draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms-34.txt   draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms-35.txt 
JOSE Working Group M. Jones JOSE Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track October 14, 2014 Intended status: Standards Track October 17, 2014
Expires: April 17, 2015 Expires: April 20, 2015
JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms-34 draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms-35
Abstract Abstract
The JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification registers cryptographic The JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification registers cryptographic
algorithms and identifiers to be used with the JSON Web Signature algorithms and identifiers to be used with the JSON Web Signature
(JWS), JSON Web Encryption (JWE), and JSON Web Key (JWK) (JWS), JSON Web Encryption (JWE), and JSON Web Key (JWK)
specifications. It defines several IANA registries for these specifications. It defines several IANA registries for these
identifiers. identifiers.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 17, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 20, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Cryptographic Algorithms for Digital Signatures and MACs . . . 6 3. Cryptographic Algorithms for Digital Signatures and MACs . . . 6
3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS . . . . 6 3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS . . . . 6
3.2. HMAC with SHA-2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. HMAC with SHA-2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 . . . . . . . . . 8
3.4. Digital Signature with ECDSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4. Digital Signature with ECDSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.5. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.5. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.6. Using the Algorithm "none" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.6. Using the Algorithm "none" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4. Cryptographic Algorithms for Key Management . . . . . . . . . 12 4. Cryptographic Algorithms for Key Management . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE . . . . 12 4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE . . . . 12
4.2. Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2. Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.3. Key Encryption with RSAES OAEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.3. Key Encryption with RSAES OAEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.4. Key Wrapping with AES Key Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.4. Key Wrapping with AES Key Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.5. Direct Encryption with a Shared Symmetric Key . . . . . . 15 4.5. Direct Encryption with a Shared Symmetric Key . . . . . . 15
4.6. Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman 4.6. Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman
Ephemeral Static (ECDH-ES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Ephemeral Static (ECDH-ES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.6.1. Header Parameters Used for ECDH Key Agreement . . . . 16 4.6.1. Header Parameters Used for ECDH Key Agreement . . . . 16
4.6.1.1. "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) Header Parameter . . 17 4.6.1.1. "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) Header Parameter . . 16
4.6.1.2. "apu" (Agreement PartyUInfo) Header Parameter . . 17 4.6.1.2. "apu" (Agreement PartyUInfo) Header Parameter . . 17
4.6.1.3. "apv" (Agreement PartyVInfo) Header Parameter . . 17 4.6.1.3. "apv" (Agreement PartyVInfo) Header Parameter . . 17
4.6.2. Key Derivation for ECDH Key Agreement . . . . . . . . 17 4.6.2. Key Derivation for ECDH Key Agreement . . . . . . . . 17
4.7. Key Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.7. Key Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.7.1. Header Parameters Used for AES GCM Key Encryption . . 19 4.7.1. Header Parameters Used for AES GCM Key Encryption . . 19
4.7.1.1. "iv" (Initialization Vector) Header Parameter . . 19 4.7.1.1. "iv" (Initialization Vector) Header Parameter . . 19
4.7.1.2. "tag" (Authentication Tag) Header Parameter . . . 20 4.7.1.2. "tag" (Authentication Tag) Header Parameter . . . 20
4.8. Key Encryption with PBES2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.8. Key Encryption with PBES2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.8.1. Header Parameters Used for PBES2 Key Encryption . . . 21 4.8.1. Header Parameters Used for PBES2 Key Encryption . . . 21
4.8.1.1. "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Parameter . . . . . . . . 21 4.8.1.1. "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Parameter . . . . . . . . 21
4.8.1.2. "p2c" (PBES2 count) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.8.1.2. "p2c" (PBES2 count) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 21
5. Cryptographic Algorithms for Content Encryption . . . . . . . 21 5. Cryptographic Algorithms for Content Encryption . . . . . . . 21
5.1. "enc" (Encryption Algorithm) Header Parameter Values 5.1. "enc" (Encryption Algorithm) Header Parameter Values
for JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 for JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.2.1. Conventions Used in Defining AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 . . . . 23 5.2.1. Conventions Used in Defining AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 . . . . 23
5.2.2. Generic AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithm . . . . . . . . . 23 5.2.2. Generic AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithm . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.2.1. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.2.2.1. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.2.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Decryption . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.2.2.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Decryption . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.2.3. AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.2.3. AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2.4. AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.2.4. AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.2.5. AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.2.5. AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.2.6. Content Encryption with AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 . . . . . . 26 5.2.6. Content Encryption with AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 . . . . . . 26
5.3. Content Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.3. Content Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6. Cryptographic Algorithms for Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6. Cryptographic Algorithms for Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter Values . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter Values . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.2.1. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Public Keys . . . . . . 28 6.2.1. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Public Keys . . . . . . 28
6.2.1.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.2.1.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.2.1.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.2.1.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.2.1.3. "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.2.1.3. "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.2.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Private Keys . . . . . . 29 6.2.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Private Keys . . . . . . 29
6.2.2.1. "d" (ECC Private Key) Parameter . . . . . . . . . 29 6.2.2.1. "d" (ECC Private Key) Parameter . . . . . . . . . 29
6.3. Parameters for RSA Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3. Parameters for RSA Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.1. Parameters for RSA Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3.1. Parameters for RSA Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.1.1. "n" (Modulus) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3.1.1. "n" (Modulus) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.1.2. "e" (Exponent) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3.1.2. "e" (Exponent) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.2. Parameters for RSA Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3.2. Parameters for RSA Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.2.1. "d" (Private Exponent) Parameter . . . . . . . . . 31 6.3.2.1. "d" (Private Exponent) Parameter . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.2.2. "p" (First Prime Factor) Parameter . . . . . . . . 31 6.3.2.2. "p" (First Prime Factor) Parameter . . . . . . . . 31
6.3.2.3. "q" (Second Prime Factor) Parameter . . . . . . . 31 6.3.2.3. "q" (Second Prime Factor) Parameter . . . . . . . 31
6.3.2.4. "dp" (First Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter . . . . 31 6.3.2.4. "dp" (First Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter . . . . 31
6.3.2.5. "dq" (Second Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter . . . 31 6.3.2.5. "dq" (Second Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter . . . 31
6.3.2.6. "qi" (First CRT Coefficient) Parameter . . . . . . 31 6.3.2.6. "qi" (First CRT Coefficient) Parameter . . . . . . 31
6.3.2.7. "oth" (Other Primes Info) Parameter . . . . . . . 32 6.3.2.7. "oth" (Other Primes Info) Parameter . . . . . . . 31
6.4. Parameters for Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.4. Parameters for Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.4.1. "k" (Key Value) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.4.1. "k" (Key Value) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry . . 34 7.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry . . 33
7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.2. Header Parameter Names Registration . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7.2. Header Parameter Names Registration . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.2.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7.2.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.3. JSON Web Encryption Compression Algorithms Registry . . . 42 7.3. JSON Web Encryption Compression Algorithms Registry . . . 42
7.3.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 7.3.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.4. JSON Web Key Types Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 7.4. JSON Web Key Types Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.4.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 7.4.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.4.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 7.4.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.5. JSON Web Key Parameters Registration . . . . . . . . . . . 45 7.5. JSON Web Key Parameters Registration . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.5.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 7.5.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.6. JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 47 7.6. JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.6.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 7.6.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.6.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 7.6.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
8.1. Cryptographic Agility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 8.1. Cryptographic Agility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
8.2. Key Lifetimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 8.2. Key Lifetimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
8.3. RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . 49 8.3. RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . 49
8.4. AES GCM Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 8.4. AES GCM Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
8.5. Unsecured JWS Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 50 8.5. Unsecured JWS Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 49
8.6. Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 8.6. Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
8.7. Reusing Key Material when Encrypting Keys . . . . . . . . 51 8.7. Reusing Key Material when Encrypting Keys . . . . . . . . 50
8.8. Password Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 8.8. Password Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
8.9. Key Entropy and Random Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 8.9. Key Entropy and Random Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
8.10. Differences between Digital Signatures and MACs . . . . . 52 8.10. Differences between Digital Signatures and MACs . . . . . 51
8.11. Using Matching Algorithm Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 8.11. Using Matching Algorithm Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
8.12. Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 8.12. Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
8.13. Timing Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 8.13. Timing Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
8.14. RSA Private Key Representations and Blinding . . . . . . . 52 8.14. RSA Private Key Representations and Blinding . . . . . . . 52
9. Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 9. Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Appendix A. Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . . . . . . 56 Appendix A. Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . . . . . . 56
A.1. Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier A.1. Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier
Cross-Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Cross-Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
A.2. Key Management Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . 57 A.2. Key Management Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . 57
A.3. Content Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . 58 A.3. Content Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . 58
Appendix B. Test Cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms . . . . . 59 Appendix B. Test Cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms . . . . . 59
B.1. Test Cases for AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 . . . . . . . . . 60 B.1. Test Cases for AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 . . . . . . . . . 60
B.2. Test Cases for AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 . . . . . . . . . 61 B.2. Test Cases for AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 . . . . . . . . . 61
B.3. Test Cases for AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 . . . . . . . . . 62 B.3. Test Cases for AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 . . . . . . . . . 62
Appendix C. Example ECDH-ES Key Agreement Computation . . . . . . 63 Appendix C. Example ECDH-ES Key Agreement Computation . . . . . . 63
Appendix D. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Appendix D. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Appendix E. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Appendix E. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
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words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119]. If words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119]. If
these words are used without being spelled in uppercase then they are these words are used without being spelled in uppercase then they are
to be interpreted with their normal natural language meanings. to be interpreted with their normal natural language meanings.
BASE64URL(OCTETS) denotes the base64url encoding of OCTETS, per BASE64URL(OCTETS) denotes the base64url encoding of OCTETS, per
Section 2 of [JWS]. Section 2 of [JWS].
UTF8(STRING) denotes the octets of the UTF-8 [RFC3629] representation UTF8(STRING) denotes the octets of the UTF-8 [RFC3629] representation
of STRING. of STRING.
ASCII(STRING) denotes the octets of the ASCII [USASCII] ASCII(STRING) denotes the octets of the ASCII [RFC20] representation
representation of STRING. of STRING.
The concatenation of two values A and B is denoted as A || B. The concatenation of two values A and B is denoted as A || B.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
These terms defined by the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS] These terms defined by the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS]
specification are incorporated into this specification: "JSON Web specification are incorporated into this specification: "JSON Web
Signature (JWS)", "Base64url Encoding", "Header Parameter", "JOSE Signature (JWS)", "Base64url Encoding", "Header Parameter", "JOSE
Header", "JWS Payload", "JWS Protected Header", "JWS Signature", "JWS Header", "JWS Payload", "JWS Protected Header", "JWS Signature", "JWS
Signing Input", and "Unsecured JWS". Signing Input", and "Unsecured JWS".
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Encryption", "Direct Key Agreement", "JWE Authentication Tag", "JWE Encryption", "Direct Key Agreement", "JWE Authentication Tag", "JWE
Ciphertext", "JWE Encrypted Key", "JWE Initialization Vector", "JWE Ciphertext", "JWE Encrypted Key", "JWE Initialization Vector", "JWE
Protected Header", "Key Agreement with Key Wrapping", "Key Protected Header", "Key Agreement with Key Wrapping", "Key
Encryption", "Key Management Mode", and "Key Wrapping". Encryption", "Key Management Mode", and "Key Wrapping".
These terms defined by the JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] specification are These terms defined by the JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] specification are
incorporated into this specification: "JSON Web Key (JWK)" and "JSON incorporated into this specification: "JSON Web Key (JWK)" and "JSON
Web Key Set (JWK Set)". Web Key Set (JWK Set)".
These terms defined by the Internet Security Glossary, Version 2 These terms defined by the Internet Security Glossary, Version 2
[RFC4949] are incorporated into this specification: "Ciphertext" and [RFC4949] are incorporated into this specification: "Ciphertext",
"Digital Signature", "Message Authentication Code (MAC)", and
"Plaintext". "Plaintext".
This term is defined by this specification:
Base64urlUInt
The representation of a positive or zero integer value as the
base64url encoding of the value's unsigned big endian
representation as an octet sequence. The octet sequence MUST
utilize the minimum number of octets needed to represent the
value. Zero is represented as BASE64URL(single zero-valued
octet), which is "AA".
3. Cryptographic Algorithms for Digital Signatures and MACs 3. Cryptographic Algorithms for Digital Signatures and MACs
JWS uses cryptographic algorithms to digitally sign or create a JWS uses cryptographic algorithms to digitally sign or create a
Message Authentication Code (MAC) of the contents of the JWS Message Authentication Code (MAC) of the contents of the JWS
Protected Header and the JWS Payload. Protected Header and the JWS Payload.
3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS 3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS
The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) header parameter The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) header parameter
values defined by this specification for use with JWS, each of which values defined by this specification for use with JWS, each of which
is explained in more detail in the following sections: is explained in more detail in the following sections:
+---------------+------------------------------+--------------------+ +--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+
| alg Parameter | Digital Signature or MAC | Implementation | | alg Param | Digital Signature or MAC | Implementation |
| Value | Algorithm | Requirements | | Value | Algorithm | Requirements |
+---------------+------------------------------+--------------------+ +--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+
| HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 | Required | | HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 | Required |
| HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 | Optional | | HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 | Optional |
| HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 | Optional | | HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 | Optional |
| RS256 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using | Recommended | | RS256 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-256 | Recommended |
| | SHA-256 | | | RS384 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-384 | Optional |
| RS384 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using | Optional | | RS512 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-512 | Optional |
| | SHA-384 | | | ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 | Recommended+ |
| RS512 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using | Optional | | ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 | Optional |
| | SHA-512 | | | ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 | Optional |
| ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 and | Recommended+ | | PS256 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 | Optional |
| | SHA-256 | | | | with SHA-256 | |
| ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 and | Optional | | PS384 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 | Optional |
| | SHA-384 | | | | with SHA-384 | |
| ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 and | Optional | | PS512 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 | Optional |
| | SHA-512 | | | | with SHA-512 | |
| PS256 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and | Optional | | none | No digital signature or MAC | Optional |
| | MGF1 with SHA-256 | | | | performed | |
| PS384 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and | Optional | +--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+
| | MGF1 with SHA-384 | |
| PS512 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and | Optional |
| | MGF1 with SHA-512 | |
| none | No digital signature or MAC | Optional |
| | performed | |
+---------------+------------------------------+--------------------+
The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the
requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of
the specification. the specification.
See Appendix A.1 for a table cross-referencing the JWS digital See Appendix A.1 for a table cross-referencing the JWS digital
signature and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values defined in this signature and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values defined in this
specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards
and software packages. and software packages.
skipping to change at page 7, line 42 skipping to change at page 8, line 4
whoever generated the MAC was in possession of the MAC key. The whoever generated the MAC was in possession of the MAC key. The
algorithm for implementing and validating HMACs is provided in RFC algorithm for implementing and validating HMACs is provided in RFC
2104 [RFC2104]. 2104 [RFC2104].
A key of the same size as the hash output (for instance, 256 bits for A key of the same size as the hash output (for instance, 256 bits for
"HS256") or larger MUST be used with this algorithm. (This "HS256") or larger MUST be used with this algorithm. (This
requirement is based on Section 5.3.4 (Security Effect of the HMAC requirement is based on Section 5.3.4 (Security Effect of the HMAC
Key) of NIST SP 800-117 [NIST.800-107], which states that the Key) of NIST SP 800-117 [NIST.800-107], which states that the
effective security strength is the minimum of the security strength effective security strength is the minimum of the security strength
of the key and two times the size of the internal hash value.) of the key and two times the size of the internal hash value.)
The HMAC SHA-256 MAC is generated per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the The HMAC SHA-256 MAC is generated per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the
hash algorithm "H", using the JWS Signing Input as the "text" value, hash algorithm "H", using the JWS Signing Input as the "text" value,
and using the shared key. The HMAC output value is the JWS and using the shared key. The HMAC output value is the JWS
Signature. Signature.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWS Signature is an HMAC value computed using the indicate that the JWS Signature is an HMAC value computed using the
corresponding algorithm: corresponding algorithm:
+---------------------+--------------------+ +-----------------+--------------------+
| alg Parameter Value | MAC Algorithm | | alg Param Value | MAC Algorithm |
+---------------------+--------------------+ +-----------------+--------------------+
| HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 | | HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 |
| HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 | | HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 |
| HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 | | HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 |
+---------------------+--------------------+ +-----------------+--------------------+
The HMAC SHA-256 MAC for a JWS is validated by computing an HMAC The HMAC SHA-256 MAC for a JWS is validated by computing an HMAC
value per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the hash algorithm "H", using value per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the hash algorithm "H", using
the received JWS Signing Input as the "text" value, and using the the received JWS Signing Input as the "text" value, and using the
shared key. This computed HMAC value is then compared to the result shared key. This computed HMAC value is then compared to the result
of base64url decoding the received encoded JWS Signature value. The of base64url decoding the received encoded JWS Signature value. The
comparison of the computed HMAC value to the JWS Signature value MUST comparison of the computed HMAC value to the JWS Signature value MUST
be done in a constant-time manner to thwart timing attacks. be done in a constant-time manner to thwart timing attacks.
Alternatively, the computed HMAC value can be base64url encoded and Alternatively, the computed HMAC value can be base64url encoded and
compared to the received encoded JWS Signature value (also in a compared to the received encoded JWS Signature value (also in a
skipping to change at page 9, line 5 skipping to change at page 9, line 11
The RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-256 digital signature is generated as The RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-256 digital signature is generated as
follows: Generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using follows: Generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using
RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5-SIGN and the SHA-256 hash function with the desired RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5-SIGN and the SHA-256 hash function with the desired
private key. This is the JWS Signature value. private key. This is the JWS Signature value.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed
using the corresponding algorithm: using the corresponding algorithm:
+---------------------+--------------------------------+ +-----------------+--------------------------------+
| alg Parameter Value | Digital Signature Algorithm | | alg Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm |
+---------------------+--------------------------------+ +-----------------+--------------------------------+
| RS256 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-256 | | RS256 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-256 |
| RS384 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-384 | | RS384 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-384 |
| RS512 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-512 | | RS512 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-512 |
+---------------------+--------------------------------+ +-----------------+--------------------------------+
The RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is The RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is
validated as follows: Submit the JWS Signing Input, the JWS validated as follows: Submit the JWS Signing Input, the JWS
Signature, and the public key corresponding to the private key used Signature, and the public key corresponding to the private key used
by the signer to the RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256 by the signer to the RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256
as the hash function. as the hash function.
Signing and validation with the RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-384 and RSASSA- Signing and validation with the RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-384 and RSASSA-
PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the
procedure for RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-256 -- just using the procedure for RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-256 -- just using the
skipping to change at page 10, line 15 skipping to change at page 10, line 20
3. Concatenate the two octet sequences in the order R and then S. 3. Concatenate the two octet sequences in the order R and then S.
(Note that many ECDSA implementations will directly produce this (Note that many ECDSA implementations will directly produce this
concatenation as their output.) concatenation as their output.)
4. The resulting 64 octet sequence is the JWS Signature value. 4. The resulting 64 octet sequence is the JWS Signature value.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed
using the corresponding algorithm: using the corresponding algorithm:
+---------------------+-------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------------+
| alg Parameter Value | Digital Signature Algorithm | | alg Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm |
+---------------------+-------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------------+
| ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 | | ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 |
| ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 | | ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 |
| ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 | | ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 |
+---------------------+-------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------------+
The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as
follows: follows:
1. The JWS Signature value MUST be a 64 octet sequence. If it is 1. The JWS Signature value MUST be a 64 octet sequence. If it is
not a 64 octet sequence, the validation has failed. not a 64 octet sequence, the validation has failed.
2. Split the 64 octet sequence into two 32 octet sequences. The 2. Split the 64 octet sequence into two 32 octet sequences. The
first octet sequence represents R and the second S. The values R first octet sequence represents R and the second S. The values R
and S are represented as octet sequences using the Integer-to- and S are represented as octet sequences using the Integer-to-
skipping to change at page 11, line 27 skipping to change at page 11, line 31
The RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows: The RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows:
Generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using RSASSA- Generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using RSASSA-
PSS-SIGN, the SHA-256 hash function, and the MGF1 mask generation PSS-SIGN, the SHA-256 hash function, and the MGF1 mask generation
function with SHA-256 with the desired private key. This is the JWS function with SHA-256 with the desired private key. This is the JWS
signature value. signature value.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed
using the corresponding algorithm: using the corresponding algorithm:
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+------------------------------------------------+
| alg Parameter Value | Digital Signature Algorithm | | alg Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm |
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+------------------------------------------------+
| PS256 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 with | | PS256 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 with SHA-256 |
| | SHA-256 | | PS384 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 with SHA-384 |
| PS384 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 with | | PS512 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 with SHA-512 |
| | SHA-384 | +-----------------+------------------------------------------------+
| PS512 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 with |
| | SHA-512 |
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+
The RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as The RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as
follows: Submit the JWS Signing Input, the JWS Signature, and the follows: Submit the JWS Signing Input, the JWS Signature, and the
public key corresponding to the private key used by the signer to the public key corresponding to the private key used by the signer to the
RSASSA-PSS-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256 as the hash function and RSASSA-PSS-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256 as the hash function and
using MGF1 as the mask generation function with SHA-256. using MGF1 as the mask generation function with SHA-256.
Signing and validation with the RSASSA-PSS SHA-384 and RSASSA-PSS Signing and validation with the RSASSA-PSS SHA-384 and RSASSA-PSS
SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for
RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 -- just using the alternative hash algorithm in RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 -- just using the alternative hash algorithm in
skipping to change at page 12, line 22 skipping to change at page 12, line 27
JWE uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt or determine the Content JWE uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt or determine the Content
Encryption Key (CEK). Encryption Key (CEK).
4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE 4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE
The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter
values that are defined by this specification for use with JWE. values that are defined by this specification for use with JWE.
These algorithms are used to encrypt the CEK, producing the JWE These algorithms are used to encrypt the CEK, producing the JWE
Encrypted Key, or to use key agreement to agree upon the CEK. Encrypted Key, or to use key agreement to agree upon the CEK.
+-------------------+-----------------+------------+----------------+ +--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
| alg Parameter | Key Management | Additional | Implementation | | alg Param Value | Key Management | More | Implementation |
| Value | Algorithm | Header | Requirements | | | Algorithm | Header | Requirements |
| | | Parameters | | | | | Params | |
+-------------------+-----------------+------------+----------------+ +--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
| RSA1_5 | RSAES-PKCS1-V1_ | (none) | Recommended- | | RSA1_5 | RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 | (none) | Recommended- |
| | 5 | | | | RSA-OAEP | RSAES OAEP using | (none) | Recommended+ |
| RSA-OAEP | RSAES OAEP | (none) | Recommended+ | | | default parameters | | |
| | using default | | | | RSA-OAEP-256 | RSAES OAEP using | (none) | Optional |
| | parameters | | | | | SHA-256 and MGF1 | | |
| RSA-OAEP-256 | RSAES OAEP | (none) | Optional | | | with SHA-256 | | |
| | using SHA-256 | | | | A128KW | AES Key Wrap with | (none) | Recommended |
| | and MGF1 with | | | | | default initial | | |
| | SHA-256 | | | | | value using 128 | | |
| A128KW | AES Key Wrap | (none) | Recommended | | | bit key | | |
| | with default | | | | A192KW | AES Key Wrap with | (none) | Optional |
| | initial value | | | | | default initial | | |
| | using 128 bit | | | | | value using 192 | | |
| | key | | | | | bit key | | |
| A192KW | AES Key Wrap | (none) | Optional | | A256KW | AES Key Wrap with | (none) | Recommended |
| | with default | | | | | default initial | | |
| | initial value | | | | | value using 256 | | |
| | using 192 bit | | | | | bit key | | |
| | key | | | | dir | Direct use of a | (none) | Recommended |
| A256KW | AES Key Wrap | (none) | Recommended | | | shared symmetric | | |
| | with default | | | | | key as the CEK | | |
| | initial value | | | | ECDH-ES | Elliptic Curve | "epk", | Recommended+ |
| | using 256 bit | | | | | Diffie-Hellman | "apu", | |
| | key | | | | | Ephemeral Static | "apv" | |
| dir | Direct use of a | (none) | Recommended | | | key agreement | | |
| | shared | | | | | using Concat KDF | | |
| | symmetric key | | | | ECDH-ES+A128KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Recommended |
| | as the CEK | | | | | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", | |
| ECDH-ES | Elliptic Curve | "epk", | Recommended+ | | | wrapped with | "apv" | |
| | Diffie-Hellman | "apu", | | | | "A128KW" | | |
| | Ephemeral | "apv" | | | ECDH-ES+A192KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Optional |
| | Static key | | | | | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", | |
| | agreement using | | | | | wrapped with | "apv" | |
| | Concat KDF | | | | | "A192KW" | | |
| ECDH-ES+A128KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Recommended | | ECDH-ES+A256KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Recommended |
| | Concat KDF and | "apu", | | | | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", | |
| | CEK wrapped | "apv" | | | | wrapped with | "apv" | |
| | with "A128KW" | | | | | "A256KW" | | |
| ECDH-ES+A192KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Optional | | A128GCMKW | Key wrapping with | "iv", | Optional |
| | Concat KDF and | "apu", | | | | AES GCM using 128 | "tag" | |
| | CEK wrapped | "apv" | | | | bit key | | |
| | with "A192KW" | | | | A192GCMKW | Key wrapping with | "iv", | Optional |
| ECDH-ES+A256KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Recommended | | | AES GCM using 192 | "tag" | |
| | Concat KDF and | "apu", | | | | bit key | | |
| | CEK wrapped | "apv" | | | A256GCMKW | Key wrapping with | "iv", | Optional |
| | with "A256KW" | | | | | AES GCM using 256 | "tag" | |
| A128GCMKW | Key wrapping | "iv", | Optional | | | bit key | | |
| | with AES GCM | "tag" | | | PBES2-HS256+A128KW | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional |
| | using 128 bit | | | | | SHA-256 and | "p2c" | |
| | key | | | | | "A128KW" wrapping | | |
| A192GCMKW | Key wrapping | "iv", | Optional | | PBES2-HS384+A192KW | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional |
| | with AES GCM | "tag" | | | | SHA-384 and | "p2c" | |
| | using 192 bit | | | | | "A192KW" wrapping | | |
| | key | | | | PBES2-HS512+A256KW | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional |
| A256GCMKW | Key wrapping | "iv", | Optional | | | SHA-512 and | "p2c" | |
| | with AES GCM | "tag" | | | | "A256KW" wrapping | | |
| | using 256 bit | | | +--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
| | key | | |
| PBES2-HS256+A128K | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional | The More Header Params column indicates what additional Header
| W | SHA-256 and | "p2c" | | Parameters are used by the algorithm, beyond "alg", which all use.
| | "A128KW" | | | All but "dir" and "ECDH-ES" also produce a JWE Encrypted Key value.
| | wrapping | | |
| PBES2-HS384+A192K | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional |
| W | SHA-384 and | "p2c" | |
| | "A192KW" | | |
| | wrapping | | |
| PBES2-HS512+A256K | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional |
| W | SHA-512 and | "p2c" | |
| | "A256KW" | | |
| | wrapping | | |
+-------------------+-----------------+------------+----------------+
The Additional Header Parameters column indicates what additional
Header Parameters are used by the algorithm, beyond "alg", which all
use. All but "dir" and "ECDH-ES" also produce a JWE Encrypted Key
value.
The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the
requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of
the specification. the specification.
See Appendix A.2 for a table cross-referencing the JWE "alg" See Appendix A.2 for a table cross-referencing the JWE "alg"
(algorithm) values defined in this specification with the equivalent (algorithm) values defined in this specification with the equivalent
identifiers used by other standards and software packages. identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
4.2. Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 4.2. Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5
skipping to change at page 14, line 42 skipping to change at page 14, line 34
hash functions. In the first case, the default parameters specified hash functions. In the first case, the default parameters specified
by RFC 3447 in Section A.2.1 are used. (Those default parameters are by RFC 3447 in Section A.2.1 are used. (Those default parameters are
the SHA-1 hash function and the MGF1 with SHA-1 mask generation the SHA-1 hash function and the MGF1 with SHA-1 mask generation
function.) In the second case, the SHA-256 hash function and the function.) In the second case, the SHA-256 hash function and the
MGF1 with SHA-256 mask generation function are used. MGF1 with SHA-256 mask generation function are used.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
CEK using the corresponding algorithm: CEK using the corresponding algorithm:
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+------------------------------------------------+
| alg Parameter Value | Key Management Algorithm | | alg Param Value | Key Management Algorithm |
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+------------------------------------------------+
| RSA-OAEP | RSAES OAEP using default parameters | | RSA-OAEP | RSAES OAEP using default parameters |
| RSA-OAEP-256 | RSAES OAEP using SHA-256 and MGF1 with | | RSA-OAEP-256 | RSAES OAEP using SHA-256 and MGF1 with SHA-256 |
| | SHA-256 | +-----------------+------------------------------------------------+
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+
A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms. A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms.
(This requirement is based on Table 4 (Security-strength time frames) (This requirement is based on Table 4 (Security-strength time frames)
of NIST SP 800-57 [NIST.800-57], which requires 112 bits of security of NIST SP 800-57 [NIST.800-57], which requires 112 bits of security
for new uses, and Table 2 (Comparable strengths) of the same, which for new uses, and Table 2 (Comparable strengths) of the same, which
states that 2048 bit RSA keys provide 112 bits of security.) states that 2048 bit RSA keys provide 112 bits of security.)
An example using RSAES OAEP with the default parameters is shown in An example using RSAES OAEP with the default parameters is shown in
Appendix A.1 of [JWE]. Appendix A.1 of [JWE].
4.4. Key Wrapping with AES Key Wrap 4.4. Key Wrapping with AES Key Wrap
This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with the This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with the
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm [RFC3394] using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm [RFC3394] using
the default initial value specified in Section 2.2.3.1. the default initial value specified in Section 2.2.3.1.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
CEK using the corresponding algorithm and key size: CEK using the corresponding algorithm and key size:
+------------------+------------------------------------------------+ +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
| alg Parameter | Key Management Algorithm | | alg Param | Key Management Algorithm |
| Value | | | Value | |
+------------------+------------------------------------------------+ +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
| A128KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using | | A128KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using 128 |
| | 128 bit key | | | bit key |
| A192KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using | | A192KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using 192 |
| | 192 bit key | | | bit key |
| A256KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using | | A256KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using 256 |
| | 256 bit key | | | bit key |
+------------------+------------------------------------------------+ +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.3 of [JWE]. An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.3 of [JWE].
4.5. Direct Encryption with a Shared Symmetric Key 4.5. Direct Encryption with a Shared Symmetric Key
This section defines the specifics of directly performing symmetric This section defines the specifics of directly performing symmetric
key encryption without performing a key wrapping step. In this case, key encryption without performing a key wrapping step. In this case,
the shared symmetric key is used directly as the Content Encryption the shared symmetric key is used directly as the Content Encryption
Key (CEK) value for the "enc" algorithm. An empty octet sequence is Key (CEK) value for the "enc" algorithm. An empty octet sequence is
used as the JWE Encrypted Key value. The "alg" Header Parameter used as the JWE Encrypted Key value. The "alg" Header Parameter
skipping to change at page 16, line 34 skipping to change at page 16, line 28
In Key Agreement with Key Wrapping mode, the output of the Concat KDF In Key Agreement with Key Wrapping mode, the output of the Concat KDF
MUST be a key of the length needed for the specified key wrapping MUST be a key of the length needed for the specified key wrapping
algorithm. In this case, the JWE Encrypted Key is the CEK wrapped algorithm. In this case, the JWE Encrypted Key is the CEK wrapped
with the agreed upon key. with the agreed upon key.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
CEK using the result of the key agreement algorithm as the key CEK using the result of the key agreement algorithm as the key
encryption key for the corresponding key wrapping algorithm: encryption key for the corresponding key wrapping algorithm:
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ +----------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| alg Parameter | Key Management Algorithm | | alg Param | Key Management Algorithm |
| Value | | | Value | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ +----------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| ECDH-ES+A128KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with | | ECDH-ES+A128KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with |
| | "A128KW" | | | "A128KW" |
| ECDH-ES+A192KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with | | ECDH-ES+A192KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with |
| | "A192KW" | | | "A192KW" |
| ECDH-ES+A256KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with | | ECDH-ES+A256KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with |
| | "A256KW" | | | "A256KW" |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ +----------------+--------------------------------------------------+
4.6.1. Header Parameters Used for ECDH Key Agreement 4.6.1. Header Parameters Used for ECDH Key Agreement
The following Header Parameter names are used for key agreement as The following Header Parameter names are used for key agreement as
defined below. defined below.
4.6.1.1. "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) Header Parameter 4.6.1.1. "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) Header Parameter
The "epk" (ephemeral public key) value created by the originator for The "epk" (ephemeral public key) value created by the originator for
the use in key agreement algorithms. This key is represented as a the use in key agreement algorithms. This key is represented as a
skipping to change at page 19, line 34 skipping to change at page 19, line 31
The JWE Encrypted Key value is the Ciphertext output. The JWE Encrypted Key value is the Ciphertext output.
The Authentication Tag output is represented in base64url encoded The Authentication Tag output is represented in base64url encoded
form as the "tag" (authentication tag) Header Parameter value. form as the "tag" (authentication tag) Header Parameter value.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
CEK using the corresponding algorithm and key size: CEK using the corresponding algorithm and key size:
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+---------------------------------------------+
| alg Parameter Value | Key Management Algorithm | | alg Param Value | Key Management Algorithm |
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+---------------------------------------------+
| A128GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 128 bit key | | A128GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 128 bit key |
| A192GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 192 bit key | | A192GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 192 bit key |
| A256GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 256 bit key | | A256GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 256 bit key |
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+---------------------------------------------+
4.7.1. Header Parameters Used for AES GCM Key Encryption 4.7.1. Header Parameters Used for AES GCM Key Encryption
The following Header Parameters are used for AES GCM key encryption. The following Header Parameters are used for AES GCM key encryption.
4.7.1.1. "iv" (Initialization Vector) Header Parameter 4.7.1.1. "iv" (Initialization Vector) Header Parameter
The "iv" (initialization vector) Header Parameter value is the The "iv" (initialization vector) Header Parameter value is the
base64url encoded representation of the 96 bit Initialization Vector base64url encoded representation of the 96 bit Initialization Vector
value used for the key encryption operation. This Header Parameter value used for the key encryption operation. This Header Parameter
skipping to change at page 20, line 41 skipping to change at page 20, line 41
respectively use HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, and HMAC SHA-512 as the respectively use HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, and HMAC SHA-512 as the
PRF and use 128, 192, and 256 bit AES Key Wrap keys. Their derived- PRF and use 128, 192, and 256 bit AES Key Wrap keys. Their derived-
key lengths respectively are 16, 24, and 32 octets. key lengths respectively are 16, 24, and 32 octets.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
CEK using the result of the corresponding password-based encryption CEK using the result of the corresponding password-based encryption
algorithm as the key encryption key for the corresponding key algorithm as the key encryption key for the corresponding key
wrapping algorithm: wrapping algorithm:
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+ +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
| alg Parameter Value | Key Management Algorithm | | alg Param Value | Key Management Algorithm |
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+ +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
| PBES2-HS256+A128KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-256 and "A128KW" | | PBES2-HS256+A128KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-256 and "A128KW" |
| | wrapping | | | wrapping |
| PBES2-HS384+A192KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-384 and "A192KW" | | PBES2-HS384+A192KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-384 and "A192KW" |
| | wrapping | | | wrapping |
| PBES2-HS512+A256KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-512 and "A256KW" | | PBES2-HS512+A256KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-512 and "A256KW" |
| | wrapping | | | wrapping |
+---------------------+---------------------------------------------+ +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
See Appendix C of JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] for an example key See Appendix C of JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] for an example key
encryption computation using "PBES2-HS256+A128KW". encryption computation using "PBES2-HS256+A128KW".
4.8.1. Header Parameters Used for PBES2 Key Encryption 4.8.1. Header Parameters Used for PBES2 Key Encryption
The following Header Parameters are used for Key Encryption with The following Header Parameters are used for Key Encryption with
PBES2. PBES2.
4.8.1.1. "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Parameter 4.8.1.1. "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Parameter
skipping to change at page 21, line 29 skipping to change at page 21, line 29
The salt expands the possible keys that can be derived from a given The salt expands the possible keys that can be derived from a given
password. A Salt Input value containing 8 or more octets MUST be password. A Salt Input value containing 8 or more octets MUST be
used. A new Salt Input value MUST be generated randomly for every used. A new Salt Input value MUST be generated randomly for every
encryption operation; see RFC 4086 [RFC4086] for considerations on encryption operation; see RFC 4086 [RFC4086] for considerations on
generating random values. The salt value used is (UTF8(Alg) || 0x00 generating random values. The salt value used is (UTF8(Alg) || 0x00
|| Salt Input), where Alg is the "alg" Header Parameter value. || Salt Input), where Alg is the "alg" Header Parameter value.
4.8.1.2. "p2c" (PBES2 count) Parameter 4.8.1.2. "p2c" (PBES2 count) Parameter
The "p2c" (PBES2 count) Header Parameter contains the PBKDF2 The "p2c" (PBES2 count) Header Parameter contains the PBKDF2
iteration count, represented as a positive integer. This Header iteration count, represented as a positive JSON integer. This Header
Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed by Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed by
implementations when these algorithms are used. implementations when these algorithms are used.
The iteration count adds computational expense, ideally compounded by The iteration count adds computational expense, ideally compounded by
the possible range of keys introduced by the salt. A minimum the possible range of keys introduced by the salt. A minimum
iteration count of 1000 is RECOMMENDED. iteration count of 1000 is RECOMMENDED.
5. Cryptographic Algorithms for Content Encryption 5. Cryptographic Algorithms for Content Encryption
JWE uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt and integrity protect JWE uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt and integrity protect
the Plaintext and to also integrity protect additional authenticated the Plaintext and to also integrity protect additional authenticated
data. data.
5.1. "enc" (Encryption Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE 5.1. "enc" (Encryption Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE
The table below is the set of "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header The table below is the set of "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header
Parameter values that are defined by this specification for use with Parameter values that are defined by this specification for use with
JWE. JWE.
+-------------+------------------------+------------+---------------+ +---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+
| enc | Content Encryption | Additional | Implementatio | | enc Param | Content Encryption Algorithm | Implementation |
| Parameter | Algorithm | Header | nRequirements | | Value | | Requirements |
| Value | | Parameters | | +---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+
+-------------+------------------------+------------+---------------+ | A128CBC-HS256 | AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 | Required |
| A128CBC-HS2 | AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_2 | (none) | Required | | | authenticated encryption | |
| 56 | 56 authenticated | | | | | algorithm, as defined in | |
| | encryption algorithm, | | | | | Section 5.2.3 | |
| | as defined in | | | | A192CBC-HS384 | AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 | Optional |
| | Section 5.2.3 | | | | | authenticated encryption | |
| A192CBC-HS3 | AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_3 | (none) | Optional | | | algorithm, as defined in | |
| 84 | 84 authenticated | | | | | Section 5.2.4 | |
| | encryption algorithm, | | | | A256CBC-HS512 | AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 | Required |
| | as defined in | | | | | authenticated encryption | |
| | Section 5.2.4 | | | | | algorithm, as defined in | |
| A256CBC-HS5 | AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_5 | (none) | Required | | | Section 5.2.5 | |
| 12 | 12 authenticated | | | | A128GCM | AES GCM using 128 bit key | Recommended |
| | encryption algorithm, | | | | A192GCM | AES GCM using 192 bit key | Optional |
| | as defined in | | | | A256GCM | AES GCM using 256 bit key | Recommended |
| | Section 5.2.5 | | | +---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+
| A128GCM | AES GCM using 128 bit | (none) | Recommended |
| | key | | |
| A192GCM | AES GCM using 192 bit | (none) | Optional |
| | key | | |
| A256GCM | AES GCM using 256 bit | (none) | Recommended |
| | key | | |
+-------------+------------------------+------------+---------------+
The Additional Header Parameters column indicates what additional All also use a JWE Initialization Vector value and produce JWE
Header Parameters are used by the algorithm, beyond "enc", which all
use. All also use a JWE Initialization Vector value and produce JWE
Ciphertext and JWE Authentication Tag values. Ciphertext and JWE Authentication Tag values.
See Appendix A.3 for a table cross-referencing the JWE "enc" See Appendix A.3 for a table cross-referencing the JWE "enc"
(encryption algorithm) values defined in this specification with the (encryption algorithm) values defined in this specification with the
equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages. equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
5.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms 5.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms
This section defines a family of authenticated encryption algorithms This section defines a family of authenticated encryption algorithms
built using a composition of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in built using a composition of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) [AES]
Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode with PKCS #7 padding [AES, in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode [NIST.800-38A] with PKCS #7
NIST.800-38A] operations and HMAC [RFC2104, SHS] operations. This padding [RFC5652], Section 6.3 operations and HMAC [RFC2104, SHS]
algorithm family is called AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2. It also defines three operations. This algorithm family is called AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2. It
instances of this family, the first using 128 bit CBC keys and HMAC also defines three instances of this family, the first using 128 bit
SHA-256, the second using 192 bit CBC keys and HMAC SHA-384, and the CBC keys and HMAC SHA-256, the second using 192 bit CBC keys and HMAC
third using 256 bit CBC keys and HMAC SHA-512. Test cases for these SHA-384, and the third using 256 bit CBC keys and HMAC SHA-512. Test
algorithms can be found in Appendix B. cases for these algorithms can be found in Appendix B.
These algorithms are based upon Authenticated Encryption with AES-CBC These algorithms are based upon Authenticated Encryption with AES-CBC
and HMAC-SHA [I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2], performing the same and HMAC-SHA [I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2], performing the same
cryptographic computations, but with the Initialization Vector and cryptographic computations, but with the Initialization Vector and
Authentication Tag values remaining separate, rather than being Authentication Tag values remaining separate, rather than being
concatenated with the Ciphertext value in the output representation. concatenated with the Ciphertext value in the output representation.
This option is discussed in Appendix B of that specification. This This option is discussed in Appendix B of that specification. This
algorithm family is a generalization of the algorithm family in algorithm family is a generalization of the algorithm family in
[I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2], and can be used to implement [I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2], and can be used to implement
those algorithms. those algorithms.
skipping to change at page 25, line 32 skipping to change at page 25, line 21
computing an HMAC with the inputs as in Step 5 of computing an HMAC with the inputs as in Step 5 of
Section 5.2.2.1. The value T, from the previous step, is Section 5.2.2.1. The value T, from the previous step, is
compared to the first MAC_KEY length bits of the HMAC output. If compared to the first MAC_KEY length bits of the HMAC output. If
those values are identical, then A and E are considered valid, those values are identical, then A and E are considered valid,
and processing is continued. Otherwise, all of the data used in and processing is continued. Otherwise, all of the data used in
the MAC validation are discarded, and the Authenticated the MAC validation are discarded, and the Authenticated
Encryption decryption operation returns an indication that it Encryption decryption operation returns an indication that it
failed, and the operation halts. (But see Section 11.5 of [JWE] failed, and the operation halts. (But see Section 11.5 of [JWE]
for security considerations on thwarting timing attacks.) for security considerations on thwarting timing attacks.)
3. The value E is decrypted and the PKCS #7 padding is removed. The 3. The value E is decrypted and the PKCS #7 padding is checked and
value IV is used as the initialization vector. The value ENC_KEY removed. The value IV is used as the initialization vector. The
is used as the decryption key. value ENC_KEY is used as the decryption key.
4. The plaintext value is returned. 4. The plaintext value is returned.
5.2.3. AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 5.2.3. AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256
This algorithm is a concrete instantiation of the generic This algorithm is a concrete instantiation of the generic
AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithm above. It uses the HMAC message AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithm above. It uses the HMAC message
authentication code [RFC2104] with the SHA-256 hash function [SHS] to authentication code [RFC2104] with the SHA-256 hash function [SHS] to
provide message authentication, with the HMAC output truncated to 128 provide message authentication, with the HMAC output truncated to 128
bits, corresponding to the HMAC-SHA-256-128 algorithm defined in bits, corresponding to the HMAC-SHA-256-128 algorithm defined in
skipping to change at page 27, line 12 skipping to change at page 27, line 6
This section defines the specifics of performing authenticated This section defines the specifics of performing authenticated
encryption with the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms. encryption with the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms.
The CEK is used as the secret key K. The CEK is used as the secret key K.
The following "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameter values The following "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameter values
are used to indicate that the JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication are used to indicate that the JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication
Tag values have been computed using the corresponding algorithm: Tag values have been computed using the corresponding algorithm:
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+ +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
| enc Parameter | Content Encryption Algorithm | | enc Param | Content Encryption Algorithm |
| Value | | | Value | |
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+ +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
| A128CBC-HS256 | AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 authenticated encryption | | A128CBC-HS256 | AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 authenticated encryption |
| | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.3 | | | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.3 |
| A192CBC-HS384 | AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 authenticated encryption | | A192CBC-HS384 | AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 authenticated encryption |
| | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.4 | | | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.4 |
| A256CBC-HS512 | AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 authenticated encryption | | A256CBC-HS512 | AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 authenticated encryption |
| | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.5 | | | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.5 |
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+ +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
skipping to change at page 27, line 42 skipping to change at page 27, line 36
algorithm. algorithm.
The requested size of the Authentication Tag output MUST be 128 bits, The requested size of the Authentication Tag output MUST be 128 bits,
regardless of the key size. regardless of the key size.
The following "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameter values The following "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameter values
are used to indicate that the JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication are used to indicate that the JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication
Tag values have been computed using the corresponding algorithm and Tag values have been computed using the corresponding algorithm and
key size: key size:
+---------------------+------------------------------+ +-----------------+------------------------------+
| enc Parameter Value | Content Encryption Algorithm | | enc Param Value | Content Encryption Algorithm |
+---------------------+------------------------------+ +-----------------+------------------------------+
| A128GCM | AES GCM using 128 bit key | | A128GCM | AES GCM using 128 bit key |
| A192GCM | AES GCM using 192 bit key | | A192GCM | AES GCM using 192 bit key |
| A256GCM | AES GCM using 256 bit key | | A256GCM | AES GCM using 256 bit key |
+---------------------+------------------------------+ +-----------------+------------------------------+
An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.1 of [JWE]. An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.1 of [JWE].
6. Cryptographic Algorithms for Keys 6. Cryptographic Algorithms for Keys
A JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] is a JSON data structure that represents a A JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] is a JSON data structure that represents a
cryptographic key. These keys can be either asymmetric or symmetric. cryptographic key. These keys can be either asymmetric or symmetric.
They can hold both public and private information about the key. They can hold both public and private information about the key.
This section defines the parameters for keys using the algorithms This section defines the parameters for keys using the algorithms
specified by this document. specified by this document.
6.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter Values 6.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter Values
The table below is the set of "kty" (key type) parameter values that The table below is the set of "kty" (key type) parameter values that
are defined by this specification for use in JWKs. are defined by this specification for use in JWKs.
+--------------+--------------------------------+-------------------+ +-------------+------------------------------------+----------------+
| kty | Key Type | Implementation | | kty Param | Key Type | Implementation |
| Parameter | | Requirements | | Value | | Requirements |
| Value | | | +-------------+------------------------------------+----------------+
+--------------+--------------------------------+-------------------+ | EC | Elliptic Curve [DSS] | Recommended+ |
| EC | Elliptic Curve [DSS] | Recommended+ | | RSA | RSA [RFC3447] | Required |
| RSA | RSA [RFC3447] | Required | | oct | Octet sequence (used to represent | Required |
| oct | Octet sequence (used to | Required | | | symmetric keys) | |
| | represent symmetric keys) | | +-------------+------------------------------------+----------------+
+--------------+--------------------------------+-------------------+
The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the
requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of
the specification. the specification.
6.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys 6.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys
JWKs can represent Elliptic Curve [DSS] keys. In this case, the JWKs can represent Elliptic Curve [DSS] keys. In this case, the
"kty" member value is "EC". "kty" member value is "EC".
6.2.1. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Public Keys 6.2.1. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Public Keys
An elliptic curve public key is represented by a pair of coordinates An elliptic curve public key is represented by a pair of coordinates
drawn from a finite field, which together define a point on an drawn from a finite field, which together define a point on an
elliptic curve. The following members MUST be present for elliptic elliptic curve. The following members MUST be present for all
curve public keys: elliptic curve public keys:
o "crv" o "crv"
o "x" o "x"
o "y"
SEC1 [SEC1] point compression is not supported for any values. The following member MUST also be present for elliptic curve public
keys for the three curves defined in the following section:
o "y"
6.2.1.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter 6.2.1.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter
The "crv" (curve) member identifies the cryptographic curve used with The "crv" (curve) member identifies the cryptographic curve used with
the key. Curve values from [DSS] used by this specification are: the key. Curve values from [DSS] used by this specification are:
o "P-256" o "P-256"
o "P-384" o "P-384"
o "P-521" o "P-521"
These values are registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve These values are registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve
registry defined in Section 7.6. Additional "crv" values can be registry defined in Section 7.6. Additional "crv" values can be
registered by other specifications. Additional "crv" values MAY be registered by other specifications. Specifications registering
used, provided they are understood by implementations using that additional curves must define what parameters are used to represent
Elliptic Curve key. The "crv" value is a case-sensitive string. keys for the curves registered. The "crv" value is a case-sensitive
string.
SEC1 [SEC1] point compression is not supported for any of these three
curves.
6.2.1.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter 6.2.1.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter
The "x" (x coordinate) member contains the x coordinate for the The "x" (x coordinate) member contains the x coordinate for the
elliptic curve point. It is represented as the base64url encoding of elliptic curve point. It is represented as the base64url encoding of
the octet string representation of the coordinate, as defined in the octet string representation of the coordinate, as defined in
Section 2.3.5 of SEC1 [SEC1]. The length of this octet string MUST Section 2.3.5 of SEC1 [SEC1]. The length of this octet string MUST
be the full size of a coordinate for the curve specified in the "crv" be the full size of a coordinate for the curve specified in the "crv"
parameter. For example, if the value of "crv" is "P-521", the octet parameter. For example, if the value of "crv" is "P-521", the octet
string must be 66 octets long. string must be 66 octets long.
skipping to change at page 29, line 50 skipping to change at page 29, line 49
6.2.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Private Keys 6.2.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Private Keys
In addition to the members used to represent Elliptic Curve public In addition to the members used to represent Elliptic Curve public
keys, the following member MUST be present to represent Elliptic keys, the following member MUST be present to represent Elliptic
Curve private keys. Curve private keys.
6.2.2.1. "d" (ECC Private Key) Parameter 6.2.2.1. "d" (ECC Private Key) Parameter
The "d" (ECC private key) member contains the Elliptic Curve private The "d" (ECC private key) member contains the Elliptic Curve private
key value. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the octet key value. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the octet
string representation of the private key value, as defined in string representation of the private key value, as defined in Section
Sections C.4 and 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1]. The length of this octet 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1]. The length of this octet string MUST be
string MUST be ceiling(log-base-2(n)/8) octets (where n is the order ceiling(log-base-2(n)/8) octets (where n is the order of the curve).
of the curve).
6.3. Parameters for RSA Keys 6.3. Parameters for RSA Keys
JWKs can represent RSA [RFC3447] keys. In this case, the "kty" JWKs can represent RSA [RFC3447] keys. In this case, the "kty"
member value is "RSA". member value is "RSA".
6.3.1. Parameters for RSA Public Keys 6.3.1. Parameters for RSA Public Keys
The following members MUST be present for RSA public keys. The following members MUST be present for RSA public keys.
6.3.1.1. "n" (Modulus) Parameter 6.3.1.1. "n" (Modulus) Parameter
The "n" (modulus) member contains the modulus value for the RSA The "n" (modulus) member contains the modulus value for the RSA
public key. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the public key. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value.
value's unsigned big endian representation as an octet sequence. The
octet sequence MUST utilize the minimum number of octets to represent
the value.
Note that implementers have found that some cryptographic libraries Note that implementers have found that some cryptographic libraries
prefix an extra zero-valued octet to the modulus representations they prefix an extra zero-valued octet to the modulus representations they
return, for instance, returning 257 octets for a 2048 bit key, rather return, for instance, returning 257 octets for a 2048 bit key, rather
than 256. Implementations using such libraries will need to take than 256. Implementations using such libraries will need to take
care to omit the extra octet from the base64url encoded care to omit the extra octet from the base64url encoded
representation. representation.
6.3.1.2. "e" (Exponent) Parameter 6.3.1.2. "e" (Exponent) Parameter
The "e" (exponent) member contains the exponent value for the RSA The "e" (exponent) member contains the exponent value for the RSA
public key. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the public key. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value.
value's unsigned big endian representation as an octet sequence. The
octet sequence MUST utilize the minimum number of octets to represent For instance, when representing the value 65537, the octet sequence
the value. For instance, when representing the value 65537, the to be base64url encoded MUST consist of the three octets [1, 0, 1];
octet sequence to be base64url encoded MUST consist of the three the resulting representation for this value is "AQAB".
octets [1, 0, 1].
6.3.2. Parameters for RSA Private Keys 6.3.2. Parameters for RSA Private Keys
In addition to the members used to represent RSA public keys, the In addition to the members used to represent RSA public keys, the
following members are used to represent RSA private keys. The following members are used to represent RSA private keys. The
parameter "d" is REQUIRED for RSA private keys. The others enable parameter "d" is REQUIRED for RSA private keys. The others enable
optimizations and SHOULD be included by producers of JWKs optimizations and SHOULD be included by producers of JWKs
representing RSA private keys. If the producer includes any of the representing RSA private keys. If the producer includes any of the
other private key parameters, then all of the others MUST be present, other private key parameters, then all of the others MUST be present,
with the exception of "oth", which MUST only be present when more with the exception of "oth", which MUST only be present when more
than two prime factors were used. The consumer of a JWK MAY choose than two prime factors were used.
to accept an RSA private key that does not contain a complete set of
the private key parameters other than "d", including JWKs in which
"d" is the only RSA private key parameter included.
6.3.2.1. "d" (Private Exponent) Parameter 6.3.2.1. "d" (Private Exponent) Parameter
The "d" (private exponent) member contains the private exponent value The "d" (private exponent) member contains the private exponent value
for the RSA private key. It is represented as the base64url encoding for the RSA private key. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt
of the value's unsigned big endian representation as an octet encoded value.
sequence. The octet sequence MUST utilize the minimum number of
octets to represent the value.
6.3.2.2. "p" (First Prime Factor) Parameter 6.3.2.2. "p" (First Prime Factor) Parameter
The "p" (first prime factor) member contains the first prime factor, The "p" (first prime factor) member contains the first prime factor.
a positive integer. It is represented as the base64url encoding of It is represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value.
the value's unsigned big endian representation as an octet sequence.
The octet sequence MUST utilize the minimum number of octets to
represent the value.
6.3.2.3. "q" (Second Prime Factor) Parameter 6.3.2.3. "q" (Second Prime Factor) Parameter
The "q" (second prime factor) member contains the second prime The "q" (second prime factor) member contains the second prime
factor, a positive integer. It is represented as the base64url factor. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value.
encoding of the value's unsigned big endian representation as an
octet sequence. The octet sequence MUST utilize the minimum number
of octets to represent the value.
6.3.2.4. "dp" (First Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter 6.3.2.4. "dp" (First Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter
The "dp" (first factor CRT exponent) member contains the Chinese The "dp" (first factor CRT exponent) member contains the Chinese
Remainder Theorem (CRT) exponent of the first factor, a positive Remainder Theorem (CRT) exponent of the first factor. It is
integer. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the value's represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value.
unsigned big endian representation as an octet sequence. The octet
sequence MUST utilize the minimum number of octets to represent the
value.
6.3.2.5. "dq" (Second Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter 6.3.2.5. "dq" (Second Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter
The "dq" (second factor CRT exponent) member contains the Chinese The "dq" (second factor CRT exponent) member contains the Chinese
Remainder Theorem (CRT) exponent of the second factor, a positive Remainder Theorem (CRT) exponent of the second factor. It is
integer. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the value's represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value.
unsigned big endian representation as an octet sequence. The octet
sequence MUST utilize the minimum number of octets to represent the
value.
6.3.2.6. "qi" (First CRT Coefficient) Parameter 6.3.2.6. "qi" (First CRT Coefficient) Parameter
The "qi" (first CRT coefficient) member contains the Chinese The "qi" (first CRT coefficient) member contains the Chinese
Remainder Theorem (CRT) coefficient of the second factor, a positive Remainder Theorem (CRT) coefficient of the second factor. It is
integer. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the value's represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value.
unsigned big endian representation as an octet sequence. The octet
sequence MUST utilize the minimum number of octets to represent the
value.
6.3.2.7. "oth" (Other Primes Info) Parameter 6.3.2.7. "oth" (Other Primes Info) Parameter
The "oth" (other primes info) member contains an array of information The "oth" (other primes info) member contains an array of information
about any third and subsequent primes, should they exist. When only about any third and subsequent primes, should they exist. When only
two primes have been used (the normal case), this parameter MUST be two primes have been used (the normal case), this parameter MUST be
omitted. When three or more primes have been used, the number of omitted. When three or more primes have been used, the number of
array elements MUST be the number of primes used minus two. For more array elements MUST be the number of primes used minus two. For more
information on this case, see the description of the OtherPrimeInfo information on this case, see the description of the OtherPrimeInfo
parameters in Section A.1.2 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447], upon which the parameters in Section A.1.2 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447], upon which the
following parameters are modelled. Each array element MUST be an following parameters are modelled. Each array element MUST be an
object with the following members: object with the following members:
6.3.2.7.1. "r" (Prime Factor) 6.3.2.7.1. "r" (Prime Factor)
The "r" (prime factor) parameter within an "oth" array member The "r" (prime factor) parameter within an "oth" array member
represents the value of a subsequent prime factor, a positive represents the value of a subsequent prime factor. It is represented
integer. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the value's as a Base64urlUInt encoded value.
unsigned big endian representation as an octet sequence. The octet
sequence MUST utilize the minimum number of octets to represent the
value.
6.3.2.7.2. "d" (Factor CRT Exponent) 6.3.2.7.2. "d" (Factor CRT Exponent)
The "d" (Factor CRT Exponent) parameter within an "oth" array member The "d" (Factor CRT Exponent) parameter within an "oth" array member
represents the CRT exponent of the corresponding prime factor, a represents the CRT exponent of the corresponding prime factor. It is
positive integer. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value.
value's unsigned big endian representation as an octet sequence. The
octet sequence MUST utilize the minimum number of octets to represent
the value.
6.3.2.7.3. "t" (Factor CRT Coefficient) 6.3.2.7.3. "t" (Factor CRT Coefficient)
The "t" (factor CRT coefficient) parameter within an "oth" array The "t" (factor CRT coefficient) parameter within an "oth" array
member represents the CRT coefficient of the corresponding prime member represents the CRT coefficient of the corresponding prime
factor, a positive integer. It is represented as the base64url factor. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value.
encoding of the value's unsigned big endian representation as an
octet sequence. The octet sequence MUST utilize the minimum number
of octets to represent the value.
6.4. Parameters for Symmetric Keys 6.4. Parameters for Symmetric Keys
When the JWK "kty" member value is "oct" (octet sequence), the member When the JWK "kty" member value is "oct" (octet sequence), the member
"k" is used to represent a symmetric key (or another key whose value "k" is used to represent a symmetric key (or another key whose value
is a single octet sequence). An "alg" member SHOULD also be present is a single octet sequence). An "alg" member SHOULD also be present
to identify the algorithm intended to be used with the key, unless to identify the algorithm intended to be used with the key, unless
the application uses another means or convention to determine the the application uses another means or convention to determine the
algorithm used. algorithm used.
skipping to change at page 35, line 15 skipping to change at page 34, line 31
the status of an algorithm to Deprecated, or to change the status of the status of an algorithm to Deprecated, or to change the status of
an algorithm from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of an algorithm from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of
implementation requirements are only permitted on a Specification implementation requirements are only permitted on a Specification
Required basis after review by the Designated Experts(s), with the Required basis after review by the Designated Experts(s), with the
new specification defining the revised implementation requirements new specification defining the revised implementation requirements
level. level.
7.1.1. Registration Template 7.1.1. Registration Template
Algorithm Name: Algorithm Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case- The name requested (e.g., "HS256"). This name is case-sensitive.
sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case- Names may not match other registered names in a case-insensitive
insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that there is a
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this compelling reason to allow an exception in this particular case.
particular case.
Algorithm Description: Algorithm Description:
Brief description of the Algorithm (e.g., "Example description"). Brief description of the Algorithm (e.g., "HMAC using SHA-256").
Algorithm Usage Location(s): Algorithm Usage Location(s):
The algorithm usage location. This must be one or more of the The algorithm usage location. This must be one or more of the
values "alg" or "enc" if the algorithm is to be used with JWS or values "alg" or "enc" if the algorithm is to be used with JWS or
JWE. The value "JWK" is used if the algorithm identifier will be JWE. The value "JWK" is used if the algorithm identifier will be
used as a JWK "alg" member value, but will not be used with JWS or used as a JWK "alg" member value, but will not be used with JWS or
JWE; this could be the case, for instance, for non-authenticated JWE; this could be the case, for instance, for non-authenticated
encryption algorithms. Other values may be used with the approval encryption algorithms. Other values may be used with the approval
of a Designated Expert. of a Designated Expert.
skipping to change at page 43, line 10 skipping to change at page 42, line 28
7.3. JSON Web Encryption Compression Algorithms Registry 7.3. JSON Web Encryption Compression Algorithms Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Encryption This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Encryption
Compression Algorithms registry for JWE "zip" member values. The Compression Algorithms registry for JWE "zip" member values. The
registry records the compression algorithm value and a reference to registry records the compression algorithm value and a reference to
the specification that defines it. the specification that defines it.
7.3.1. Registration Template 7.3.1. Registration Template
Compression Algorithm Value: Compression Algorithm Value:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this The name requested (e.g., "DEF"). Because a core goal of this
specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this
particular case. particular case.
Compression Algorithm Description: Compression Algorithm Description:
Brief description of the compression algorithm (e.g., "Example Brief description of the compression algorithm (e.g., "DEFLATE").
description").
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
skipping to change at page 44, line 12 skipping to change at page 43, line 31
the status of a key type to Deprecated, or to change the status of a the status of a key type to Deprecated, or to change the status of a
key type from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of key type from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of
implementation requirements are only permitted on a Specification implementation requirements are only permitted on a Specification
Required basis after review by the Designated Experts(s), with the Required basis after review by the Designated Experts(s), with the
new specification defining the revised implementation requirements new specification defining the revised implementation requirements
level. level.
7.4.1. Registration Template 7.4.1. Registration Template
"kty" Parameter Value: "kty" Parameter Value:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this The name requested (e.g., "EC"). Because a core goal of this
specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this
particular case. particular case.
Key Type Description: Key Type Description:
Brief description of the Key Type (e.g., "Example description"). Brief description of the Key Type (e.g., "Elliptic Curve").
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
JOSE Implementation Requirements: JOSE Implementation Requirements:
The key type implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which The key type implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which
must be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated, must be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated,
or Prohibited. Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or or Prohibited. Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or
skipping to change at page 48, line 8 skipping to change at page 47, line 24
as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change the as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change the
status of a curve to Deprecated, or to change the status of a curve status of a curve to Deprecated, or to change the status of a curve
from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of implementation from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of implementation
requirements are only permitted on a Specification Required basis requirements are only permitted on a Specification Required basis
after review by the Designated Experts(s), with the new specification after review by the Designated Experts(s), with the new specification
defining the revised implementation requirements level. defining the revised implementation requirements level.
7.6.1. Registration Template 7.6.1. Registration Template
Curve Name: Curve Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this The name requested (e.g., "P-256"). Because a core goal of this
specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this
particular case. particular case.
Curve Description: Curve Description:
Brief description of the curve (e.g., "Example description"). Brief description of the curve (e.g., "P-256 curve").
JOSE Implementation Requirements: JOSE Implementation Requirements:
The curve implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which must The curve implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which must
be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated, or be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated, or
Prohibited. Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or "-". Prohibited. Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or "-".
The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is likely The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is likely
to be increased in a future version of the specification. The use to be increased in a future version of the specification. The use
of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely to be of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely to be
decreased in a future version of the specification. decreased in a future version of the specification.
skipping to change at page 49, line 21 skipping to change at page 48, line 39
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of [[ this document ]]
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
All of the security issues that are pertinent to any cryptographic All of the security issues that are pertinent to any cryptographic
application must be addressed by JWS/JWE/JWK agents. Among these application must be addressed by JWS/JWE/JWK agents. Among these
issues are protecting the user's asymmetric private and symmetric issues are protecting the user's asymmetric private and symmetric
secret keys and employing countermeasures to various attacks. secret keys and employing countermeasures to various attacks.
The security considerations in [AES], [DSS], [JWE], [JWK], [JWS], The security considerations in [AES], [DSS], [JWE], [JWK], [JWS],
[NIST.800-38A], [NIST.800-38D], [NIST.800-56A], [NIST.800-107], [NIST.800-38D], [NIST.800-56A], [NIST.800-107], [RFC2104], [RFC3394],
[RFC2104], [RFC3394], [RFC3447], [RFC5116], [RFC6090], and [SHS] [RFC3447], [RFC5116], [RFC6090], and [SHS] apply to this
apply to this specification. specification.
8.1. Cryptographic Agility 8.1. Cryptographic Agility
Implementers should be aware that cryptographic algorithms become Implementers should be aware that cryptographic algorithms become
weaker with time. As new cryptanalysis techniques are developed and weaker with time. As new cryptanalysis techniques are developed and
computing performance improves, the work factor to break a particular computing performance improves, the work factor to break a particular
cryptographic algorithm will be reduced. Therefore, implementers and cryptographic algorithm will be reduced. Therefore, implementers and
deployments must be prepared for the set of algorithms that are deployments must be prepared for the set of algorithms that are
supported and used to change over time. Thus, cryptographic supported and used to change over time. Thus, cryptographic
algorithm implementations should be modular, allowing new algorithms algorithm implementations should be modular, allowing new algorithms
skipping to change at page 49, line 49 skipping to change at page 49, line 19
key lifetimes and/or the number of times that a key may be used. key lifetimes and/or the number of times that a key may be used.
Those security considerations continue to apply when using those Those security considerations continue to apply when using those
algorithms with JOSE data structures. See NIST SP 800-57 algorithms with JOSE data structures. See NIST SP 800-57
[NIST.800-57] for specific guidance on key lifetimes. [NIST.800-57] for specific guidance on key lifetimes.
8.3. RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 Security Considerations 8.3. RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 Security Considerations
While Section 8 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] explicitly calls for people not While Section 8 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] explicitly calls for people not
to adopt RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 for new applications and instead requests to adopt RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 for new applications and instead requests
that people transition to RSASSA-PSS, this specification does include that people transition to RSASSA-PSS, this specification does include
RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5, for interoperability reasons, because it commonly RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5, for interoperability reasons, because it is
implemented. commonly implemented.
Keys used with RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 must follow the constraints in Keys used with RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 must follow the constraints in
Section 7.2 of RFC 3447. Also, keys with a low public key exponent Section 7.2 of RFC 3447. Also, keys with a low public key exponent
value, as described in Section 3 of Twenty years of attacks on the value, as described in Section 3 of Twenty years of attacks on the
RSA cryptosystem [Boneh99], must not be used. RSA cryptosystem [Boneh99], must not be used.
8.4. AES GCM Security Considerations 8.4. AES GCM Security Considerations
Keys used with AES GCM must follow the constraints in Section 8.3 of Keys used with AES GCM must follow the constraints in Section 8.3 of
[NIST.800-38D], which states: "The total number of invocations of the [NIST.800-38D], which states: "The total number of invocations of the
skipping to change at page 51, line 26 skipping to change at page 50, line 44
supply content using keys that would result in excessive supply content using keys that would result in excessive
cryptographic processing, for example, keys larger than those cryptographic processing, for example, keys larger than those
mandated in this specification. Implementations should set and mandated in this specification. Implementations should set and
enforce upper limits on the key sizes they accept. Section 5.6.1 enforce upper limits on the key sizes they accept. Section 5.6.1
(Comparable Algorithm Strengths) of NIST SP 800-57 [NIST.800-57] (Comparable Algorithm Strengths) of NIST SP 800-57 [NIST.800-57]
contains statements on largest approved key sizes that may be contains statements on largest approved key sizes that may be
applicable. applicable.
8.7. Reusing Key Material when Encrypting Keys 8.7. Reusing Key Material when Encrypting Keys
It is NOT RECOMMENDED to reuse the same key material (Key Encryption It is NOT RECOMMENDED to reuse the same entire set of key material
Key, Content Encryption Key, Initialization Vector, etc.) to encrypt (Key Encryption Key, Content Encryption Key, Initialization Vector,
multiple JWK or JWK Set objects, or to encrypt the same JWK or JWK etc.) to encrypt multiple JWK or JWK Set objects, or to encrypt the
Set object multiple times. One suggestion for preventing re-use is same JWK or JWK Set object multiple times. One suggestion for
to always generate a new set of key material for each encryption preventing re-use is to always generate at least one new piece of key
operation, based on the considerations noted in this document as well material for each encryption operation (e.g., a new Content
as from RFC 4086 [RFC4086]. Encryption Key, a new Initialization Vector, and/or a new PBES2
Salt), based on the considerations noted in this document as well as
from RFC 4086 [RFC4086].
8.8. Password Considerations 8.8. Password Considerations
Passwords are vulnerable to a number of attacks. To help mitigate Passwords are vulnerable to a number of attacks. To help mitigate
some of these limitations, this document applies principles from RFC some of these limitations, this document applies principles from RFC
2898 [RFC2898] to derive cryptographic keys from user-supplied 2898 [RFC2898] to derive cryptographic keys from user-supplied
passwords. passwords.
However, the strength of the password still has a significant impact. However, the strength of the password still has a significant impact.
A high-entropy password has greater resistance to dictionary attacks. A high-entropy password has greater resistance to dictionary attacks.
skipping to change at page 54, line 11 skipping to change at page 53, line 33
"Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes "Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes
Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography", NIST Special Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography", NIST Special
Publication 800-56A, Revision 2, May 2013. Publication 800-56A, Revision 2, May 2013.
[NIST.800-57] [NIST.800-57]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Recommendation for Key Management - Part 1: General "Recommendation for Key Management - Part 1: General
(Revision 3)", NIST Special Publication 800-57, Part 1, (Revision 3)", NIST Special Publication 800-57, Part 1,
Revision 3, July 2012. Revision 3, July 2012.
[RFC20] Cerf, V., "ASCII format for Network Interchange", RFC 20,
October 1969.
[RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed- [RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104, Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
February 1997. February 1997.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2898] Kaliski, B., "PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography [RFC2898] Kaliski, B., "PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography
Specification Version 2.0", RFC 2898, September 2000. Specification Version 2.0", RFC 2898, September 2000.
skipping to change at page 54, line 37 skipping to change at page 54, line 14
[RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO [RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003. 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.
[RFC4868] Kelly, S. and S. Frankel, "Using HMAC-SHA-256, HMAC-SHA- [RFC4868] Kelly, S. and S. Frankel, "Using HMAC-SHA-256, HMAC-SHA-
384, and HMAC-SHA-512 with IPsec", RFC 4868, May 2007. 384, and HMAC-SHA-512 with IPsec", RFC 4868, May 2007.
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", [RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
RFC 4949, August 2007. RFC 4949, August 2007.
[RFC5652] Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70,
RFC 5652, September 2009.
[RFC6090] McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic [RFC6090] McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic
Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090, February 2011. Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090, February 2011.
[RFC7159] Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data [RFC7159] Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014. Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.
[SEC1] Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group, "SEC 1: [SEC1] Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group, "SEC 1:
Elliptic Curve Cryptography", May 2009. Elliptic Curve Cryptography", Version 2.0, May 2009.
[SHS] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure [SHS] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
Hash Standard (SHS)", FIPS PUB 180-4, March 2012. Hash Standard (SHS)", FIPS PUB 180-4, March 2012.
[USASCII] American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character [USASCII] American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character
Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information
Interchange", ANSI X3.4, 1986. Interchange", ANSI X3.4, 1986.
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[CanvasApp] [CanvasApp]
Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010. Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010.
[I-D.ietf-precis-saslprepbis] [I-D.ietf-precis-saslprepbis]
Saint-Andre, P. and A. Melnikov, "Preparation and Saint-Andre, P. and A. Melnikov, "Preparation and
Comparison of Internationalized Strings Representing Comparison of Internationalized Strings Representing
Usernames and Passwords", draft-ietf-precis-saslprepbis-07 Usernames and Passwords", draft-ietf-precis-saslprepbis-08
(work in progress), March 2014. (work in progress), October 2014.
[I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2] [I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2]
McGrew, D., Foley, J., and K. Paterson, "Authenticated McGrew, D., Foley, J., and K. Paterson, "Authenticated
Encryption with AES-CBC and HMAC-SHA", Encryption with AES-CBC and HMAC-SHA",
draft-mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2-05 (work in progress), draft-mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2-05 (work in progress),
July 2014. July 2014.
[I-D.miller-jose-jwe-protected-jwk] [I-D.miller-jose-jwe-protected-jwk]
Miller, M., "Using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Web Miller, M., "Using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Web
Encryption (JWE) for Protecting JSON Web Key (JWK) Encryption (JWE) for Protecting JSON Web Key (JWK)
skipping to change at page 57, line 18 skipping to change at page 57, line 5
[JCA] for more information about the names defined by those [JCA] for more information about the names defined by those
documents. documents.
A.1. Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference A.1. Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference
This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWS digital This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWS digital
signature and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values defined in this signature and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values defined in this
specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards
and software packages. and software packages.
+-----+-------------------------------+--------------+--------------+ +-------+------------------------------+-------------+--------------+
| JWS | XML DSIG | JCA | OID | | JWS | XML DSIG | JCA | OID |
+-----+-------------------------------+--------------+--------------+ +-------+------------------------------+-------------+--------------+
| HS2 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xml | HmacSHA256 | 1.2.840.1135 | | HS256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | HmacSHA256 | 1.2.840.1135 |
| 56 | dsig-more#hmac-sha256 | | 49.2.9 | | | ldsig-more#hmac-sha256 | | 49.2.9 |
| HS3 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xml | HmacSHA384 | 1.2.840.1135 | | HS384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | HmacSHA384 | 1.2.840.1135 |
| 84 | dsig-more#hmac-sha384 | | 49.2.10 | | | ldsig-more#hmac-sha384 | | 49.2.10 |
| HS5 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xml | HmacSHA512 | 1.2.840.1135 | | HS512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | HmacSHA512 | 1.2.840.1135 |
| 12 | dsig-more#hmac-sha512 | | 49.2.11 | | | ldsig-more#hmac-sha512 | | 49.2.11 |
| RS2 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xml | SHA256withRS | 1.2.840.1135 | | RS256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA256withR | 1.2.840.1135 |
| 56 | dsig-more#rsa-sha256 | A | 49.1.1.11 | | | ldsig-more#rsa-sha256 | SA | 49.1.1.11 |
| RS3 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xml | SHA384withRS | 1.2.840.1135 | | RS384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA384withR | 1.2.840.1135 |
| 84 | dsig-more#rsa-sha384 | A | 49.1.1.12 | | | ldsig-more#rsa-sha384 | SA | 49.1.1.12 |
| RS5 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xml | SHA512withRS | 1.2.840.1135 | | RS512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA512withR | 1.2.840.1135 |
| 12 | dsig-more#rsa-sha512 | A | 49.1.1.13 | | | ldsig-more#rsa-sha512 | SA | 49.1.1.13 |
| ES2 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xml | SHA256withEC | 1.2.840.1004 | | ES256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA256withE | 1.2.840.1004 |
| 56 | dsig-more#ecdsa-sha256 | DSA | 5.4.3.2 | | | ldsig-more#ecdsa-sha256 | CDSA | 5.4.3.2 |
| ES3 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xml | SHA384withEC | 1.2.840.1004 | | ES384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA384withE | 1.2.840.1004 |
| 84 | dsig-more#ecdsa-sha384 | DSA | 5.4.3.3 | | | ldsig-more#ecdsa-sha384 | CDSA | 5.4.3.3 |
| ES5 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xml | SHA512withEC | 1.2.840.1004 | | ES512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA512withE | 1.2.840.1004 |
| 12 | dsig-more#ecdsa-sha512 | DSA | 5.4.3.4 | | | ldsig-more#ecdsa-sha512 | CDSA | 5.4.3.4 |
| PS2 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xml | SHA256withRS | 1.2.840.1135 | | PS256 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xm | SHA256withR | 1.2.840.1135 |
| 56 | dsig-more#sha256-rsa-MGF1 | AandMGF1 | 49.1.1.10 | | | ldsig-more#sha256-rsa-MGF1 | SAandMGF1 | 49.1.1.10 |
| PS3 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xml | SHA384withRS | 1.2.840.1135 | | PS384 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xm | SHA384withR | 1.2.840.1135 |
| 84 | dsig-more#sha384-rsa-MGF1 | AandMGF1 | 49.1.1.10 | | | ldsig-more#sha384-rsa-MGF1 | SAandMGF1 | 49.1.1.10 |
| PS5 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xml | SHA512withRS | 1.2.840.1135 | | PS512 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xm | SHA512withR | 1.2.840.1135 |
| 12 | dsig-more#sha512-rsa-MGF1 | AandMGF1 | 49.1.1.10 | | | ldsig-more#sha512-rsa-MGF1 | SAandMGF1 | 49.1.1.10 |
+-----+-------------------------------+--------------+--------------+ +-------+------------------------------+-------------+--------------+
A.2. Key Management Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference A.2. Key Management Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference
This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWE "alg" This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWE "alg"
(algorithm) values defined in this specification with the equivalent (algorithm) values defined in this specification with the equivalent
identifiers used by other standards and software packages. identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
+-------+------------------------+--------------------+-------------+ +----------+----------------------+-------------------+-------------+
| JWE | XML ENC | JCA | OID | | JWE | XML ENC | JCA | OID |
+-------+------------------------+--------------------+-------------+ +----------+----------------------+-------------------+-------------+
| RSA1_ | http://www.w3.org/2001 | RSA/ECB/PKCS1Paddi | 1.2.840.113 | | RSA1_5 | http://www.w3.org/20 | RSA/ECB/PKCS1Padd | 1.2.840.113 |
| 5 | /04/xmlenc#rsa-1_5 | ng | 549.1.1.1 | | | 01/04/xmlenc#rsa-1_5 | ing | 549.1.1.1 |
| RSA-O | http://www.w3.org/2001 | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSH | 1.2.840.113 | | RSA-OAEP | http://www.w3.org/20 | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithS | 1.2.840.113 |
| AEP | /04/xmlenc#rsa-oaep-mg | A-1AndMGF1Padding | 549.1.1.7 | | | 01/04/xmlenc#rsa-oae | HA-1AndMGF1Paddin | 549.1.1.7 |
| | f1p | | | | | p-mgf1p | g | |
| RSA-O | http://www.w3.org/2009 | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSH | 1.2.840.113 | | RSA-OAEP | http://www.w3.org/20 | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithS | 1.2.840.113 |
| AEP-2 | /xmlenc11#rsa-oaep & | A-256AndMGF1Paddin | 549.1.1.7 | | -256 | 09/xmlenc11#rsa-oaep | HA-256AndMGF1Padd | 549.1.1.7 |
| 56 | http://www.w3.org/200 | g& | | | | & | ing & | |
| | 9/xmlenc11#mgf1sha256 | MGF1ParameterSpec | | | | http://www.w3.org/2 | MGF1ParameterSp | |
| | | .SHA256 | | | | 009/xmlenc11#mgf1sha | ec.SHA256 | |
| ECDH- | http://www.w3.org/2009 | ECDH | 1.3.132.1.1 | | | 256 | | |
| ES | /xmlenc11#ECDH-ES | | 2 | | ECDH-ES | http://www.w3.org/20 | ECDH | 1.3.132.1.1 |
| A128K | http://www.w3.org/2001 | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1. | | | 09/xmlenc11#ECDH-ES | | 2 |
| W | /04/xmlenc#kw-aes128 | | 101.3.4.1.5 | | A128KW | http://www.w3.org/20 | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1. |
| A192K | http://www.w3.org/2001 | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1. | | | 01/04/xmlenc#kw-aes1 | | 101.3.4.1.5 |
| W | /04/xmlenc#kw-aes192 | | 101.3.4.1.2 | | | 28 | | |
| | | | 5 | | A192KW | http://www.w3.org/20 | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1. |
| A256K | http://www.w3.org/2001 | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1. | | | 01/04/xmlenc#kw-aes1 | | 101.3.4.1.2 |
| W | /04/xmlenc#kw-aes256 | | 101.3.4.1.4 | | | 92 | | 5 |
| | | | 5 | | A256KW | http://www.w3.org/20 | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1. |
+-------+------------------------+--------------------+-------------+ | | 01/04/xmlenc#kw-aes2 | | 101.3.4.1.4 |
| | 56 | | 5 |
+----------+----------------------+-------------------+-------------+
A.3. Content Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference A.3. Content Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference
This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWE "enc" This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWE "enc"
(encryption algorithm) values defined in this specification with the (encryption algorithm) values defined in this specification with the
equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages. equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
For the composite algorithms "A128CBC-HS256", "A192CBC-HS384", and For the composite algorithms "A128CBC-HS256", "A192CBC-HS384", and
"A256CBC-HS512", the corresponding AES CBC algorithm identifiers are "A256CBC-HS512", the corresponding AES CBC algorithm identifiers are
listed. listed.
+---------+-------------------------+--------------+----------------+ +----------+-------------------------+--------------+---------------+
| JWE | XML ENC | JCA | OID | | JWE | XML ENC | JCA | OID |
+---------+-------------------------+--------------+----------------+ +----------+-------------------------+--------------+---------------+
| A128CBC | http://www.w3.org/2001/ | AES/CBC/PKCS | 2.16.840.1.101 | | A128CBC- | http://www.w3.org/2001/ | AES/CBC/PKCS | 2.16.840.1.10 |
| -HS256 | 04/xmlenc#aes128-cbc | 5Padding | .3.4.1.2 | | HS256 | 04/xmlenc#aes128-cbc | 5Padding | 1.3.4.1.2 |
| A192CBC | http://www.w3.org/2001/ | AES/CBC/PKCS | 2.16.840.1.101 | | A192CBC- | http://www.w3.org/2001/ | AES/CBC/PKCS | 2.16.840.1.10 |
| -HS384 | 04/xmlenc#aes192-cbc | 5Padding | .3.4.1.22 | | HS384 | 04/xmlenc#aes192-cbc | 5Padding | 1.3.4.1.22 |
| A256CBC | http://www.w3.org/2001/ | AES/CBC/PKCS | 2.16.840.1.101 | | A256CBC- | http://www.w3.org/2001/ | AES/CBC/PKCS | 2.16.840.1.10 |
| -HS512 | 04/xmlenc#aes256-cbc | 5Padding | .3.4.1.42 | | HS512 | 04/xmlenc#aes256-cbc | 5Padding | 1.3.4.1.42 |
| A128GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/ | AES/GCM/NoPa | 2.16.840.1.101 | | A128GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/ | AES/GCM/NoPa | 2.16.840.1.10 |
| | xmlenc11#aes128-gcm | dding | .3.4.1.6 | | | xmlenc11#aes128-gcm | dding | 1.3.4.1.6 |
| A192GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/ | AES/GCM/NoPa | 2.16.840.1.101 | | A192GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/ | AES/GCM/NoPa | 2.16.840.1.10 |
| | xmlenc11#aes192-gcm | dding | .3.4.1.26 | | | xmlenc11#aes192-gcm | dding | 1.3.4.1.26 |
| A256GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/ | AES/GCM/NoPa | 2.16.840.1.101 | | A256GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/ | AES/GCM/NoPa | 2.16.840.1.10 |
| | xmlenc11#aes256-gcm | dding | .3.4.1.46 | | | xmlenc11#aes256-gcm | dding | 1.3.4.1.46 |
+---------+-------------------------+--------------+----------------+ +----------+-------------------------+--------------+---------------+
Appendix B. Test Cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms Appendix B. Test Cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms
The following test cases can be used to validate implementations of The following test cases can be used to validate implementations of
the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms defined in Section 5.2. They are the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms defined in Section 5.2. They are
also intended to correspond to test cases that may appear in a future also intended to correspond to test cases that may appear in a future
version of [I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2], demonstrating that version of [I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2], demonstrating that
the cryptographic computations performed are the same. the cryptographic computations performed are the same.
The variable names are those defined in Section 5.2. All values are The variable names are those defined in Section 5.2. All values are
skipping to change at page 66, line 13 skipping to change at page 66, line 13
Encryption (JWE) for Protecting JSON Web Key (JWK) Objects Encryption (JWE) for Protecting JSON Web Key (JWK) Objects
[I-D.miller-jose-jwe-protected-jwk], which the password-based [I-D.miller-jose-jwe-protected-jwk], which the password-based
encryption content of this draft is based upon. encryption content of this draft is based upon.
This specification is the work of the JOSE Working Group, which This specification is the work of the JOSE Working Group, which
includes dozens of active and dedicated participants. In particular, includes dozens of active and dedicated participants. In particular,
the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording
that influenced this specification: that influenced this specification:
Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, John Bradley, Brian Campbell, Alissa Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, Carsten Bormann, John Bradley, Brian
Cooper, Breno de Medeiros, Vladimir Dzhuvinov, Roni Even, Stephen Campbell, Alissa Cooper, Breno de Medeiros, Vladimir Dzhuvinov, Roni
Farrell, Yaron Y. Goland, Dick Hardt, Joe Hildebrand, Jeff Hodges, Even, Stephen Farrell, Yaron Y. Goland, Dick Hardt, Joe Hildebrand,
Edmund Jay, Charlie Kaufman, Barry Leiba, James Manger, Matt Miller, Jeff Hodges, Edmund Jay, Charlie Kaufman, Barry Leiba, James Manger,
Kathleen Moriarty, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John Panzer, Emmanuel Matt Miller, Kathleen Moriarty, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John
Raviart, Eric Rescorla, Pete Resnick, Nat Sakimura, Jim Schaad, Panzer, Emmanuel Raviart, Eric Rescorla, Pete Resnick, Nat Sakimura,
Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner. Jim Schaad, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner.
Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and
Sean Turner, Stephen Farrell, and Kathleen Moriarty served as Sean Turner, Stephen Farrell, and Kathleen Moriarty served as
Security area directors during the creation of this specification. Security area directors during the creation of this specification.
Appendix E. Document History Appendix E. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-35
o Addressed AppsDir reviews by Carsten Bormann.
o Adjusted some table column widths.
-34 -34
o Addressed IESG review comments by Barry Leiba, Alissa Cooper, Pete o Addressed IESG review comments by Barry Leiba, Alissa Cooper, Pete
Resnick, Stephen Farrell, and Richard Barnes. Resnick, Stephen Farrell, and Richard Barnes.
-33 -33
o Changed the registration review period to three weeks. o Changed the registration review period to three weeks.
o Acknowledged additional contributors. o Acknowledged additional contributors.
 End of changes. 81 change blocks. 
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