draft-ietf-avt-rtp-isac-00.txt   draft-ietf-avt-rtp-isac-01.txt 
AVT T. le Grand
Internet-Draft Global IP Solutions
Intended status: Standards Track P. Jones
Expires: October 2010 Cisco
P. Huart
Cisco
April 29, 2010
RTP Payload Format for the iSAC Codec
draft-ietf-avt-rtp-isac-00.txt
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provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any Internet-Draft Google
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference Intended status: Standards Track P. Jones
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Expires: October 19, 2012 P. Huart
Cisco Systems
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at H. Alvestrand, Ed.
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt Google
April 17, 2012
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This Internet-Draft will expire on October 29, 2010. RTP Payload Format for the iSAC Codec
draft-ietf-avt-rtp-isac-01
Abstract Abstract
iSAC is a proprietary wideband speech and audio codec developed by iSAC is a proprietary wideband speech and audio codec developed by
Global IP Solutions, suitable for use in Voice over IP applications. Global IP Solutions, suitable for use in Voice over IP applications.
This document describes the payload format for iSAC generated bit This document describes the payload format for iSAC generated bit
streams within a Real-Time Protocol (RTP) packet. Also included here streams within a Real-Time Protocol (RTP) packet. Also included here
are the necessary details for the use of iSAC with the Session are the necessary details for the use of iSAC with the Session
Description Protocol (SDP). Description Protocol (SDP).
Conventions used in this document Requirements Language
In examples, "C:" and "S:" indicate lines sent by the client and
server respectively.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1].
Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on October 19, 2012.
Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction...................................................2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. iSAC Codec Description.........................................3 2. iSAC Codec Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. RTP Payload Format.............................................4 3. RTP Payload Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. iSAC Payload Format.......................................4 3.1. iSAC Payload Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Payload Header............................................5 3.2. Payload Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3. Encoded Speech Data.......................................5 3.3. Encoded Speech Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.4. Multiple iSAC frames in an RTP packet.....................6 3.4. Multiple iSAC frames in an RTP packet . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. IANA Considerations............................................6 4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. Media Type registration of iSAC...........................6 4.1. Media Type registration of iSAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. Mapping to SDP Parameters......................................8 5. Mapping to SDP Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.1. Example Initial Target Bit Rate...........................8 5.1. Example Initial Target Bit Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.2. Example Max Bit Rate......................................9 5.2. Example Max Bit Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6. Security Considerations........................................9 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7. Acknowledgments................................................9 7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8. References.....................................................9 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8.1. Normative References......................................9 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8.2. Informative References...................................10 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Author's Addresses...............................................10 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document gives a general description of the iSAC wideband speech This document gives a general description of the iSAC wideband speech
codec and specifies the iSAC payload format for usage in RTP packets. codec and specifies the iSAC payload format for usage in RTP packets.
Also included here are the necessary details for the use of iSAC with Also included here are the necessary details for the use of iSAC with
the Session Description Protocol (SDP). the Session Description Protocol (SDP).
2. iSAC Codec Description 2. iSAC Codec Description
The iSAC codec is an adaptive wideband speech and audio codec that The iSAC codec is an adaptive wideband speech and audio codec that
operates with short delay, making it suitable for high quality real operates with short delay, making it suitable for high quality real
time communication. It is specially designed to deliver wideband time communication. It is specially designed to deliver wideband
speech quality in both low and medium bit rate applications. It also speech quality in both low and medium bit rate applications. It also
handles non-speech audio well, such as music and background noise handles non-speech audio well, such as music and background noise
[5]. [5].
The iSAC codec compresses speech frames of 16 kHz, 16-bit sampled The iSAC codec compresses speech frames of 16 kHz, 16-bit sampled
input speech, each frame containing 30 or 60 ms of speech. input speech, each frame containing 30 or 60 ms of speech.
skipping to change at page 4, line 4 skipping to change at page 4, line 10
rate used. rate used.
The adaptation and the lossless coding described above both result in The adaptation and the lossless coding described above both result in
a variation of packet size, depending both of the nature of speech a variation of packet size, depending both of the nature of speech
and the available bandwidth. Therefore the iSAC codec operates at and the available bandwidth. Therefore the iSAC codec operates at
transmission rates from about 10 kbps to about 32 kbps. transmission rates from about 10 kbps to about 32 kbps.
The main characteristics can be summarized as follows: The main characteristics can be summarized as follows:
o Wideband, 16 kHz, speech and audio codec o Wideband, 16 kHz, speech and audio codec
o Variable bit rate, which depends on the input signal o Variable bit rate, which depends on the input signal
o Adaptive rate with two modes: channel-adaptive or channel- o Adaptive rate with two modes: channel-adaptive or channel-
independent mode independent mode
o Bit rate range from around 10 kbps to 32 kbps o Bit rate range from around 10 kbps to 32 kbps
o Operates on 30 or 60 ms of speech o Operates on 30 or 60 ms of speech
3. RTP Payload Format 3. RTP Payload Format
The iSAC codec uses a sampling rate clock of 16 kHz, so the RTP The iSAC codec uses a sampling rate clock of 16 kHz, so the RTP
timestamp MUST be in units of 1/16000 of a second. timestamp MUST be in units of 1/16000 of a second.
The RTP payload for iSAC has the format shown in Figure 1. No The RTP payload for iSAC has the format shown in Figure 1. No
additional header fields specific to this payload format are additional header fields specific to this payload format are
required. For RTP based transportation of iSAC encoded audio, the required. For RTP based transportation of iSAC encoded audio, the
standard RTP header [2] is followed by one payload data block. standard RTP header [2] is followed by one payload data block.
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| RTP Header |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
| |
+ iSAC Payload Block +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 1: RTP packet format for iSAC
0 1 2 3 3.1. iSAC Payload Format
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| RTP Header |
+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
| |
+ iSAC Payload Block +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 1: RTP packet format for iSAC
3.1. iSAC Payload Format
The iSAC payload block consists of a payload header and one or two The iSAC payload block consists of a payload header and one or two
encoded 30 ms speech frames. The iSAC payload is generated in the encoded 30 ms speech frames. The iSAC payload is generated in the
following manner: following manner:
o Parameters representing one or two 30 ms frames of speech data are o Parameters representing one or two 30 ms frames of speech data are
determined by the encoder. The parameters are quantized to determined by the encoder. The parameters are quantized to
generate encoded data corresponding to the one or two speech generate encoded data corresponding to the one or two speech
frames. The length of the encoded data is variable and depends on frames. The length of the encoded data is variable and depends on
the signal characteristics and the target bit rate. the signal characteristics and the target bit rate.
skipping to change at page 5, line 15 skipping to change at page 5, line 18
o Lossless coding is applied to the complete iSAC payload block, o Lossless coding is applied to the complete iSAC payload block,
including payload header, to generate a compressed payload. The including payload header, to generate a compressed payload. The
length depends on the length of the data generated to represent length depends on the length of the data generated to represent
the speech and the effectiveness of the lossless coding. the speech and the effectiveness of the lossless coding.
No part of the payload header or the encoded speech data can be No part of the payload header or the encoded speech data can be
retrieved without partly or fully decoding the packet. retrieved without partly or fully decoding the packet.
The following figure shows an iSAC payload block containing 60 ms of The following figure shows an iSAC payload block containing 60 ms of
encoded speech data: encoded speech data:
+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
|Payload | 30 ms Encoded | 30 ms Encoded |
|Header | Speech Data | Speech Data |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
Figure 2: Payload format for iSAC
+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ 3.2. Payload Header
|Payload | 30 ms Encoded | 30 ms Encoded |
|Header | Speech Data | Speech Data |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
Figure 2: Payload format for iSAC
3.2. Payload Header
The payload header holds information for the receiver about the The payload header holds information for the receiver about the
available bandwidth (BEI), and the length of the speech data in the available bandwidth (BEI), and the length of the speech data in the
current payload (FL). The header has the format defined in Figure 3. current payload (FL). The header has the format defined in Figure 3.
Note that the size of the header can vary due to the lossless Note that the size of the header can vary due to the lossless
encoding described in section 2 and in section 3.1. Also note that encoding described in section 2 and in section 3.1. Also note that
the BEI is always estimated and transmitted, even if iSAC runs in the BEI is always estimated and transmitted, even if iSAC runs in
channel-independent mode. channel-independent mode.
+-+-+-+-+-+-+
+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | BEI | FL |
| BEI | FL | +-+-+-+-+-+-+
+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Figure 3: Payload Header
Figure 3: Payload Header
o BEI: Bandwidth Estimation Index. The bandwidth estimate is o BEI: Bandwidth Estimation Index. The bandwidth estimate is
quantized into one out of 24 values. Valid values are 0 to 23. quantized into one out of 24 values. Valid values are 0 to 23.
o FL: The length of the speech data (Frame Length) present in the o FL: The length of the speech data (Frame Length) present in the
payload, given in number of speech samples. Valid frame lengths payload, given in number of speech samples. Valid frame lengths
are 480 (30 ms) and 960 (60 ms) samples. are 480 (30 ms) and 960 (60 ms) samples.
3.3. Encoded Speech Data 3.3. Encoded Speech Data
The iSAC encoded speech data consist of parameters representing one The iSAC encoded speech data consist of parameters representing one
or two frames of 30 ms speech. The length of the speech data is or two frames of 30 ms speech. The length of the speech data is
signaled in the header (in number of samples), and the length may signaled in the header (in number of samples), and the length may
change at any time during a session. In channel-adaptive mode the change at any time during a session. In channel-adaptive mode the
length is changed to best utilize the available bandwidth. length is changed to best utilize the available bandwidth.
The iSAC payload is padded to whole octets, and has a variable length The iSAC payload is padded to whole octets, and has a variable length
depending on the input source signal, number of 30 ms speech frames, depending on the input source signal, number of 30 ms speech frames,
and target bit rate. and target bit rate.
skipping to change at page 6, line 25 skipping to change at page 6, line 23
allowed payload length is 400 octets. The user can choose to lower allowed payload length is 400 octets. The user can choose to lower
the maximum allowed payload length. Minimum value is 100 octets. It the maximum allowed payload length. Minimum value is 100 octets. It
is possible for the user to choose a maximum bit rate instead of a is possible for the user to choose a maximum bit rate instead of a
maximum payload length. The maximum payload length is then dependent maximum payload length. The maximum payload length is then dependent
on the length of the speech data represented in the payload (30 or 60 on the length of the speech data represented in the payload (30 or 60
ms). Possible maximum rates are in the range of 32000 to 53400 bits ms). Possible maximum rates are in the range of 32000 to 53400 bits
per second. per second.
The sensitivity to bit errors is equal for all bits in the payload. The sensitivity to bit errors is equal for all bits in the payload.
3.4. Multiple iSAC frames in an RTP packet 3.4. Multiple iSAC frames in an RTP packet
More than one iSAC payload block MUST NOT be included in an RTP More than one iSAC payload block MUST NOT be included in an RTP
packet by a sender. packet by a sender.
Further, iSAC payload blocks MUST NOT be split between RTP packets. Further, iSAC payload blocks MUST NOT be split between RTP packets.
4. IANA Considerations 4. IANA Considerations
This document defines the iSAC media type. This document defines the iSAC media type.
4.1. Media Type registration of iSAC Media type name: audio
Media type name: audio
Media subtype: isac Media subtype: isac
Required parameters: None Required parameters: None
Optional parameters: Optional parameters:
o ibitrate: The parameter indicates the upper bound of the initial * ibitrate: The parameter indicates the upper bound of the
target bit rate the device would like to receive. For channel- initial target bit rate the device would like to receive. For
adaptive mode, the target bit rate may vary with time; for channel-adaptive mode, the target bit rate may vary with time;
channel-independent mode, the target bit rate will remain at that for channel-independent mode, the target bit rate will remain
level unless instructed otherwise. An acceptable value for at that level unless instructed otherwise. An acceptable value
ibitrate is in the range of 20000 to 32000 (bits per second). for ibitrate is in the range of 20000 to 32000 (bits per
second).
o maxbitrate: The parameter indicates the maximum bit rate the * maxbitrate: The parameter indicates the maximum bit rate the
endpoint expects to receive. The recipient of this parameter endpoint expects to receive. The recipient of this parameter
SHOULD NOT transmit at a higher bit rate. SHOULD NOT transmit at a higher bit rate.
Encoding considerations: Encoding considerations:
This media format is framed and binary. This media format is framed and binary.
Security considerations: Security considerations: See Section 6
See section 6.
Interoperability considerations: None Interoperability considerations: None
Published specification: Published specification: RFC XXXX
Applications which use this media type: Applications which use this media type:
This media type is suitable for use in numerous applications This media type is suitable for use in numerous applications
needing to transport encoded voice or other audio. Some examples needing to transport encoded voice or other audio. Some examples
include Voice over IP, Streaming Media, Voice Messaging, and include Voice over IP, Streaming Media, Voice Messaging, and
Conferencing. Conferencing.
Additional information: None Additional information: None
Intended usage: COMMON Intended usage: COMMON
Other Information/General Comment: Other Information/General Comment:
iSAC is a proprietary speech and audio codec owned by Global IP iSAC is a proprietary speech and audio codec owned by Global IP
Solutions. The codec operates on 30 or 60 ms speech frames at a Solutions. The codec operates on 30 or 60 ms speech frames at a
sampling rate clock of 16 kHz. sampling rate clock of 16 kHz.
Person to contact for further information: Person to contact for further information:
Tina le Grand [tlegrand@google.com]
Tina le Grand [tina.legrand@gipscorp.com]
Restrictions on usage: Restrictions on usage:
This media type depends on RTP framing, and hence is only defined This media type depends on RTP framing, and hence is only defined
for transfer via RTP [2]. Transport within other framing for transfer via RTP [2] Transport within other framing protocols
protocols is not defined at this time. is not defined at this time.
Change controller: Change controller:
IETF Audio/Video Transport working group delegated from the IESG. IETF Audio/Video Transport working group delegated from the IESG.
5. Mapping to SDP Parameters Note to the RFC Editor / IANA: Please replace "RFC XXXX" above with
the number of this RFC when published, and remove this note.
4.1. Media Type registration of iSAC
5. Mapping to SDP Parameters
The information carried in the media type specification has a The information carried in the media type specification has a
specific mapping to fields in the Session Description Protocol (SDP) specific mapping to fields in the Session Description Protocol (SDP)
[4], which is commonly used to describe RTP sessions. When SDP is [3], which is commonly used to describe RTP sessions. When SDP is
used to specify sessions employing the iSAC codec, the mapping is as used to specify sessions employing the iSAC codec, the mapping is as
follows: follows:
o The media type ("audio") goes in SDP "m=" as the media name. o The media type ("audio") goes in SDP "m=" as the media name.
o The media subtype (payload format name) goes in SDP "a=rtpmap" as o The media subtype (payload format name) goes in SDP "a=rtpmap" as
the encoding name. the encoding name.
o Any remaining parameters go in the SDP "a=fmtp" attribute by o Any remaining parameters go in the SDP "a=fmtp" attribute by
copying them directly from the media type string as a semicolon copying them directly from the media type string as a semicolon
skipping to change at page 8, line 42 skipping to change at page 8, line 30
The iSAC parameters in an SDP offer are completely independent from The iSAC parameters in an SDP offer are completely independent from
those in the SDP answer. For both ibitrate and maxbitrate it is those in the SDP answer. For both ibitrate and maxbitrate it is
legal for the answer to contain a value that is different than what legal for the answer to contain a value that is different than what
is provided in an offer. The parameter may be present in the answer, is provided in an offer. The parameter may be present in the answer,
even if absent in the offer. even if absent in the offer.
When conveying information by SDP, the encoding name SHALL be "isac" When conveying information by SDP, the encoding name SHALL be "isac"
(the same as the media subtype). (the same as the media subtype).
5.1. Example Initial Target Bit Rate 5.1. Example Initial Target Bit Rate
The offer indicates that it wishes to receive a bitstream with an The offer indicates that it wishes to receive a bitstream with an
initial target rate of 20000 bits per second. The remote party MAY initial target rate of 20000 bits per second. The remote party MAY
change its initial target rate to the requested value. change its initial target rate to the requested value.
m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 98
a=rtpmap: 98 isac/16000
a=fmtp:98 ibitrate=20000
m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 98 5.2. Example Max Bit Rate
a=rtpmap: 98 isac/16000
a=fmtp:98 ibitrate=20000
5.2. Example Max Bit Rate
The offer indicates that it wishes to receive a bitstream with an The offer indicates that it wishes to receive a bitstream with an
initial target rate of 20000 bits per second, and a maximum bit rate initial target rate of 20000 bits per second, and a maximum bit rate
of 45000 bits per second. The remote party MAY change its initial of 45000 bits per second. The remote party MAY change its initial
target rate and SHOULD NOT transmit at a higher rate than 45000. target rate and SHOULD NOT transmit at a higher rate than 45000.
m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 98
a=rtpmap: 98 isac/16000
a=fmtp:98 ibitrate=20000;maxrate=45000
m=audio 10000 RTP/AVP 98 6. Security Considerations
a=rtpmap: 98 isac/16000
a=fmtp:98 ibitrate=20000;maxrate=45000
6. Security Considerations
RTP packets using the payload format defined in this specification RTP packets using the payload format defined in this specification
are subject to the general security considerations discussed in RFC are subject to the general security considerations discussed in RFC
3550 [2]. 3550 8.1.
As this format transports encoded speech, the main security issues As this format transports encoded speech, the main security issues
include confidentiality and authentication of the speech itself. The include confidentiality and authentication of the speech itself. The
payload format itself does not have any built-in security mechanisms. payload format itself does not have any built-in security mechanisms.
External mechanisms, such as SRTP [3], MAY be used. External mechanisms, such as SRTP [4], MAY be used.
7. Acknowledgments 7. Acknowledgments
This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot. This document was originally prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.
8. References The present version is prepared using xml2rfc and xxe-xml2rfc.
8.1. Normative References 8. References
[1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement 8.1. Normative References
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[2] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and Jacobson, V., [1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
"RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", STD 64, Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
RFC 3550, July 2003.
[3] Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and Norrman, [2] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. Jacobson,
K., "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC 3711, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", STD 64,
March 2004. RFC 3550, July 2003.
[4] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and Perkins, C., "SDP: Session [3] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006. Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.
8.2. Informative References [4] Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
RFC 3711, March 2004.
[5] iSAC datasheet at Global IP Solutions website, 8.2. Informative References
http://www.gipscorp.com/files/english/datasheets/iSAC.pdf
Author's Addresses [5] "iSAC datasheet at Golbal IP Solutions website
http://www.gipscorp.com/files/english/datasheets/iSAC.pdf".
Authors' Addresses
Tina le Grand Tina le Grand
Global IP Solutions Google
Magnus Ladulasgatan 63B Kungsbron 2
SE-118 27 Stockholm Stockholm, 11122
Sweden Sweden
Email: tina.legrand@gipscorp.com
Paul E. Jones Paul E. Jones
Cisco Systems, Inc, Cisco Systems
7025 Kit Creek Rd. 7025 Kit Creek Rd.
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
USA USA
Tel: +1 919 476 2048
Phone: +1 919 476 2048
Fax:
Email: paulej@packetizer.com Email: paulej@packetizer.com
URI:
Pascal Huart Pascal Huart
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
400, Avenue Roumanille 400, Avenue Roumanille, Batiment T3
Batiment T3 Biot - Sophia Antipolis, 06410
06410 BIOT - SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS France
FRANCE
Tel: +33 4 9723 2643 Phone: +33 4 9723 2643
Fax:
Email: phuart@cisco.com Email: phuart@cisco.com
URI:
Harald Alvestrand (editor)
Google
Kungsbron 2
Stockholm, 11122
Sweden
Phone:
Fax:
Email: hta@google.com
URI:
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