draft-ietf-6lo-lowpanz-01.txt   draft-ietf-6lo-lowpanz-02.txt 
IPv6 over Networks of Resource-constrained Nodes (6lo) WG A. Brandt IPv6 over Networks of Resource-constrained Nodes (6lo) WG A. Brandt
Internet-Draft J. Buron Internet-Draft J. Buron
Intended status: Standards Track Sigma Designs Intended status: Standards Track Sigma Designs
Expires: July 25, 2014 January 21, 2014 Expires: August 7, 2014 February 3, 2014
Transmission of IPv6 packets over ITU-T G.9959 Networks Transmission of IPv6 packets over ITU-T G.9959 Networks
draft-ietf-6lo-lowpanz-01 draft-ietf-6lo-lowpanz-02
Abstract Abstract
This document describes the frame format for transmission of IPv6 This document describes the frame format for transmission of IPv6
packets and a method of forming IPv6 link-local addresses and packets and a method of forming IPv6 link-local addresses and
statelessly autoconfigured IPv6 addresses on ITU-T G.9959 networks. statelessly autoconfigured IPv6 addresses on ITU-T G.9959 networks.
Requirements Language Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
skipping to change at page 1, line 38 skipping to change at page 1, line 38
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on July 25, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 7, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
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the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Author's notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Reader's guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1. Terms used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. G.9959 parameters to use for IPv6 transport . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. Terms used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1. Addressing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. G.9959 parameters to use for IPv6 transport . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2. IPv6 Multicast support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Addressing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3. G.9959 MAC PDU size and IPv6 MTU . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. IPv6 Multicast support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.4. Transmission status indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3. G.9959 MAC PDU size and IPv6 MTU . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.5. Transmission security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.4. Transmission status indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. LoWPAN Adaptation Layer and Frame Format . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.5. Transmission security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Dispatch Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. LoWPAN Adaptation Layer and Frame Format . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. LoWPAN addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Dispatch Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration of routable IPv6
5. LoWPAN addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.1. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration of routable IPv6
addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.2. IPv6 Link Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. IPv6 Link Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.3. Unicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.3. Unicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.4. On the use of Neighbor Discovery technologies . . . . . . 9 4.4. On the use of Neighbor Discovery technologies . . . . . . 9
5.4.1. Prefix and CID management (Route-over) . . . . . . . 10 4.4.1. Prefix and CID management (Route-over) . . . . . . . 9
5.4.2. Prefix and CID management (Mesh-under) . . . . . . . 10 4.4.2. Prefix and CID management (Mesh-under) . . . . . . . 10
6. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
A.1. Changes since -00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1. Author's notes A.2. Changes since -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
This chapter MUST be deleted before going for document last call.
1.1. Reader's guidance
This document borrows heavily from RFC4944, "Transmission of IPv6
Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 Networks". The process of creating this
document was mainly a simplification; removing the following topics:
o EUI-64 link-layer addresses
o Fragmentation layer
o Mesh routing
The 16-bit short addresses of 802.15.4 have been changed to 8-bit
G.9959 NodeIDs.
2. Introduction 1. Introduction
The ITU-T G.9959 recommendation [G.9959] targets low-power Personal The ITU-T G.9959 recommendation [G.9959] targets low-power Personal
Area Networks (PANs). This document defines the frame format for Area Networks (PANs). This document defines the frame format for
transmission of IPv6 [RFC2460] packets as well as the formation of transmission of IPv6 [RFC2460] packets as well as the formation of
IPv6 link-local addresses and statelessly autoconfigured IPv6 IPv6 link-local addresses and statelessly autoconfigured IPv6
addresses on G.9959 networks. addresses on G.9959 networks.
The general approach is to adapt elements of [RFC4944] to G.9959 The general approach is to adapt elements of [RFC4944] to G.9959
networks. G.9959 provides a Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) layer networks. G.9959 provides a Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) layer
for transmission of datagrams larger than the G.9959 MAC PDU. for transmission of datagrams larger than the G.9959 MAC PDU.
[RFC6775] updates [RFC4944] by specifying 6LoWPAN optimizations for [RFC6775] updates [RFC4944] by specifying 6LoWPAN optimizations for
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) (originally defined by [RFC4861]). This IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) (originally defined by [RFC4861]). This
document limits the use of [RFC6775] to prefix and Context ID document limits the use of [RFC6775] to prefix and Context ID
assignment. It is described how to construct an IID from a G.9959 assignment. It is described how to construct an IID from a G.9959
link-layer address. Refer to Section 5. If using that method, link-layer address. If using that method, Duplicate Address
Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is not needed. Address Detection (DAD) is not needed. Address registration is only needed
registration is only needed in certain cases. in certain cases.
In addition to IPv6 application communication, the frame format In addition to IPv6 application communication, the frame format
defined in this document may be used by IPv6 routing protocols such defined in this document may be used by IPv6 routing protocols such
as RPL [RFC6550] or P2P-RPL [RFC6997] to implement IPv6 routing over as RPL [RFC6550] or P2P-RPL [RFC6997] to implement IPv6 routing over
G.9959 networks. G.9959 networks.
The encapsulation frame defined by this specification may optionally The encapsulation frame defined by this specification may optionally
be transported via mesh routing below the 6LoWPAN layer. Actual be transported via mesh routing below the 6LoWPAN layer. Routing
routing protocols are out of scope of this document. protocol specifications are out of scope of this document.
2.1. Terms used 1.1. Terms used
ABR: Authoritative Border Router ([RFC6775]) ABR: Authoritative Border Router ([RFC6775])
AES: Advanced Encryption Scheme AES: Advanced Encryption Scheme
EUI-64: Extended Unique Identifier EUI-64: Extended Unique Identifier
HomeID: G.9959 Link-Layer Network Identifier HomeID: G.9959 Link-Layer Network Identifier
IID: Interface IDentifier IID: Interface IDentifier
skipping to change at page 4, line 18 skipping to change at page 3, line 48
NodeID: G.9959 Link-Layer Node Identifier (Short Address) NodeID: G.9959 Link-Layer Node Identifier (Short Address)
PAN: Personal Area Network PAN: Personal Area Network
PDU: Protocol Data Unit PDU: Protocol Data Unit
SAR: Segmentation And Reassembly SAR: Segmentation And Reassembly
ULA: Unique Local Address ULA: Unique Local Address
3. G.9959 parameters to use for IPv6 transport 2. G.9959 parameters to use for IPv6 transport
This chapter outlines properties applying to the PHY and MAC of This chapter outlines properties applying to the PHY and MAC of
G.9959 and how to use these for IPv6 transport. G.9959 and how to use these for IPv6 transport.
3.1. Addressing mode 2.1. Addressing mode
G.9959 defines how a unique 32-bit HomeID network identifier is G.9959 defines how a unique 32-bit HomeID network identifier is
assigned by a network controller and how an 8-bit NodeID host assigned by a network controller and how an 8-bit NodeID host
identifier is allocated. NodeIDs are unique within the logical identifier is allocated. NodeIDs are unique within the logical
network identified by the HomeID. The logical network identified by network identified by the HomeID. The logical network identified by
the HomeID maps directly to an IPv6 subnet identified by one or more the HomeID maps directly to an IPv6 subnet identified by one or more
IPv6 prefixes. IPv6 prefixes.
An IPv6 host SHOULD construct its link-local IPv6 address and An IPv6 host MUST construct its link-local IPv6 address and routable
routable IPv6 addresses from the NodeID in order to facilitate IP IPv6 addresses from the NodeID in order to facilitate IP header
header compression as described in [RFC6282]. compression as described in [RFC6282].
A word of caution: since HomeIDs and NodeIDs are handed out by a A word of caution: since HomeIDs and NodeIDs are handed out by a
network controller function during inclusion, identifier validity and network controller function during inclusion, identifier validity and
uniqueness is limited by the lifetime of the logical network uniqueness is limited by the lifetime of the logical network
membership. This can be cut short by a mishap occurring to the membership. This can be cut short by a mishap occurring to the
network controller. Having a single point of failure at the network network controller. Having a single point of failure at the network
controller suggests that deployers of high-reliability applications controller suggests that deployers of high-reliability applications
should carefully consider adding redundancy to the network controller should carefully consider adding redundancy to the network controller
function. function.
3.2. IPv6 Multicast support 2.2. IPv6 Multicast support
[RFC3819] recommends that IP subnetworks support (subnet-wide) [RFC3819] recommends that IP subnetworks support (subnet-wide)
multicast. G.9959 supports direct-range IPv6 multicast while subnet- multicast. G.9959 supports direct-range IPv6 multicast while subnet-
wide multicast is not supported natively by G.9959. Subnet-wide wide multicast is not supported natively by G.9959. Subnet-wide
multicast may be provided by an IP routing protocol or a mesh routing multicast may be provided by an IP routing protocol or a mesh routing
protocol operating below the 6LoWPAN layer. Routing protocol protocol operating below the 6LoWPAN layer. Routing protocol
specifications are out of scope of this document. specifications are out of scope of this document.
IPv6 multicast packets MUST be carried via G.9959 broadcast. IPv6 multicast packets MUST be carried via G.9959 broadcast.
skipping to change at page 5, line 20 skipping to change at page 5, line 5
1. The destination HomeID of the G.9959 MAC PDU MUST be the HomeID 1. The destination HomeID of the G.9959 MAC PDU MUST be the HomeID
of the logical network of the logical network
2. The destination NodeID of the G.9959 MAC PDU MUST be the 2. The destination NodeID of the G.9959 MAC PDU MUST be the
broadcast NodeID (0xff) broadcast NodeID (0xff)
G.9959 broadcast MAC PDUs are only intercepted by nodes within the G.9959 broadcast MAC PDUs are only intercepted by nodes within the
logical network identified by the HomeID. logical network identified by the HomeID.
3.3. G.9959 MAC PDU size and IPv6 MTU 2.3. G.9959 MAC PDU size and IPv6 MTU
IPv6 packets MUST use G.9959 transmission profiles which support MAC IPv6 packets MUST use G.9959 transmission profiles which support MAC
PDU payload sizes of 150 bytes or higher, e.g. the R3 profile. PDU payload sizes of 150 bytes or higher, e.g. the R3 profile.
G.9959 profiles R1 and R2 only supports MPDU payloads around 40 bytes G.9959 profiles R1 and R2 only supports MPDU payloads around 40 bytes
and the transmission speed is down to 9.6kbit/s. and the transmission speed is down to 9.6kbit/s.
[RFC2460] specifies that IPv6 packets may be up to 1280 octets. [RFC2460] specifies that IPv6 packets may be up to 1280 octets.
However, a full IPv6 packet does not fit in an G.9959 MAC PDU. The However, a full IPv6 packet does not fit in an G.9959 MAC PDU. The
maximum G.9959 R3 MAC PDU payload size is 158 octets. Link-layer maximum G.9959 R3 MAC PDU payload size is 158 octets. Link-layer
security imposes an overhead, which in the extreme case leaves 130 security imposes an overhead, which in the extreme case leaves 130
octets available. octets available.
G.9959 provides Segmentation And Reassembly for payloads up to 1350 G.9959 provides Segmentation And Reassembly for payloads up to 1350
octets. Segmentation however adds further overhead. It is desirable octets. Segmentation however adds further overhead. It is desirable
that datagrams can fit into a single G.9959 MAC PDU. IPv6 Header that datagrams can fit into a single G.9959 MAC PDU. IPv6 Header
Compression [RFC6282] improves the chances that a short IPv6 packet Compression [RFC6282] improves the chances that a short IPv6 packet
can fit into a single G.9959 frame. Therefore, section Section 4 can fit into a single G.9959 frame. Therefore, section Section 3
specifies that [RFC6282] MUST be supported. specifies that [RFC6282] MUST be supported.
3.4. Transmission status indications 2.4. Transmission status indications
The G.9959 MAC layer provides native acknowledgement and The G.9959 MAC layer provides native acknowledgement and
retransmission of MAC PDUs. The G.9959 SAR layer does the same for retransmission of MAC PDUs. The G.9959 SAR layer does the same for
larger datagrams. A mesh routing layer may provide a similar feature larger datagrams. A mesh routing layer may provide a similar feature
for routed communication. Acknowledgment and retransmission improves for routed communication. Acknowledgment and retransmission improves
the transmission success rate and frees higher layers from the burden the transmission success rate and frees higher layers from the burden
of implementing individual retransmission schemes. An IPv6 routing of implementing individual retransmission schemes. An IPv6 routing
stack communicating over G.9959 may utilize link-layer status stack communicating over G.9959 may utilize link-layer status
indications such as delivery confirmation and Ack timeout from the indications such as delivery confirmation and Ack timeout from the
MAC layer. MAC layer.
3.5. Transmission security 2.5. Transmission security
Implementations claiming conformance with this document MUST enable Implementations claiming conformance with this document MUST enable
G.9959 shared network key security. G.9959 shared network key security.
The shared network key is intended to address security requirements The shared network key is intended to address security requirements
in the home at the normal security requirements level. For in the home at the normal security requirements level. For
applications with high or very high requirements on confidentiality applications with high or very high requirements on confidentiality
and/or integrity, additional application layer security measures for and/or integrity, additional application layer security measures for
end-to-end authentication and encryption may need to be applied. The end-to-end authentication and encryption may need to be applied. The
availability of the network relies on the security properties of the availability of the network relies on the security properties of the
network key in any case. network key in any case.
4. LoWPAN Adaptation Layer and Frame Format 3. LoWPAN Adaptation Layer and Frame Format
The 6LoWPAN encapsulation formats defined in this chapter are the The 6LoWPAN encapsulation formats defined in this chapter are carried
payload in the G.9959 MAC PDU. IPv6 header compression [RFC6282] as payload in the G.9959 MAC PDU. IPv6 header compression [RFC6282]
MUST be supported by implementations of this specification. MUST be supported by implementations of this specification.
All 6LoWPAN datagrams transported over G.9959 are prefixed by a All 6LoWPAN datagrams transported over G.9959 are prefixed by a
6LoWPAN encapsulation header stack. The 6LoWPAN payload (e.g. an 6LoWPAN encapsulation header stack. The 6LoWPAN payload (e.g. an
IPv6 packet) follows this encapsulation header. Each header in the IPv6 packet) follows this encapsulation header. Each header in the
header stack contains a header type followed by zero or more header header stack contains a header type followed by zero or more header
fields. An IPv6 header stack may contain, in the following order, fields. An IPv6 header stack may contain, in the following order,
addressing, hop-by-hop options, routing, fragmentation, destination addressing, hop-by-hop options, routing, fragmentation, destination
options, and finally payload [RFC2460]. The 6LoWPAN header format is options, and finally payload [RFC2460]. The 6LoWPAN header format is
structured the same way. Currently only payload options are defined structured the same way. Currently only payload options are defined
skipping to change at page 6, line 43 skipping to change at page 6, line 30
The definition of 6LoWPAN headers consists of the dispatch value, the The definition of 6LoWPAN headers consists of the dispatch value, the
definition of the header fields that follow, and their ordering definition of the header fields that follow, and their ordering
constraints relative to all other headers. Although the header stack constraints relative to all other headers. Although the header stack
structure provides a mechanism to address future demands on the structure provides a mechanism to address future demands on the
6LoWPAN adaptation layer, it is not intended to provide general 6LoWPAN adaptation layer, it is not intended to provide general
purpose extensibility. This document specifies a small set of purpose extensibility. This document specifies a small set of
6LoWPAN header types using the 6LoWPAN header stack for clarity, 6LoWPAN header types using the 6LoWPAN header stack for clarity,
compactness, and orthogonality. compactness, and orthogonality.
4.1. Dispatch Header 3.1. Dispatch Header
The dispatch header is shown below: The dispatch header is shown below:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 6LoWPAN CmdCls | Dispatch | Type-specific header | | 6LoWPAN CmdCls | Dispatch | Type-specific header |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 1: Dispatch Type and Header Figure 1: Dispatch Type and Header
skipping to change at page 7, line 34 skipping to change at page 7, line 15
The dispatch value may be treated as an unstructured namespace. Only The dispatch value may be treated as an unstructured namespace. Only
a few symbols are required to represent current 6LoWPAN a few symbols are required to represent current 6LoWPAN
functionality. Although some additional savings could be achieved by functionality. Although some additional savings could be achieved by
encoding additional functionality into the dispatch byte, these encoding additional functionality into the dispatch byte, these
measures would tend to constrain the ability to address future measures would tend to constrain the ability to address future
alternatives. alternatives.
Dispatch values used in this specification are compatible with the Dispatch values used in this specification are compatible with the
dispatch values defined by [RFC4944] and [RFC6282]. dispatch values defined by [RFC4944] and [RFC6282].
+------------+------------------------------------------+-----------+ +------------+------------------------------------------+-----------+
| Pattern | Header Type | Reference | | Pattern | Header Type | Reference |
+------------+------------------------------------------+-----------+ +------------+------------------------------------------+-----------+
| 01 000001 | IPv6 - Uncompressed IPv6 Addresses| [RFC4944] | | 01 1xxxxx | 6LoWPAN_IPHC - Compressed IPv6 Addresses | [RFC6282] |
| 01 1xxxxx | 6LoWPAN_IPHC - 6LoWPAN_IPHC compressed IPv6| [RFC6282] | +------------+------------------------------------------+-----------+
+------------+------------------------------------------+-----------+ All other Dispatch values are unassigned in this document.
All other Dispatch values are unassigned in this document.
Figure 2: Dispatch values Figure 2: Dispatch values
IPv6: Specifies that the following header is an uncompressed IPv6
header.
6LoWPAN_IPHC: IPv6 Header Compression. Refer to [RFC6282]. 6LoWPAN_IPHC: IPv6 Header Compression. Refer to [RFC6282].
5. LoWPAN addressing 4. LoWPAN addressing
IPv6 addresses are autoconfigured from IIDs which are again IPv6 addresses are autoconfigured from IIDs which are again
constructed from link-layer address information to save memory in constructed from link-layer address information to save memory in
devices and to facilitate efficient IP header compression as per devices and to facilitate efficient IP header compression as per
[RFC6282]. [RFC6282].
A G.9959 NodeID is 8 bits in length. A NodeID is mapped into an IEEE A G.9959 NodeID is 8 bits in length. A NodeID is mapped into an IEEE
EUI-64 identifier as follows: EUI-64 identifier as follows:
IID = 0000:00ff:fe00:YYXX IID = 0000:00ff:fe00:YYXX
skipping to change at page 8, line 33 skipping to change at page 8, line 7
ignored when computing the corresponding NodeID (the XX value) from ignored when computing the corresponding NodeID (the XX value) from
an IID. an IID.
A 6LoWPAN network typically is used for M2M-style communication. The A 6LoWPAN network typically is used for M2M-style communication. The
method of constructing IIDs from the link-layer address obviously method of constructing IIDs from the link-layer address obviously
does not support addresses assigned or constructed by other means. A does not support addresses assigned or constructed by other means. A
node MUST NOT compute the NodeID from the IID if the first 6 bytes of node MUST NOT compute the NodeID from the IID if the first 6 bytes of
the IID do not comply with the format defined in Figure 3. In that the IID do not comply with the format defined in Figure 3. In that
case, the address resolution mechanisms of RFC 6775 apply. case, the address resolution mechanisms of RFC 6775 apply.
5.1. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration of routable IPv6 addresses 4.1. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration of routable IPv6 addresses
The IID defined above MUST be used whether autoconfiguring a ULA IPv6 The IID defined above MUST be used whether autoconfiguring a ULA IPv6
address [RFC4193] or a globally routable IPv6 address [RFC3587] in address [RFC4193] or a globally routable IPv6 address [RFC3587] in
G.9959 subnets. G.9959 subnets.
5.2. IPv6 Link Local Address 4.2. IPv6 Link Local Address
The IPv6 link-local address [RFC4291] for a G.9959 interface is The IPv6 link-local address [RFC4291] for a G.9959 interface is
formed by appending the IID defined above to the IPv6 link local formed by appending the IID defined above to the IPv6 link local
prefix FE80::/64. prefix FE80::/64.
The "Universal/Local" (U/L) bit MUST be set to zero in keeping with The "Universal/Local" (U/L) bit MUST be set to zero in keeping with
the fact that this is not a globally unique value [EUI64]. the fact that this is not a globally unique value [EUI64].
The resulting link local address is formed as follows: The resulting link local address is formed as follows:
10 bits 54 bits 64 bits 10 bits 54 bits 64 bits
+----------+-----------------------+----------------------------+ +----------+-----------------------+----------------------------+
|1111111010| (zeros) | Interface Identifier (IID) | |1111111010| (zeros) | Interface Identifier (IID) |
+----------+-----------------------+----------------------------+ +----------+-----------------------+----------------------------+
Figure 4: IPv6 Link Local Address Figure 4: IPv6 Link Local Address
5.3. Unicast Address Mapping 4.3. Unicast Address Mapping
The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 unicast addresses The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 unicast addresses
into G.9959 link-layer addresses follows the general description in into G.9959 link-layer addresses follows the general description in
Section 7.2 of [RFC4861]. The Source/Target Link-layer Address Section 7.2 of [RFC4861]. The Source/Target Link-layer Address
option MUST have the following form when the link layer is G.9959. option MUST have the following form when the link layer is G.9959.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length=1 | | Type | Length=1 |
skipping to change at page 9, line 46 skipping to change at page 9, line 32
2 signifies the Destination Link-layer address. 2 signifies the Destination Link-layer address.
Length: This is the length of this option (including the type and Length: This is the length of this option (including the type and
length fields) in units of 8 octets. The value of this field is length fields) in units of 8 octets. The value of this field is
always 1 for G.9959 NodeIDs. always 1 for G.9959 NodeIDs.
NodeID: This is the G.9959 NodeID the actual interface currently NodeID: This is the G.9959 NodeID the actual interface currently
responds to. The link-layer address may change if the interface responds to. The link-layer address may change if the interface
joins another network at a later time. joins another network at a later time.
5.4. On the use of Neighbor Discovery technologies 4.4. On the use of Neighbor Discovery technologies
[RFC4861] specifies how IPv6 nodes may resolve link layer addresses [RFC4861] specifies how IPv6 nodes may resolve link layer addresses
from IPv6 addresses via the use of link-local IPv6 multicast. from IPv6 addresses via the use of link-local IPv6 multicast.
[RFC6775] is an optimization of [RFC4861], specifically targeting [RFC6775] is an optimization of [RFC4861], specifically targeting
6LoWPAN networks. [RFC6775] defines how a 6LoWPAN node may register 6LoWPAN networks. [RFC6775] defines how a 6LoWPAN node may register
IPv6 addresses with an authoritative border router (ABR). Mesh-under IPv6 addresses with an authoritative border router (ABR). Mesh-under
networks SHOULD NOT use [RFC6775] address registration. However, networks MUST NOT use [RFC6775] address registration. However,
[RFC6775] address registration MUST be used if the first 6 bytes of [RFC6775] address registration MUST be used if the first 6 bytes of
the IID do not comply with the format defined in Figure 3. the IID do not comply with the format defined in Figure 3.
In route-over environments, IPv6 hosts MUST use [RFC6775] address In route-over environments, IPv6 hosts MUST use [RFC6775] address
registration. [RFC6775] Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) SHOULD NOT registration. [RFC6775] Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) MUST NOT
be used, since the link-layer inclusion process of G.9959 ensures be used, since the link-layer inclusion process of G.9959 ensures
that a NodeID is unique for a given HomeID. that a NodeID is unique for a given HomeID.
5.4.1. Prefix and CID management (Route-over) 4.4.1. Prefix and CID management (Route-over)
A node implementation for route-over operation MAY use RFC6775 A node implementation for route-over operation MAY use RFC6775
mechanisms for obtaining IPv6 prefixes and corresponding header mechanisms for obtaining IPv6 prefixes and corresponding header
compression context information [RFC6282]. RFC6775 Route-over compression context information [RFC6282]. RFC6775 Route-over
requirements apply with no modifications. requirements apply with no modifications.
5.4.2. Prefix and CID management (Mesh-under) 4.4.2. Prefix and CID management (Mesh-under)
An implementation for mesh-under operation MUST use [RFC6775] An implementation for mesh-under operation MUST use [RFC6775]
mechanisms for managing IPv6 prefixes and corresponding header mechanisms for managing IPv6 prefixes and corresponding header
compression context information [RFC6282]. Except for the specific compression context information [RFC6282]. Except for the specific
redefinition of the RA Router Lifetime value 0xFFFF (refer to redefinition of the RA Router Lifetime value 0xFFFF (refer to
Section 5.4.2.3), the text of the following subsections is in Section 4.4.2.3), the text of the following subsections is in
compliance with [RFC6775]. compliance with [RFC6775].
5.4.2.1. Prefix assignment considerations 4.4.2.1. Prefix assignment considerations
When using [RFC6775] mechanisms for sending RAs, the M flag MUST NOT When using [RFC6775] mechanisms for sending RAs, the M flag MUST NOT
be set. As stated by [RFC6775], an ABR is responsible for managing be set. As stated by [RFC6775], an ABR is responsible for managing
prefix(es). Global prefixes may change over time. It is RECOMMENDED prefix(es). Global prefixes may change over time. It is RECOMMENDED
that a ULA prefix is always assigned to the 6LoWPAN subnet to that a ULA prefix is always assigned to the 6LoWPAN subnet to
facilitate stable site-local application associations based on IPv6 facilitate stable site-local application associations based on IPv6
addresses. Prefixes used in the 6LoWPAN subnet are distributed by addresses. Prefixes used in the 6LoWPAN subnet are distributed by
normal RA mechanisms. normal RA mechanisms.
5.4.2.2. Robust and efficient CID management 4.4.2.2. Robust and efficient CID management
The 6LoWPAN Context Option (6CO) is used according to [RFC6775] in an The 6LoWPAN Context Option (6CO) is used according to [RFC6775] in an
RA to disseminate Context IDs (CID) to use for compressing prefixes. RA to disseminate Context IDs (CID) to use for compressing prefixes.
Prefixes and corresponding Context IDs MUST be assigned during Prefixes and corresponding Context IDs MUST be assigned during
initial node inclusion. initial node inclusion.
CIDs SHOULD be used in a cyclic fashion to assist battery powered When updating context information, a CID may have its lifetime set to
nodes with no real-time clock. When updating context information, a zero to obsolete it. The CID MUST NOT be reused immediately; rather
CID may have its lifetime set to zero to obsolete it. The CID SHOULD the next vacant CID should be assigned. Header compression based on
NOT be reused immediately; rather the next vacant CID should be CIDs MUST NOT be used for RA messages carrying Context Information.
assigned. An ABR detecting the use of an obsoleted CID SHOULD An expired CID and the associated prefix MUST NOT be reset but rather
immediately send an RA with updated Context Information. Header retained in receive-only mode if there is no other current need for
compression based on CIDs MUST NOT be used for RA messages carrying the CID value. This will allow an ABR to detect if a sleeping node
Context Information. An expired CID and the associated prefix SHOULD without clock uses an expired CID and in response, the ABR MUST
NOT be reset but rather retained in receive-only mode if there is no return an RA with fresh Context Information to the originator.
other current need for the CID value. This will allow an ABR to
detect if a sleeping node without clock uses an expired CID and in
response, the LBR SHOULD immediately return an RA with fresh Context
Information to the originator.
5.4.2.3. Infinite prefix lifetime support for island-mode networks 4.4.2.3. Infinite prefix lifetime support for island-mode networks
Nodes MUST renew the prefix and CID according to the lifetime Nodes MUST renew the prefix and CID according to the lifetime
signaled by the ABR. [RFC6775] specifies that the maximum value of signaled by the ABR. [RFC6775] specifies that the maximum value of
the RA Router Lifetime field MAY be up to 0xFFFF. This document the RA Router Lifetime field MAY be up to 0xFFFF. This document
further specifies that the value 0xFFFF MUST be interpreted as further specifies that the value 0xFFFF MUST be interpreted as
infinite lifetime. This value SHOULD NOT be used by ABRs. Its use infinite lifetime. This value MUST NOT be used by ABRs. Its use is
is only intended for a sleeping network controller; for instance a only intended for a sleeping network controller; for instance a
battery powered remote control being master for a small island-mode battery powered remote control being master for a small island-mode
network of light modules. network of light modules.
6. Header Compression 5. Header Compression
IPv6 header compression [RFC6282] MUST be supported by IPv6 header compression [RFC6282] MUST be implemented according to
implementations of this specification. IPv6 header fields SHOULD be [RFC6282]. This section will simply identify substitutions that
compressed by default. When IPv6 header compression is used, it MUST should be made when interpreting the text of [RFC6282].
be according to [RFC6282]. This section will simply identify
substitutions that should be made when interpreting the text of
[RFC6282].
In general the following substitutions should be made: In general the following substitutions should be made:
o Replace "802.15.4" with "G.9959" o Replace "802.15.4" with "G.9959"
o Replace "802.15.4 short address" with "<Interface><G.9959 NodeID>" o Replace "802.15.4 short address" with "<Interface><G.9959 NodeID>"
o Replace "802.15.4 PAN ID" with "G.9959 HomeID" o Replace "802.15.4 PAN ID" with "G.9959 HomeID"
When a 16-bit address is called for (i.e., an IEEE 802.15.4 "short When a 16-bit address is called for (i.e., an IEEE 802.15.4 "short
skipping to change at page 12, line 15 skipping to change at page 11, line 41
A transmitting node may be sending to an IPv6 destination address A transmitting node may be sending to an IPv6 destination address
which can be reconstructed from the link-layer destination address. which can be reconstructed from the link-layer destination address.
If the Interface number is zero (the default value), all IPv6 address If the Interface number is zero (the default value), all IPv6 address
bytes may be elided. Likewise, the Interface number of a fully bytes may be elided. Likewise, the Interface number of a fully
elided IPv6 address (i.e. SAM/DAM=11) may be reconstructed to the elided IPv6 address (i.e. SAM/DAM=11) may be reconstructed to the
value zero by a receiving node. value zero by a receiving node.
64 bit 802.15.4 address details MUST be ignored. This document only 64 bit 802.15.4 address details MUST be ignored. This document only
specifies the use of short addresses. specifies the use of short addresses.
7. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
This document makes no request of IANA. This document makes no request of IANA.
Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
RFC. RFC.
8. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
The method of derivation of Interface Identifiers from 8-bit NodeIDs The method of derivation of Interface Identifiers from 8-bit NodeIDs
preserves uniqueness within the logical network. However, there is preserves uniqueness within the logical network. However, there is
no protection from duplication through forgery. Neighbor Discovery no protection from duplication through forgery. Neighbor Discovery
in G.9959 links may be susceptible to threats as detailed in in G.9959 links may be susceptible to threats as detailed in
[RFC3756]. G.9959 networks may feature mesh routing. This implies [RFC3756]. G.9959 networks may feature mesh routing. This implies
additional threats due to ad hoc routing as per [KW03]. G.9959 additional threats due to ad hoc routing as per [KW03]. G.9959
provides capability for link-layer security. G.9959 nodes MUST use provides capability for link-layer security. G.9959 nodes MUST use
link-layer security with a shared key. Doing so will alleviate the link-layer security with a shared key. Doing so will alleviate the
majority of threats stated above. A sizeable portion of G.9959 majority of threats stated above. A sizeable portion of G.9959
skipping to change at page 13, line 5 skipping to change at page 12, line 32
authentication and encryption of G.9959 frames and further employs authentication and encryption of G.9959 frames and further employs
challenge-response handshaking to prevent replay attacks. challenge-response handshaking to prevent replay attacks.
It is also expected that some G.9959 devices (e.g. billing and/or It is also expected that some G.9959 devices (e.g. billing and/or
safety critical products) will implement coordination or integration safety critical products) will implement coordination or integration
functions. These may communicate regularly with IPv6 peers outside functions. These may communicate regularly with IPv6 peers outside
the subnet. Such IPv6 devices are expected to secure their end-to- the subnet. Such IPv6 devices are expected to secure their end-to-
end communications with standard security mechanisms (e.g., IPsec, end communications with standard security mechanisms (e.g., IPsec,
TLS, etc). TLS, etc).
9. Acknowledgements 8. Acknowledgements
Thanks to the authors of RFC 4944 and RFC 6282 and members of the Thanks to the authors of RFC 4944 and RFC 6282 and members of the
IETF 6LoWPAN working group; this document borrows extensively from IETF 6LoWPAN working group; this document borrows extensively from
their work. Thanks to Erez Ben-Tovim, Kerry Lynn, Michael their work. Thanks to Erez Ben-Tovim, Kerry Lynn, Michael
Richardson, Tommas Jess Christensen for useful comments. Thanks to Richardson, Tommas Jess Christensen for useful comments. Thanks to
Carsten Bormann for extensive feedback which improved this document Carsten Bormann for extensive feedback which improved this document
significantly. significantly.
10. References 9. References
10.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[EUI64] IEEE, "communicationIDELINES FOR 64-BIT GLOBAL IDENTIFIER [EUI64] IEEE, "communicationIDELINES FOR 64-BIT GLOBAL IDENTIFIER
(EUI-64) REGISTRATION AUTHORITY", IEEE Std http:// (EUI-64) REGISTRATION AUTHORITY", IEEE Std http://
standards.ieee.org/regauth/oui/tutorials/EUI64.html, standards.ieee.org/regauth/oui/tutorials/EUI64.html,
November 2012. November 2012.
[G.9959] "G.9959 (02/12) + G.9959 Amendment 1 (10/13): Short range, [G.9959] "G.9959 (02/12) + G.9959 Amendment 1 (10/13): Short range,
narrow-band digital radiocommunication transceivers", narrow-band digital radiocommunication transceivers",
February 2012. February 2012.
skipping to change at page 14, line 18 skipping to change at page 13, line 44
[RFC6282] Hui, J. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6 [RFC6282] Hui, J. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282, Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
September 2011. September 2011.
[RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. Bormann, [RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. Bormann,
"Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Low-Power "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Low-Power
Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6775, Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6775,
November 2012. November 2012.
10.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[RFC3756] Nikander, P., Kempf, J., and E. Nordmark, "IPv6 Neighbor [RFC3756] Nikander, P., Kempf, J., and E. Nordmark, "IPv6 Neighbor
Discovery (ND) Trust Models and Threats", RFC 3756, May Discovery (ND) Trust Models and Threats", RFC 3756, May
2004. 2004.
[RFC3819] Karn, P., Bormann, C., Fairhurst, G., Grossman, D., [RFC3819] Karn, P., Bormann, C., Fairhurst, G., Grossman, D.,
Ludwig, R., Mahdavi, J., Montenegro, G., Touch, J., and L. Ludwig, R., Mahdavi, J., Montenegro, G., Touch, J., and L.
Wood, "Advice for Internet Subnetwork Designers", BCP 89, Wood, "Advice for Internet Subnetwork Designers", BCP 89,
RFC 3819, July 2004. RFC 3819, July 2004.
[RFC6550] Winter, T., Thubert, P., Brandt, A., Hui, J., Kelsey, R., [RFC6550] Winter, T., Thubert, P., Brandt, A., Hui, J., Kelsey, R.,
Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur, JP., and R. Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur, JP., and R.
Alexander, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Alexander, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and
Lossy Networks", RFC 6550, March 2012. Lossy Networks", RFC 6550, March 2012.
[RFC6997] Goyal, M., Baccelli, E., Philipp, M., Brandt, A., and J. [RFC6997] Goyal, M., Baccelli, E., Philipp, M., Brandt, A., and J.
Martocci, "Reactive Discovery of Point-to-Point Routes in Martocci, "Reactive Discovery of Point-to-Point Routes in
Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC 6997, August 2013. Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC 6997, August 2013.
Appendix A. Change Log
A.1. Changes since -00
o Clarified that mesh-under routing may take place below the 6lowpan
layer but that specific mesh-under routing protocols are not
within the scope of this doc.
o Clarified that RFC6282 IPv6 Header Compression MUST be supported.
o Clarified the text of section 5.4 on the use of RFC6775 address
registration in mesh-under networks.
o Split 5.4.2 into multiple paragraphs.
A.2. Changes since -01
o Added this Change Log
o Editorial nits.
o Made IPv6 Header Compression mandatory. Therefore, the Dispatch
value "01 000001 - Uncompressed IPv6 Addresses" was removed from
figure 2.
o Changed SHOULD to MUST: An IPv6 host SHOULD construct its link-
local IPv6 address and routable IPv6 addresses from the NodeID in
order to facilitate IP header compression as described in
[RFC6282].
o Changed SHOULD NOT to MUST NOT: Mesh-under networks MUST NOT use
[RFC6775] address registration.
o Changed SHOULD NOT to MUST NOT: [RFC6775] Duplicate Address
Detection (DAD) MUST NOT be used.
o Changed SHOULD NOT to MUST NOT: The CID MUST NOT be reused
immediately;
o Changed SHOULD NOT to MUST NOT: An expired CID and the associated
prefix MUST NOT be reset but rather retained in receive-only mode
o Changed LBR -> ABR
o Changed SHOULD to MUST: , the ABR MUST return an RA with fresh
Context Information to the originator.
o Changed SHOULD NOT to MUST NOT: This value MUST NOT be used by
ABRs. Its use is only intended for a sleeping network controller;
o
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Anders Brandt Anders Brandt
Sigma Designs Sigma Designs
Emdrupvej 26A, 1. Emdrupvej 26A, 1.
Copenhagen O 2100 Copenhagen O 2100
Denmark Denmark
Email: anders_brandt@sigmadesigns.com Email: anders_brandt@sigmadesigns.com
Jakob Buron Jakob Buron
Sigma Designs Sigma Designs
Emdrupvej 26A, 1. Emdrupvej 26A, 1.
Copenhagen O 2100 Copenhagen O 2100
Denmark Denmark
Email: jakob_buron@sigmadesigns.com Email: jakob_buron@sigmadesigns.com
 End of changes. 47 change blocks. 
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