IETF IDN Working Group                                     Sung Jae Shim
Internet Draft                                            DualName, Inc.
Document: draft-ietf-idn-vidn-00.txt                   14 November 2000

Expires: 2 September 2001

               Virtually Internationalized Domain Names (VIDN)

Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also
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inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other
than as "work in progress."

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

1. Abstract

This document describes proposes a method that internationalizes existing as
   well as future enables domain names in English, not making any change to the
   current DNS, not requiring separate name server or resolver, and not
   creating domain names be used in non-English languages. Based upon the
   knowledge of transliteration between a both
local language and English, English scripts, as a directory-search solution at an upper layer
above the DNS. The method allows a user to use first converts virtual domain names typed in the user's
   preferred local language by converting them
scripts into the corresponding
   actual domain names in English scripts that comply with
the current DNS. DNS, using the knowledge of transliteration between local and English
scripts. Then, the method searches for and displays domain names in English
scripts that are active on the Internet so that the user can choose any of them.
The conversion takes place automatically and transparently in the user's
applications before DNS queries are sent. The sent, and so, the method uses does not make any
change to the current DNS as it is and meets all the requirements of internationalized
   domain names as described in Wenzel and Seng [2]. nor require separate name servers.

2. Conventions and definitions used in this document

The key words "REQUIRED" and "MAY" in this document are to be interpreted as
described in RFC-2119 [1].

A "host" is a computer or device attached to the Internet. A "user host" is a
computer or device with which a user is connected to the

               Virtually Internationalized Domain Names  November 2000 Internet, and a "user"
is a person who uses a user host. A "server host" is a computer or device that
provides services to user hosts.

An "entity" is an organization or individual that has a domain name registered
with the DNS.

A "local language" is a language other than English language that a user prefers
to use in a local context. "Local scripts" are scripts of a local language and
"English scripts" are scripts of English language.

A "virtual domain name" is a domain name in a local language, scripts, and it is not
registered with the DNS but used for the convenience of a
   user. users. An "actual "English
domain name" is a domain name in English, and it is
   actually used in the DNS. English scripts. A "domain name" refers to an actual
English domain name in English that complies with the DNS, unless specified otherwise.

A "coded portion" is a pre-coded portion of a domain name (e.g., generic organization codes
including `com', `edu', `gov', `int',
   `mil', `net', `org', 'com', 'edu', 'gov', 'int', 'mil', 'net', 'org', and country codes
such as `kr', `jp', 'kr', 'jp', 'cn', and so on). An "entity-defined portion" is a portion
of a domain name, which is defined by the entity that holds the domain name
(e.g., host name, organization name, server name, and so on).

The method proposed in this document is called "virtually internationalized
domain names (VIDN)" because (VIDN)," as it uses virtual enables domain names in local languages English scripts to internationalize actual domain names be used
virtually in
   English that comply with the DNS. local scripts.

A number of Korean-language characters are used in the original of this document
for examples, which is available from the author upon request. The software used
for Internet-Drafts does not allow using multilingual characters other than
ASCII characters. Thus, this document may not display Korean-language characters
properly, although it may be comprehensible without the examples using Korean-
language characters. Also, when you open the original of this document, please
select your view encoding type to Korean for Korean-
   language Korean-language characters to be
displayed properly.

3. Introduction

Domain names are valuable to Internet users as a main identifier of
   hosts entities and
resources on the Internet. The current DNS allows using only English
   characters scripts in naming
hosts or clusters of hosts on the Internet. More specifically, the DNS uses only
the basic Latin alphabets (case-
   insensitive), (case-insensitive), the decimal digits (0-9) and the
hyphen (-) in domain names. But there is a growing need for internationalized or non-
   English
domain names. names in local scripts. Recognizing this need, various methods have been
proposed to use non-English characters local scripts in domain names. But to date, it seems that no method has met appears to
meet all the requirements of internationalized domain names as described in
Wenzel and Seng [2].

A group of earlier methods has tried tries to put internationalized domain names in local
scripts inside some parts of the overall DNS system, DNS, using UCS special encoding

               Virtually Internationalized Domain Names  November 2000

   schemes. schemes of
Universal Character Set (UCS). But these methods put too much of a burden on the
DNS, requiring a great deal of work for transition and update of the DNS
   components.
components and the applications working with the DNS. Another group of earlier
methods has tried tries to build separate directory services for internationalized domain
names or
   internationalized keywords. keywords in local scripts. But these methods also require complex
implementation efforts, duplicating much of the work already done for the DNS.
Both the groups of earlier methods have tried to build some
   mechanisms inside or outside the DNS and put require creating internationalized domain
names or internationalized keywords there in addition to existing
   domain names in English.

   Unlike earlier methods that involve local scripts from scratch, which is a lengthy and costly and lengthy
process on the parts of the DNS and Internet users. Further, domain names or
keywords created in local scripts are usable only by those who know the local
scripts, and so, they may segregate the Internet into many groups of different
sets of
   implementation, local scripts that are less universal than English scripts.

VIDN provides intends to provide a more immediate and less costly solution to
internationalized domain names by focusing on
   internationalizing existing as well as future domain names in English
   that comply with than earlier methods. VIDN does not make any
change to the current DNS, without actually DNS nor require creating additional domain names in local languages. scripts.
VIDN takes notice of the fact that most many domain names currently used in regions
where English is scripts are not widely spoken, used have their entity-defined portions
consisting of characters or words in English scripts as transliterated from characters and words in the respective local languages. Based upon the
scripts. Using this knowledge of transliteration between
   a local language and English, English
scripts, VIDN allows using converts virtual domain names typed in a local language by converting them scripts into the
corresponding actual domain names in English scripts that comply with the current DNS. In this
way, VIDN allows enables the same domain names to be used not only in English scripts
as usual but also in local languages, scripts, without creating additional domain names in
local languages. scripts.

4. VIDN method

4.1. Objectives

   To date, the

Earlier methods for of internationalized domain names have tried try to create domain names or
keywords in local languages scripts one way or another in addition to existing domain
names in English, English scripts, and put them inside or outside the DNS, using special
encoding schemes or lookup services. These methods require a lengthy and costly
process of
   implementation. creating domain names in local scripts and updating the DNS
components and applications. Even when they are successfully implemented, these
methods may localize have a risk of localizing the Internet by separating segregating it into groups of
different sets of local languages scripts that are less universal than English. English scripts and
so diminishing the international scope of the Internet. Further, these methods
may cause more problems and disputes on copyrights, trademarks, and so on on, in
local contexts, in addition to all contexts than those disputes that we observe experience with current domain names in English.
English scripts.

VIDN intends to provide a solution to the problems of earlier methods, by (1) allowing methods of
internationalized domain names. VIDN enables the same domain names to be used both in
both English scripts as usual and local languages, without
   creating scripts, and so, there is no need to
create domain names in local languages, (2) working scripts in addition to domain names in English
scripts. VIDN works automatically and transparently in applications at user
hosts automatically and transparently before DNS requests are sent, (3) using and so, there is no need to make any change
to the current DNS as it is, without requiring any or to have additional name server or resolver, and (4) being servers. For these reasons as well as
others, VIDN can be implemented more immediately with little cost. less cost than other
methods of internationalized domain names.

4.2. Description

               Virtually Internationalized Domain Names  November 2000

It is important to note that most domain names used in regions where English is
scripts are not widely spoken used have their entity-defined portions consisting of characters or words in
English scripts as transliterated from
   characters or words local scripts. Of course, there are many
domain names in those regions that do not follow this kind of transliteration
between local languages. These transliterated
   characters or words and English scripts. In such case, new domain names in English
scripts need to be created following this transliteration, but the number would
be minimal, compared to the number of internationalized domain names in local
scripts to be created and registered under other methods.

The English scripts transliterated from local scripts do not have any meanings
in English, English language, but their originals in local languages scripts before the
transliteration
   into English have some meanings in the respective local contexts, language, usually
indicating organization names, brand names, trademarks, and so on. VIDN allows
   using enables
to use these original characters or words in local languages scripts as the entity-defined portions of virtual
domain names in local languages, scripts, by transliterating them into the corresponding
entity-defined portions of actual domain names in English. English scripts. In this way,
VIDN allows enables the same domain names in English scripts to be also used virtually in
local
   languages scripts without actually creating domain names in local languages. scripts.

As domain names in English scripts overlay IP addresses, so virtual domain names
in local languages scripts do actual domain names in English. English scripts. The relationship
between virtual domain names in a local language scripts and actual domain names in English
scripts can be depicted as:

               +---------------------------------+
               |              User               |
               +---------------------------------+
                    |                       |
   +----------------|-----------------------|------------------+
   |                v   (Transliteration)   v                  |
   |   +---------------------+  |  +-----------------------+   |
   |   | Virtual domain name |  |  |   Actual domain name  |   |
   |   | in a local language scripts    |--+->|   in English scripts  |   |
   |   +---------------------+     +-----------------------+   |
   |                    User application    |                  |
   +----------------------------------------|------------------+
                                            v
                                        DNS request requests

VIDN uses the phonemes of a local language and English scripts as a medium in
transliterating the entity-defined portions of virtual domain names in the local language
scripts into those of actual domain names in English. English scripts. This process of
transliteration can be depicted as:

         Local language scripts                       English scripts
+----------------------------+       +-----------------------------+
| Characters ----> Phonemes -----------> Phonemes ----> Characters |
|              |             |   |   |              |              |
|              |             |   |   |              |              |
| (Inverse of transcription) | Match |        (Transcription)      |
+----------------------------+       +-----------------------------+
               |                                    ^
               |         (Transliteration)          |
               +------------------------------------+

First, each entity-defined portion of a virtual domain name typed in the local language
scripts is decomposed into individual characters or sets of

               Virtually Internationalized Domain Names  November 2000 characters so that
each individual character or set of characters can represent an individual
phoneme of the local language, which language. This is the inverse of transcription of phonemes
into characters. Second, each individual phoneme of the local language is
matched with an equivalent phoneme of English language that has the same or most
proximate sound. Third, each phoneme of English language is transcribed into the
corresponding character or set of characters in English. English language. Finally, all
the characters or sets of characters converted into English scripts are united
to compose the corresponding entity-defined portion of an actual domain name in English.
English scripts.

For example, a word in Korean, `??' Korean language, '' that means `century' 'century' in  English, English
language, is transliterated into `segi' 'segi' in English, English scripts, and so, the entity
whose name contains `??' '' in Korean language may have an entity-defined portion
of its domain name as `segi' 'segi' in English. English scripts. VIDN allows using `??' in
   Korean enables to use '' as
an entity-defined portion of a virtual domain name in
   Korean, Korean scripts, which is
converted into `segi' in English, 'segi,' the corresponding entity-defined portion of an actual
domain name in English. More
   specifically, English scripts. In other words, the phonemes represented by the
characters consisting of `??' '' in Korean scripts have the same sounds as the
phonemes represented by the characters consisting of `segi' 'segi' in English. English scripts.
In the local context, `??' '' in Korean scripts is clearly easier to remember and
type and more intuitive and meaningful than `segi' 'segi' in English. English scripts.

An entity-defined portion of a virtual domain name in Korean, `??', Korean scripts, '', is
transliterated into `yahoo' 'yahoo' in English, English scripts, since the phonemes represented
by the characters consisting of `??' '' in Korean scripts have the same sounds as
the phonemes represented by the characters consisting of `yahoo' 'yahoo' in English. English
scripts. That is, `??' '' in Korean scripts is pronounced as the same as `yahoo' 'yahoo'
in English, English scripts, and so, it is easy for Korean-speaking people to deduce `??' '
' in Korean scripts as the virtual equivalent of
   `yahoo' 'yahoo' in English. English scripts.
VIDN allows using enables to use virtual domain names in a local
   language scripts for domain names whose
originals are in the local language, scripts, e.g., `??' '' in Korean, Korean scripts, as well as
domain names whose originals are in English, English scripts, e.g., `??' '' in Korean. Korean
scripts. In this way, VIDN can is able to make domain names truly international,
allowing the same domain names to be used both in English and local languages. scripts.

The coded portions of domain names such as organization codes,
   geographic generic codes and country codes, codes can
also be transliterated from a local language scripts into English, English scripts, using the their
phonemes of the two languages as a medium. For example, seven generic organization codes in English,
   `com', `edu', `gov', `int', `mil', `net', English scripts, 'com',
'edu', 'gov', 'int', 'mil', 'net', and `org', 'org', can be transliterated from `?', `??', `??', `??', `?', `??', `??' '', '
', '', '˫', '', '˫', '' in
   Korean, Korean scripts, respectively,
which can be used as the corresponding
   organization generic codes of virtual domain names in Korean.
Korean scripts. Based upon its meaning in English, English language, each coded portion
of actual domain names also can be pre-assigned a virtual equivalent word or
code in a local
   language. scripts. For example, seven generic organization codes in English,
   `com', `edu', `gov', `int', `mil', `net', English scripts,
'com', 'edu', 'gov', 'int', 'mil', 'net', and `org', 'org', can be pre-
   assigned `??' pre-assigned ''
(meaning `commercial' 'commercial' in Korean), `??' Korean language), 'Ϙ' (meaning
   `education' 'education' in Korean), `??' Korean
language), '' (meaning `government' 'government' in Korean),
   `??' Korean language), 'ª' (meaning `international'
'international' in Korean), `??' Korean language), '' (meaning `military' 'military' in Korean), `??' Korean
language), '˫' (meaning `network' 'network' in Korean), Korean language), and `??' 'ȭ' (meaning

               Virtually Internationalized Domain Names  November 2000

   `organization'
'organization' in Korean), Korean language), respectively, which can be used as the
corresponding organization generic codes of virtual domain names in Korean.

   Since Korean scripts.

VIDN uses the phonemes of a local language and English as a
   medium of the transliteration, it does not create such complexities as other conversion methods based upon
semantics do. do, since it uses phonemes as a medium of transliteration between
local and English scripts. Further, most languages have a small number of
phonemes. For example, Korean language has nineteen consonant phonemes and
twenty-one vowel phonemes, and English language has twenty-four consonant
phonemes and twenty vowel phonemes. Each phoneme of Korean language can be
matched with a phoneme of English language that has the same or proximate sound,
and vice versa.

Some characters or sets of characters of a language may represent more than one phoneme. Also, some Some
phonemes of a language may be represented by more than one character or set of characters. But
   these variations usually occur in particular situations, and so, VIDN
   incorporates the special provisions to deal with such variations. In
   addition,
Also, not every character or set of characters in a local
   language scripts may be neatly
transliterated into only one character or set of characters in English. English scripts.
In practice, people often transliterate the same word in a local language scripts differently into
English scripts or vice versa. VIDN also incorporates the provisions to deal with such
those variations that usually occur in particular situations as well as those
variations that are caused by common usages usage or idiomatic expressions. Because More
fundamentally, VIDN uses phonemes, which are very universal across different
languages, as a medium of these
   variations, however, it transliteration rather than following a certain set of
transliteration rules that does not exist in many non-English-speaking countries
nor is probable for one followed by many non-English-speaking people.

One virtual domain name
   entered typed in a local language scripts may be converted into more than
one possible domain name in English scripts. In such case, VIDN can search for
and displays only those domain names in English scripts that are active on the
Internet, so that the user can choose any of them. Further, VIDN can be used as
a directory-search solution at an upper layer above the DNS. That is, the user
can use VIDN to result query a phoneme-based domain name request in local scripts,
receive one or more than corresponding domain names in English or ASCII-compatible
scripts preferably, choose one based upon the results of that search, and make
the final DNS request using any protocol or method to be chosen for
internationalized domain names. In this regard of directory search, VIDN uses
one-to-many map between virtual domain names in local scripts and actual domain
names in English scripts.

VIDN needs the one-to-many mapping and subsequent multiple DNS lookups only at
the first query of each virtual domain name typed in local scripts at the user
host. After the first query, the virtual domain name is set to the domain name
in English scripts that has been chosen at the first query. Any subsequent
queries with the same virtual domain name generate only one query with the
selected domain name in English scripts. Once the use selects one possible
domain name in English scripts from the list, VIDN remembers the user's
selection and directs the user to the same domain name in English. at his or her subsequent
queries with that virtual domain name. In this way, VIDN includes can generate less
traffic on the DNS, while providing faster, easier, and simpler navigation on
the Internet to the user, using local scripts.

Utilizing a coding scheme in order to make scheme, VIDN is also capable of making each virtual domain
name entered typed in a local language scripts correspond to exactly one actual domain name in English.
English scripts. In this coding scheme, a unique code such as the Unicode or
hexadecimal code represented by the virtual domain name, is pre-
   assigned pre-assigned to one
of the corresponding actual domain names in English
   for each virtual domain name to be entered scripts and stored in a local language. The
   code is kept somewhere at the
respective server host host, so that has the actual domain
   name in English, for example, in both the main HTML document at user host and the server
   host, so that VIDN host can check
support and understand the code. VIDN also generates the same
   unique code whenever the corresponding virtual domain name is entered
   in user applications. Then, VIDN checks whether the code at each
server host matches with the code generated in at the user applications. host. If one of the server hosts has
servers stores the code that matches with the code generated in at the user applications, VIDN recognizes that host,
the virtual domain name entered by typed at the user corresponds host is recognized as corresponding
only to the actual domain name of that server host, and connects the user host is connected to
the server host. The domain names of the remaining server hosts that do not have
the matching code may be listed to are also displayed at the user host as alternative sites.

Because a unique code is assigned to only one of the domain names in English
scripts, it does not cause any domain name squatting problem beyond what we
experience with current domain names in English scripts. Unique codes do not
need to be stored in any specific format, that is, they can be embedded in HTML,
XML, WML, and so on, so that the user host can interpret the retrieved code
correctly. Likewise, unique codes do not require any specific intermediate
transport protocol such as TCP/IP. The only requirement is that the protocol
must be understood among all participating user hosts and server hosts. For
security purpose, this coding scheme may use an encryption technique.

For example, `??.?', 'ž.', a virtual domain name entered typed in Korean, Korean scripts, may
result in four corresponding domain names in English scripts, including
   `jungang.com', `joongang.com,' `chungang.com',
'jungang.com', 'joongang.com,' 'chungang.com', and `choongang.com', 'choongang.com', since the
phonemes represented by characters consisting of `??.?' 'ž.' in Korean scripts can
have the same or almost the same sounds as the phonemes represented by
characters consisting of `jungang.com',
   `joongang.com,' `chungang.com', 'jungang.com', 'joongang.com,' 'chungang.com', or `choongang.com'
'choongang.com' in English. English scripts. In

               Virtually Internationalized Domain Names  November 2000 this case, we assume that the server host
with its domain name
   `jungang.com' 'jungang.com' has the pre-assigned code that matches with
the code generated when `??.?' 'ž.' in Korean scripts is entered in user
applications. Then, the user host is connected to this server host, and the
other server hosts may be listed to the user as alternative sites so that the
user can try them.

The process of this coding scheme that makes each virtual domain name in a local language
scripts correspond to only one actual domain name in
   English, English scripts, can be
depicted as:

               +---------------------------------+
               |              User               |
               +---------------------------------+
                    |                       |
   +----------------|-----------------------|------------------+
   |                v                       v                  |
   |   +---------------------+     +-----------------------+   |
   |   | Virtual domain name |     | Potential domain names|   |
   |   | in a local language |---->| in English            |   |
   |   | e.g., `??.?' 'ž.'     |     | e.g., `jungang.com' 'jungang.com'   |   |
   |   |       (code: 297437)|     |       `joongang.com'       'joongang.com'  |   |
   |   |                     |     |       `chungang.com'       'chungang.com'  |   |
   |   |                     |     |       `choongang.com'       'choongang.com' |   |
   |   +---------------------+     +-----------------------+   |
   |                    User application    |                  |
   +----------------------------------------|------------------+
                    ^                       |
                    |                       | Code check by VIDN
    Connection to   |                       |    +-- `jungang.com' 'jungang.com'
    the server host |                       |    |   (code: 297437)
       `jungang.com'
    'jungang.com'   |                       |    |-- `joongang.com' 'joongang.com'
                    |                       |----+   (not active)
                    |                       |    |-- `chungang.com' 'chungang.com'
                    |                       |    |   (code: 381274)
                    |    DNS request and    |    +-- `choongang.com' 'choongang.com'
                    |    response           |        (not active)
                    +-----------------------+

Since VIDN converts separately the entity-defined portions and the coded
portions of a virtual domain name, it preserves the current syntax of domain
names, that is, the hierarchical dotted notation, which Internet users are
familiar with. Also, VIDN allows using a virtual domain name mixed with characters in a local language
and English scripts as the user wishes to, since the conversion takes place on
each individual portion of the domain name and each individual character or set
of characters of the portion.

While VIDN preserves the hierarchical dotted notation of current domain names,
the principles of VIDN are also applicable to domain names in other possible
notations such as those in a natural language (e.g., `microsoft 'microsoft windows' rather
than `windows.microsoft.com'). 'windows.microsoft.com'). Also, the principles of VIDN can be applied into
other identifiers used on the Internet, such as user IDs of e-mail addresses,
names of

               Virtually Internationalized Domain Names  November 2000 directories and folders, names of web pages and files, keywords used in
search engines and directory services, and so on, allowing them to be used
interchangeably in a local language and English, English scripts, without creating additional
identifiers in the local language. scripts. The conversion of VIDN can be done between any two languages
sets of scripts interchangeably. Thus, even when the DNS accepts and registers
domain names in other
   languages local scripts in addition to English, VIDN can allow using
the same domain names in any two languages sets of scripts by converting virtual domain
names in one language set of scripts into actual domain names in another language. set of scripts.

4.3. Implementation Development and implementation

In a preferred arrangement, the development of VIDN for each set of local
scripts may be administered by one or more local standard bodies in regions
where the local scripts are widely used, for example, Korean Network Information
Center for Korean scripts, Japan Network Information Center for Japanese scripts,
and China, Hong Kong and Taiwan Network Information Centers for Chinese scripts,
with consultation with experts on phonemics and linguistics of the respective
local language and English language. Also, the unique codes for one-to-one
mapping between virtual domain names in local scripts and actual domain names in
English scripts can be administered by a central standard body like IANA.
Alternatively, the unique codes for each set of local scripts may be
administered by one or more local standard bodies in regions where the local
scripts are widely used, as with the development of VIDN.

VIDN is implemented in applications at the user host. That is, the conversion of
virtual domain names in a local language scripts into the corresponding actual domain names
in English scripts takes place at the user host before DNS requests are sent.
Thus, neither a special encoding nor a separate lookup service is needed to
implement VIDN. VIDN is also modularized with each module being used for
conversion of virtual domain names in one set of local language scripts into the
corresponding actual domain names in English. English scripts. A user needs only the
module for conversion of his or her preferred set of local language scripts into
   English. Also, English
scripts. Alternatively, VIDN can be implemented at a central server host or a
cluster of local server hosts. A central server with all the language
   modules of VIDN can provide the conversion
service for all sets of local
   languages, scripts, or a cluster of local server hosts can
share the conversion service. In the latter case, each local server host with a
   language module or a set of language modules can
provide the conversion service for the respective local language one or set more sets of local
   languages scripts used in a
certain region.

Because of its small size, VIDN can be easily embedded into applications
software such as web browser, e-mail software, ftp system, and so on at the user
host, or it can work as an add-on program to such software. In either case, the
only requirement on the part of the user is to install VIDN or software
embedding VIDN at the user host. Using virtual domain names in a local language scripts in
accordance with the principles of VIDN is very intuitive to those who
   speak use the
local language. scripts. The only requirement on the part of the entity whose server host
provides Internet services to user hosts is to have an actual domain name in
English scripts into which a virtual domain
   name names in a local language is scripts are neatly
transliterated in accordance with the principles of VIDN, and to have a pre-assigned code kept at its
   server host for one-to-one matching of its actual domain name and a
   virtual domain name to be used by users. VIDN. Most entities in
regions where English is scripts are not widely spoken used already have such domain names
in
   English. English scripts. Finally, there is nothing to change on the part of the DNS,
since VIDN uses the current DNS as it is.

Taken together, the features of VIDN can meet all the requirement of
internationalized domain names as described in Wenzel and Seng [2], with respect
to compatibility and interoperability, internationalization, canonicalization,
and operating issues. Given the fact that different methods toward
internationalized domain names

               Virtually Internationalized Domain Names  November 2000 confuse users, as already observed in some
regions where some of these methods have already been commercialized, e.g.,
Korea, Japan and China, it is important to find and implement the most effective
solution to internationalized domain names as soon as possible.

4.4. Testing results

   A testing version of Current status

VIDN has been developed for Korean-English conversion as a web browser add-on
program. The program contains all the features described in this document except the coding scheme.
   While the final version of the program and is planned to include the
   coding scheme, the testing version lists
capable of listing all the domain names in English scripts that correspond to a
virtual domain name entered typed in Korean scripts so that a user can choose one. The testing results of a sample any of
   randomly selected domain names used in Korea show that the
them. The program can cover more than ninety percent of the sample. The That is, the
results of testing indicate that more than ninety percent of web sites in Korea
can be accessed using virtual domain names in Korean scripts without creating
additional domain names in Korean. Korean scripts. The remaining ten percent of domain
names are mostly those that contain acronyms, abbreviations or initials. With
improvement of its knowledge of transliteration, the
   final version of the program is expected to
cover most more domain names used in Korea.

5. Security considerations

Because VIDN uses the DNS as it is, it inherits the same security considerations
as the DNS.

6. Intellectual property considerations

It is the intention of DualName, Inc. to submit the VIDN method and other
elements of VIDN software to IETF for review, comment or standardization.

DualName has applied for one or more patents on the technology related to
virtual domain name software and virtual email software. If a standard is
adopted by IETF and any patents are issued to DualName with claims that are
necessary for practicing the standard, DualName is prepared to make available,
upon written request, a non-
   exclusive non-exclusive license under fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory non-
discriminatory terms and condition, based on the principle of reciprocity,
consistent with established practice.

7. References

1  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
               Virtually Internationalized Domain Names  November 2000

   2  Wenzel, Z. and Seng, J. (Editors), "Requirements of Internationalized Domain
Names," draft-ietf-idn-requirements-
     03.txt, draft-ietf-idn-requirements-03.txt, August 2000

8. Author's address

Sung Jae Shim
DualName, Inc.
3600 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1814
Los Angeles, California 90010
USA
Email: shimsungjae@dualname.com