draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms-02.txt   draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms-03.txt 
JOSE Working Group M. Jones JOSE Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track May 12, 2012 Intended status: Standards Track July 6, 2012
Expires: November 13, 2012 Expires: January 7, 2013
JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms-02 draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms-03
Abstract Abstract
The JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification enumerates cryptographic The JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification enumerates cryptographic
algorithms and identifiers to be used with the JSON Web Signature algorithms and identifiers to be used with the JSON Web Signature
(JWS) and JSON Web Encryption (JWE) specifications. (JWS), JSON Web Encryption (JWE), and JSON Web Key (JWK)
specifications.
Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 13, 2012. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 7, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Terms Incorporated from the JWS Specification . . . . . . 4
3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS . . . . 4 2.2. Terms Incorporated from the JWE Specification . . . . . . 5
3.2. MAC with HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, or HMAC SHA-512 . . . 5 2.3. Terms Incorporated from the JWK Specification . . . . . . 6
2.4. Defined Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS . . . . 7
3.2. MAC with HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, or HMAC SHA-512 . . . 8
3.3. Digital Signature with RSA SHA-256, RSA SHA-384, or 3.3. Digital Signature with RSA SHA-256, RSA SHA-384, or
RSA SHA-512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 RSA SHA-512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4. Digital Signature with ECDSA P-256 SHA-256, ECDSA 3.4. Digital Signature with ECDSA P-256 SHA-256, ECDSA
P-384 SHA-384, or ECDSA P-521 SHA-512 . . . . . . . . . . 7 P-384 SHA-384, or ECDSA P-521 SHA-512 . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.5. Creating a Plaintext JWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.5. Using the Algorithm "none" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.6. Additional Digital Signature/MAC Algorithms and 3.6. Additional Digital Signature/MAC Algorithms and
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE . . . . 9 4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE . . . . 12
4.2. "enc" (Encryption Method) Header Parameter Values for 4.2. "enc" (Encryption Method) Header Parameter Values for
JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.3. "int" (Integrity Algorithm) Header Parameter Values 4.3. "int" (Integrity Algorithm) Header Parameter Values
for JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 for JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.4. Key Encryption with RSA using RSA-PKCS1-1.5 Padding . . . 11 4.4. "kdf" (Key Derivation Function) Header Parameter
4.5. Key Encryption with RSA using Optimal Asymmetric Values for JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Encryption Padding (OAEP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.5. Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.6. Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman 4.6. Key Encryption with RSAES OAEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Ephemeral Static (ECDH-ES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.7. Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman
4.7. Key Encryption with AES Key Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Ephemeral Static (ECDH-ES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.8. Plaintext Encryption with AES Cipher Block Chaining 4.8. Key Encryption with AES Key Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
(CBC) Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.9. Plaintext Encryption with AES CBC Mode . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.9. Plaintext Encryption with AES Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) . 12 4.10. Plaintext Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.10. Integrity Calculation with HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, 4.11. Integrity Calculation with HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384,
or HMAC SHA-512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 or HMAC SHA-512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.11. Additional Encryption Algorithms and Parameters . . . . . 13 4.12. Key Derivation with Concat KDF and SHA-256, SHA-384,
5. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 or SHA-512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1. "alg" (Algorithm Family) Parameter Values for JWK . . . . 14 4.13. Additional Encryption Algorithms and Parameters . . . . . 17
5.2. JWK Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1. "alg" (Algorithm Family) Parameter Values for JWK . . . . 18
5.2.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2. JWK Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.2.3. "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.3. JWK Parameters for RSA Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.1. "mod" (Modulus) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2.3. "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.2. "exp" (Exponent) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.3. JWK Parameters for RSA Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.4. Additional Key Algorithm Families and Parameters . . . . . 15 5.3.1. "mod" (Modulus) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3.2. "exp" (Exponent) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.4. Additional Key Algorithm Families and Parameters . . . . . 19
6.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry . . 20
6.2. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry . . 15 6.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.3. JSON Web Signature and Encryption "typ" Values Registry . 16 6.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.4. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.2. JSON Web Key Algorithm Families Registry . . . . . . . . . 26
6.5. JSON Web Key Algorithm Families Registry . . . . . . . . . 16 6.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8. Open Issues and Things To Be Done (TBD) . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.3. JSON Web Key Parameters Registration . . . . . . . . . . . 27
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.3.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Appendix A. Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier Appendix A. Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier
Cross-Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Cross-Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Appendix B. Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . 21 Appendix B. Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . 34
Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification enumerates cryptographic The JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification enumerates cryptographic
algorithms and identifiers to be used with the JSON Web Signature algorithms and identifiers to be used with the JSON Web Signature
(JWS) [JWS] and JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] specifications. (JWS) [JWS], JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE], and JSON Web Key (JWK)
[JWK] specifications. This specification also describes the
semantics and operations that are specific to these algorithms and
algorithm families.
Enumerating the algorithms and identifiers for them in this Enumerating the algorithms and identifiers for them in this
specification, rather than in the JWS and JWE specifications, is specification, rather than in the JWS, JWE, and JWK specifications,
intended to allow them to remain unchanged in the face of changes in is intended to allow them to remain unchanged in the face of changes
the set of required, recommended, optional, and deprecated algorithms in the set of required, recommended, optional, and deprecated
over time. This specification also describes the semantics and algorithms over time.
operations that are specific to these algorithms and algorithm
families. 1.1. Notational Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in
RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119].
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
This specification uses the terminology defined by the JSON Web 2.1. Terms Incorporated from the JWS Specification
Signature (JWS) [JWS] and JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE]
specifications. These terms defined by the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS]
specification are incorporated into this specification:
JSON Web Signature (JWS) A data structure cryptographically securing
a JWS Header and a JWS Payload with a JWS Signature value.
JWS Header A string representing a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)
[RFC4627] object that describes the digital signature or MAC
operation applied to create the JWS Signature value.
JWS Payload The bytes to be secured - a.k.a., the message. The
payload can contain an arbitrary sequence of bytes.
JWS Signature A byte array containing the cryptographic material
that secures the contents of the JWS Header and the JWS Payload.
Encoded JWS Header Base64url encoding of the bytes of the UTF-8
[RFC3629] representation of the JWS Header.
Encoded JWS Payload Base64url encoding of the JWS Payload.
Encoded JWS Signature Base64url encoding of the JWS Signature.
JWS Secured Input The concatenation of the Encoded JWS Header, a
period ('.') character, and the Encoded JWS Payload.
Base64url Encoding For the purposes of this specification, this term
always refers to the URL- and filename-safe Base64 encoding
described in RFC 4648 [RFC4648], Section 5, with the (non URL-
safe) '=' padding characters omitted, as permitted by Section 3.2.
(See Appendix C of [JWS] for notes on implementing base64url
encoding without padding.)
Collision Resistant Namespace A namespace that allows names to be
allocated in a manner such that they are highly unlikely to
collide with other names. For instance, collision resistance can
be achieved through administrative delegation of portions of the
namespace or through use of collision-resistant name allocation
functions. Examples of Collision Resistant Namespaces include:
Domain Names, Object Identifiers (OIDs) as defined in the ITU-T
X.660 and X.670 Recommendation series, and Universally Unique
IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122]. When using an administratively
delegated namespace, the definer of a name needs to take
reasonable precautions to ensure they are in control of the
portion of the namespace they use to define the name.
2.2. Terms Incorporated from the JWE Specification
These terms defined by the JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE]
specification are incorporated into this specification:
JSON Web Encryption (JWE) A data structure representing an encrypted
version of a Plaintext. The structure consists of four parts: the
JWE Header, the JWE Encrypted Key, the JWE Ciphertext, and the JWE
Integrity Value.
Plaintext The bytes to be encrypted - a.k.a., the message. The
plaintext can contain an arbitrary sequence of bytes.
Ciphertext The encrypted version of the Plaintext.
Content Encryption Key (CEK) A symmetric key used to encrypt the
Plaintext for the recipient to produce the Ciphertext.
Content Integrity Key (CIK) A key used with a MAC function to ensure
the integrity of the Ciphertext and the parameters used to create
it.
Content Master Key (CMK) A key from which the CEK and CIK are
derived. When key wrapping or key encryption are employed, the
CMK is randomly generated and encrypted to the recipient as the
JWE Encrypted Key. When key agreement is employed, the CMK is the
result of the key agreement algorithm.
JWE Header A string representing a JSON object that describes the
encryption operations applied to create the JWE Encrypted Key, the
JWE Ciphertext, and the JWE Integrity Value.
JWE Encrypted Key When key wrapping or key encryption are employed,
the Content Master Key (CMK) is encrypted with the intended
recipient's key and the resulting encrypted content is recorded as
a byte array, which is referred to as the JWE Encrypted Key.
Otherwise, when key agreement is employed, the JWE Encrypted Key
is the empty byte array.
JWE Ciphertext A byte array containing the Ciphertext.
JWE Integrity Value A byte array containing a MAC value that ensures
the integrity of the Ciphertext and the parameters used to create
it.
Encoded JWE Header Base64url encoding of the bytes of the UTF-8
[RFC3629] representation of the JWE Header.
Encoded JWE Encrypted Key Base64url encoding of the JWE Encrypted
Key.
Encoded JWE Ciphertext Base64url encoding of the JWE Ciphertext.
Encoded JWE Integrity Value Base64url encoding of the JWE Integrity
Value.
AEAD Algorithm An Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data
(AEAD) [RFC5116] encryption algorithm is one that provides an
integrated content integrity check. AES Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)
is one such algorithm.
2.3. Terms Incorporated from the JWK Specification
These terms defined by the JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] specification are
incorporated into this specification:
JSON Web Key (JWK) A JSON data structure that represents a public
key.
JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) A JSON object that contains an array of
JWKs as a member.
2.4. Defined Terms
These terms are defined for use by this specification:
Header Parameter Name The name of a member of the JSON object
representing a JWS Header or JWE Header.
Header Parameter Value The value of a member of the JSON object
representing a JWS Header or JWE Header.
3. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWS 3. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWS
JWS uses cryptographic algorithms to digitally sign or MAC the JWS uses cryptographic algorithms to digitally sign or create a
contents of the JWS Header and the JWS Payload. The use of the Message Authentication Codes (MAC) of the contents of the JWS Header
following algorithms for producing JWSs is defined in this section. and the JWS Payload. The use of the following algorithms for
producing JWSs is defined in this section.
3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS 3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS
The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) header parameter The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) header parameter
values defined by this specification for use with JWS, each of which values defined by this specification for use with JWS, each of which
is explained in more detail in the following sections: is explained in more detail in the following sections:
+--------------------+----------------------------------------------+ +--------------+--------------------------------+-------------------+
| alg Parameter | Digital Signature or MAC Algorithm | | alg | Digital Signature or MAC | Implementation |
| Value | | | Parameter | Algorithm | Requirements |
+--------------------+----------------------------------------------+ | Value | | |
| HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 hash algorithm | +--------------+--------------------------------+-------------------+
| HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 hash algorithm | | HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 hash | REQUIRED |
| HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 hash algorithm | | | algorithm | |
| RS256 | RSA using SHA-256 hash algorithm | | HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 hash | OPTIONAL |
| RS384 | RSA using SHA-384 hash algorithm | | | algorithm | |
| RS512 | RSA using SHA-512 hash algorithm | | HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 hash | OPTIONAL |
| ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 curve and SHA-256 hash | | | algorithm | |
| | algorithm | | RS256 | RSASSA using SHA-256 hash | RECOMMENDED |
| ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 curve and SHA-384 hash | | | algorithm | |
| | algorithm | | RS384 | RSASSA using SHA-384 hash | OPTIONAL |
| ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 curve and SHA-512 hash | | | algorithm | |
| | algorithm | | RS512 | RSASSA using SHA-512 hash | OPTIONAL |
| none | No digital signature or MAC value included | | | algorithm | |
+--------------------+----------------------------------------------+ | ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 curve and | RECOMMENDED+ |
| | SHA-256 hash algorithm | |
| ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 curve and | OPTIONAL |
| | SHA-384 hash algorithm | |
| ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 curve and | OPTIONAL |
| | SHA-512 hash algorithm | |
| none | No digital signature or MAC | REQUIRED |
| | value included | |
+--------------+--------------------------------+-------------------+
All the names are short because a core goal of JWS is for the
representations to be compact. However, there is no a priori length
restriction on "alg" values.
The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the
requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of
the specification.
See Appendix A for a table cross-referencing the digital signature See Appendix A for a table cross-referencing the digital signature
and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values used in this specification with the and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values used in this specification with the
equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages. equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
Of these algorithms, only HMAC SHA-256 and "none" MUST be implemented
by conforming JWS implementations. It is RECOMMENDED that
implementations also support the RSA SHA-256 and ECDSA P-256 SHA-256
algorithms. Support for other algorithms and key sizes is OPTIONAL.
3.2. MAC with HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, or HMAC SHA-512 3.2. MAC with HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, or HMAC SHA-512
Hash-based Message Authentication Codes (HMACs) enable one to use a Hash-based Message Authentication Codes (HMACs) enable one to use a
secret plus a cryptographic hash function to generate a Message secret plus a cryptographic hash function to generate a Message
Authentication Code (MAC). This can be used to demonstrate that the Authentication Code (MAC). This can be used to demonstrate that the
MAC matches the hashed content, in this case the JWS Secured Input, MAC matches the hashed content, in this case the JWS Secured Input,
which therefore demonstrates that whoever generated the MAC was in which therefore demonstrates that whoever generated the MAC was in
possession of the secret. The means of exchanging the shared key is possession of the secret. The means of exchanging the shared key is
outside the scope of this specification. outside the scope of this specification.
The algorithm for implementing and validating HMACs is provided in The algorithm for implementing and validating HMACs is provided in
RFC 2104 [RFC2104]. This section defines the use of the HMAC SHA- RFC 2104 [RFC2104]. This section defines the use of the HMAC SHA-
256, HMAC SHA-384, and HMAC SHA-512 cryptographic hash functions as 256, HMAC SHA-384, and HMAC SHA-512 functions [SHS]. The "alg"
defined in FIPS 180-3 [FIPS.180-3]. The "alg" (algorithm) header (algorithm) header parameter values "HS256", "HS384", and "HS512" are
parameter values "HS256", "HS384", and "HS512" are used in the JWS used in the JWS Header to indicate that the Encoded JWS Signature
Header to indicate that the Encoded JWS Signature contains a contains a base64url encoded HMAC value using the respective hash
base64url encoded HMAC value using the respective hash function. function.
A key of the same size as the hash output (for instance, 256 bits for A key of the same size as the hash output (for instance, 256 bits for
"HS256") or larger MUST be used with this algorithm. "HS256") or larger MUST be used with this algorithm.
The HMAC SHA-256 MAC is generated as follows: The HMAC SHA-256 MAC is generated per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the
hash algorithm "H", using the bytes of the ASCII [USASCII]
1. Apply the HMAC SHA-256 algorithm to the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input as the "text" value, and
representation of the JWS Secured Input (which is the same as the using the shared key. The HMAC output value is the JWS Signature.
ASCII representation) using the shared key to produce an HMAC The JWS signature is base64url encoded to produce the Encoded JWS
value. Signature.
2. Base64url encode the resulting HMAC value.
The output is the Encoded JWS Signature for that JWS.
The HMAC SHA-256 MAC for a JWS is validated as follows:
1. Apply the HMAC SHA-256 algorithm to the bytes of the UTF-8
representation of the JWS Secured Input (which is the same as the
ASCII representation) of the JWS using the shared key.
2. Base64url encode the resulting HMAC value.
3. If the Encoded JWS Signature and the base64url encoded HMAC value
exactly match, then one has confirmation that the shared key was
used to generate the HMAC on the JWS and that the contents of the
JWS have not be tampered with.
4. If the validation fails, the JWS MUST be rejected.
Alternatively, the Encoded JWS Signature MAY be base64url decoded to The HMAC SHA-256 MAC for a JWS is validated by computing an HMAC
produce the JWS Signature and this value can be compared with the value per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the hash algorithm "H", using
computed HMAC value, as this comparison produces the same result as the bytes of the ASCII representation of the received JWS Secured
comparing the encoded values. input as the "text" value, and using the shared key. This computed
HMAC value is then compared to the result of base64url decoding the
received Encoded JWS signature. Alternatively, the computed HMAC
value can be base64url encoded and compared to the received Encoded
JWS Signature, as this comparison produces the same result as
comparing the unencoded values. In either case, if the values match,
the HMAC has been validated. If the validation fails, the JWS MUST
be rejected.
Securing content with the HMAC SHA-384 and HMAC SHA-512 algorithms is Securing content with the HMAC SHA-384 and HMAC SHA-512 algorithms is
performed identically to the procedure for HMAC SHA-256 - just with performed identically to the procedure for HMAC SHA-256 - just using
correspondingly larger minimum key sizes and result values. the corresponding hash algorithm with correspondingly larger minimum
key sizes and result values: 384 bits each for HMAC SHA-384 and 512
bits each for HMAC SHA-512.
3.3. Digital Signature with RSA SHA-256, RSA SHA-384, or RSA SHA-512 3.3. Digital Signature with RSA SHA-256, RSA SHA-384, or RSA SHA-512
This section defines the use of the RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 digital This section defines the use of the RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 digital
signature algorithm as defined in RFC 3447 [RFC3447], Section 8.2 signature algorithm as defined in Section 8.2 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447],
(commonly known as PKCS#1), using SHA-256, SHA-384, or SHA-512 as the (commonly known as PKCS #1), using SHA-256, SHA-384, or SHA-512 [SHS]
hash function. The RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 algorithm is described in FIPS as the hash functions. The "alg" (algorithm) header parameter values
186-3 [FIPS.186-3], Section 5.5, and the SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA- "RS256", "RS384", and "RS512" are used in the JWS Header to indicate
512 cryptographic hash functions are defined in FIPS 180-3 that the Encoded JWS Signature contains a base64url encoded RSA
[FIPS.180-3]. The "alg" (algorithm) header parameter values "RS256", digital signature using the respective hash function.
"RS384", and "RS512" are used in the JWS Header to indicate that the
Encoded JWS Signature contains a base64url encoded RSA digital
signature using the respective hash function.
A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms. A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms.
Note that while Section 8 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] explicitly calls for
people not to adopt RSASSA-PKCS1 for new applications and instead
requests that people transition to RSASSA-PSS, for interoperability
reasons, this specification does use RSASSA-PKCS1 because it commonly
implemented.
The RSA SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows: The RSA SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows:
1. Generate a digital signature of the bytes of the UTF-8 1. Generate a digital signature of the bytes of the ASCII
representation of the JWS Secured Input (which is the same as the representation of the JWS Secured Input using RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5-
ASCII representation) using RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5-SIGN and the SHA- SIGN and the SHA-256 hash function with the desired private key.
256 hash function with the desired private key. The output will The output will be a byte array.
be a byte array.
2. Base64url encode the resulting byte array. 2. Base64url encode the resulting byte array.
The output is the Encoded JWS Signature for that JWS. The output is the Encoded JWS Signature for that JWS.
The RSA SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as follows: The RSA SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as follows:
1. Take the Encoded JWS Signature and base64url decode it into a 1. Take the Encoded JWS Signature and base64url decode it into a
byte array. If decoding fails, the JWS MUST be rejected. byte array. If decoding fails, the JWS MUST be rejected.
2. Submit the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured 2. Submit the bytes of the ASCII representation of the JWS Secured
Input (which is the same as the ASCII representation) and the Input and the public key corresponding to the private key used by
public key corresponding to the private key used by the signer to the signer to the RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-
the RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256 as the hash 256 as the hash function.
function.
3. If the validation fails, the JWS MUST be rejected. 3. If the validation fails, the JWS MUST be rejected.
Signing with the RSA SHA-384 and RSA SHA-512 algorithms is performed Signing with the RSA SHA-384 and RSA SHA-512 algorithms is performed
identically to the procedure for RSA SHA-256 - just with identically to the procedure for RSA SHA-256 - just using the
correspondingly larger result values. corresponding hash algorithm with correspondingly larger result
values: 384 bits for RSA SHA-384 and 512 bits for RSA SHA-512.
3.4. Digital Signature with ECDSA P-256 SHA-256, ECDSA P-384 SHA-384, 3.4. Digital Signature with ECDSA P-256 SHA-256, ECDSA P-384 SHA-384,
or ECDSA P-521 SHA-512 or ECDSA P-521 SHA-512
The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is defined by The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) [DSS] provides
FIPS 186-3 [FIPS.186-3]. ECDSA provides for the use of Elliptic for the use of Elliptic Curve cryptography, which is able to provide
Curve cryptography, which is able to provide equivalent security to equivalent security to RSA cryptography but using shorter key sizes
RSA cryptography but using shorter key sizes and with greater and with greater processing speed. This means that ECDSA digital
processing speed. This means that ECDSA digital signatures will be signatures will be substantially smaller in terms of length than
substantially smaller in terms of length than equivalently strong RSA equivalently strong RSA digital signatures.
digital signatures.
This specification defines the use of ECDSA with the P-256 curve and This specification defines the use of ECDSA with the P-256 curve and
the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function, ECDSA with the P-384 curve the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function, ECDSA with the P-384 curve
and the SHA-384 hash function, and ECDSA with the P-521 curve and the and the SHA-384 hash function, and ECDSA with the P-521 curve and the
SHA-512 hash function. The P-256, P-384, and P-521 curves are also SHA-512 hash function. The P-256, P-384, and P-521 curves are
defined in FIPS 186-3. The "alg" (algorithm) header parameter values defined in [DSS]. The "alg" (algorithm) header parameter values
"ES256", "ES384", and "ES512" are used in the JWS Header to indicate "ES256", "ES384", and "ES512" are used in the JWS Header to indicate
that the Encoded JWS Signature contains a base64url encoded ECDSA that the Encoded JWS Signature contains a base64url encoded ECDSA
P-256 SHA-256, ECDSA P-384 SHA-384, or ECDSA P-521 SHA-512 digital P-256 SHA-256, ECDSA P-384 SHA-384, or ECDSA P-521 SHA-512 digital
signature, respectively. signature, respectively.
A key of size 160 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms.
The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows: The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows:
1. Generate a digital signature of the bytes of the UTF-8 1. Generate a digital signature of the bytes of the ASCII
representation of the JWS Secured Input (which is the same as the representation of the JWS Secured Input using ECDSA P-256 SHA-256
ASCII representation) using ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 with the desired with the desired private key. The output will be the EC point
private key. The output will be the EC point (R, S), where R and (R, S), where R and S are unsigned integers.
S are unsigned integers.
2. Turn R and S into byte arrays in big endian order. Each array 2. Turn R and S into byte arrays in big endian order, with each
will be 32 bytes long. array being be 32 bytes long.
3. Concatenate the two byte arrays in the order R and then S. 3. Concatenate the two byte arrays in the order R and then S. (Note
that many ECDSA implementations will directly produce this
concatenation as their output.)
4. Base64url encode the resulting 64 byte array. 4. Base64url encode the resulting 64 byte array.
The output is the Encoded JWS Signature for the JWS. The output is the Encoded JWS Signature for the JWS.
The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as
follows: follows:
1. Take the Encoded JWS Signature and base64url decode it into a 1. Take the Encoded JWS Signature and base64url decode it into a
byte array. If decoding fails, the JWS MUST be rejected. byte array. If decoding fails, the JWS MUST be rejected.
2. The output of the base64url decoding MUST be a 64 byte array. 2. The output of the base64url decoding MUST be a 64 byte array. If
decoding does not result in a 64 byte array, the JWS MUST be
rejected.
3. Split the 64 byte array into two 32 byte arrays. The first array 3. Split the 64 byte array into two 32 byte arrays. The first array
will be R and the second S (with both being in big endian byte will be R and the second S (with both being in big endian byte
order). order).
4. Submit the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured 4. Submit the bytes of the ASCII representation of the JWS Secured
Input (which is the same as the ASCII representation), R, S and Input R, S and the public key (x, y) to the ECDSA P-256 SHA-256
the public key (x, y) to the ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 validator. validator.
5. If the validation fails, the JWS MUST be rejected. 5. If the validation fails, the JWS MUST be rejected.
The ECDSA validator will then determine if the digital signature is Note that ECDSA digital signature contains a value referred to as K,
valid, given the inputs. Note that ECDSA digital signature contains which is a random number generated for each digital signature
a value referred to as K, which is a random number generated for each instance. This means that two ECDSA digital signatures using exactly
digital signature instance. This means that two ECDSA digital the same input parameters will output different signature values
signatures using exactly the same input parameters will output because their K values will be different. A consequence of this is
different signature values because their K values will be different. that one cannot validate an ECDSA signature by recomputing the
The consequence of this is that one must validate an ECDSA digital signature and comparing the results.
signature by submitting the previously specified inputs to an ECDSA
validator.
Signing with the ECDSA P-384 SHA-384 and ECDSA P-521 SHA-512 Signing with the ECDSA P-384 SHA-384 and ECDSA P-521 SHA-512
algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for ECDSA P-256 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for ECDSA P-256
SHA-256 - just with correspondingly larger result values. SHA-256 - just using the corresponding hash algorithm with
correspondingly larger result values. For ECDSA P-384 SHA-384, R and
S will be 48 bytes each, resulting in a 96 byte array. For ECDSA
P-521 SHA-512, R and S will be 66 bytes each (so they can represent a
521-bit integer), resulting in a 132 byte array.
3.5. Creating a Plaintext JWS 3.5. Using the Algorithm "none"
To support use cases where the content is secured by a means other JWSs MAY also be created that do not provide integrity protection.
than a digital signature or MAC value, JWSs MAY also be created Such a JWS is called a "Plaintext JWS". Plaintext JWSs MUST use the
without them. These are called "Plaintext JWSs". Plaintext JWSs "alg" value "none", and are formatted identically to other JWSs, but
MUST use the "alg" value "none", and are formatted identically to with an empty JWS Signature value.
other JWSs, but with an empty JWS Signature value.
3.6. Additional Digital Signature/MAC Algorithms and Parameters 3.6. Additional Digital Signature/MAC Algorithms and Parameters
Additional algorithms MAY be used to protect JWSs with corresponding Additional algorithms MAY be used to protect JWSs with corresponding
"alg" (algorithm) header parameter values being defined to refer to "alg" (algorithm) header parameter values being defined to refer to
them. New "alg" header parameter values SHOULD either be defined in them. New "alg" header parameter values SHOULD either be registered
the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms registry in the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms registry
Section 6.2 or be a URI that contains a collision resistant Section 6.1 or be a URI that contains a Collision Resistant
namespace. In particular, it is permissible to use the algorithm Namespace. In particular, it is permissible to use the algorithm
identifiers defined in XML DSIG [RFC3275], XML DSIG 2.0 identifiers defined in XML DSIG [RFC3275], XML DSIG 2.0
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], and related specifications as "alg" [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], and related specifications as "alg"
values. values.
As indicated by the common registry, JWSs and JWEs share a common As indicated by the common registry, JWSs and JWEs share a common
"alg" value space. The values used by the two specifications MUST be "alg" value space. The values used by the two specifications MUST be
distinct, as the "alg" value MAY be used to determine whether the distinct, as the "alg" value MAY be used to determine whether the
object is a JWS or JWE. object is a JWS or JWE.
Likewise, additional reserved header parameter names MAY be defined Likewise, additional reserved header parameter names MAY be defined
via the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters via the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters
registry Section 6.1. As indicated by the common registry, JWSs and registry [JWS]. As indicated by the common registry, JWSs and JWEs
JWEs share a common header parameter space; when a parameter is used share a common header parameter space; when a parameter is used by
by both specifications, its usage must be compatible between the both specifications, its usage must be compatible between the
specifications. specifications.
4. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWE 4. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWE
JWE uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt the Content Master Key JWE uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt the Content Master Key
(CMK) and the Plaintext. This section specifies a set of specific (CMK) and the Plaintext. This section specifies a set of specific
algorithms for these purposes. algorithms for these purposes.
4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE 4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE
The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) header parameter The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) header parameter
values that are defined by this specification for use with JWE. values that are defined by this specification for use with JWE.
These algorithms are used to encrypt the CMK, producing the JWE These algorithms are used to encrypt the CMK, producing the JWE
Encrypted Key, or to use key agreement to agree upon the CMK. Encrypted Key, or to use key agreement to agree upon the CMK.
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-----------+--------------------------------------+----------------+
| alg | Key Encryption or Agreement Algorithm | | alg | Key Encryption or Agreement | Implementation |
| Parameter | | | Parameter | Algorithm | Requirements |
| Value | | | Value | | |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-----------+--------------------------------------+----------------+
| RSA1_5 | RSA using RSA-PKCS1-1.5 padding, as defined in RFC | | RSA1_5 | RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 [RFC3447] | REQUIRED |
| | 3447 [RFC3447] | | RSA-OAEP | RSAES using Optimal Asymmetric | OPTIONAL |
| RSA-OAEP | RSA using Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding | | | Encryption Padding (OAEP) [RFC3447], | |
| | (OAEP), as defined in RFC 3447 [RFC3447] | | | with the default parameters | |
| ECDH-ES | Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static, as | | | specified by RFC 3447 in Section | |
| | defined in RFC 6090 [RFC6090], and using the Concat | | | A.2.1 | |
| | KDF, as defined in Section 5.8.1 of [NIST.800-56A], | | ECDH-ES | Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman | RECOMMENDED+ |
| | where the Digest Method is SHA-256 and all OtherInfo | | | Ephemeral Static [RFC6090], and | |
| | parameters are the empty bit string | | | using the Concat KDF, as defined in | |
| A128KW | Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm | | | Section 5.8.1 of [NIST.800-56A], | |
| | using 128 bit keys, as defined in RFC 3394 [RFC3394] | | | where the Digest Method is SHA-256 | |
| A256KW | Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm | | | and all OtherInfo parameters are the | |
| | using 256 bit keys, as defined in RFC 3394 [RFC3394] | | | empty bit string | |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ | A128KW | Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) | RECOMMENDED |
| | Key Wrap Algorithm [RFC3394] using | |
| | 128 bit keys | |
| A256KW | AES Key Wrap Algorithm using 256 bit | RECOMMENDED |
| | keys | |
+-----------+--------------------------------------+----------------+
The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the
requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of
the specification.
4.2. "enc" (Encryption Method) Header Parameter Values for JWE 4.2. "enc" (Encryption Method) Header Parameter Values for JWE
The table below is the set of "enc" (encryption method) header The table below is the set of "enc" (encryption method) header
parameter values that are defined by this specification for use with parameter values that are defined by this specification for use with
JWE. These algorithms are used to encrypt the Plaintext, which JWE. These algorithms are used to encrypt the Plaintext, which
produces the Ciphertext. produces the Ciphertext.
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-----------+--------------------------------------+----------------+
| enc | Block Encryption Algorithm | | enc | Block Encryption Algorithm | Implementation |
| Parameter | | | Parameter | | Requirements |
| Value | | | Value | | |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-----------+--------------------------------------+----------------+
| A128CBC | Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) using 128 bit keys | | A128CBC | Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) | REQUIRED |
| | in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode using PKCS #5 | | | in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode | |
| | padding, as defined in [FIPS.197] and [NIST.800-38A] | | | with PKCS #5 padding [AES] | |
| A256CBC | Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) using 256 bit keys | | | [NIST.800-38A] using 128 bit keys | |
| | in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode using PKCS #5 | | A256CBC | AES in CBC mode with PKCS #5 padding | REQUIRED |
| | padding, as defined in [FIPS.197] and [NIST.800-38A] | | | using 256 bit keys | |
| A128GCM | Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) using 128 bit keys | | A128GCM | AES in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) | RECOMMENDED |
| | in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM), as defined in | | | [AES] [NIST.800-38D] using 128 bit | |
| | [FIPS.197] and [NIST.800-38D] | | | keys | |
| A256GCM | Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) using 256 bit keys | | A256GCM | AES GCM using 256 bit keys | RECOMMENDED |
| | in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM), as defined in | +-----------+--------------------------------------+----------------+
| | [FIPS.197] and [NIST.800-38D] |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ All the names are short because a core goal of JWE is for the
representations to be compact. However, there is no a priori length
restriction on "alg" values.
See Appendix B for a table cross-referencing the encryption "alg" See Appendix B for a table cross-referencing the encryption "alg"
(algorithm) and "enc" (encryption method) values used in this (algorithm) and "enc" (encryption method) values used in this
specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards
and software packages. and software packages.
Of these "alg" and "enc" algorithms, only RSA-PKCS1-1.5 with 2048 bit
keys, AES-128-KW, AES-256-KW, AES-128-CBC, and AES-256-CBC MUST be
implemented by conforming JWE implementations. It is RECOMMENDED
that implementations also support ECDH-ES with 256 bit keys, AES-128-
GCM, and AES-256-GCM. Support for other algorithms and key sizes is
OPTIONAL.
4.3. "int" (Integrity Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE 4.3. "int" (Integrity Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE
The table below is the set of "int" (integrity algorithm) header The table below is the set of "int" (integrity algorithm) header
parameter values defined by this specification for use with JWE. parameter values defined by this specification for use with JWE.
Note that these are the HMAC SHA subset of the "alg" (algorithm) Note that these are the HMAC SHA subset of the "alg" (algorithm)
header parameter values defined for use with JWS Section 3.1. /> header parameter values defined for use with JWS Section 3.1.
+---------------------+-----------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------+-----------------------+
| int Parameter Value | Algorithm | | int Parameter | Algorithm | Implementation |
+---------------------+-----------------------------------+ | Value | | Requirements |
| HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 hash algorithm | +-----------------+-------------------------+-----------------------+
| HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 hash algorithm | | HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 hash | REQUIRED |
| HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 hash algorithm | | | algorithm | |
+---------------------+-----------------------------------+ | HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 hash | OPTIONAL |
| | algorithm | |
| HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 hash | OPTIONAL |
| | algorithm | |
+-----------------+-------------------------+-----------------------+
Of these "int" algorithms, only HMAC SHA-256 MUST be implemented by 4.4. "kdf" (Key Derivation Function) Header Parameter Values for JWE
conforming JWE implementations. It is RECOMMENDED that
implementations also support the RSA SHA-256 and ECDSA P-256 SHA-256
algorithms.
4.4. Key Encryption with RSA using RSA-PKCS1-1.5 Padding The table below is the set of "kdf" (key derivation function) header
parameter values defined by this specification for use with JWE.
This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CMK with RSA +-----------+--------------------------------------+----------------+
using RSA-PKCS1-1.5 padding, as defined in RFC 3447 [RFC3447]. The | kdf | Algorithm | Implementation |
"alg" header parameter value "RSA1_5" is used in this case. | Parameter | | Requirements |
| Value | | |
+-----------+--------------------------------------+----------------+
| CS256 | Concat KDF, as defined in Section | REQUIRED |
| | 5.8.1 of [NIST.800-56A], with | |
| | parameters per Section 4.12, using | |
| | SHA-256 as the digest method | |
| CS384 | Concat KDF with parameters per | OPTIONAL |
| | Section 4.12, using SHA-384 as the | |
| | digest method | |
| CS512 | Concat KDF with parameters per | OPTIONAL |
| | Section 4.12, using SHA-512 as the | |
| | digest method | |
+-----------+--------------------------------------+----------------+
4.5. Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5
This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CMK with
RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 [RFC3447]. The "alg" header parameter value
"RSA1_5" is used in this case.
A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with this algorithm. A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with this algorithm.
4.5. Key Encryption with RSA using Optimal Asymmetric Encryption 4.6. Key Encryption with RSAES OAEP
Padding (OAEP)
This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CMK with RSA This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CMK with RSAES
using Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP), as defined in RFC using Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) [RFC3447], with
3447 [RFC3447]. The "alg" header parameter value "RSA-OAEP" is used the default parameters specified by RFC 3447 in Section A.2.1. The
in this case. "alg" header parameter value "RSA-OAEP" is used in this case.
A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with this algorithm. A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with this algorithm.
4.6. Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static 4.7. Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static
(ECDH-ES) (ECDH-ES)
This section defines the specifics of agreeing upon a JWE CMK with This section defines the specifics of agreeing upon a JWE CMK with
Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static, as defined in RFC Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static [RFC6090], and using
6090 [RFC6090], and using the Concat KDF, as defined in Section 5.8.1 the Concat KDF, as defined in Section 5.8.1 of [NIST.800-56A], where
of [NIST.800-56A], where the Digest Method is SHA-256 and all the Digest Method is SHA-256 and all OtherInfo parameters are the
OtherInfo parameters are the empty bit string. The "alg" header empty bit string. The "alg" header parameter value "ECDH-ES" is used
parameter value "ECDH-ES" is used in this case. in this case.
A key of size 160 bits or larger MUST be used for the Elliptic Curve The output of the Concat KDF MUST be a key of the same length as that
keys used with this algorithm. The output of the Concat KDF MUST be used by the "enc" algorithm.
a key of the same length as that used by the "enc" algorithm.
An "epk" (ephemeral public key) value MUST only be used for a single A new "epk" (ephemeral public key) value MUST be generated for each
key agreement transaction. key agreement transaction.
4.7. Key Encryption with AES Key Wrap 4.8. Key Encryption with AES Key Wrap
This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CMK with the This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CMK with the
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm using 128 or Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm [RFC3394] using
256 bit keys, as defined in RFC 3394 [RFC3394]. The "alg" header 128 or 256 bit keys. The "alg" header parameter values "A128KW" or
parameter values "A128KW" or "A256KW" are used in this case. "A256KW" are used in this case.
4.8. Plaintext Encryption with AES Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode 4.9. Plaintext Encryption with AES CBC Mode
This section defines the specifics of encrypting the JWE Plaintext This section defines the specifics of encrypting the JWE Plaintext
with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Cipher Block Chaining with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Cipher Block Chaining
(CBC) mode using PKCS #5 padding using 128 or 256 bit keys, as (CBC) mode with PKCS #5 padding [AES] [NIST.800-38A] using 128 or 256
defined in [FIPS.197] and [NIST.800-38A]. The "enc" header parameter bit keys. The "enc" header parameter values "A128CBC" or "A256CBC"
values "A128CBC" or "A256CBC" are used in this case. are used in this case.
Use of an Initialization Vector (IV) of size 128 bits is RECOMMENDED Use of an initialization vector of size 128 bits is REQUIRED with
with this algorithm. this algorithm.
4.9. Plaintext Encryption with AES Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) 4.10. Plaintext Encryption with AES GCM
This section defines the specifics of encrypting the JWE Plaintext This section defines the specifics of encrypting the JWE Plaintext
with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)
using 128 or 256 bit keys, as defined in [FIPS.197] and [AES] [NIST.800-38D] using 128 or 256 bit keys. The "enc" header
[NIST.800-38D]. The "enc" header parameter values "A128GCM" or parameter values "A128GCM" or "A256GCM" are used in this case.
"A256GCM" are used in this case.
Use of an Initialization Vector (IV) of size 96 bits is REQUIRED with Use of an initialization vector of size 96 bits is REQUIRED with this
this algorithm. algorithm.
The "additional authenticated data" parameter value for the The "additional authenticated data" parameter is used to secure the
encryption is the concatenation of the Encoded JWE Header, a period header and key values, as specified for AEAD algorithms in Section 5
('.') character, and the Encoded JWE Encrypted Key. of [JWE].
The requested size of the "authentication tag" output MUST be the The requested size of the "authentication tag" output MUST be 128
same as the key size (for instance, 128 bits for "A128GCM"). bits, regardless of the key size.
As GCM is an AEAD algorithm, the JWE Integrity Value is set to be the As GCM is an AEAD algorithm, the JWE Integrity Value is set to be the
"authentication tag" value produced by the encryption. "authentication tag" value produced by the encryption.
4.10. Integrity Calculation with HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, or HMAC 4.11. Integrity Calculation with HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, or HMAC
SHA-512 SHA-512
This section defines the specifics of computing a JWE Integrity Value This section defines the specifics of computing a JWE Integrity Value
with HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, or HMAC SHA-512 as defined in FIPS with HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, or HMAC SHA-512 [SHS]. Other than
180-3 [FIPS.180-3]. The "int" header parameter values "HS256", as stated below, these computations are performed identically to
"HS384", or "HS512" are used in this case. those specified in Section 3.2.
A key of the same size as the hash output (for instance, 256 bits for A key of the same size as the hash output (for instance, 256 bits for
"HS256") or larger MUST be used with this algorithm. "HS256") MUST be used with this algorithm.
4.11. Additional Encryption Algorithms and Parameters Per Section 9 of [JWE], the JWS Secured Input value used contains the
header, encrypted key, and ciphertext.
4.12. Key Derivation with Concat KDF and SHA-256, SHA-384, or SHA-512
The key derivation process derives CEK and CIK values from the CMK.
It uses as a primitive a Key Derivation Function (KDF) which
notionally takes three arguments:
MasterKey: The master key used to compute the individual use keys
Label: The use key label, used to differentiate individual use keys
Length: The desired length of the use key
This section defines the specifics of using the Concat KDF, as
defined in Section 5.8.1 of [NIST.800-56A], where the Digest Method
is one of SHA-256, SHA-384, or SHA-512, the SuppPubInfo parameter is
the Label, and the remaining OtherInfo parameters are the empty bit
string.
The "kdf" (key derivation function) header parameter values "CS256",
"CS384", and "CS512" are respectively used in the JWE Header to
indicate the use of the Concat KDF as above with the respective
digest methods. If the "kdf" header parameter is omitted when an
AEAD "enc" algorithm is not used, this is equivalent to specifying
use of the "CS256" key derivation function.
To compute the CEK from the CMK, the ASCII label "Encryption" ([69,
110, 99, 114, 121, 112, 116, 105, 111, 110]) is used. Use the key
size for the "enc" algorithm as the CEK desired key length.
To compute the CIK from the CMK, the ASCII label "Integrity" ([73,
110, 116, 101, 103, 114, 105, 116, 121]) is used. Use the minimum
key size for the "int" algorithm (for instance, 256 bits for "HS256")
as the CIK desired key length.
4.13. Additional Encryption Algorithms and Parameters
Additional algorithms MAY be used to protect JWEs with corresponding Additional algorithms MAY be used to protect JWEs with corresponding
"alg" (algorithm), "enc" (encryption method), and "int" (integrity "alg" (algorithm), "enc" (encryption method), and "int" (integrity
algorithm) header parameter values being defined to refer to them. algorithm) header parameter values being defined to refer to them.
New "alg", "enc", and "int" header parameter values SHOULD either be New "alg", "enc", and "int" header parameter values SHOULD either be
defined in the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms registered in the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms
registry Section 6.2 or be a URI that contains a collision resistant registry Section 6.1 or be a URI that contains a Collision Resistant
namespace. In particular, it is permissible to use the algorithm Namespace. In particular, it is permissible to use the algorithm
identifiers defined in XML Encryption [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210], identifiers defined in XML Encryption [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210],
XML Encryption 1.1 [W3C.CR-xmlenc-core1-20120313], and related XML Encryption 1.1 [W3C.CR-xmlenc-core1-20120313], and related
specifications as "alg", "enc", and "int" values. specifications as "alg", "enc", and "int" values.
As indicated by the common registry, JWSs and JWEs share a common As indicated by the common registry, JWSs and JWEs share a common
"alg" value space. The values used by the two specifications MUST be "alg" value space. The values used by the two specifications MUST be
distinct, as the "alg" value MAY be used to determine whether the distinct, as the "alg" value MAY be used to determine whether the
object is a JWS or JWE. object is a JWS or JWE.
Likewise, additional reserved header parameter names MAY be defined Likewise, additional reserved header parameter names MAY be defined
via the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters via the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters
registry Section 6.1. As indicated by the common registry, JWSs and registry [JWS]. As indicated by the common registry, JWSs and JWEs
JWEs share a common header parameter space; when a parameter is used share a common header parameter space; when a parameter is used by
by both specifications, its usage must be compatible between the both specifications, its usage must be compatible between the
specifications. specifications.
5. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWK 5. Cryptographic Algorithms for JWK
A JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] is a JSON data structure that represents a A JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)
public key. A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON data structure [RFC4627] data structure that represents a public key. A JSON Web
for representing a set of JWKs. This section specifies a set of Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON data structure for representing a set of
algorithm families to be used for those public keys and the algorithm JWKs. This section specifies a set of algorithm families to be used
family specific parameters for representing those keys. for those public keys and the algorithm family specific parameters
for representing those keys.
5.1. "alg" (Algorithm Family) Parameter Values for JWK 5.1. "alg" (Algorithm Family) Parameter Values for JWK
The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm family) parameter The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm family) parameter
values that are defined by this specification for use in JWKs. values that are defined by this specification for use in JWKs.
+---------------------+----------------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------+-----------------------+
| alg Parameter Value | Algorithm Family | | alg Parameter | Algorithm Family | Implementation |
+---------------------+----------------------------------------+ | Value | | Requirements |
| EC | Elliptic Curve [FIPS.186-3] key family | +-----------------+-------------------------+-----------------------+
| RSA | RSA [RFC3447] key family | | EC | Elliptic Curve [DSS] | RECOMMENDED+ |
+---------------------+----------------------------------------+ | | key family | |
| RSA | RSA [RFC3447] key | REQUIRED |
| | family | |
+-----------------+-------------------------+-----------------------+
All the names are short because a core goal of JWK is for the
representations to be compact. However, there is no a priori length
restriction on "alg" values.
The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the
requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of
the specification.
5.2. JWK Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys 5.2. JWK Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys
JWKs can represent Elliptic Curve [FIPS.186-3] keys. In this case, JWKs can represent Elliptic Curve [DSS] keys. In this case, the
the "alg" member value MUST be "EC". Furthermore, these additional "alg" member value MUST be "EC". Furthermore, these additional
members MUST be present: members MUST be present:
5.2.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter 5.2.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter
The "crv" (curve) member identifies the cryptographic curve used with The "crv" (curve) member identifies the cryptographic curve used with
the key. Values defined by this specification are "P-256", "P-384" the key. Curve values from [DSS] used by this specification are:
and "P-521". Additional "crv" values MAY be used, provided they are
understood by implementations using that Elliptic Curve key. The o "P-256"
"crv" value is case sensitive. Its value MUST be a string.
o "P-384"
o "P-521"
Additional "crv" values MAY be used, provided they are understood by
implementations using that Elliptic Curve key. The "crv" value is
case sensitive. Its value MUST be a string.
5.2.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter 5.2.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter
The "x" (x coordinate) member contains the x coordinate for the The "x" (x coordinate) member contains the x coordinate for the
elliptic curve point. It is represented as the base64url encoding of elliptic curve point. It is represented as the base64url encoding of
the coordinate's big endian representation. the coordinate's big endian representation.
5.2.3. "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter 5.2.3. "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter
The "y" (y coordinate) member contains the y coordinate for the The "y" (y coordinate) member contains the y coordinate for the
skipping to change at page 15, line 9 skipping to change at page 19, line 37
5.3. JWK Parameters for RSA Keys 5.3. JWK Parameters for RSA Keys
JWKs can represent RSA [RFC3447] keys. In this case, the "alg" JWKs can represent RSA [RFC3447] keys. In this case, the "alg"
member value MUST be "RSA". Furthermore, these additional members member value MUST be "RSA". Furthermore, these additional members
MUST be present: MUST be present:
5.3.1. "mod" (Modulus) Parameter 5.3.1. "mod" (Modulus) Parameter
The "mod" (modulus) member contains the modulus value for the RSA The "mod" (modulus) member contains the modulus value for the RSA
public key. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the public key. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the
value's big endian representation. value's unsigned big endian representation.
5.3.2. "exp" (Exponent) Parameter 5.3.2. "exp" (Exponent) Parameter
The "exp" (exponent) member contains the exponent value for the RSA The "exp" (exponent) member contains the exponent value for the RSA
public key. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the public key. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the
value's big endian representation. value's unsigned big endian representation.
5.4. Additional Key Algorithm Families and Parameters 5.4. Additional Key Algorithm Families and Parameters
Public keys using additional algorithm families MAY be represented Public keys using additional algorithm families MAY be represented
using JWK data structures with corresponding "alg" (algorithm family) using JWK data structures with corresponding "alg" (algorithm family)
parameter values being defined to refer to them. New "alg" parameter parameter values being defined to refer to them. New "alg" parameter
values SHOULD either be defined in the IANA JSON Web Key Algorithm values SHOULD either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Algorithm
Families registry Section 6.5 or be a URI that contains a collision Families registry Section 6.2 or be a URI that contains a Collision
resistant namespace. Resistant Namespace.
Likewise, parameters for representing keys for additional algorithm Likewise, parameters for representing keys for additional algorithm
families or additional key properties SHOULD either be defined in the families or additional key properties SHOULD either be registered in
IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 6.4 or be a URI that the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry [JWK] or be a URI that
contains a collision resistant namespace. contains a Collision Resistant Namespace.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
6.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters Registry The following registration procedure is used for all the registries
established by this specification.
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Signature and Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a
Encryption Header Parameters registry for reserved JWS and JWE header two week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the
parameter names. Inclusion in the registry is RFC Required in the advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the
RFC 5226 [RFC5226] sense. The registry records the reserved header allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s)
parameter name and a reference to the RFC that defines it. This may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a
specification registers the header parameter names defined in JSON specification will be published.
Web Signature (JWS) [JWS], Section 4.1 and JSON Web Encryption (JWE)
[JWE], Section 4.1.
6.2. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
for access token type: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The name of
the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the IESG
and IANA. Suggested name: jose-reg-review. ]]
Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation
and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
successful.
IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s),
and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
list.
6.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Signature and This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Signature and
Encryption Algorithms registry for values of the JWS and JWE "alg" Encryption Algorithms registry for values of the JWS and JWE "alg"
(algorithm), "enc" (encryption method), and "int" (integrity (algorithm), "enc" (encryption method), and "int" (integrity
algorithm) header parameters. Inclusion in the registry is RFC algorithm) header parameters. The registry records the algorithm
Required in the RFC 5226 [RFC5226] sense. The registry records the name, the algorithm usage locations from the set "alg", "enc", and
algorithm usage "alg", "enc", or "int", the value, and a pointer to "int", implementation requirements, and a reference to the
the RFC that defines it. This specification registers the values specification that defines it. The same algorithm name may be
defined in Section 3.1, Section 4.1, Section 4.2, and Section 4.3. registered multiple times, provided that the sets of usage locations
are disjoint. The implementation requirements of an algorithm may be
changed over time by the Designated Experts(s) as the cryptographic
landscape evolves, for instance, to change the status of an algorithm
to DEPRECATED, or to change the status of an algorithm from OPTIONAL
to RECOMMENDED or REQUIRED.
6.3. JSON Web Signature and Encryption "typ" Values Registry 6.1.1. Registration Template
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Signature and Algorithm Name:
Encryption "typ" Values registry for values of the JWS and JWE "typ" The name requested (e.g., "example").
(type) header parameter. Inclusion in the registry is RFC Required
in the RFC 5226 [RFC5226] sense. It is RECOMMENDED that all
registered "typ" values also register a MIME Media Type RFC 2045
[RFC2045] that the registered value is a short name for. The
registry records the "typ" value, the MIME type value that it is an
abbreviation for (if any), and a pointer to the RFC that defines it.
MIME Media Type RFC 2045 [RFC2045] values MUST NOT be directly Algorithm Usage Location(s):
registered as new "typ" values; rather, new "typ" values MAY be The algorithm usage, which must be one or more of the values
registered as short names for MIME types. "alg", "enc", "int", or "kdf".
6.4. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry Implementation Requirements:
The algorithm implementation requirements, which must be one the
words REQUIRED, RECOMMENDED, OPTIONAL, or DEPRECATED. Optionally,
the word may be followed by a "+" or "-". The use of "+"
indicates that the requirement strength is likely to be increased
in a future version of the specification. The use of "-"
indicates that the requirement strength is likely to be decreased
in a future version of the specification.
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters Change Controller:
registry for reserved JWK parameter names. Inclusion in the registry For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
is RFC Required in the RFC 5226 [RFC5226] sense. The registry of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
records the reserved parameter name and a reference to the RFC that e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included.
defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined
in JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK], Section 4.2, JSON Web Encryption (JWE)
[JWE], Section 4.1, Section 5.2, and Section 5.3.
6.5. JSON Web Key Algorithm Families Registry Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document that specifies the parameter, preferably
including a URI that can be used to retrieve a copy of the
document. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
included, but is not required.
6.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Algorithm Name: "HS256"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg", "int"
o Implementation Requirements: REQUIRED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 and Section 4.3 of [[ this
document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "HS384"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg", "int"
o Implementation Requirements: OPTIONAL
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 and Section 4.3 of [[ this
document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "HS512"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg", "int"
o Implementation Requirements: OPTIONAL
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 and Section 4.3 of [[ this
document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "RS256"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: RECOMMENDED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "RS384"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: OPTIONAL
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "RS512"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: OPTIONAL
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "ES256"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: RECOMMENDED+
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "ES384"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: OPTIONAL
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "ES512"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: OPTIONAL
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "none"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: REQUIRED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "RSA1_5"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: REQUIRED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "RSA-OAEP"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: OPTIONAL
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: RECOMMENDED+
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "A128KW"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: RECOMMENDED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "A256KW"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o Implementation Requirements: RECOMMENDED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "A128CBC"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
o Implementation Requirements: REQUIRED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "A256CBC"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
o Implementation Requirements: REQUIRED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "A128GCM"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
o Implementation Requirements: RECOMMENDED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "A256GCM"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
o Implementation Requirements: RECOMMENDED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "CS256"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "kdf"
o Implementation Requirements: REQUIRED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.4 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "CS384"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "kdf"
o Implementation Requirements: OPTIONAL
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.4 of [[ this document ]]
o Algorithm Name: "CS512"
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "kdf"
o Implementation Requirements: OPTIONAL
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.4 of [[ this document ]]
6.2. JSON Web Key Algorithm Families Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Algorithm This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Algorithm
Families registry for values of the JWK "alg" (algorithm family) Families registry for values of the JWK "alg" (algorithm family)
parameter. Inclusion in the registry is RFC Required in the RFC 5226 parameter. The registry records the "alg" value and a reference to
[RFC5226] sense. The registry records the "alg" value and a pointer the specification that defines it. This specification registers the
to the RFC that defines it. This specification registers the values values defined in Section 5.1.
defined in Section 5.1.
6.2.1. Registration Template
"alg" Parameter Value:
The name requested (e.g., "example").
Change Controller:
For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included.
Implementation Requirements:
The algorithm implementation requirements, which must be one the
words REQUIRED, RECOMMENDED, OPTIONAL, or DEPRECATED. Optionally,
the word may be followed by a "+" or "-". The use of "+"
indicates that the requirement strength is likely to be increased
in a future version of the specification. The use of "-"
indicates that the requirement strength is likely to be decreased
in a future version of the specification.
Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document that specifies the parameter, preferably
including a URI that can be used to retrieve a copy of the
document. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
included, but is not required.
6.2.2. Initial Registry Contents
o "alg" Parameter Value: "EC"
o Implementation Requirements: RECOMMENDED+
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]]
o "alg" Parameter Value: "RSA"
o Implementation Requirements: REQUIRED
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]]
6.3. JSON Web Key Parameters Registration
This specification registers the parameter names defined in
Section 5.2 and Section 5.3 in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters
registry [JWK].
6.3.1. Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "crv"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.2.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "x"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.2.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "y"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.2.3 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "mod"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "exp"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.3.2 of [[ this document ]]
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
The security considerations in the JWS, JWE, and JWK specifications All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application
also apply to this specification. must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are
protecting the user's private key, preventing various attacks, and
helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently encrypting a
message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of security
considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but some
significant concerns are listed here.
The security considerations in [AES], [DSS], [JWE], [JWK], [JWS],
[NIST.800-38A], [NIST.800-38D], [NIST.800-56A], [RFC2104], [RFC3394],
[RFC3447], [RFC5116], [RFC6090], and [SHS] apply to this
specification.
Eventually the algorithms and/or key sizes currently described in Eventually the algorithms and/or key sizes currently described in
this specification will no longer be considered sufficiently secure this specification will no longer be considered sufficiently secure
and will be removed. Therefore, implementers and deployments must be and will be removed. Therefore, implementers and deployments must be
prepared for this eventuality. prepared for this eventuality.
8. Open Issues and Things To Be Done (TBD) Algorithms of matching strength should be used together whenever
possible. For instance, when AES Key Wrap is used with a given key
size, using the same key size for AES CBC or GCM is recommended.
Likewise, when AES CBC is used with a 128 bit key, using HMAC SHA-256
as the integrity algorithm is recommended, whereas when AES CBC is
used with a 256 bit key, using HMAC SHA-512 as the integrity
algorithm is recommended.
The following items remain to be done in this draft: While Section 8 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] explicitly calls for people not
to adopt RSASSA-PKCS1 for new applications and instead requests that
people transition to RSASSA-PSS, this specification does include
RSASSA-PKCS1, for interoperability reasons, because it commonly
implemented.
o Find values for encryption algorithm cross-reference table Keys used with RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 must follow the constraints in
currently listed as "TBD" or determine that they do not exist. Section 7.2 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447]. In particular, keys with a low
public key exponent value must not be used.
9. References Plaintext JWSs (JWSs that use the "alg" value "none") provide no
integrity protection. Thus, they must only be used in contexts where
the payload is secured by means other than a digital signature or MAC
value, or need not be secured.
9.1. Normative References Receiving agents that validate signatures and sending agents that
encrypt messages need to be cautious of cryptographic processing
usage when validating signatures and encrypting messages using keys
larger than those mandated in this specification. An attacker could
send certificates with keys that would result in excessive
cryptographic processing, for example, keys larger than those
mandated in this specification, which could swamp the processing
element. Agents that use such keys without first validating the
certificate to a trust anchor are advised to have some sort of
cryptographic resource management system to prevent such attacks.
[FIPS.180-3] 8. Open Issues
National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
Hash Standard (SHS)", FIPS PUB 180-3, October 2008.
[FIPS.186-3] [[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Digital
Signature Standard (DSS)", FIPS PUB 186-3, June 2009.
[FIPS.197] The following items remain to be considered or done in this draft:
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
o Should we use the "alg" value as the AlgorithmID input to the
Concat KDF when doing key agreement? Or is an AlgorithmID value
unnecessary in the way that we are using Concat?
o Should we use the "enc" and "int" values as AlgorithmID inputs to
the Concat KDF when doing key derivation? Or is an AlgorithmID
value unnecessary in the way that we are using Concat?
o Do we want to add AES ECB as a (non-authenticated) key wrap
algorithm?
9. References
9.1. Normative References
[AES] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)", FIPS PUB 197, "Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)", FIPS PUB 197,
November 2001. November 2001.
[DSS] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Digital
Signature Standard (DSS)", FIPS PUB 186-3, June 2009.
[JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web [JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web
Encryption (JWE)", May 2012. Encryption (JWE)", July 2012.
[JWK] Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", May 2012. [JWK] Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", July 2012.
[JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web [JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
Signature (JWS)", May 2012. Signature (JWS)", July 2012.
[NIST.800-38A] [NIST.800-38A]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation", "Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation",
NIST PUB 800-38A, December 2001. NIST PUB 800-38A, December 2001.
[NIST.800-38D] [NIST.800-38D]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: "Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation:
Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC", NIST PUB 800-38D, Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC", NIST PUB 800-38D,
December 2001. December 2001.
[NIST.800-56A] [NIST.800-56A]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes "Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes
Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography (Revised)", NIST PUB Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography (Revised)", NIST PUB
800-56A, March 2007. 800-56A, March 2007.
[RFC2045] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message
Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.
[RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed- [RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104, Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
February 1997. February 1997.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3394] Schaad, J. and R. Housley, "Advanced Encryption Standard [RFC3394] Schaad, J. and R. Housley, "Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES) Key Wrap Algorithm", RFC 3394, September 2002. (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm", RFC 3394, September 2002.
[RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography [RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003. Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003.
[RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.
[RFC5116] McGrew, D., "An Interface and Algorithms for Authenticated
Encryption", RFC 5116, January 2008.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
[RFC6090] McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic [RFC6090] McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic
Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090, February 2011. Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090, February 2011.
[SHS] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
Hash Standard (SHS)", FIPS PUB 180-3, October 2008.
[USASCII] American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character
Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information
Interchange", ANSI X3.4, 1986.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[CanvasApp] [CanvasApp]
Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010. Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010.
[I-D.rescorla-jsms] [I-D.rescorla-jsms]
Rescorla, E. and J. Hildebrand, "JavaScript Message Rescorla, E. and J. Hildebrand, "JavaScript Message
Security Format", draft-rescorla-jsms-00 (work in Security Format", draft-rescorla-jsms-00 (work in
progress), March 2011. progress), March 2011.
skipping to change at page 19, line 9 skipping to change at page 31, line 45
September 2010. September 2010.
[MagicSignatures] [MagicSignatures]
Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic
Signatures", January 2011. Signatures", January 2011.
[RFC3275] Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., and D. Solo, "(Extensible Markup [RFC3275] Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., and D. Solo, "(Extensible Markup
Language) XML-Signature Syntax and Processing", RFC 3275, Language) XML-Signature Syntax and Processing", RFC 3275,
March 2002. March 2002.
[RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
July 2005.
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124] [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124]
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Yiu, K., Solo, D., Datta, P., Reagle, J., Solo, D., Datta, P., Hirsch, F., Eastlake, D.,
Hirsch, F., Cantor, S., and T. Roessler, "XML Signature Roessler, T., Cantor, S., and K. Yiu, "XML Signature
Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web
Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012, Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124>.
[W3C.CR-xmlenc-core1-20120313] [W3C.CR-xmlenc-core1-20120313]
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Roessler, T., and F. Hirsch, Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Hirsch, F., and T. Roessler,
"XML Encryption Syntax and Processing Version 1.1", World "XML Encryption Syntax and Processing Version 1.1", World
Wide Web Consortium CR CR-xmlenc-core1-20120313, Wide Web Consortium CR CR-xmlenc-core1-20120313,
March 2012, March 2012,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmlenc-core1-20120313>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmlenc-core1-20120313>.
[W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210] [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210]
Eastlake, D. and J. Reagle, "XML Encryption Syntax and Eastlake, D. and J. Reagle, "XML Encryption Syntax and
Processing", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC- Processing", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-
xmlenc-core-20021210, December 2002, xmlenc-core-20021210, December 2002,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xmlenc-core-20021210>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xmlenc-core-20021210>.
skipping to change at page 20, line 18 skipping to change at page 33, line 11
| hash | | | | | | hash | | | | |
| algo | | | | | | algo | | | | |
| rithm | | | | | | rithm | | | | |
| HMAC | HS5 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/ | HmacSHA5 | 1.2.840.113 | | HMAC | HS5 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/ | HmacSHA5 | 1.2.840.113 |
| using | 12 | xmldsig-more#hmac-sha512 | 12 | 549.2.11 | | using | 12 | xmldsig-more#hmac-sha512 | 12 | 549.2.11 |
| SHA-5 | | | | | | SHA-5 | | | | |
| 12 | | | | | | 12 | | | | |
| hash | | | | | | hash | | | | |
| algo | | | | | | algo | | | | |
| rithm | | | | | | rithm | | | | |
| RSA | RS2 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/ | SHA256wi | 1.2.840.113 | | RSASS | RS2 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/ | SHA256wi | 1.2.840.113 |
| using | 56 | xmldsig-more#rsa-sha256 | thRSA | 549.1.1.11 | | A | 56 | xmldsig-more#rsa-sha256 | thRSA | 549.1.1.11 |
| SHA-2 | | | | | | usin | | | | |
| 56 | | | | | | gSHA- | | | | |
| hash | | | | | | 256 | | | | |
| algo | | | | | | has | | | | |
| rithm | | | | | | h alg | | | | |
| RSA | RS3 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/ | SHA384wi | 1.2.840.113 | | orith | | | | |
| using | 84 | xmldsig-more#rsa-sha384 | thRSA | 549.1.1.12 | | m | | | | |
| SHA-3 | | | | | | RSASS | RS3 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/ | SHA384wi | 1.2.840.113 |
| 84 | | | | | | A | 84 | xmldsig-more#rsa-sha384 | thRSA | 549.1.1.12 |
| hash | | | | | | usin | | | | |
| algo | | | | | | gSHA- | | | | |
| rithm | | | | | | 384 | | | | |
| RSA | RS5 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/ | SHA512wi | 1.2.840.113 | | has | | | | |
| using | 12 | xmldsig-more#rsa-sha512 | thRSA | 549.1.1.13 | | h alg | | | | |
| SHA-5 | | | | | | orith | | | | |
| 12 | | | | | | m | | | | |
| hash | | | | | | RSASS | RS5 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/ | SHA512wi | 1.2.840.113 |
| algo | | | | | | A | 12 | xmldsig-more#rsa-sha512 | thRSA | 549.1.1.13 |
| rithm | | | | | | usin | | | | |
| gSHA- | | | | |
| 512 | | | | |
| has | | | | |
| h alg | | | | |
| orith | | | | |
| m | | | | |
| ECDSA | ES2 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/ | SHA256wi | 1.2.840.100 | | ECDSA | ES2 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/ | SHA256wi | 1.2.840.100 |
| using | 56 | xmldsig-more#ecdsa-sha256 | thECDSA | 45.4.3.2 | | using | 56 | xmldsig-more#ecdsa-sha256 | thECDSA | 45.4.3.2 |
| P-256 | | | | | | P-256 | | | | |
| curve | | | | | | curve | | | | |
| and | | | | | | and | | | | |
| SHA-2 | | | | | | SHA-2 | | | | |
| 56 | | | | | | 56 | | | | |
| hash | | | | | | hash | | | | |
| algo | | | | | | algo | | | | |
| rithm | | | | | | rithm | | | | |
skipping to change at page 21, line 37 skipping to change at page 34, line 37
This appendix contains a table cross-referencing the "alg" This appendix contains a table cross-referencing the "alg"
(algorithm) and "enc" (encryption method) values used in this (algorithm) and "enc" (encryption method) values used in this
specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards
and software packages. See XML Encryption and software packages. See XML Encryption
[W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210], XML Encryption 1.1 [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210], XML Encryption 1.1
[W3C.CR-xmlenc-core1-20120313], and Java Cryptography Architecture [W3C.CR-xmlenc-core1-20120313], and Java Cryptography Architecture
[JCA] for more information about the names defined by those [JCA] for more information about the names defined by those
documents. documents.
+---------+-------+---------------------------+---------------------+ +----------+------+---------------------------+---------------------+
| Algorit | JWE | XML ENC | JCA | | Algorith | JWE | XML ENC | JCA |
| hm | | | | | m | | | |
+---------+-------+---------------------------+---------------------+ +----------+------+---------------------------+---------------------+
| RSA | RSA1_ | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | RSA/ECB/PKCS1Paddin | | RSAES-PK | RSA1 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | RSA/None/PKCS1Paddi |
| using | 5 | /xmlenc#rsa-1_5 | g | | CS1-V1_5 | _5 | /xmlenc#rsa-1_5 | ng |
| RSA-PKC | | | | | RSAES | RSA- | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | RSA/None/OAEPWithSH |
| S1-1.5 | | | | | using | OAEP | /xmlenc#rsa-oaep-mgf1p | A-1AndMGF1Padding |
| paddin | | | | | Optimal | | | |
| g | | | | | Asymmetr | | | |
| RSA | RSA-O | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA | | ic | | | |
| using | AEP | /xmlenc#rsa-oaep-mgf1p | -1AndMGF1Padding | | Encrypt | | | |
| Optimal | | | | | ion | | | |
| Asymmet | | | | | Paddin | | | |
| ric | | | | | g (OAEP) | | | |
| Encryp | | | | | Elliptic | ECDH | http://www.w3.org/2009/xm | |
| tion | | | | | Curve | -ES | lenc11#ECDH-ES | |
| Paddi | | | | | Diffie-H | | | |
| ng(OAEP | | | | | ellman | | | |
| ) | | | | | Ephemer | | | |
| Ellipti | ECDH- | http://www.w3.org/2009/xm | TBD | | alStatic | | | |
| cCurve | ES | lenc11#ECDH-ES | | | Advanced | A128 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | |
| Diffie | | | | | Encrypti | KW | /xmlenc#kw-aes128 | |
| -Hellma | | | | | on | | | |
| n Ephem | | | | | Standar | | | |
| eral | | | | | d(AES) | | | |
| Stat | | | | | Key Wra | | | |
| ic | | | | | pAlgorit | | | |
| Advance | A128K | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | TBD | | hmusing | | | |
| d | W | /xmlenc#kw-aes128 | | | 128 bi | | | |
| Encryp | | | | | t keys | | | |
| tion | | | | | AES Key | A256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | |
| Stand | | | | | Wrap | KW | /xmlenc#kw-aes256 | |
| ard(AES | | | | | Algorith | | | |
| ) Key | | | | | musing | | | |
| Wrap | | | | | 256 bit | | | |
| Algo | | | | | keys | | | |
| rithm R | | | | | AES in | A128 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | AES/CBC/PKCS5Paddin |
| FC 339 | | | | | Cipher | CBC | /xmlenc#aes128-cbc | g |
| 4 [RF | | | | | Block | | | |
| C3394] | | | | | Chaining | | | |
| using12 | | | | | (CBC) | | | |
| 8 bitke | | | | | mode | | | |
| ys | | | | | with | | | |
| Advance | A256K | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | TBD | | PKCS #5 | | | |
| d | W | /xmlenc#kw-aes256 | | | padding | | | |
| Encryp | | | | | using | | | |
| tion | | | | | 128 bit | | | |
| Stand | | | | | keys | | | |
| ard(AES | | | | | AES in | A256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | AES/CBC/PKCS5Paddin |
| ) Key | | | | | CBC mode | CBC | /xmlenc#aes256-cbc | g |
| Wrap | | | | | with | | | |
| Algo | | | | | PKCS #5 | | | |
| rithm R | | | | | padding | | | |
| FC 339 | | | | | using | | | |
| 4 [RF | | | | | 256 bit | | | |
| C3394] | | | | | keys | | | |
| using25 | | | | | AES in | A128 | http://www.w3.org/2009/xm | AES/GCM/NoPadding |
| 6 bitke | | | | | Galois/C | GCM | lenc11#aes128-gcm | |
| ys | | | | | ounter | | | |
| Advance | A128C | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | AES/CBC/PKCS5Paddin | | Mode | | | |
| d | BC | /xmlenc#aes128-cbc | g | | (GCM) | | | |
| Encryp | | | | | using | | | |
| tion | | | | | 128 bit | | | |
| Stand | | | | | keys | | | |
| ard(AES | | | | | AES GCM | A256 | http://www.w3.org/2009/xm | AES/GCM/NoPadding |
| ) usin | | | | | using | GCM | lenc11#aes256-gcm | |
| g 128 | | | | | 256 bit | | | |
| bitkeys | | | | | keys | | | |
| inCiph | | | | +----------+------+---------------------------+---------------------+
| er Bloc | | | |
| k Chai | | | |
| ning(CB | | | |
| C) mod | | | |
| e usi | | | |
| ng PKC | | | |
| S #5pad | | | |
| ding | | | |
| Advance | A256C | http://www.w3.org/2001/04 | AES/CBC/PKCS5Paddin |
| d | BC | /xmlenc#aes256-cbc | g |
| Encryp | | | |
| tion | | | |
| Stand | | | |
| ard(AES | | | |
| ) usin | | | |
| g 256 | | | |
| bitkeys | | | |
| inCiph | | | |
| er Bloc | | | |
| k Chai | | | |
| ning(CB | | | |
| C) mod | | | |
| e usi | | | |
| ng PKC | | | |
| S #5pad | | | |
| ding | | | |
| Advance | A128G | http://www.w3.org/2009/xm | AES/GCM/NoPadding |
| d | CM | lenc11#aes128-gcm | |
| Encryp | | | |
| tion | | | |
| Stand | | | |
| ard(AES | | | |
| ) usin | | | |
| g 128 | | | |
| bitkeys | | | |
| inGalo | | | |
| is/Coun | | | |
| ter Mod | | | |
| e (GC | | | |
| M) | | | |
| Advance | A256G | http://www.w3.org/2009/xm | AES/GCM/NoPadding |
| d | CM | lenc11#aes256-gcm | |
| Encryp | | | |
| tion | | | |
| Stand | | | |
| ard(AES | | | |
| ) usin | | | |
| g 256 | | | |
| bitkeys | | | |
| inGalo | | | |
| is/Coun | | | |
| ter Mod | | | |
| e (GC | | | |
| M) | | | |
+---------+-------+---------------------------+---------------------+
Appendix C. Acknowledgements Appendix C. Acknowledgements
Solutions for signing and encrypting JSON content were previously Solutions for signing and encrypting JSON content were previously
explored by Magic Signatures [MagicSignatures], JSON Simple Sign explored by Magic Signatures [MagicSignatures], JSON Simple Sign
[JSS], Canvas Applications [CanvasApp], JSON Simple Encryption [JSE], [JSS], Canvas Applications [CanvasApp], JSON Simple Encryption [JSE],
and JavaScript Message Security Format [I-D.rescorla-jsms], all of and JavaScript Message Security Format [I-D.rescorla-jsms], all of
which influenced this draft. Dirk Balfanz, John Bradley, Yaron Y. which influenced this draft. Dirk Balfanz, John Bradley, Yaron Y.
Goland, John Panzer, Nat Sakimura, and Paul Tarjan all made Goland, John Panzer, Nat Sakimura, and Paul Tarjan all made
significant contributions to the design of this specification and its significant contributions to the design of this specification and its
related specifications. related specifications.
Appendix D. Document History Appendix D. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-03
o Always use a 128 bit "authentication tag" size for AES GCM,
regardless of the key size.
o Specified that use of a 128 bit IV is REQUIRED with AES CBC. It
was previously RECOMMENDED.
o Removed key size language for ECDSA algorithms, since the key size
is implied by the algorithm being used.
o Stated that the "int" key size must be the same as the hash output
size (and not larger, as was previously allowed) so that its size
is defined for key generation purposes.
o Added the "kdf" (key derivation function) header parameter to
provide crypto agility for key derivation. The default KDF
remains the Concat KDF with the SHA-256 digest function.
o Clarified that the "mod" and "exp" values are unsigned.
o Added Implementation Requirements columns to algorithm tables and
Implementation Requirements entries to algorithm registries.
o Changed AES Key Wrap to RECOMMENDED.
o Moved registries JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header
Parameters and JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values to
the JWS specification.
o Moved JSON Web Key Parameters registry to the JWK specification.
o Changed registration requirements from RFC Required to
Specification Required with Expert Review.
o Added Registration Template sections for defined registries.
o Added Registry Contents sections to populate registry values.
o No longer say "the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input
(which is the same as the ASCII representation)". Just call it
"the ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input".
o Added "Collision Resistant Namespace" to the terminology section.
o Numerous editorial improvements.
-02 -02
o For AES GCM, use the "additional authenticated data" parameter to o For AES GCM, use the "additional authenticated data" parameter to
provide integrity for the header, encrypted key, and ciphertext provide integrity for the header, encrypted key, and ciphertext
and use the resulting "authentication tag" value as the JWE and use the resulting "authentication tag" value as the JWE
Integrity Value. Integrity Value.
o Defined minimum required key sizes for algorithms without o Defined minimum required key sizes for algorithms without
specified key sizes. specified key sizes.
 End of changes. 113 change blocks. 
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