draft-ietf-cdni-requirements-04.txt   draft-ietf-cdni-requirements-05.txt 
Network Working Group K. Leung, Ed. Network Working Group K. Leung, Ed.
Internet-Draft Cisco Internet-Draft Cisco
Intended status: Informational Y. Lee, Ed. Intended status: Informational Y. Lee, Ed.
Expires: June 6, 2013 Comcast Expires: August 27, 2013 Comcast
December 3, 2012 February 23, 2013
Content Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Requirements Content Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Requirements
draft-ietf-cdni-requirements-04 draft-ietf-cdni-requirements-05
Abstract Abstract
Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) are frequently used for large-scale Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) are frequently used for large-scale
content delivery. As a result, existing CDN providers are scaling up content delivery. As a result, existing CDN providers are scaling up
their infrastructure and many Network Service Providers (NSPs) are their infrastructure and many Network Service Providers (NSPs) are
deploying their own CDNs. There is a requirement for interconnecting deploying their own CDNs. There is a requirement for interconnecting
standalone CDNs so that their collective CDN footprint can be standalone CDNs so that their collective CDN footprint can be
leveraged for the end-to-end delivery of content from Content Service leveraged for the end-to-end delivery of content from Content Service
Providers (CSPs) to end users. The Content Distribution Network Providers (CSPs) to end users. The Content Distribution Network
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on June 6, 2013. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 27, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. CDNI Model and CDNI Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. CDNI Model and CDNI Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Generic CDNI Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Generic CDNI Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. CDNI Control Interface Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. CDNI Control Interface Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. CDNI Request Routing Interface Requirements . . . . . . . . . 10 5. CDNI Request Routing Interface Requirements . . . . . . . . . 10
6. CDNI Metadata Distribution Interface Requirements . . . . . . 13 6. CDNI Metadata Distribution Interface Requirements . . . . . . 14
7. CDNI Logging Interface Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. CDNI Logging Interface Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8. CDNI Security Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8. CDNI Security Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
11. Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 11. Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The volume of video and multimedia content delivered over the The volume of video and multimedia content delivered over the
Internet is rapidly increasing and expected to continue doing so in Internet is rapidly increasing and expected to continue doing so in
the future. In the face of this growth, Content Delivery Networks the future. In the face of this growth, Content Delivery Networks
(CDNs) provide numerous benefits: reduced delivery cost for cacheable (CDNs) provide numerous benefits: reduced delivery cost for cacheable
content, improved quality of experience for end users, and increased content, improved quality of experience for end users, and increased
robustness of delivery. For these reasons CDNs are frequently used robustness of delivery. For these reasons CDNs are frequently used
for large-scale content delivery. As a result, existing CDN for large-scale content delivery. As a result, existing CDN
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particular, this applies to situations where the CDNI particular, this applies to situations where the CDNI
solution needs to construct and convey uniform resource solution needs to construct and convey uniform resource
identifiers for directing/redirecting a content request, as identifiers for directing/redirecting a content request, as
well as to situations where the CDNI solution needs to pass well as to situations where the CDNI solution needs to pass
on a third party reference (e.g. to identify a User Agent) in on a third party reference (e.g. to identify a User Agent) in
order to allow another entity to make a more informed order to allow another entity to make a more informed
decision (e.g. make a more informed request routing decision decision (e.g. make a more informed request routing decision
by attempting to derive location information from the third by attempting to derive location information from the third
party reference). party reference).
GEN-13 GEN-13 Removed.
GEN-14 [HIGH] The CDNI solution shall support HTTP Adaptive Bit Rate GEN-14 [HIGH] The CDNI solution shall support HTTP Adaptive
(ABR) content. Streaming content.
4. CDNI Control Interface Requirements 4. CDNI Control Interface Requirements
The primary purpose of the CDNI Control interface is to initiate the The primary purpose of the CDNI Control interface is to initiate the
interconnection across CDNs, bootstrap the other CDNI interfaces and interconnection across CDNs, bootstrap the other CDNI interfaces and
trigger actions into the Downstream CDN by the Upstream CDN (such as trigger actions into the Downstream CDN by the Upstream CDN (such as
delete object from caches or trigger pre-positioned content delete object from caches or trigger pre-positioned content
acquisition). We observe that while the CDNI Control interface is acquisition). We observe that while the CDNI Control interface is
currently discussed as a single "protocol", further analysis will currently discussed as a single "protocol", further analysis will
determine whether the corresponding requirements are to be realized determine whether the corresponding requirements are to be realized
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between the Logging protocol endpoints between the Logging protocol endpoints
* negotiation/definition of the log file format and set of * negotiation/definition of the log file format and set of
fields to be exported through the Logging protocol, with fields to be exported through the Logging protocol, with
some granularity (e.g. On a per content type basis). some granularity (e.g. On a per content type basis).
* negotiation/definition of parameters related to * negotiation/definition of parameters related to
transaction Logs export (e.g., export protocol, file transaction Logs export (e.g., export protocol, file
compression, export frequency, directory). compression, export frequency, directory).
CNTL-12 [MED] The CDNI Control interface should allow for multiple
content items identified by a Content Collection ID to be
purged using a single Content Purge action.
5. CDNI Request Routing Interface Requirements 5. CDNI Request Routing Interface Requirements
The main function of the Request Routing interface is to allow the The main function of the Request Routing interface is to allow the
Request-Routing systems in interconnected CDNs to communicate to Request-Routing systems in interconnected CDNs to communicate to
facilitate redirection of the request across CDNs. facilitate redirection of the request across CDNs.
REQ-1 [HIGH] The CDNI Request-Routing interface shall allow the REQ-1 [HIGH] The CDNI Request-Routing interface shall allow the
Downstream CDN to communicate to the Upstream CDN coarse Downstream CDN to communicate to the Upstream CDN coarse
information about the Downstream CDN ability and/or information about the Downstream CDN ability and/or
willingness to handle requests from the Upstream CDN. For willingness to handle requests from the Upstream CDN. For
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unwilling or unable to serve the request). In case of unwilling or unable to serve the request). In case of
rejection, an error code is also to be provided, which rejection, an error code is also to be provided, which
allows the Upstream CDN to react appropriately (e.g. allows the Upstream CDN to react appropriately (e.g.
Select another Downstream CDN, or serve the request Select another Downstream CDN, or serve the request
itself) itself)
* redirection information (e.g. Resource URI in case of * redirection information (e.g. Resource URI in case of
HTTP-based Request Routing, equivalent of a DNS record in HTTP-based Request Routing, equivalent of a DNS record in
case of DNS-based Request Routing). case of DNS-based Request Routing).
REQ-15 [HIGH] The CDNI Request-Routing interface shall allow for
per-chunk request routing of HTTP Adaptive Streaming content.
[Ed: chunk is treated as any content, is this needed?]
REQ-16 [MED] The CDNI Request-Routing interface should allow the
Upstream CDN to use the information conveyed by the
Downstream CDN during the Recursive Request Routing process
to rewrite an HTTP Adaptive Streaming manifest file. [Ed:
should this be LOW?]
REQ-17 [MED] The CDNI Request-Routing interface should allow the
Upstream CDN to re-sign the invariant portion of the chunk
URIs embedded in the HTTP Adaptive Streaming manifest file.
[Ed: should this be LOW?]
REQ-18 [MED] The CDNI Request-routing interface should allow the use
of HTTP cookie to associate the chunks with the HTTP Adaptive
Stream manifest file (which is verified by the URI signature)
basedon the Authorization Group ID (which is an identifier
used to correlate the manifest file to the related chunks).
[Ed: should this be LOW?]
REQ-19 [MED] The CDNI Request-Routing interface may allow for an
efficient method of transferring request routing information
for multiple chunks from the Downstream CDN to the Upstream
CDN as part of the recursive request routing process. [Ed:
should this be LOW?]
REQ-20 [MED] The CDNI Request-Routing/Footprint and Advertising
interface shall support advertisement of the following
capabilities:
* support for customized CDNI Logging
* support of Content Collection ID logging
* support for Session ID logging
6. CDNI Metadata Distribution Interface Requirements 6. CDNI Metadata Distribution Interface Requirements
The primary function of the CDNI Metadata Distribution interface is The primary function of the CDNI Metadata Distribution interface is
to allow the Distribution system in interconnected CDNs to to allow the Distribution system in interconnected CDNs to
communicate to ensure Content Distribution Metadata with inter-CDN communicate to ensure Content Distribution Metadata with inter-CDN
scope can be exchanged across CDNs. We observe that while the CDNI scope can be exchanged across CDNs. We observe that while the CDNI
Metadata Distribution protocol is currently discussed as a single Metadata Distribution protocol is currently discussed as a single
"protocol", further analysis will determine whether the corresponding "protocol", further analysis will determine whether the corresponding
requirements are to be realized over a single interface and protocol, requirements are to be realized over a single interface and protocol,
or over multiple interfaces and protocols. For example, a subset of or over multiple interfaces and protocols. For example, a subset of
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applicable to any content, metadata that is applicable to a applicable to any content, metadata that is applicable to a
content collection and metadata that is applicable to an content collection and metadata that is applicable to an
individual content where content level metadata overrides individual content where content level metadata overrides
content collection metadata that overrides metadata for any content collection metadata that overrides metadata for any
content. content.
META-12 [HIGH] The CDNI Metadata Distribution interface shall ensure META-12 [HIGH] The CDNI Metadata Distribution interface shall ensure
that conflicting metadata with overlapping scope are that conflicting metadata with overlapping scope are
prevented or deterministically handled. prevented or deterministically handled.
META-13 [HIGH] The CDNI Metadata Distribution interface shall META-13 Removed.
provide indication by the Downstream CDN to the Upstream CDN
of whether the CDNI metadata (and corresponding future
request redirections) is accepted or rejected. When
rejected, the CDNI Metadata Distribution protocol Must allow
the Downstream CDN to provide information about the cause of
the rejection.
META-14 [HIGH] The CDNI Metadata Distribution interface shall allow META-14 [HIGH] The CDNI Metadata Distribution interface shall allow
signaling of content distribution control policies. For signaling of content distribution control policies. For
example, this could potentially include: example, this could potentially include:
* geo-blocking information (i.e. Information defining * geo-blocking information (i.e. Information defining
geographical areas where the content is to be made geographical areas where the content is to be made
available or blocked) available or blocked)
* availability windows (i.e. Information defining time * availability windows (i.e. Information defining time
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META-18 [LOW] The CDNI Metadata Distribution interface may allow META-18 [LOW] The CDNI Metadata Distribution interface may allow
signaling of CDNI-relevant surrogate cache behavior signaling of CDNI-relevant surrogate cache behavior
parameters. For example, this could potentially include: parameters. For example, this could potentially include:
* control of whether the query string of HTTP URI is to be * control of whether the query string of HTTP URI is to be
ignored by surrogate cache ignored by surrogate cache
* content revalidation parameters (e.g. TTL) * content revalidation parameters (e.g. TTL)
META-19 [HIGH] The CDNI Metadata interface shall provide indication
of related content (e.g. HTTP Adaptive Bit Rate chunks) by
the Content Collection ID (CCID) metadata. This could be
used by the Downstream CDN for operations on the group of
content. For example, this could potentially include:
* content acquisition for the entire set of files when one
piece of content is requested
* local file management and storage bundles all the files
for the content
* purging the entire set of files associated with the
content
* logging of the delivery of the content for the session
when at least one file in the set was delivered
META-20 [HIGH] The CDNI Metadata Distribution interface shall
support an OPTIONAL mechanism allowing the Upstream CDN to
indicate to the Downstream CDN which CDNI Log fields are to
be provided for all, for specific sets of, or for specific
content items delivered using HTTP. A CDNI implementation
that does not support this optional CDNI Metadata
Distribution Interface mechanism MUST ignore this log format
indication and generate CDNI logging format for HTTP
Adaptive Streaming using the default set of CDNI Logging
fields.
META-21 [MED] The CDNI Metadata Distribution interface shall allow
the Upstream CDN to signal to the Downstream CDN the Content
Collection ID value for all, for specific sets of, or for
specific content items delivered using HTTP. Whenever the
Downstream CDN is instructed by the Upstream CDN to report
the Content Collection ID field in the log records, the
Downstream CDN is to use the value provided through the CDNI
Metadata interface for the corresponding content. Note the
Session ID field along with Content Collection ID may be
used for HTTP Adaptive Streaming content.
META-22 [MED] The CDNI Metadata Distribution interface shall allow
the Upstream CDN to signal to the Downstream CDN the
Authorization Group ID value for all the related HTTP
Adaptive Streamin content (i.e. manifest file and chunks).
The authorization result of a content (e.g. manifest file)
is transferred over to related content (e.g. chunks). [Ed:
need to improve wording?]
7. CDNI Logging Interface Requirements 7. CDNI Logging Interface Requirements
This section identifies the requirements related to the CDNI Logging This section identifies the requirements related to the CDNI Logging
interface. We observe that while the CDNI Logging interface is interface. We observe that while the CDNI Logging interface is
currently discussed as a single "protocol", further analysis will currently discussed as a single "protocol", further analysis will
determine whether the corresponding requirements are to be realized determine whether the corresponding requirements are to be realized
over a single interface and protocol, or over multiple interfaces and over a single interface and protocol, or over multiple interfaces and
protocols. protocols.
LOG-1 [HIGH] The CDNI logging architecture and interface shall LOG-1 [HIGH] The CDNI logging architecture and interface shall
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by the Downstream CDN as a result of request redirection by by the Downstream CDN as a result of request redirection by
the Upstream CDN. the Upstream CDN.
LOG-3 [MED] In the case of cascaded CDNs, the CDNI Logging LOG-3 [MED] In the case of cascaded CDNs, the CDNI Logging
interface shall allow the Downstream CDN to report to the interface shall allow the Downstream CDN to report to the
Upstream CDN logging for deliveries and incomplete deliveries Upstream CDN logging for deliveries and incomplete deliveries
performed by the Downstream CDN itself as well as logging for performed by the Downstream CDN itself as well as logging for
deliveries and incomplete deliveries performed by cascaded deliveries and incomplete deliveries performed by cascaded
CDNs on behalf of the Downstream CDN. CDNs on behalf of the Downstream CDN.
LOG-4 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall provide logging of LOG-4 Removed.
distribution performed by the Upstream CDN as a result of
acquisition request by the Downstream CDN.
LOG-5 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall support batch/offline LOG-5 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall support batch/offline
exchange of logging records. exchange of logging records.
LOG-6 [MED] The CDNI Logging interface should also support LOG-6 [MED] The CDNI Logging interface should also support
additional timing constraints for some types of logging additional timing constraints for some types of logging
records (e.g. near-real time for monitoring and analytics records (e.g. near-real time for monitoring and analytics
applications) applications)
LOG-7 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall define a log file LOG-7 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall define a log file
format and a set of fields to be exported through the Logging format and a set of fields to be exported through the Logging
protocol, with some granularity (e.g. On a per content type protocol, with some granularity (e.g. On a per content type
basis). basis).
LOG-8 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall define a transport LOG-8 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall define a transport
mechanisms to exchange CDNI Logging files. mechanisms to exchange CDNI Logging files.
LOG-9 [MED] The CDNI Logging interface may allow a CDN to query LOG-9 [MED] The CDNI Logging interface should allow a CDN to query
another CDN for relevant current logging records (e.g. For another CDN for relevant current logging records (e.g. For
on-demand access to real-time logging information). on-demand access to real-time logging information).
LOG-10 [LOW] The CDNI Logging interface may support aggregate/ LOG-10 [LOW] The CDNI Logging interface may support aggregate/
summarized logs (e.g. total bytes delivered for a content summarized logs (e.g. total bytes delivered for a content
regardless of individual User Agents to which it was regardless of individual User Agents to which it was
delivered). delivered).
LOG-11 [LOW] The CDNI Logging interface shall support logging of LOG-11 [LOW] The CDNI Logging interface may support logging of
performance data for deliveries to User Agents performed by performance data for deliveries to User Agents performed by
the Downstream CDN as a result of request redirection by the the Downstream CDN as a result of request redirection by the
Upstream CDN. Performance data may include various traffic Upstream CDN. Performance data may include various traffic
statistics (the specific parameters are to be determined). statistics (the specific parameters are to be determined).
The CDNI Logging interface shall support the Upstream CDN to The CDNI Logging interface may support the Upstream CDN to
indicate the nature and contents of the performance data to indicate the nature and contents of the performance data to
be reported by the Downstream CDN. be reported by the Downstream CDN.
LOG-12 [MED] The CDNI Logging interface shall support logging of LOG-12 [MED] The CDNI Logging interface shall support logging of
consumed resources (e.g. storage, bandwidth) to the Upstream consumed resources (e.g. storage, bandwidth) to the Upstream
CDN for deliveries where content is stored by the Downstream CDN for deliveries where content is stored by the Downstream
CDN for delivery to User Agents. The information logged may CDN for delivery to User Agents. The information logged may
include the type of storage (e.g., Origin, Intermediate, include the type of storage (e.g., Origin, Intermediate,
Edge, Cache) as well as the amount of storage (e.g., total Edge, Cache) as well as the amount of storage (e.g., total
GB, GB used, per time period, per content domain) all of GB, GB used, per time period, per content domain) all of
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LOG-15 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall support extensibility LOG-15 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall support extensibility
to allow proprietary information fields to be carried. These to allow proprietary information fields to be carried. These
information fields must be agreed upon ahead of time between information fields must be agreed upon ahead of time between
the corresponding CDNs. the corresponding CDNs.
LOG-16 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall support the exchange LOG-16 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall support the exchange
of extensible log file formats to support proprietary of extensible log file formats to support proprietary
information fields. These information fields must be agreed information fields. These information fields must be agreed
upon ahead of time between the corresponding CDNs. upon ahead of time between the corresponding CDNs.
LOG-17 [HIGH] The CDNI Logging interface shall support the
notification from Downstream CDN to Upstream CDN for the
event that the logging retention duration or maximum size of
logging data has exceeded.
LOG-18 [MED] The CDNI Logging interface should support the ability
for the Downstream CDN to include the Content Collection ID
and Session ID fields in CDNI log entries generated for HTTP
Adaptive Streaming content. This fields can be supported by
the "customizable" log format which is expected to be defined
independently of HTTP Adaptive Streaming.
8. CDNI Security Requirements 8. CDNI Security Requirements
This section identifies the requirements related to the CDNI This section identifies the requirements related to the CDNI
security. Some of those are expected to affect multiple or all security. Some of those are expected to affect multiple or all
protocols. protocols.
SEC-1 [HIGH] All the CDNI interface shall support secure operation SEC-1 [HIGH] All the CDNI interface shall support secure operation
over unsecured IP connectivity (e.g. The Internet). This over unsecured IP connectivity (e.g. The Internet). This
includes authentication, confidentiality, integrity protection includes authentication, confidentiality, integrity protection
as well as protection against spoofing and replay. as well as protection against spoofing and replay.
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[I-D.amini-cdi-distribution-reqs] and [I-D.gilletti-cdnp-aaa-reqs]. [I-D.amini-cdi-distribution-reqs] and [I-D.gilletti-cdnp-aaa-reqs].
The authors would like to thank Gilles Bertrand, Christophe Caillet, The authors would like to thank Gilles Bertrand, Christophe Caillet,
Bruce Davie, Phil Eardly, Ben Niven-Jenkins, Agustin Schapira, Emile Bruce Davie, Phil Eardly, Ben Niven-Jenkins, Agustin Schapira, Emile
Stephan, Eric Burger, Susan He, Kevin Ma, and Daryl Malas for their Stephan, Eric Burger, Susan He, Kevin Ma, and Daryl Malas for their
input. Serge Manning along with Robert Streijl, Vishwa Prasad, Percy input. Serge Manning along with Robert Streijl, Vishwa Prasad, Percy
Tarapore, Mike Geller, and Ramki Krishnan contributed to this Tarapore, Mike Geller, and Ramki Krishnan contributed to this
document by addressing the requirements of the ATIS Cloud Services document by addressing the requirements of the ATIS Cloud Services
Forum. Forum.
Ray Brandenburg, Matt Caufield, and Francois Le Faucheur/Gilles
Bertrand provided valuable inputs for HTTP Adaptive Streaming, CDNI
Metadata interface, and CDNI Logging interface, respectively.
13. References 13. References
13.1. Normative References 13.1. Normative References
[I-D.davie-cdni-framework] [I-D.davie-cdni-framework]
Davie, B. and L. Peterson, "Framework for CDN Davie, B. and L. Peterson, "Framework for CDN
Interconnection", draft-davie-cdni-framework-01 (work in Interconnection", draft-davie-cdni-framework-01 (work in
progress), October 2011. progress), October 2011.
[I-D.ietf-cdni-problem-statement] [I-D.ietf-cdni-problem-statement]
Niven-Jenkins, B., Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content Niven-Jenkins, B., Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content
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