiation.  This is generic mechanism, and is not
   limited to ECDSA, but can also be used with other signature
   algorithms.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 18, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Authentication Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Hash Algorithm Notification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   Appendix A.  Commonly used ASN.1 objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     A.1.  PKCS#1 1.5 RSA Encryption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       A.1.1.  sha1WithRSAEncryption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       A.1.2.  sha256WithRSAEncryption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       A.1.3.  sha384WithRSAEncryption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       A.1.4.  sha512WithRSAEncryption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     A.2.  DSA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       A.2.1.  dsa-with-sha1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       A.2.2.  dsa-with-sha256  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     A.3.  ECDSA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       A.3.1.  ecdsa-with-sha1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       A.3.2.  ecdsa-with-sha256  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       A.3.3.  ecdsa-with-sha384  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       A.3.4.  ecdsa-with-sha512  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     A.4.  RSASSA-PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       A.4.1.  RSASSA-PSS with empty parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       A.4.2.  RSASSA-PSS with default parameters . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Appendix B.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13












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1.  Introduction

   This document adds new IKEv2 ([RFC5996]) authentication method to
   support all kinds of signature methods.  The current signature based
   authentication methods in the IKEv2 are per algorithm, i.e. there is
   one for RSA Digital signatures, one for DSS Digital Signatures (using
   SHA-1) and three for different ECDSA curves each tied to exactly one
   hash algorithm.  This design starts to be cumbersome when more ECDSA
   groups are added, as each of them would require new authentication
   method and as with ECDSA there is no way to extract the hash
   algorithm from the signature, each ECDSA algorithm would need to come
   with fixed hash algorithm tied to it.

   With the SHA-3 definitions coming out, it is seen that it might be
   possible that in the future the signature methods are used with SHA-3
   also, not only SHA-2.  This means new mechanism for negotiating the
   hash algorithm for the signature algorithms is needed.

   The RSA Digital Signatures format in the IKEv2 is specified to use
   RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5, but there has been some discussions that newer
   padding methods should be preferred instead of PKCS #1 version 1.5
   (See section 5 of [RFC4055]).  The DSS Digital Signatures format in
   the IKEv2 is specified to always use SHA-1, which limits the security
   of that, meaning there is no point of using long keys with it.

   This documents specifies two things, one is one new authentication
   method, which includes the enough information inside the
   Authentication payload data that the signature hash algorithm can be
   extracted from there (see Section 3).  The another thing is to add
   indication of supported signature hash algorithms by the peer (see
   Section 4).  This allows peer to know which hash algorithms are
   supported by the other end and use one of them (provided one is
   allowed by policy).  There is no need to actually negotiate one
   common hash algorithm, as different hash algorithms can be used in
   different directions if needed.

   The new digital signature method needs to be flexible enough to
   include all current signature methods (RSA, DSA, ECDSA, RSASSA-PSS,
   etc), and also allow adding new things in the future (ECGDSA, ElGamal
   etc).  For this the signature algorithm is specified in the same way
   as the PKIX ([RFC5280]) specifies the signature of the Certificate,
   i.e. there is simple ASN.1 object before the actual signature data.
   This ASN.1 object contains the OID specifying the algorithm, and
   associated parameters to it.  In normal case the IKEv2
   implementations supports fixed amount of signature methods, with
   commonly used parameters, so it is acceptable for the implementation
   to just treat this ASN.1 object as binary blob which is compared
   against the known values, or the implementation can parse the ASN.1



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   and extract information from there.


2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


3.  Authentication Payload

   This document specifies new "Digital Signature" authentication
   method.  This method can be used with any types of signatures.  As
   the authentication methods are not negotiated in the IKEv2, the peer
   is only allowed to use this authentication method if the
   SIGNATURE_HASH_ALGORITHMS Notify Payload has been sent and received.

   In this newly defined authentication method, the Authentication Data
   field inside the Authentication Payload does not include only the
   signature value, but instead the signature value is prefixed with the
   ASN.1 object containing the algorithm used to generate the signature.
   The ASN.1 object contains the algorithm identification OID, and this
   OID identifies both the signature algorithm and the hash used when
   calculating the signature.  In addition to the OID there is optional
   parameters which might be needed for algorithms like RSASSA-PSS.

   To make implementations easier, the ASN.1 object is prefixed by the
   8-bit length field.  This length field allows simple implementations
   to be able to know the length of the ASN.1 without the need to parse
   it, so they can use it as binary blob which is compared against the
   known signature algorithm ASN.1 objects, i.e. they do not need to be
   able to parse or generate ASN.1 objects.  See Appendix A for commonly
   used ASN.1 objects.

   The ASN.1 used here are the same ASN.1 which is used in the
   AlgorithmIdentifier of the PKIX (Section 4.1.1.2 of [RFC5280]).  The
   algorithm OID inside the ASN.1 specifies the signature algorithm and
   the hash function, which are needed to signature verification.  The
   EC curve is always known by the peer because it needs to have the
   certificate or the public key of the other end before it can do
   signature verification and public key specifies the curve.

   Currently only the RSASSA-PSS uses the parameters, for all others the
   parameters is either NULL or missing.  Note, that for some algorithms
   there is two possible ASN.1 encoding possible, one with parameters
   being NULL and others where the whole parameters is omitted.  This is
   because some of those algorithms are specified that way.  When



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   encoding the ASN.1 implementations should use the preferred way, i.e.
   if the algorithm specification says "preferredPresent" then parameter
   object needs to be there (i.e. it will be NULL if no parameters is
   specified), and if it says "preferredAbsent", then the whole
   parameters object is missing.

   The Authentication payload is defined in IKEv2 as follows:

                           1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | Next Payload  |C|  RESERVED   |         Payload Length        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | Auth Method   |                RESERVED                       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      ~                      Authentication Data                      ~
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 1: Authentication Payload Format.

   o  Auth Method (1 octet) - Specifies the method of authentication
      used.

      Mechanism                              Value
      -----------------------------------------------------------------
      Digital Signature                      <TBD>
         Computed as specified in Section 2.15 of RFC5996 using a
         private key associated with the public key sent in certificate
         payload, and using one of the hash algorithms sent by the other
         end in the SIGNATURE_HASH_ALGORITHMS notify payload. If both
         ends send and receive SIGNATURE_HASH_ALGORITHMS and signature
         authentication is to be used, then this method MUST be used.
         The Authentication Data field has bit different format than in
         other Authentication methods (see below).

   o  Authentication Data (variable length) - see Section 2.15 of
      RFC5996.  For "Digital Signature" format the Authentication data
      contains special format as follows:











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                           1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | ASN.1 Length  | AlgorithmIdentifier ASN.1 object              |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      ~        AlgorithmIdentifier ASN.1 object continuing            ~
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      ~                         Signature Value                       ~
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 2: Authentication Data Format.

      Where the ASN.1 Length is the length of the ASN.1 encoded
      AlgorithmIdentifier object, and after that is the actual
      AlgorithmIdentifier ASN.1 object, followed by the actual signature
      value.  There is no padding between ASN.1 object and signature
      value.  For the hash truncation the method of X9.62 ([X9.62]) MUST
      be used.


4.  Hash Algorithm Notification

   The supported hash algorithms that can be used for the signature
   algorithms are now indicated with new SIGNATURE_HASH_ALGORITHMS
   Notification Payload sent inside the IKE_SA_INIT exchange.  This
   notification also indicates the support of the new signature
   algorithm method, i.e. sending this notification tells that new
   "Digital Signature" authentication method is supported and that
   following hash functions are supported by sending peer.  Both ends
   sends their list of supported hash-algorithms and when calculating
   signature a peer MUST pick one algorithm sent by the other peer.
   Note, that different algorithms can be used in different directions.
   The algorithm OID matching selected hash algorithm (and signature
   algorithm) used when calculating the signature is sent inside the
   Authentication Data field of the Authentication Payload.












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                               1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | Next Payload  |C|  RESERVED   |         Payload Length        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |  Protocol ID  |   SPI Size    |      Notify Message Type      |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      ~                Security Parameter Index (SPI)                 ~
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      ~                       Notification Data                       ~
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                     Figure 3: Notify Payload Format.

   Protocol ID is 0, SPI Size 0, and Notify Message Type <TBD from
   status types>.  The Notification Data value contains list of 16-bit
   hash algorithm identifiers from the newly created Hash Algorithm
   Identifiers for the IKEv2 IANA registry.


5.  Security Considerations

   The "Recommendations for Key Management" ([NIST800-57]) table 2
   combined with table 3 gives recommendations for how to select
   suitable hash functions for the signature.

   This new digital signature method does not tie the EC curve to the
   specific hash function, which was done in the old IKEv2 ECDSA
   methods.  This means it is possible to use 512-bit EC curve with
   SHA1, i.e. this allows mixing different security levels.  This means
   that the security of the authentication method is the security of the
   weakest of components (signature algorithm, hash algorithm, curve).
   This might make the security analysis of the system bit more complex.
   Note, that this kind of mixing of the security can be disallowed by
   the policy.

   The hash algorithm registry does not include MD5 as supported hash
   algorithm, as it is not considered safe enough for signature use
   ([WY05]).

   The current IKEv2 uses RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5, which do have some problems
   ([KA08], [ME01]) and does not allow using newer padding methods like
   RSASSA-PSS.  This new method allows using other padding methods.




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   The current IKEv2 only allows using normal DSA with SHA-1, which
   means the security of the regular DSA is limited to the security of
   SHA-1.  This new methods allows using longer keys and longer hashes
   with DSA.


6.  IANA Considerations

   This document creates new IANA registry for IKEv2 Hash Algorithms.
   Changes and additions to this registry is by expert review.

   The initial values of this registry is:

   Hash Algorithm                       Value
   --------------                       -----
   RESERVED                             0
   SHA1                                 1
   SHA2-256                             2
   SHA2-384                             3
   SHA2-512                             4

   MD5 is not included to the hash algorithm list as it is not
   considered safe enough for signature hash uses.

   Values 5-1023 are reserved to IANA.  Values 1024-65535 are for
   private use among mutually consenting parties.


7.  Acknowledgements

   Most of this work was based on the work done in the IPsecME design
   team for the ECDSA.  The design team members were: Dan Harking,
   Johannes Merkle, Tero Kivinen, David McGrew, and Yoav Nir.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, May 2008.

   [RFC5996]  Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., and P. Eronen,



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              "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)",
              RFC 5996, September 2010.

8.2.  Informative References

   [KA08]     Kuehn, U., Pyshkin, A., Tews, E., and R. Weinmann,
              "Variants of Bleichenbacher's Low-Exponent Attack on
              PKCS#1 RSA Signatures", Proc. Sicherheit 2008 pp.97-109.

   [ME01]     Menezes, A., "Evaluation of Security Level of
              Cryptography: RSA-OAEP, RSA-PSS, RSA Signature",
              December 2001.

   [NIST800-57]
              Barker, E., Barker, W., Burr, W., Polk, W., and M. Smid,
              "Recommendations for Key Management", NIST SP 800-57,
              March 2007.

   [RFC3279]  Bassham, L., Polk, W., and R. Housley, "Algorithms and
              Identifiers for the Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 3279, April 2002.

   [RFC4055]  Schaad, J., Kaliski, B., and R. Housley, "Additional
              Algorithms and Identifiers for RSA Cryptography for use in
              the Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate
              and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile", RFC 4055,
              June 2005.

   [RFC5480]  Turner, S., Brown, D., Yiu, K., Housley, R., and T. Polk,
              "Elliptic Curve Cryptography Subject Public Key
              Information", RFC 5480, March 2009.

   [RFC5758]  Dang, Q., Santesson, S., Moriarty, K., Brown, D., and T.
              Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure:
              Additional Algorithms and Identifiers for DSA and ECDSA",
              RFC 5758, January 2010.

   [RFC5912]  Hoffman, P. and J. Schaad, "New ASN.1 Modules for the
              Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509 (PKIX)", RFC 5912,
              June 2010.

   [WY05]     Wang, X. and H. Yu, "How to break MD5 and other hash
              functions", Proceedings of EuroCrypt 2005, Lecture Notes
              in Computer Science Vol. 3494, 2005.

   [X9.62]    American National Standards Institute, "Public Key
              Cryptography for the Financial Services Industry: The



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              Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)",
              ANSI X9.62, November 2005.


Appendix A.  Commonly used ASN.1 objects

   This section lists commonly used ASN.1 objects in binary form.  This
   section is not-normative, and these values should only be used as
   examples, i.e. if this and the actual specification of the algorithm
   ASN.1 object is different the actual format specified in the actual
   specification needs to be used.  These values are taken form the New
   ASN.1 Modules for the Public Key Infrastructure Using X.509
   ([RFC5912]).

A.1.  PKCS#1 1.5 RSA Encryption

   These algorithm identifiers here include several different ASN.1
   objects with different hash algorithms.  In this document we only
   include the commonly used ones i.e. the one using SHA-1, or SHA-2 as
   hash function.  Some of those other algorithms (MD2, MD5) specified
   for this are not safe enough to be used as signature hash algorithm,
   and some are omitted as there is no hash algorithm specified in the
   our IANA registry for them.  Note, that there is no parameters in any
   of these, but all specified here needs to have NULL parameters
   present in the ASN.1.

   See Algorithms and Identifiers for PKIX Profile ([RFC3279]) and
   Additional Algorithms and Identifiers for RSA Cryptography for PKIX
   Profile ([RFC4055]) for more information.

A.1.1.  sha1WithRSAEncryption

   sha1WithRSAEncryption OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
   us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-1(1) 5 }

   Parameters are required, and they must be NULL.

   XXX binary object missing

A.1.2.  sha256WithRSAEncryption

   sha256WithRSAEncryption OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { pkcs-1 11 }

   Parameters are required, and they must be NULL.

   XXX binary object missing





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A.1.3.  sha384WithRSAEncryption

   sha384WithRSAEncryption OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { pkcs-1 12 }

   Parameters are required, and they must be NULL.

   XXX binary object missing

A.1.4.  sha512WithRSAEncryption

   sha512WithRSAEncryption OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { pkcs-1 13 }

   Parameters are required, and they must be NULL.

   XXX binary object missing

A.2.  DSA

   With different DSA algorithms the parameters are always omitted.
   Again we omit dsa-with-sha224 as there is no hash algorithm in our
   IANA registry for it.

   See Algorithms and Identifiers for PKIX Profile ([RFC3279]) and PKIX
   Additional Algorithms and Identifiers for DSA and ECDSA ([RFC5758]
   for more information.

A.2.1.  dsa-with-sha1

   dsa-with-sha1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
   x9-57(10040) x9algorithm(4) 3 }

   Parameters are absent.

   XXX binary object missing

A.2.2.  dsa-with-sha256

   dsa-with-sha256 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { joint-iso-ccitt(2)
   country(16) us(840) organization(1) gov(101) csor(3) algorithms(4)
   id-dsa-with-sha2(3) 2 }

   Parameters are absent.

   XXX binary object missing







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A.3.  ECDSA

   With different ECDSA algorithms the parameters are always omitted.
   Again we omit ecdsa-with-sha224 as there is no hash algorithm in our
   IANA registry for it.

   See Elliptic Curve Cryptography Subject Public Key Information
   ([RFC5480]), Algorithms and Identifiers for PKIX Profile ([RFC3279])
   and PKIX Additional Algorithms and Identifiers for DSA and ECDSA
   ([RFC5758] for more information.

A.3.1.  ecdsa-with-sha1

   ecdsa-with-SHA1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
   ansi-X9-62(10045) signatures(4) 1 }

   Parameters are absent.

   XXX binary object missing

A.3.2.  ecdsa-with-sha256

   ecdsa-with-SHA256 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
   us(840) ansi-X9-62(10045) signatures(4) ecdsa-with-SHA2(3) 2 }

   Parameters are absent.

   XXX binary object missing

A.3.3.  ecdsa-with-sha384

   ecdsa-with-SHA384 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
   us(840) ansi-X9-62(10045) signatures(4) ecdsa-with-SHA2(3) 3 }

   Parameters are absent.

   XXX binary object missing

A.3.4.  ecdsa-with-sha512

   ecdsa-with-SHA512 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
   us(840) ansi-X9-62(10045) signatures(4) ecdsa-with-SHA2(3) 4 }

   Parameters are absent.

   XXX binary object missing





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A.4.  RSASSA-PSS

   With the RSASSA-PSS the algorithm object identifier is always id-
   RSASSA-PSS, but the hash function is taken from the parameters, and
   it is required.  See [RFC4055] for more information.

A.4.1.  RSASSA-PSS with empty parameters

   id-RSASSA-PSS OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { pkcs-1 10 }

   Parameters are empty, but the ASN.1 part of the sequence must be
   there.  This means default parameters are used (same as the next
   example).

   XXX binary object missing

A.4.2.  RSASSA-PSS with default parameters

   id-RSASSA-PSS OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { pkcs-1 10 }

   Here the parameters are present, and contains the default parameters,
   i.e.  SHA-1, mgf1SHA1, saltlength of 20, trailerfield of 1.

   XXX binary object missing


Appendix B.  Examples


Author's Address

   Tero Kivinen
   INSIDE Secure
   Eerikinkatu 28
   HELSINKI  FI-00180
   FI

   Email: kivinen@iki.fi













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