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For this RFC, original HTML is available from the RFC-Editor: RFC8665

PROPOSED STANDARD

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                    P. Psenak, Ed.
Request for Comments: 8665                               S. Previdi, Ed.
Category: Standards Track                                    C. Filsfils
ISSN: 2070-1721                                      Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                              H. Gredler
                                                            RtBrick Inc.
                                                               R. Shakir
                                                            Google, Inc.
                                                           W. Henderickx
                                                                   Nokia
                                                             J. Tantsura
                                                            Apstra, Inc.
                                                           December 2019


                  OSPF Extensions for Segment Routing

Abstract

   Segment Routing (SR) allows a flexible definition of end-to-end paths
   within IGP topologies by encoding paths as sequences of topological
   subpaths called "segments".  These segments are advertised by the
   link-state routing protocols (IS-IS and OSPF).

   This document describes the OSPFv2 extensions required for Segment
   Routing.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8665.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  Requirements Language
   2.  Segment Routing Identifiers
     2.1.  SID/Label Sub-TLV
   3.  Segment Routing Capabilities
     3.1.  SR-Algorithm TLV
     3.2.  SID/Label Range TLV
     3.3.  SR Local Block TLV
     3.4.  SRMS Preference TLV
   4.  OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV
   5.  Prefix-SID Sub-TLV
   6.  Adjacency Segment Identifier (Adj-SID)
     6.1.  Adj-SID Sub-TLV
     6.2.  LAN Adj-SID Sub-TLV
   7.  Elements of Procedure
     7.1.  Intra-area Segment Routing in OSPFv2
     7.2.  Inter-area Segment Routing in OSPFv2
     7.3.  Segment Routing for External Prefixes
     7.4.  Advertisement of Adj-SID
       7.4.1.  Advertisement of Adj-SID on Point-to-Point Links
       7.4.2.  Adjacency SID on Broadcast or NBMA Interfaces
   8.  IANA Considerations
     8.1.  OSPF Router Information (RI) TLVs Registry
     8.2.  OSPFv2 Extended Prefix Opaque LSA TLVs Registry
     8.3.  OSPFv2 Extended Prefix TLV Sub-TLVs Registry
     8.4.  OSPFv2 Extended Link TLV Sub-TLVs Registry
     8.5.  IGP Algorithm Types Registry
   9.  TLV/Sub-TLV Error Handling
   10. Security Considerations
   11. References
     11.1.  Normative References
     11.2.  Informative References
   Acknowledgements
   Contributors
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   Segment Routing (SR) allows a flexible definition of end-to-end paths
   within IGP topologies by encoding paths as sequences of topological
   subpaths called "segments".  These segments are advertised by the
   link-state routing protocols (IS-IS and OSPF).  Prefix segments
   represent an ECMP-aware shortest path to a prefix (or a node), as per
   the state of the IGP topology.  Adjacency segments represent a hop
   over a specific adjacency between two nodes in the IGP.  A prefix
   segment is typically a multi-hop path while an adjacency segment, in
   most cases, is a one-hop path.  SR's control plane can be applied to
   both IPv6 and MPLS data planes, and it does not require any
   additional signaling (other than IGP extensions).  The IPv6 data
   plane is out of the scope of this specification; it is not applicable
   to OSPFv2, which only supports the IPv4 address family.  When used in
   MPLS networks, SR paths do not require any LDP or RSVP-TE signaling.
   However, SR can interoperate in the presence of LSPs established with
   RSVP or LDP.

   There are additional segment types, e.g., Binding Segment Identifier
   (SID) defined in [RFC8402].

   This document describes the OSPF extensions required for Segment
   Routing.

   Segment Routing architecture is described in [RFC8402].

   Segment Routing use cases are described in [RFC7855].

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Segment Routing Identifiers

   Segment Routing defines various types of Segment Identifiers (SIDs):
   Prefix-SID, Adjacency SID, LAN Adjacency SID, and Binding SID.

   Extended Prefix/Link Opaque Link State Advertisements (LSAs) defined
   in [RFC7684] are used for advertisements of the various SID types.

2.1.  SID/Label Sub-TLV

   The SID/Label Sub-TLV appears in multiple TLVs or sub-TLVs defined
   later in this document.  It is used to advertise the SID or label
   associated with a prefix or adjacency.  The SID/Label Sub-TLV has the
   following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         SID/Label (variable)                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   where:

      Type:  1

      Length:  3 or 4 octets

      SID/Label:  If the length is set to 3, then the 20 rightmost bits
         represent a label.  If the length is set to 4, then the value
         represents a 32-bit SID.

3.  Segment Routing Capabilities

   Segment Routing requires some additional router capabilities to be
   advertised to other routers in the area.

   These SR capabilities are advertised in the Router Information Opaque
   LSA (defined in [RFC7770]).  The TLVs defined below are applicable to
   both OSPFv2 and OSPFv3; see also [RFC8666].

3.1.  SR-Algorithm TLV

   The SR-Algorithm TLV is a top-level TLV of the Router Information
   Opaque LSA (defined in [RFC7770]).

   The SR-Algorithm TLV is optional.  It SHOULD only be advertised once
   in the Router Information Opaque LSA.  If the SR-Algorithm TLV is not
   advertised by the node, such a node is considered as not being
   Segment Routing capable.

   An SR Router can use various algorithms when calculating reachability
   to OSPF routers or prefixes in an OSPF area.  Examples of these
   algorithms are metric-based Shortest Path First (SPF), various
   flavors of Constrained SPF, etc.  The SR-Algorithm TLV allows a
   router to advertise the algorithms currently used by the router to
   other routers in an OSPF area.  The SR-Algorithm TLV has the
   following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Algorithm 1 | Algorithm...  |   Algorithm n |               |
   +-                                                             -+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +

   where:

      Type:  8

      Length:  Variable, in octets, depending on the number of
         algorithms advertised

      Algorithm:  Single octet identifying the algorithm.  The following
         values are defined by this document:

         0:    Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm based on link metric.
               This is the standard shortest path algorithm as computed
               by the OSPF protocol.  Consistent with the deployed
               practice for link-state protocols, Algorithm 0 permits
               any node to overwrite the SPF path with a different path
               based on its local policy.  If the SR-Algorithm TLV is
               advertised, Algorithm 0 MUST be included.

         1:    Strict Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm based on link
               metric.  The algorithm is identical to Algorithm 0, but
               Algorithm 1 requires that all nodes along the path will
               honor the SPF routing decision.  Local policy at the node
               claiming support for Algorithm 1 MUST NOT alter the SPF
               paths computed by Algorithm 1.

   When multiple SR-Algorithm TLVs are received from a given router, the
   receiver MUST use the first occurrence of the TLV in the Router
   Information Opaque LSA.  If the SR-Algorithm TLV appears in multiple
   Router Information Opaque LSAs that have different flooding scopes,
   the SR-Algorithm TLV in the Router Information Opaque LSA with the
   area-scoped flooding scope MUST be used.  If the SR-Algorithm TLV
   appears in multiple Router Information Opaque LSAs that have the same
   flooding scope, the SR-Algorithm TLV in the Router Information (RI)
   Opaque LSA with the numerically smallest Instance ID MUST be used and
   subsequent instances of the SR-Algorithm TLV MUST be ignored.

   The RI LSA can be advertised at any of the defined opaque flooding
   scopes (link, area, or Autonomous System (AS)).  For the purpose of
   SR-Algorithm TLV advertisement, area-scoped flooding is REQUIRED.

3.2.  SID/Label Range TLV

   Prefix-SIDs MAY be advertised in the form of an index as described in
   Section 5.  Such an index defines the offset in the SID/Label space
   advertised by the router.  The SID/Label Range TLV is used to
   advertise such SID/Label space.

   The SID/Label Range TLV is a top-level TLV of the Router Information
   Opaque LSA (defined in [RFC7770]).

   The SID/Label Range TLV MAY appear multiple times and has the
   following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Range Size                 |   Reserved    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Sub-TLVs (variable)                    |
   +-                                                             -+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +

   where:

      Type:  9

      Length:  Variable, in octets, depending on the sub-TLVs

      Range Size:  3-octet SID/label range size (i.e., the number of
         SIDs or labels in the range including the first SID/label).  It
         MUST be greater than 0.

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception

   Initially, the only supported sub-TLV is the SID/Label Sub-TLV as
   defined in Section 2.1.  The SID/Label Sub-TLV MUST be included in
   the SID/Label Range TLV.  The SID/Label advertised in the SID/Label
   Sub-TLV represents the first SID/Label in the advertised range.

   Only a single SID/Label Sub-TLV MAY be advertised in the SID/Label
   Range TLV.  If more than one SID/Label Sub-TLV is present, the SID/
   Label Range TLV MUST be ignored.

   Multiple occurrences of the SID/Label Range TLV MAY be advertised in
   order to advertise multiple ranges.  In such a case:

   *  The originating router MUST encode each range into a different
      SID/Label Range TLV.

   *  The originating router decides the order in which the set of SID/
      Label Range TLVs are advertised inside the Router Information
      Opaque LSA.  The originating router MUST ensure the order is the
      same after a graceful restart (using checkpointing, nonvolatile
      storage, or any other mechanism) in order to ensure the SID/Label
      range and SID index correspondence is preserved across graceful
      restarts.

   *  The receiving router MUST adhere to the order in which the ranges
      are advertised when calculating a SID/Label from a SID index.

   *  The originating router MUST NOT advertise overlapping ranges.

   *  When a router receives multiple overlapping ranges, it MUST
      conform to the procedures defined in [RFC8660].

   The following example illustrates the advertisement of multiple
   ranges.

   The originating router advertises the following ranges:

         Range 1: Range Size: 100   SID/Label Sub-TLV: 100
         Range 1: Range Size: 100   SID/Label Sub-TLV: 1000
         Range 1: Range Size: 100   SID/Label Sub-TLV: 500

   The receiving routers concatenate the ranges and build the Segment
   Routing Global Block (SRGB) as follows:


      SRGB = [100, 199]
             [1000, 1099]
             [500, 599]

   The indexes span multiple ranges:


         index 0 means label 100
         ...
         index 99 means label 199
         index 100 means label 1000
         index 199 means label 1099
         ...
         index 200 means label 500
         ...

   The RI LSA can be advertised at any of the defined flooding scopes
   (link, area, or autonomous system (AS)).  For the purpose of SID/
   Label Range TLV advertisement, area-scoped flooding is REQUIRED.

3.3.  SR Local Block TLV

   The SR Local Block TLV (SRLB TLV) contains the range of labels the
   node has reserved for Local SIDs.  SIDs from the SRLB MAY be used for
   Adjacency SIDs but also by components other than the OSPF protocol.
   As an example, an application or a controller can instruct the router
   to allocate a specific Local SID.  Some controllers or applications
   can use the control plane to discover the available set of Local SIDs
   on a particular router.  In such cases, the SRLB is advertised in the
   control plane.  The requirement to advertise the SRLB is further
   described in [RFC8660].  The SRLB TLV is used to advertise the SRLB.

   The SRLB TLV is a top-level TLV of the Router Information Opaque LSA
   (defined in [RFC7770]).

   The SRLB TLV MAY appear multiple times in the Router Information
   Opaque LSA and has the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    Range Size                 |   Reserved    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Sub-TLVs (variable)                    |
   +-                                                             -+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +

   where:

      Type:  14

      Length:  Variable, in octets, depending on the sub-TLVs

      Range Size:  3-octet SID/Label range size (i.e., the number of
         SIDs or labels in the range including the first SID/Label).  It
         MUST be greater than 0.

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception

   Initially, the only supported sub-TLV is the SID/Label Sub-TLV as
   defined in Section 2.1.  The SID/Label Sub-TLV MUST be included in
   the SRLB TLV.  The SID/Label advertised in the SID/Label Sub-TLV
   represents the first SID/Label in the advertised range.

   Only a single SID/Label Sub-TLV MAY be advertised in the SRLB TLV.
   If more than one SID/Label Sub-TLV is present, the SRLB TLV MUST be
   ignored.

   The originating router MUST NOT advertise overlapping ranges.

   Each time a SID from the SRLB is allocated, it SHOULD also be
   reported to all components (e.g., controller or applications) in
   order for these components to have an up-to-date view of the current
   SRLB allocation.  This is required to avoid collisions between
   allocation instructions.

   Within the context of OSPF, the reporting of Local SIDs is done
   through OSPF sub-TLVs, such as the Adjacency SID (Section 6).
   However, the reporting of allocated Local SIDs can also be done
   through other means and protocols, which are outside the scope of
   this document.

   A router advertising the SRLB TLV MAY also have other label ranges,
   outside of the SRLB, used for its local allocation purposes and not
   advertised in the SRLB TLV.  For example, it is possible that an
   Adjacency SID is allocated using a local label that is not part of
   the SRLB.

   The RI LSA can be advertised at any of the defined flooding scopes
   (link, area, or autonomous system (AS)).  For the purpose of SRLB TLV
   advertisement, area-scoped flooding is REQUIRED.

3.4.  SRMS Preference TLV

   The Segment Routing Mapping Server Preference TLV (SRMS Preference
   TLV) is used to advertise a preference associated with the node that
   acts as an SR Mapping Server.  The role of an SRMS is described in
   [RFC8661].  SRMS preference is defined in [RFC8661].

   The SRMS Preference TLV is a top-level TLV of the Router Information
   Opaque LSA (defined in [RFC7770]).

   The SRMS Preference TLV MAY only be advertised once in the Router
   Information Opaque LSA and has the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Preference    |                 Reserved                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   where:

      Type:  15

      Length:  4 octets

      Preference:  1 octet, with an SRMS preference value from 0 to 255

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception

   When multiple SRMS Preference TLVs are received from a given router,
   the receiver MUST use the first occurrence of the TLV in the Router
   Information Opaque LSA.  If the SRMS Preference TLV appears in
   multiple Router Information Opaque LSAs that have different flooding
   scopes, the SRMS Preference TLV in the Router Information Opaque LSA
   with the narrowest flooding scope MUST be used.  If the SRMS
   Preference TLV appears in multiple Router Information Opaque LSAs
   that have the same flooding scope, the SRMS Preference TLV in the
   Router Information Opaque LSA with the numerically smallest Instance
   ID MUST be used and subsequent instances of the SRMS Preference TLV
   MUST be ignored.

   The RI LSA can be advertised at any of the defined flooding scopes
   (link, area, or autonomous system (AS)).  For the purpose of the SRMS
   Preference TLV advertisement, AS-scoped flooding SHOULD be used.
   This is because SRMS servers can be located in a different area than
   consumers of the SRMS advertisements.  If the SRMS advertisements
   from the SRMS server are only used inside the SRMS server's area,
   area-scoped flooding MAY be used.

4.  OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV

   In some cases, it is useful to advertise attributes for a range of
   prefixes.  The SR Mapping Server, which is described in [RFC8661], is
   an example where we need a single advertisement to advertise SIDs for
   multiple prefixes from a contiguous address range.

   The OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV, which is a top-level TLV of the
   Extended Prefix LSA described in [RFC7684] is defined for this
   purpose.

   Multiple OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLVs MAY be advertised in each
   OSPF Extended Prefix Opaque LSA, but all prefix ranges included in a
   single OSPF Extended Prefix Opaque LSA MUST have the same flooding
   scope.  The OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV has the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Prefix Length |     AF        |         Range Size            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Flags       |                Reserved                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Address Prefix (variable)                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Sub-TLVs (variable)                      |
   +-                                                             -+
   |                                                               |

   where:

      Type:  2

      Length:  Variable, in octets, depending on the sub-TLVs

      Prefix Length:  Length of prefix in bits

      AF:  Address family for the prefix.  Currently, the only supported
         value is 0 for IPv4 unicast.  The inclusion of address family
         in this TLV allows for future extension.

      Range Size:  Represents the number of prefixes that are covered by
         the advertisement.  The Range Size MUST NOT exceed the number
         of prefixes that could be satisfied by the Prefix Length
         without including the IPv4 multicast address range
         (224.0.0.0/3).

      Flags:  Single-octet field.  The following flags are defined:

              0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
            +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
            |IA|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
            +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

         where:

            IA-Flag:  Inter-Area Flag.  If set, advertisement is of
               inter-area type.  An Area Border Router (ABR) that is
               advertising the OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV between
               areas MUST set this bit.

               This bit is used to prevent redundant flooding of Prefix
               Range TLVs between areas as follows:

                  An ABR only propagates an inter-area Prefix Range
                  advertisement from the backbone area to connected
                  nonbackbone areas if the advertisement is considered
                  to be the best one.  The following rules are used to
                  select the best range from the set of advertisements
                  for the same Prefix Range:

                     An ABR always prefers intra-area Prefix Range
                     advertisements over inter-area advertisements.

                     An ABR does not consider inter-area Prefix Range
                     advertisements coming from nonbackbone areas.

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception

      Address Prefix:  For the address family IPv4 unicast, the prefix
         itself is encoded as a 32-bit value.  The default route is
         represented by a prefix of length 0.  Prefix encoding for other
         address families is beyond the scope of this specification.

5.  Prefix-SID Sub-TLV

   The Prefix-SID Sub-TLV is a sub-TLV of the OSPF Extended Prefix TLV
   described in [RFC7684] and the OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV
   described in Section 4.  It MAY appear more than once in the parent
   TLV and has the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Flags    |   Reserved    |      MT-ID    |    Algorithm  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     SID/Index/Label (variable)                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   where:

      Type:  2

      Length:  7 or 8 octets, depending on the V-Flag

      Flags:  Single-octet field.  The following flags are defined:


              0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
            +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
            |  |NP|M |E |V |L |  |  |
            +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

         where:

            NP-Flag:  No-PHP (Penultimate Hop Popping) Flag.  If set,
               then the penultimate hop MUST NOT pop the Prefix-SID
               before delivering packets to the node that advertised the
               Prefix-SID.

            M-Flag:  Mapping Server Flag.  If set, the SID was
               advertised by an SR Mapping Server as described in
               [RFC8661].

            E-Flag:  Explicit Null Flag.  If set, any upstream neighbor
               of the Prefix-SID originator MUST replace the Prefix-SID
               with the Explicit NULL label (0 for IPv4) before
               forwarding the packet.

            V-Flag:  Value/Index Flag.  If set, then the Prefix-SID
               carries an absolute value.  If not set, then the Prefix-
               SID carries an index.

            L-Flag:  Local/Global Flag.  If set, then the value/index
               carried by the Prefix-SID has local significance.  If not
               set, then the value/index carried by this sub-TLV has
               global significance.

            Other bits:  Reserved.  These MUST be zero when sent and are
               ignored when received.

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception

      MT-ID:  Multi-Topology ID (as defined in [RFC4915])

      Algorithm:  Single octet identifying the algorithm the Prefix-SID
         is associated with as defined in Section 3.1

         A router receiving a Prefix-SID from a remote node and with an
         algorithm value that the remote node has not advertised in the
         SR-Algorithm TLV (Section 3.1) MUST ignore the Prefix-SID Sub-
         TLV.

      SID/Index/Label:  According to the V- and L-Flags, it contains:

            V-Flag is set to 0 and L-Flag is set to 0: The SID/Index/
            Label field is a 4-octet index defining the offset in the
            SID/Label space advertised by this router.

            V-Flag is set to 1 and L-Flag is set to 1: The SID/Index/
            Label field is a 3-octet local label where the 20 rightmost
            bits are used for encoding the label value.

            All other combinations of V-Flag and L-Flag are invalid and
            any SID Advertisement received with an invalid setting for
            V- and L-Flags MUST be ignored.

   If an OSPF router advertises multiple Prefix-SIDs for the same
   prefix, topology, and algorithm, all of them MUST be ignored.

   When calculating the outgoing label for the prefix, the router MUST
   take into account, as described below, the E-, NP-, and M-Flags
   advertised by the next-hop router if that router advertised the SID
   for the prefix.  This MUST be done regardless of whether the next-hop
   router contributes to the best path to the prefix.

   The NP-Flag (No-PHP) MUST be set and the E-Flag MUST be clear for
   Prefix-SIDs allocated to inter-area prefixes that are originated by
   the ABR based on intra-area or inter-area reachability between areas
   unless the advertised prefix is directly attached to the ABR.

   The NP-Flag (No-PHP) MUST be set and the E-Flag MUST be clear for
   Prefix-SIDs allocated to redistributed prefixes, unless the
   redistributed prefix is directly attached to the Autonomous System
   Boundary Router (ASBR).

   If the NP-Flag is not set, then:

      Any upstream neighbor of the Prefix-SID originator MUST pop the
      Prefix-SID.  This is equivalent to the penultimate hop-popping
      mechanism used in the MPLS data plane.

      The received E-Flag is ignored.

   If the NP-Flag is set and the E-Flag is not set, then:

      Any upstream neighbor of the Prefix-SID originator MUST keep the
      Prefix-SID on top of the stack.  This is useful when the
      originator of the Prefix-SID needs to stitch the incoming packet
      into a continuing MPLS LSP to the final destination.  This could
      occur at an ABR (prefix propagation from one area to another) or
      at an ASBR (prefix propagation from one domain to another).

   If both the NP-Flag and E-Flag are set, then:

      Any upstream neighbor of the Prefix-SID originator MUST replace
      the Prefix-SID with an Explicit NULL label.  This is useful, e.g.,
      when the originator of the Prefix-SID is the final destination for
      the related prefix and the originator wishes to receive the packet
      with the original EXP bits.

   When the M-Flag is set, the NP-Flag and the E-Flag MUST be ignored on
   reception.

   As the Mapping Server does not specify the originator of a prefix
   advertisement, it is not possible to determine PHP behavior solely
   based on the Mapping Server Advertisement.  However, PHP behavior
   SHOULD be done in the following cases:

      The Prefix is intra-area type and the downstream neighbor is the
      originator of the prefix.

      The Prefix is inter-area type and the downstream neighbor is an
      ABR, which is advertising prefix reachability and is also
      generating the Extended Prefix TLV with the A-Flag set for this
      prefix as described in Section 2.1 of [RFC7684].

      The Prefix is external type and the downstream neighbor is an
      ASBR, which is advertising prefix reachability and is also
      generating the Extended Prefix TLV with the A-Flag set for this
      prefix as described in Section 2.1 of [RFC7684].

   When a Prefix-SID is advertised in an Extended Prefix Range TLV, then
   the value advertised in the Prefix-SID Sub-TLV is interpreted as a
   starting SID/Label value.

   Example 1: If the following router addresses (loopback addresses)
   need to be mapped into the corresponding Prefix-SID indexes:

             Router-A: 192.0.2.1/32, Prefix-SID: Index 1
             Router-B: 192.0.2.2/32, Prefix-SID: Index 2
             Router-C: 192.0.2.3/32, Prefix-SID: Index 3
             Router-D: 192.0.2.4/32, Prefix-SID: Index 4

   then the Prefix field in the Extended Prefix Range TLV would be set
   to 192.0.2.1, Prefix Length would be set to 32, Range Size would be
   set to 4, and the Index value in the Prefix-SID Sub-TLV would be set
   to 1.

   Example 2: If the following prefixes need to be mapped into the
   corresponding Prefix-SID indexes:

              192.0.2.0/30, Prefix-SID: Index 51
              192.0.2.4/30, Prefix-SID: Index 52
              192.0.2.8/30, Prefix-SID: Index 53
             192.0.2.12/30, Prefix-SID: Index 54
             192.0.2.16/30, Prefix-SID: Index 55
             192.0.2.20/30, Prefix-SID: Index 56
             192.0.2.24/30, Prefix-SID: Index 57

   then the Prefix field in the Extended Prefix Range TLV would be set
   to 192.0.2.0, Prefix Length would be set to 30, Range Size would be
   7, and the Index value in the Prefix-SID Sub-TLV would be set to 51.

6.  Adjacency Segment Identifier (Adj-SID)

   An Adjacency Segment Identifier (Adj-SID) represents a router
   adjacency in Segment Routing.

6.1.  Adj-SID Sub-TLV

   Adj-SID is an optional sub-TLV of the Extended Link TLV defined in
   [RFC7684].  It MAY appear multiple times in the Extended Link TLV.
   The Adj-SID Sub-TLV has the following format:


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Flags     |    Reserved   |   MT-ID       |  Weight       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   SID/Label/Index (variable)                  |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

      Type:  2

      Length:  7 or 8 octets, depending on the V-Flag

      Flags:  Single-octet field containing the following flags:


             0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
            |B|V|L|G|P|     |
            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         where:

            B-Flag:  Backup Flag.  If set, the Adj-SID refers to an
               adjacency that is eligible for protection (e.g., using IP
               Fast Reroute or MPLS-FRR (MPLS-Fast Reroute) as described
               in Section 2.1 of [RFC8402].

            V-Flag:  Value/Index Flag.  If set, then the Adj-SID carries
               an absolute value.  If not set, then the Adj-SID carries
               an index.

            L-Flag:  Local/Global Flag.  If set, then the value/index
               carried by the Adj-SID has local significance.  If not
               set, then the value/index carried by this sub-TLV has
               global significance.

            G-Flag:  Group Flag.  When set, the G-Flag indicates that
               the Adj-SID refers to a group of adjacencies (and
               therefore MAY be assigned to other adjacencies as well).

            P-Flag:  Persistent Flag.  When set, the P-Flag indicates
               that the Adj-SID is persistently allocated, i.e., the
               Adj-SID value remains consistent across router restart
               and/or interface flap.

            Other bits:  Reserved.  These MUST be zero when sent and are
               ignored when received.

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception

      MT-ID:  Multi-Topology ID (as defined in [RFC4915]

      Weight:  Weight used for load-balancing purposes.  The use of the
         weight is defined in [RFC8402].

      SID/Index/Label:  As described in Section 5

   An SR-capable router MAY allocate an Adj-SID for each of its
   adjacencies and set the B-Flag when the adjacency is eligible for
   protection by an FRR mechanism (IP or MPLS) as described in
   Section 3.5 of [RFC8402].

   An SR-capable router MAY allocate more than one Adj-SID to an
   adjacency.

   An SR-capable router MAY allocate the same Adj-SID to different
   adjacencies.

   When the P-Flag is not set, the Adj-SID MAY be persistent.  When the
   P-Flag is set, the Adj-SID MUST be persistent.

6.2.  LAN Adj-SID Sub-TLV

   The LAN Adjacency SID is an optional sub-TLV of the Extended Link TLV
   defined in [RFC7684].  It MAY appear multiple times in the Extended
   Link TLV.  It is used to advertise a SID/Label for an adjacency to a
   non-DR (Designated Router) router on a broadcast, Non-Broadcast
   Multi-Access (NBMA), or hybrid [RFC6845] network.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Flags     |    Reserved   |     MT-ID     |    Weight     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Neighbor ID                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    SID/Label/Index (variable)                 |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

      Type:  3

      Length:  11 or 12 octets, depending on the V-Flag

      Flags:  Same as in Section 6.1

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception

      MT-ID:  Multi-Topology ID (as defined in [RFC4915])

      Weight:  Weight used for load-balancing purposes.  The use of the
         weight is defined in [RFC8402].

      Neighbor ID:  The Router ID of the neighbor for which the LAN
         Adjacency SID is advertised

      SID/Index/Label:  As described in Section 5

   When the P-Flag is not set, the LAN Adjacency SID MAY be persistent.
   When the P-Flag is set, the LAN Adjacency SID MUST be persistent.

7.  Elements of Procedure

7.1.  Intra-area Segment Routing in OSPFv2

   An OSPFv2 router that supports Segment Routing MAY advertise Prefix-
   SIDs for any prefix to which it is advertising reachability (e.g., a
   loopback IP address as described in Section 5).

   A Prefix-SID can also be advertised by the SR Mapping Servers (as
   described in [RFC8661]).  A Mapping Server advertises Prefix-SIDs for
   remote prefixes that exist in the OSPFv2 routing domain.  Multiple
   Mapping Servers can advertise Prefix-SIDs for the same prefix; in
   which case, the same Prefix-SID MUST be advertised by all of them.
   The flooding scope of the OSPF Extended Prefix Opaque LSA that is
   generated by the SR Mapping Server could be either area scoped or AS
   scoped and is determined based on the configuration of the SR Mapping
   Server.

   An SR Mapping Server MUST use the OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV when
   advertising SIDs for prefixes.  Prefixes of different route types can
   be combined in a single OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV advertised by
   an SR Mapping Server.  Because the OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV
   doesn't include a Route-Type field, as in the OSPF Extended Prefix
   TLV, it is possible to include adjacent prefixes from different route
   types in the OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV.

   Area-scoped OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLVs are propagated between
   areas.  Similar to propagation of prefixes between areas, an ABR only
   propagates the OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV that it considers to be
   the best from the set it received.  The rules used to pick the best
   OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV are described in Section 4.

   When propagating an OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV between areas,
   ABRs MUST set the IA-Flag.  This is used to prevent redundant
   flooding of the OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV between areas as
   described in Section 4.

7.2.  Inter-area Segment Routing in OSPFv2

   In order to support SR in a multiarea environment, OSPFv2 MUST
   propagate Prefix-SID information between areas.  The following
   procedure is used to propagate Prefix-SIDs between areas.

   When an OSPF ABR advertises a Type-3 Summary LSA from an intra-area
   prefix to all its connected areas, it will also originate an OSPF
   Extended Prefix Opaque LSA as described in [RFC7684].  The flooding
   scope of the OSPF Extended Prefix Opaque LSA type will be set to
   area-local scope.  The route type in the OSPF Extended Prefix TLV is
   set to inter-area.  The Prefix-SID Sub-TLV will be included in this
   LSA and the Prefix-SID value will be set as follows:

      The ABR will look at its best path to the prefix in the source
      area and find the advertising router associated with the best path
      to that prefix.

      The ABR will then determine if this router advertised a Prefix-SID
      for the prefix and use it when advertising the Prefix-SID to other
      connected areas.

      If no Prefix-SID was advertised for the prefix in the source area
      by the router that contributes to the best path to the prefix, the
      originating ABR will use the Prefix-SID advertised by any other
      router when propagating the Prefix-SID for the prefix to other
      areas.

   When an OSPF ABR advertises Type-3 Summary LSAs from an inter-area
   route to all its connected areas, it will also originate an OSPF
   Extended Prefix Opaque LSA as described in [RFC7684].  The flooding
   scope of the OSPF Extended Prefix Opaque LSA type will be set to
   area-local scope.  The route type in the OSPF Extended Prefix TLV is
   set to inter-area.  The Prefix-SID Sub-TLV will be included in this
   LSA and the Prefix-SID will be set as follows:

      The ABR will look at its best path to the prefix in the backbone
      area and find the advertising router associated with the best path
      to that prefix.

      The ABR will then determine if such a router advertised a Prefix-
      SID for the prefix and use it when advertising the Prefix-SID to
      other connected areas.

      If no Prefix-SID was advertised for the prefix in the backbone
      area by the ABR that contributes to the best path to the prefix,
      the originating ABR will use the Prefix-SID advertised by any
      other router when propagating the Prefix-SID for the prefix to
      other areas.

7.3.  Segment Routing for External Prefixes

   Type-5 LSAs are flooded domain wide.  When an ASBR, which supports
   SR, generates Type-5 LSAs, it SHOULD also originate OSPF Extended
   Prefix Opaque LSAs as described in [RFC7684].  The flooding scope of
   the OSPF Extended Prefix Opaque LSA type is set to AS-wide scope.
   The route type in the OSPF Extended Prefix TLV is set to external.
   The Prefix-SID Sub-TLV is included in this LSA and the Prefix-SID
   value will be set to the SID that has been reserved for that prefix.

   When a Not-So-Stubby Area (NSSA) [RFC3101] ABR translates Type-7 LSAs
   into Type-5 LSAs, it SHOULD also advertise the Prefix-SID for the
   prefix.  The NSSA ABR determines its best path to the prefix
   advertised in the translated Type-7 LSA and finds the advertising
   router associated with that path.  If the advertising router has
   advertised a Prefix-SID for the prefix, then the NSSA ABR uses it
   when advertising the Prefix-SID for the Type-5 prefix.  Otherwise,
   the Prefix-SID advertised by any other router will be used.

7.4.  Advertisement of Adj-SID

   The Adjacency Segment Routing Identifier (Adj-SID) is advertised
   using the Adj-SID Sub-TLV as described in Section 6.

7.4.1.  Advertisement of Adj-SID on Point-to-Point Links

   An Adj-SID MAY be advertised for any adjacency on a point-to-point
   (P2P) link that is in neighbor state 2-Way or higher.  If the
   adjacency on a P2P link transitions from the FULL state, then the
   Adj-SID for that adjacency MAY be removed from the area.  If the
   adjacency transitions to a state lower than 2-Way, then the Adj-SID
   Advertisement MUST be withdrawn from the area.

7.4.2.  Adjacency SID on Broadcast or NBMA Interfaces

   Broadcast, NBMA, or hybrid [RFC6845] networks in OSPF are represented
   by a star topology where the Designated Router (DR) is the central
   point to which all other routers on the broadcast, NBMA, or hybrid
   network connect.  As a result, routers on the broadcast, NBMA, or
   hybrid network advertise only their adjacency to the DR.  Routers
   that do not act as DR do not form or advertise adjacencies with each
   other.  They do, however, maintain 2-Way adjacency state with each
   other and are directly reachable.

   When Segment Routing is used, each router on the broadcast, NBMA, or
   hybrid network MAY advertise the Adj-SID for its adjacency to the DR
   using the Adj-SID Sub-TLV as described in Section 6.1.

   SR-capable routers MAY also advertise a LAN Adjacency SID for other
   neighbors (e.g., Backup Designated Router, DR-OTHER, etc.) on the
   broadcast, NBMA, or hybrid network using the LAN Adj-SID Sub-TLV as
   described in Section 6.2.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This specification updates several existing OSPF registries and
   creates a new IGP registry.

8.1.  OSPF Router Information (RI) TLVs Registry

   The following values have been allocated:

   +-------+---------------------+---------------+
   | Value | TLV Name            | Reference     |
   +=======+=====================+===============+
   | 8     | SR-Algorithm TLV    | This document |
   +-------+---------------------+---------------+
   | 9     | SID/Label Range TLV | This document |
   +-------+---------------------+---------------+
   | 14    | SR Local Block TLV  | This document |
   +-------+---------------------+---------------+
   | 15    | SRMS Preference TLV | This document |
   +-------+---------------------+---------------+

      Table 1: OSPF Router Information (RI) TLVs

8.2.  OSPFv2 Extended Prefix Opaque LSA TLVs Registry

   The following values have been allocated:

   +-------+--------------------------------+---------------+
   | Value | Description                    | Reference     |
   +=======+================================+===============+
   | 2     | OSPF Extended Prefix Range TLV | This document |
   +-------+--------------------------------+---------------+

        Table 2: OSPFv2 Extended Prefix Opaque LSA TLVs

8.3.  OSPFv2 Extended Prefix TLV Sub-TLVs Registry

   The following values have been allocated:

   +-------+--------------------+---------------+
   | Value | Description        | Reference     |
   +=======+====================+===============+
   | 1     | SID/Label Sub-TLV  | This document |
   +-------+--------------------+---------------+
   | 2     | Prefix-SID Sub-TLV | This document |
   +-------+--------------------+---------------+

    Table 3: OSPFv2 Extended Prefix TLV Sub-TLVs

8.4.  OSPFv2 Extended Link TLV Sub-TLVs Registry

   The following initial values have been allocated:

   +-------+---------------------------+---------------+
   | Value | Description               | Reference     |
   +=======+===========================+===============+
   | 1     | SID/Label Sub-TLV         | This document |
   +-------+---------------------------+---------------+
   | 2     | Adj-SID Sub-TLV           | This document |
   +-------+---------------------------+---------------+
   | 3     | LAN Adj-SID/Label Sub-TLV | This document |
   +-------+---------------------------+---------------+

         Table 4: OSPFv2 Extended Link TLV Sub-TLVs

8.5.  IGP Algorithm Types Registry

   IANA has set up a subregistry called "IGP Algorithm Type" under the
   "Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Parameters" registry.  The
   registration policy for this registry is "Standards Action"
   ([RFC8126] and [RFC7120]).

   Values in this registry come from the range 0-255.

   The initial values in the IGP Algorithm Type registry are as follows:

   +-------+--------------------------------------------+-----------+
   | Value | Description                                | Reference |
   +=======+============================================+===========+
   | 0     | Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm based  | This      |
   |       | on link metric.  This is the standard      | document  |
   |       | shortest path algorithm as computed by the |           |
   |       | IGP protocol.  Consistent with the         |           |
   |       | deployed practice for link-state           |           |
   |       | protocols, Algorithm 0 permits any node to |           |
   |       | overwrite the SPF path with a different    |           |
   |       | path based on its local policy.            |           |
   +-------+--------------------------------------------+-----------+
   | 1     | Strict Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm | This      |
   |       | based on link metric.  The algorithm is    | document  |
   |       | identical to Algorithm 0, but Algorithm 1  |           |
   |       | requires that all nodes along the path     |           |
   |       | will honor the SPF routing decision.       |           |
   |       | Local policy at the node claiming support  |           |
   |       | for Algorithm 1 MUST NOT alter the SPF     |           |
   |       | paths computed by Algorithm 1.             |           |
   +-------+--------------------------------------------+-----------+

                      Table 5: IGP Algorithm Types

9.  TLV/Sub-TLV Error Handling

   For any new TLVs/sub-TLVs defined in this document, if the length is
   invalid, the LSA in which it is advertised is considered malformed
   and MUST be ignored.  An error SHOULD be logged subject to rate
   limiting.

10.  Security Considerations

   With the OSPFv2 Segment Routing extensions defined herein, OSPFv2
   will now program the MPLS data plane [RFC3031] in addition to the IP
   data plane.  Previously, LDP [RFC5036] or another label distribution
   mechanism was required to advertise MPLS labels and program the MPLS
   data plane.

   In general, the same types of attacks that can be carried out on the
   IP control plane can be carried out on the MPLS control plane
   resulting in traffic being misrouted in the respective data planes.
   However, the latter can be more difficult to detect and isolate.

   Existing security extensions as described in [RFC2328] and [RFC7684]
   apply to these Segment Routing extensions.  While OSPF is under a
   single administrative domain, there can be deployments where
   potential attackers have access to one or more networks in the OSPF
   routing domain.  In these deployments, stronger authentication
   mechanisms such as those specified in [RFC7474] SHOULD be used.

   Implementations MUST assure that malformed TLVs and sub-TLVs defined
   in this document are detected and do not provide a vulnerability for
   attackers to crash the OSPFv2 router or routing process.  Reception
   of malformed TLVs or sub-TLVs SHOULD be counted and/or logged for
   further analysis.  Logging of malformed TLVs and sub-TLVs SHOULD be
   rate limited to prevent a Denial of Service (DoS) attack (distributed
   or otherwise) from overloading the OSPF control plane.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2328]  Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2328, April 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2328>.

   [RFC3101]  Murphy, P., "The OSPF Not-So-Stubby Area (NSSA) Option",
              RFC 3101, DOI 10.17487/RFC3101, January 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3101>.

   [RFC4915]  Psenak, P., Mirtorabi, S., Roy, A., Nguyen, L., and P.
              Pillay-Esnault, "Multi-Topology (MT) Routing in OSPF",
              RFC 4915, DOI 10.17487/RFC4915, June 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4915>.

   [RFC6845]  Sheth, N., Wang, L., and J. Zhang, "OSPF Hybrid Broadcast
              and Point-to-Multipoint Interface Type", RFC 6845,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6845, January 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6845>.

   [RFC7120]  Cotton, M., "Early IANA Allocation of Standards Track Code
              Points", BCP 100, RFC 7120, DOI 10.17487/RFC7120, January
              2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7120>.

   [RFC7684]  Psenak, P., Gredler, H., Shakir, R., Henderickx, W.,
              Tantsura, J., and A. Lindem, "OSPFv2 Prefix/Link Attribute
              Advertisement", RFC 7684, DOI 10.17487/RFC7684, November
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7684>.

   [RFC7770]  Lindem, A., Ed., Shen, N., Vasseur, JP., Aggarwal, R., and
              S. Shaffer, "Extensions to OSPF for Advertising Optional
              Router Capabilities", RFC 7770, DOI 10.17487/RFC7770,
              February 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7770>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8402]  Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S., Ed., Ginsberg, L.,
              Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment
              Routing Architecture", RFC 8402, DOI 10.17487/RFC8402,
              July 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8402>.

   [RFC8660]  Bashandy, A., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S.,
              Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment
              Routing with MPLS Data Plane", RFC 8660,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8660, December 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8660>.

   [RFC8661]  Bashandy, A., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S.,
              Decraene, B., and S. Litkowski, "Segment Routing
              Interworking with LDP", RFC 8661, DOI 10.17487/RFC8661,
              December 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8661>.

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3031]  Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A., and R. Callon, "Multiprotocol
              Label Switching Architecture", RFC 3031,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3031, January 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3031>.

   [RFC5036]  Andersson, L., Ed., Minei, I., Ed., and B. Thomas, Ed.,
              "LDP Specification", RFC 5036, DOI 10.17487/RFC5036,
              October 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5036>.

   [RFC7474]  Bhatia, M., Hartman, S., Zhang, D., and A. Lindem, Ed.,
              "Security Extension for OSPFv2 When Using Manual Key
              Management", RFC 7474, DOI 10.17487/RFC7474, April 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7474>.

   [RFC7855]  Previdi, S., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Decraene, B.,
              Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., and R. Shakir, "Source
              Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) Problem Statement
              and Requirements", RFC 7855, DOI 10.17487/RFC7855, May
              2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7855>.

   [RFC8666]  Psenak, P., Ed. and S. Previdi, Ed., "OSPFv3 Extensions
              for Segment Routing", RFC 8666, DOI 10.17487/RFC8666,
              December 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8666>.

Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank Anton Smirnov for his contribution.

   Thanks to Acee Lindem for the detailed review of the document,
   corrections, as well as discussion about details of the encoding.

Contributors

   The following people gave a substantial contribution to the content
   of this document: Acee Lindem, Ahmed Bashandy, Martin Horneffer,
   Bruno Decraene, Stephane Litkowski, Igor Milojevic, and Saku Ytti.

Authors' Addresses

   Peter Psenak (editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Apollo Business Center, Mlynske nivy 43
   821 09 Bratislava
   Slovakia

   Email: ppsenak@cisco.com


   Stefano Previdi (editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Via Del Serafico, 200
   00142 Rome
   Italy

   Email: stefano@previdi.net


   Clarence Filsfils
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Brussels
   Belgium

   Email: cfilsfil@cisco.com


   Hannes Gredler
   RtBrick Inc.

   Email: hannes@rtbrick.com


   Rob Shakir
   Google, Inc.
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA 94043
   United States of America

   Email: robjs@google.com


   Wim Henderickx
   Nokia
   Copernicuslaan 50
   2018 Antwerp
   Belgium

   Email: wim.henderickx@nokia.com


   Jeff Tantsura
   Apstra, Inc.

   Email: jefftant.ietf@gmail.com


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