draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms-40.txt   rfc7518.txt 
JOSE Working Group M. Jones Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Request for Comments: 7518 Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track January 13, 2015 Category: Standards Track May 2015
Expires: July 17, 2015 ISSN: 2070-1721
JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms-40
Abstract Abstract
The JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification registers cryptographic This specification registers cryptographic algorithms and identifiers
algorithms and identifiers to be used with the JSON Web Signature to be used with the JSON Web Signature (JWS), JSON Web Encryption
(JWS), JSON Web Encryption (JWE), and JSON Web Key (JWK) (JWE), and JSON Web Key (JWK) specifications. It defines several
specifications. It defines several IANA registries for these IANA registries for these identifiers.
identifiers.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Cryptographic Algorithms for Digital Signatures and MACs . . . 6 3. Cryptographic Algorithms for Digital Signatures and MACs . . 6
3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS . . . . 6 3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS . . . . 6
3.2. HMAC with SHA-2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. HMAC with SHA-2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 . . . . . . . . 8
3.4. Digital Signature with ECDSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4. Digital Signature with ECDSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.5. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.5. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PSS . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.6. Using the Algorithm "none" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.6. Using the Algorithm "none" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4. Cryptographic Algorithms for Key Management . . . . . . . . . 12 4. Cryptographic Algorithms for Key Management . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE . . . . 12 4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE . . . . 12
4.2. Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2. Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.3. Key Encryption with RSAES OAEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.3. Key Encryption with RSAES OAEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.4. Key Wrapping with AES Key Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.4. Key Wrapping with AES Key Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.5. Direct Encryption with a Shared Symmetric Key . . . . . . 16 4.5. Direct Encryption with a Shared Symmetric Key . . . . . . 15
4.6. Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman 4.6. Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman
Ephemeral Static (ECDH-ES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Ephemeral Static (ECDH-ES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.6.1. Header Parameters Used for ECDH Key Agreement . . . . 17 4.6.1. Header Parameters Used for ECDH Key Agreement . . . . 16
4.6.1.1. "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) Header Parameter . . 17 4.6.1.1. "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) Header Parameter . . 16
4.6.1.2. "apu" (Agreement PartyUInfo) Header Parameter . . 17 4.6.1.2. "apu" (Agreement PartyUInfo) Header Parameter . . 17
4.6.1.3. "apv" (Agreement PartyVInfo) Header Parameter . . 17 4.6.1.3. "apv" (Agreement PartyVInfo) Header Parameter . . 17
4.6.2. Key Derivation for ECDH Key Agreement . . . . . . . . 18 4.6.2. Key Derivation for ECDH Key Agreement . . . . . . . . 17
4.7. Key Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.7. Key Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.7.1. Header Parameters Used for AES GCM Key Encryption . . 20 4.7.1. Header Parameters Used for AES GCM Key Encryption . . 19
4.7.1.1. "iv" (Initialization Vector) Header Parameter . . 20 4.7.1.1. "iv" (Initialization Vector) Header Parameter . . 19
4.7.1.2. "tag" (Authentication Tag) Header Parameter . . . 20 4.7.1.2. "tag" (Authentication Tag) Header Parameter . . . 19
4.8. Key Encryption with PBES2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.8. Key Encryption with PBES2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.8.1. Header Parameters Used for PBES2 Key Encryption . . . 21 4.8.1. Header Parameters Used for PBES2 Key Encryption . . . 20
4.8.1.1. "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Parameter . . . . . . . . 21 4.8.1.1. "p2s" (PBES2 Salt Input) Header Parameter . . . . 21
4.8.1.2. "p2c" (PBES2 count) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.8.1.2. "p2c" (PBES2 Count) Header Parameter . . . . . . 21
5. Cryptographic Algorithms for Content Encryption . . . . . . . 22 5. Cryptographic Algorithms for Content Encryption . . . . . . . 21
5.1. "enc" (Encryption Algorithm) Header Parameter Values 5.1. "enc" (Encryption Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for
for JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 JWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.2.1. Conventions Used in Defining AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 . . . . 23 5.2.1. Conventions Used in Defining AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 . . . 23
5.2.2. Generic AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithm . . . . . . . . . 23 5.2.2. Generic AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithm . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.2.1. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.2.2.1. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.2.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Decryption . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.2.2.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Decryption . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2.3. AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.2.3. AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2.4. AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.2.4. AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.2.5. AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.2.5. AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.2.6. Content Encryption with AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 . . . . . . 27 5.2.6. Content Encryption with AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 . . . . . . 26
5.3. Content Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.3. Content Encryption with AES GCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6. Cryptographic Algorithms for Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6. Cryptographic Algorithms for Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter Values . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter Values . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.2.1. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Public Keys . . . . . . 28 6.2.1. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Public Keys . . . . . . 28
6.2.1.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.2.1.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.2.1.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.2.1.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.2.1.3. "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.2.1.3. "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.2.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Private Keys . . . . . . 30 6.2.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Private Keys . . . . . 29
6.2.2.1. "d" (ECC Private Key) Parameter . . . . . . . . . 30 6.2.2.1. "d" (ECC Private Key) Parameter . . . . . . . . . 29
6.3. Parameters for RSA Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3. Parameters for RSA Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.1. Parameters for RSA Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3.1. Parameters for RSA Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.1.1. "n" (Modulus) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3.1.1. "n" (Modulus) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.1.2. "e" (Exponent) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3.1.2. "e" (Exponent) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.2. Parameters for RSA Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6.3.2. Parameters for RSA Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.2.1. "d" (Private Exponent) Parameter . . . . . . . . . 31 6.3.2.1. "d" (Private Exponent) Parameter . . . . . . . . 30
6.3.2.2. "p" (First Prime Factor) Parameter . . . . . . . . 31 6.3.2.2. "p" (First Prime Factor) Parameter . . . . . . . 31
6.3.2.3. "q" (Second Prime Factor) Parameter . . . . . . . 31 6.3.2.3. "q" (Second Prime Factor) Parameter . . . . . . . 31
6.3.2.4. "dp" (First Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter . . . . 31 6.3.2.4. "dp" (First Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter . . . 31
6.3.2.5. "dq" (Second Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter . . . 31 6.3.2.5. "dq" (Second Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter . . . 31
6.3.2.6. "qi" (First CRT Coefficient) Parameter . . . . . . 31 6.3.2.6. "qi" (First CRT Coefficient) Parameter . . . . . 31
6.3.2.7. "oth" (Other Primes Info) Parameter . . . . . . . 32 6.3.2.7. "oth" (Other Primes Info) Parameter . . . . . . . 31
6.4. Parameters for Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.4. Parameters for Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.4.1. "k" (Key Value) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.4.1. "k" (Key Value) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry . . 34 7.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry . . 33
7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.2. Header Parameter Names Registration . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7.2. Header Parameter Names Registration . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.2.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7.2.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.3. JSON Web Encryption Compression Algorithms Registry . . . 43 7.3. JSON Web Encryption Compression Algorithms Registry . . . 43
7.3.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 7.3.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.4. JSON Web Key Types Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 7.4. JSON Web Key Types Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.4.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 7.4.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.4.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 7.4.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.5. JSON Web Key Parameters Registration . . . . . . . . . . . 46 7.5. JSON Web Key Parameters Registration . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.5.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 7.5.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.6. JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 48 7.6. JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve Registry . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.6.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 7.6.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.6.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 7.6.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
8.1. Cryptographic Agility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 8.1. Cryptographic Agility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
8.2. Key Lifetimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 8.2. Key Lifetimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
8.3. RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . 50 8.3. RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 Security Considerations . . . . . . . . 50
8.4. AES GCM Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 8.4. AES GCM Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
8.5. Unsecured JWS Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 51 8.5. Unsecured JWS Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 51
8.6. Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 8.6. Denial-of-Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
8.7. Reusing Key Material when Encrypting Keys . . . . . . . . 52 8.7. Reusing Key Material when Encrypting Keys . . . . . . . . 51
8.8. Password Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 8.8. Password Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
8.9. Key Entropy and Random Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8.9. Key Entropy and Random Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
8.10. Differences between Digital Signatures and MACs . . . . . 53 8.10. Differences between Digital Signatures and MACs . . . . . 52
8.11. Using Matching Algorithm Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8.11. Using Matching Algorithm Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8.12. Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8.12. Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8.13. Timing Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8.13. Timing Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8.14. RSA Private Key Representations and Blinding . . . . . . . 53 8.14. RSA Private Key Representations and Blinding . . . . . . 53
9. Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 9. Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Appendix A. Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . . . . . . 57 Appendix A. Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . . . . . . 59
A.1. Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier A.1. Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier Cross-
Cross-Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
A.2. Key Management Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . 58 A.2. Key Management Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . . . 61
A.3. Content Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . 59 A.3. Content Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference . 62
Appendix B. Test Cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms . . . . . 60 Appendix B. Test Cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms . . . . 62
B.1. Test Cases for AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 . . . . . . . . . 61 B.1. Test Cases for AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 . . . . . . . . . 63
B.2. Test Cases for AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 . . . . . . . . . 62 B.2. Test Cases for AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 . . . . . . . . . 64
B.3. Test Cases for AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 . . . . . . . . . 63 B.3. Test Cases for AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 . . . . . . . . . 65
Appendix C. Example ECDH-ES Key Agreement Computation . . . . . . 64 Appendix C. Example ECDH-ES Key Agreement Computation . . . . . 66
Appendix D. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Appendix E. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification registers cryptographic This specification registers cryptographic algorithms and identifiers
algorithms and identifiers to be used with the JSON Web Signature to be used with the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS], JSON Web
(JWS) [JWS], JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE], and JSON Web Key (JWK) Encryption (JWE) [JWE], and JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] specifications.
[JWK] specifications. It defines several IANA registries for these It defines several IANA registries for these identifiers. All these
identifiers. All these specifications utilize JavaScript Object specifications utilize JSON-based [RFC7159] data structures. This
Notation (JSON) [RFC7159] based data structures. This specification specification also describes the semantics and operations that are
also describes the semantics and operations that are specific to specific to these algorithms and key types.
these algorithms and key types.
Registering the algorithms and identifiers here, rather than in the Registering the algorithms and identifiers here, rather than in the
JWS, JWE, and JWK specifications, is intended to allow them to remain JWS, JWE, and JWK specifications, is intended to allow them to remain
unchanged in the face of changes in the set of Required, Recommended, unchanged in the face of changes in the set of Required, Recommended,
Optional, and Deprecated algorithms over time. This also allows Optional, and Deprecated algorithms over time. This also allows
changes to the JWS, JWE, and JWK specifications without changing this changes to the JWS, JWE, and JWK specifications without changing this
document. document.
Names defined by this specification are short because a core goal is Names defined by this specification are short because a core goal is
for the resulting representations to be compact. for the resulting representations to be compact.
1.1. Notational Conventions 1.1. Notational Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in Key "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119]. If "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels" [RFC2119].
these words are used without being spelled in uppercase then they are
to be interpreted with their normal natural language meanings. The interpretation should only be applied when the terms appear in
all capital letters.
BASE64URL(OCTETS) denotes the base64url encoding of OCTETS, per BASE64URL(OCTETS) denotes the base64url encoding of OCTETS, per
Section 2 of [JWS]. Section 2 of [JWS].
UTF8(STRING) denotes the octets of the UTF-8 [RFC3629] representation UTF8(STRING) denotes the octets of the UTF-8 [RFC3629] representation
of STRING, where STRING is a sequence of zero or more Unicode of STRING, where STRING is a sequence of zero or more Unicode
[UNICODE] characters. [UNICODE] characters.
ASCII(STRING) denotes the octets of the ASCII [RFC20] representation ASCII(STRING) denotes the octets of the ASCII [RFC20] representation
of STRING, where STRING is a sequence of zero or more ASCII of STRING, where STRING is a sequence of zero or more ASCII
characters. characters.
The concatenation of two values A and B is denoted as A || B. The concatenation of two values A and B is denoted as A || B.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
These terms defined by the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS] The terms "JSON Web Signature (JWS)", "Base64url Encoding", "Header
specification are incorporated into this specification: "JSON Web Parameter", "JOSE Header", "JWS Payload", "JWS Protected Header",
Signature (JWS)", "Base64url Encoding", "Header Parameter", "JOSE "JWS Signature", "JWS Signing Input", and "Unsecured JWS" are defined
Header", "JWS Payload", "JWS Protected Header", "JWS Signature", "JWS by the JWS specification [JWS].
Signing Input", and "Unsecured JWS".
These terms defined by the JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] The terms "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)", "Additional Authenticated Data
specification are incorporated into this specification: "JSON Web (AAD)", "Authentication Tag", "Content Encryption Key (CEK)", "Direct
Encryption (JWE)", "Additional Authenticated Data (AAD)",
"Authentication Tag", "Content Encryption Key (CEK)", "Direct
Encryption", "Direct Key Agreement", "JWE Authentication Tag", "JWE Encryption", "Direct Key Agreement", "JWE Authentication Tag", "JWE
Ciphertext", "JWE Encrypted Key", "JWE Initialization Vector", "JWE Ciphertext", "JWE Encrypted Key", "JWE Initialization Vector", "JWE
Protected Header", "Key Agreement with Key Wrapping", "Key Protected Header", "Key Agreement with Key Wrapping", "Key
Encryption", "Key Management Mode", and "Key Wrapping". Encryption", "Key Management Mode", and "Key Wrapping" are defined by
the JWE specification [JWE].
These terms defined by the JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] specification are The terms "JSON Web Key (JWK)" and "JWK Set" are defined by the JWK
incorporated into this specification: "JSON Web Key (JWK)" and "JSON specification [JWK].
Web Key Set (JWK Set)".
These terms defined by the Internet Security Glossary, Version 2 The terms "Ciphertext", "Digital Signature", "Initialization Vector",
[RFC4949] are incorporated into this specification: "Ciphertext", "Message Authentication Code (MAC)", and "Plaintext" are defined by
"Digital Signature", "Message Authentication Code (MAC)", and the "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2" [RFC4949].
"Plaintext".
This term is defined by this specification: This term is defined by this specification:
Base64urlUInt Base64urlUInt
The representation of a positive or zero integer value as the The representation of a positive or zero integer value as the
base64url encoding of the value's unsigned big endian base64url encoding of the value's unsigned big-endian
representation as an octet sequence. The octet sequence MUST representation as an octet sequence. The octet sequence MUST
utilize the minimum number of octets needed to represent the utilize the minimum number of octets needed to represent the
value. Zero is represented as BASE64URL(single zero-valued value. Zero is represented as BASE64URL(single zero-valued
octet), which is "AA". octet), which is "AA".
3. Cryptographic Algorithms for Digital Signatures and MACs 3. Cryptographic Algorithms for Digital Signatures and MACs
JWS uses cryptographic algorithms to digitally sign or create a JWS uses cryptographic algorithms to digitally sign or create a MAC
Message Authentication Code (MAC) of the contents of the JWS of the contents of the JWS Protected Header and the JWS Payload.
Protected Header and the JWS Payload.
3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS 3.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS
The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) header parameter The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter
values defined by this specification for use with JWS, each of which values defined by this specification for use with JWS, each of which
is explained in more detail in the following sections: is explained in more detail in the following sections:
+--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+ +--------------+-------------------------------+--------------------+
| alg Param | Digital Signature or MAC | Implementation | | "alg" Param | Digital Signature or MAC | Implementation |
| Value | Algorithm | Requirements | | Value | Algorithm | Requirements |
+--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+ +--------------+-------------------------------+--------------------+
| HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 | Required | | HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 | Required |
| HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 | Optional | | HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 | Optional |
| HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 | Optional | | HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 | Optional |
| RS256 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-256 | Recommended | | RS256 | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using | Recommended |
| RS384 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-384 | Optional | | | SHA-256 | |
| RS512 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-512 | Optional | | RS384 | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using | Optional |
| ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 | Recommended+ | | | SHA-384 | |
| ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 | Optional | | RS512 | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using | Optional |
| ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 | Optional | | | SHA-512 | |
| PS256 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 | Optional | | ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 | Recommended+ |
| | with SHA-256 | | | ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 | Optional |
| PS384 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 | Optional | | ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 | Optional |
| | with SHA-384 | | | PS256 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and | Optional |
| PS512 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 | Optional | | | MGF1 with SHA-256 | |
| | with SHA-512 | | | PS384 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and | Optional |
| none | No digital signature or MAC | Optional | | | MGF1 with SHA-384 | |
| | performed | | | PS512 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and | Optional |
+--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+ | | MGF1 with SHA-512 | |
| none | No digital signature or MAC | Optional |
| | performed | |
+--------------+-------------------------------+--------------------+
The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements column indicates
requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of that the requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future
the specification. version of the specification.
See Appendix A.1 for a table cross-referencing the JWS digital See Appendix A.1 for a table cross-referencing the JWS digital
signature and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values defined in this signature and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values defined in this
specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards
and software packages. and software packages.
3.2. HMAC with SHA-2 Functions 3.2. HMAC with SHA-2 Functions
Hash-based Message Authentication Codes (HMACs) enable one to use a Hash-based Message Authentication Codes (HMACs) enable one to use a
secret plus a cryptographic hash function to generate a Message secret plus a cryptographic hash function to generate a MAC. This
Authentication Code (MAC). This can be used to demonstrate that can be used to demonstrate that whoever generated the MAC was in
whoever generated the MAC was in possession of the MAC key. The possession of the MAC key. The algorithm for implementing and
algorithm for implementing and validating HMACs is provided in RFC validating HMACs is provided in RFC 2104 [RFC2104].
2104 [RFC2104].
A key of the same size as the hash output (for instance, 256 bits for A key of the same size as the hash output (for instance, 256 bits for
"HS256") or larger MUST be used with this algorithm. (This "HS256") or larger MUST be used with this algorithm. (This
requirement is based on Section 5.3.4 (Security Effect of the HMAC requirement is based on Section 5.3.4 (Security Effect of the HMAC
Key) of NIST SP 800-117 [NIST.800-107], which states that the Key) of NIST SP 800-117 [NIST.800-107], which states that the
effective security strength is the minimum of the security strength effective security strength is the minimum of the security strength
of the key and two times the size of the internal hash value.) of the key and two times the size of the internal hash value.)
The HMAC SHA-256 MAC is generated per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the The HMAC SHA-256 MAC is generated per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the
hash algorithm "H", using the JWS Signing Input as the "text" value, hash algorithm "H", using the JWS Signing Input as the "text" value,
and using the shared key. The HMAC output value is the JWS and using the shared key. The HMAC output value is the JWS
Signature. Signature.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWS Signature is an HMAC value computed using the indicate that the JWS Signature is an HMAC value computed using the
corresponding algorithm: corresponding algorithm:
+-----------------+--------------------+ +-------------------+--------------------+
| alg Param Value | MAC Algorithm | | "alg" Param Value | MAC Algorithm |
+-----------------+--------------------+ +-------------------+--------------------+
| HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 | | HS256 | HMAC using SHA-256 |
| HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 | | HS384 | HMAC using SHA-384 |
| HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 | | HS512 | HMAC using SHA-512 |
+-----------------+--------------------+ +-------------------+--------------------+
The HMAC SHA-256 MAC for a JWS is validated by computing an HMAC The HMAC SHA-256 MAC for a JWS is validated by computing an HMAC
value per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the hash algorithm "H", using value per RFC 2104, using SHA-256 as the hash algorithm "H", using
the received JWS Signing Input as the "text" value, and using the the received JWS Signing Input as the "text" value, and using the
shared key. This computed HMAC value is then compared to the result shared key. This computed HMAC value is then compared to the result
of base64url decoding the received encoded JWS Signature value. The of base64url decoding the received encoded JWS Signature value. The
comparison of the computed HMAC value to the JWS Signature value MUST comparison of the computed HMAC value to the JWS Signature value MUST
be done in a constant-time manner to thwart timing attacks. be done in a constant-time manner to thwart timing attacks.
Alternatively, the computed HMAC value can be base64url encoded and Alternatively, the computed HMAC value can be base64url encoded and
compared to the received encoded JWS Signature value (also in a compared to the received encoded JWS Signature value (also in a
constant-time manner), as this comparison produces the same result as constant-time manner), as this comparison produces the same result as
comparing the unencoded values. In either case, if the values match, comparing the unencoded values. In either case, if the values match,
the HMAC has been validated. the HMAC has been validated.
Securing content and validation with the HMAC SHA-384 and HMAC SHA- Securing content and validation with the HMAC SHA-384 and HMAC
512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for HMAC SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for HMAC
SHA-256 -- just using the corresponding hash algorithms with SHA-256 -- just using the corresponding hash algorithms with
correspondingly larger minimum key sizes and result values: 384 bits correspondingly larger minimum key sizes and result values: 384 bits
each for HMAC SHA-384 and 512 bits each for HMAC SHA-512. each for HMAC SHA-384 and 512 bits each for HMAC SHA-512.
An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.1 of [JWS]. An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.1 of [JWS].
3.3. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 3.3. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5
This section defines the use of the RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 digital This section defines the use of the RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 digital
signature algorithm as defined in Section 8.2 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] signature algorithm as defined in Section 8.2 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447]
(commonly known as PKCS #1), using SHA-2 [SHS] hash functions. (commonly known as PKCS #1), using SHA-2 [SHS] hash functions.
A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms. A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms.
The RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-256 digital signature is generated as The RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 SHA-256 digital signature is generated as
follows: Generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using follows: generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using
RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5-SIGN and the SHA-256 hash function with the desired RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5-SIGN and the SHA-256 hash function with the desired
private key. This is the JWS Signature value. private key. This is the JWS Signature value.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed
using the corresponding algorithm: using the corresponding algorithm:
+-----------------+--------------------------------+ +-------------------+---------------------------------+
| alg Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm | | "alg" Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm |
+-----------------+--------------------------------+ +-------------------+---------------------------------+
| RS256 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-256 | | RS256 | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-256 |
| RS384 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-384 | | RS384 | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-384 |
| RS512 | RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-512 | | RS512 | RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-512 |
+-----------------+--------------------------------+ +-------------------+---------------------------------+
The RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is The RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is
validated as follows: Submit the JWS Signing Input, the JWS validated as follows: submit the JWS Signing Input, the JWS
Signature, and the public key corresponding to the private key used Signature, and the public key corresponding to the private key used
by the signer to the RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256 by the signer to the RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256
as the hash function. as the hash function.
Signing and validation with the RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-384 and RSASSA- Signing and validation with the RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 SHA-384 and RSASSA-
PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the PKCS1-v1_5 SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the
procedure for RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 SHA-256 -- just using the procedure for RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 SHA-256 -- just using the
corresponding hash algorithms instead of SHA-256. corresponding hash algorithms instead of SHA-256.
An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.2 of [JWS]. An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.2 of [JWS].
3.4. Digital Signature with ECDSA 3.4. Digital Signature with ECDSA
The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) [DSS] provides The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) [DSS] provides
for the use of Elliptic Curve cryptography, which is able to provide for the use of Elliptic Curve Cryptography, which is able to provide
equivalent security to RSA cryptography but using shorter key sizes equivalent security to RSA cryptography but using shorter key sizes
and with greater processing speed for many operations. This means and with greater processing speed for many operations. This means
that ECDSA digital signatures will be substantially smaller in terms that ECDSA digital signatures will be substantially smaller in terms
of length than equivalently strong RSA digital signatures. of length than equivalently strong RSA digital signatures.
This specification defines the use of ECDSA with the P-256 curve and This specification defines the use of ECDSA with the P-256 curve and
the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function, ECDSA with the P-384 curve the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function, ECDSA with the P-384 curve
and the SHA-384 hash function, and ECDSA with the P-521 curve and the and the SHA-384 hash function, and ECDSA with the P-521 curve and the
SHA-512 hash function. The P-256, P-384, and P-521 curves are SHA-512 hash function. The P-256, P-384, and P-521 curves are
defined in [DSS]. defined in [DSS].
The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows: The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows:
1. Generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using ECDSA 1. Generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using ECDSA
P-256 SHA-256 with the desired private key. The output will be P-256 SHA-256 with the desired private key. The output will be
the pair (R, S), where R and S are 256 bit unsigned integers. the pair (R, S), where R and S are 256-bit unsigned integers.
2. Turn R and S into octet sequences in big endian order, with each 2. Turn R and S into octet sequences in big-endian order, with each
array being be 32 octets long. The octet sequence array being be 32 octets long. The octet sequence
representations MUST NOT be shortened to omit any leading zero representations MUST NOT be shortened to omit any leading zero
octets contained in the values. octets contained in the values.
3. Concatenate the two octet sequences in the order R and then S. 3. Concatenate the two octet sequences in the order R and then S.
(Note that many ECDSA implementations will directly produce this (Note that many ECDSA implementations will directly produce this
concatenation as their output.) concatenation as their output.)
4. The resulting 64 octet sequence is the JWS Signature value. 4. The resulting 64-octet sequence is the JWS Signature value.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed
using the corresponding algorithm: using the corresponding algorithm:
+-----------------+-------------------------------+ +-------------------+-------------------------------+
| alg Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm | | "alg" Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm |
+-----------------+-------------------------------+ +-------------------+-------------------------------+
| ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 | | ES256 | ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 |
| ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 | | ES384 | ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 |
| ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 | | ES512 | ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 |
+-----------------+-------------------------------+ +-------------------+-------------------------------+
The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as The ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as
follows: follows:
1. The JWS Signature value MUST be a 64 octet sequence. If it is 1. The JWS Signature value MUST be a 64-octet sequence. If it is
not a 64 octet sequence, the validation has failed. not a 64-octet sequence, the validation has failed.
2. Split the 64 octet sequence into two 32 octet sequences. The 2. Split the 64-octet sequence into two 32-octet sequences. The
first octet sequence represents R and the second S. The values R first octet sequence represents R and the second S. The values R
and S are represented as octet sequences using the Integer-to- and S are represented as octet sequences using the Integer-to-
OctetString Conversion defined in Section 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1] OctetString Conversion defined in Section 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1]
(in big endian octet order). (in big-endian octet order).
3. Submit the JWS Signing Input R, S and the public key (x, y) to 3. Submit the JWS Signing Input, R, S, and the public key (x, y) to
the ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 validator. the ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 validator.
Signing and validation with the ECDSA P-384 SHA-384 and ECDSA P-521 Signing and validation with the ECDSA P-384 SHA-384 and ECDSA P-521
SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for
ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 -- just using the corresponding hash algorithms ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 -- just using the corresponding hash algorithms
with correspondingly larger result values. For ECDSA P-384 SHA-384, with correspondingly larger result values. For ECDSA P-384 SHA-384,
R and S will be 384 bits each, resulting in a 96 octet sequence. For R and S will be 384 bits each, resulting in a 96-octet sequence. For
ECDSA P-521 SHA-512, R and S will be 521 bits each, resulting in a ECDSA P-521 SHA-512, R and S will be 521 bits each, resulting in a
132 octet sequence. (Note that the Integer-to-OctetString Conversion 132-octet sequence. (Note that the Integer-to-OctetString Conversion
defined in Section 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1] used to represent R and S as defined in Section 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1] used to represent R and S as
octet sequences adds zero-valued high-order padding bits when needed octet sequences adds zero-valued high-order padding bits when needed
to round the size up to a multiple of 8 bits; thus, each 521-bit to round the size up to a multiple of 8 bits; thus, each 521-bit
integer is represented using 528 bits in 66 octets.) integer is represented using 528 bits in 66 octets.)
Examples using these algorithms are shown in Appendices A.3 and A.4 Examples using these algorithms are shown in Appendices A.3 and A.4
of [JWS]. of [JWS].
3.5. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PSS 3.5. Digital Signature with RSASSA-PSS
This section defines the use of the RSASSA-PSS digital signature This section defines the use of the RSASSA-PSS digital signature
algorithm as defined in Section 8.1 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] with the algorithm as defined in Section 8.1 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] with the
MGF1 mask generation function and SHA-2 hash functions, always using MGF1 mask generation function and SHA-2 hash functions, always using
the same hash function for both the RSASSA-PSS hash function and the the same hash function for both the RSASSA-PSS hash function and the
MGF1 hash function. The size of the salt value is the same size as MGF1 hash function. The size of the salt value is the same size as
the hash function output. All other algorithm parameters use the the hash function output. All other algorithm parameters use the
defaults specified in Section A.2.3 of RFC 3447. defaults specified in Appendix A.2.3 of RFC 3447.
A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with this algorithm. A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with this algorithm.
The RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows: The RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 digital signature is generated as follows:
Generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using RSASSA- generate a digital signature of the JWS Signing Input using RSASSA-
PSS-SIGN, the SHA-256 hash function, and the MGF1 mask generation PSS-SIGN, the SHA-256 hash function, and the MGF1 mask generation
function with SHA-256 with the desired private key. This is the JWS function with SHA-256 with the desired private key. This is the JWS
signature value. Signature value.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed indicate that the JWS Signature is a digital signature value computed
using the corresponding algorithm: using the corresponding algorithm:
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| alg Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm | | "alg" Param Value | Digital Signature Algorithm |
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| PS256 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 with SHA-256 | | PS256 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 with |
| PS384 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 with SHA-384 | | | SHA-256 |
| PS512 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 with SHA-512 | | PS384 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 with |
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------+ | | SHA-384 |
| PS512 | RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 with |
| | SHA-512 |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
The RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as The RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 digital signature for a JWS is validated as
follows: Submit the JWS Signing Input, the JWS Signature, and the follows: submit the JWS Signing Input, the JWS Signature, and the
public key corresponding to the private key used by the signer to the public key corresponding to the private key used by the signer to the
RSASSA-PSS-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256 as the hash function and RSASSA-PSS-VERIFY algorithm using SHA-256 as the hash function and
using MGF1 as the mask generation function with SHA-256. using MGF1 as the mask generation function with SHA-256.
Signing and validation with the RSASSA-PSS SHA-384 and RSASSA-PSS Signing and validation with the RSASSA-PSS SHA-384 and RSASSA-PSS
SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for SHA-512 algorithms is performed identically to the procedure for
RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 -- just using the alternative hash algorithm in RSASSA-PSS SHA-256 -- just using the alternative hash algorithm in
both roles. both roles.
3.6. Using the Algorithm "none" 3.6. Using the Algorithm "none"
skipping to change at page 13, line 6 skipping to change at page 12, line 13
Encryption Key (CEK). Encryption Key (CEK).
4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE 4.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE
The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter The table below is the set of "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter
values that are defined by this specification for use with JWE. values that are defined by this specification for use with JWE.
These algorithms are used to encrypt the CEK, producing the JWE These algorithms are used to encrypt the CEK, producing the JWE
Encrypted Key, or to use key agreement to agree upon the CEK. Encrypted Key, or to use key agreement to agree upon the CEK.
+--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+ +--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
| alg Param Value | Key Management | More | Implementation | | "alg" Param Value | Key Management | More | Implementation |
| | Algorithm | Header | Requirements | | | Algorithm | Header | Requirements |
| | | Params | | | | | Params | |
+--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+ +--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
| RSA1_5 | RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 | (none) | Recommended- | | RSA1_5 | RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 | (none) | Recommended- |
| RSA-OAEP | RSAES OAEP using | (none) | Recommended+ | | RSA-OAEP | RSAES OAEP using | (none) | Recommended+ |
| | default parameters | | | | | default parameters | | |
| RSA-OAEP-256 | RSAES OAEP using | (none) | Optional | | RSA-OAEP-256 | RSAES OAEP using | (none) | Optional |
| | SHA-256 and MGF1 | | | | | SHA-256 and MGF1 | | |
| | with SHA-256 | | | | | with SHA-256 | | |
| A128KW | AES Key Wrap with | (none) | Recommended | | A128KW | AES Key Wrap with | (none) | Recommended |
| | default initial | | | | | default initial | | |
| | value using 128 | | | | | value using | | |
| | bit key | | | | | 128-bit key | | |
| A192KW | AES Key Wrap with | (none) | Optional | | A192KW | AES Key Wrap with | (none) | Optional |
| | default initial | | | | | default initial | | |
| | value using 192 | | | | | value using | | |
| | bit key | | | | | 192-bit key | | |
| A256KW | AES Key Wrap with | (none) | Recommended | | A256KW | AES Key Wrap with | (none) | Recommended |
| | default initial | | | | | default initial | | |
| | value using 256 | | | | | value using | | |
| | bit key | | | | | 256-bit key | | |
| dir | Direct use of a | (none) | Recommended | | dir | Direct use of a | (none) | Recommended |
| | shared symmetric | | | | | shared symmetric | | |
| | key as the CEK | | | | | key as the CEK | | |
| ECDH-ES | Elliptic Curve | "epk", | Recommended+ | | ECDH-ES | Elliptic Curve | "epk", | Recommended+ |
| | Diffie-Hellman | "apu", | | | | Diffie-Hellman | "apu", | |
| | Ephemeral Static | "apv" | | | | Ephemeral Static | "apv" | |
| | key agreement | | | | | key agreement | | |
| | using Concat KDF | | | | | using Concat KDF | | |
| ECDH-ES+A128KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Recommended | | ECDH-ES+A128KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Recommended |
| | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", | | | | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", | |
skipping to change at page 13, line 49 skipping to change at page 13, line 9
| | "A128KW" | | | | | "A128KW" | | |
| ECDH-ES+A192KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Optional | | ECDH-ES+A192KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Optional |
| | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", | | | | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", | |
| | wrapped with | "apv" | | | | wrapped with | "apv" | |
| | "A192KW" | | | | | "A192KW" | | |
| ECDH-ES+A256KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Recommended | | ECDH-ES+A256KW | ECDH-ES using | "epk", | Recommended |
| | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", | | | | Concat KDF and CEK | "apu", | |
| | wrapped with | "apv" | | | | wrapped with | "apv" | |
| | "A256KW" | | | | | "A256KW" | | |
| A128GCMKW | Key wrapping with | "iv", | Optional | | A128GCMKW | Key wrapping with | "iv", | Optional |
| | AES GCM using 128 | "tag" | | | | AES GCM using | "tag" | |
| | bit key | | | | | 128-bit key | | |
| A192GCMKW | Key wrapping with | "iv", | Optional | | A192GCMKW | Key wrapping with | "iv", | Optional |
| | AES GCM using 192 | "tag" | | | | AES GCM using | "tag" | |
| | bit key | | | | | 192-bit key | | |
| A256GCMKW | Key wrapping with | "iv", | Optional | | A256GCMKW | Key wrapping with | "iv", | Optional |
| | AES GCM using 256 | "tag" | | | | AES GCM using | "tag" | |
| | bit key | | | | | 256-bit key | | |
| PBES2-HS256+A128KW | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional | | PBES2-HS256+A128KW | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional |
| | SHA-256 and | "p2c" | | | | SHA-256 and | "p2c" | |
| | "A128KW" wrapping | | | | | "A128KW" wrapping | | |
| PBES2-HS384+A192KW | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional | | PBES2-HS384+A192KW | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional |
| | SHA-384 and | "p2c" | | | | SHA-384 and | "p2c" | |
| | "A192KW" wrapping | | | | | "A192KW" wrapping | | |
| PBES2-HS512+A256KW | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional | | PBES2-HS512+A256KW | PBES2 with HMAC | "p2s", | Optional |
| | SHA-512 and | "p2c" | | | | SHA-512 and | "p2c" | |
| | "A256KW" wrapping | | | | | "A256KW" wrapping | | |
+--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+ +--------------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
The More Header Params column indicates what additional Header The More Header Params column indicates what additional Header
Parameters are used by the algorithm, beyond "alg", which all use. Parameters are used by the algorithm, beyond "alg", which all use.
All but "dir" and "ECDH-ES" also produce a JWE Encrypted Key value. All but "dir" and "ECDH-ES" also produce a JWE Encrypted Key value.
The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements column indicates
requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of that the requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future
version of the specification. The use of "-" indicates that the
requirement strength is likely to be decreased in a future version of
the specification. the specification.
See Appendix A.2 for a table cross-referencing the JWE "alg" See Appendix A.2 for a table cross-referencing the JWE "alg"
(algorithm) values defined in this specification with the equivalent (algorithm) values defined in this specification with the equivalent
identifiers used by other standards and software packages. identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
4.2. Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 4.2. Key Encryption with RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5
This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with
RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 [RFC3447]. The "alg" Header Parameter value RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 [RFC3447]. The "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter
"RSA1_5" is used for this algorithm. value "RSA1_5" is used for this algorithm.
A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with this algorithm. A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with this algorithm.
An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.2 of [JWE]. An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.2 of [JWE].
4.3. Key Encryption with RSAES OAEP 4.3. Key Encryption with RSAES OAEP
This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with RSAES This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with RSAES
using Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) [RFC3447]. Two using Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) [RFC3447]. Two
sets of parameters for using OAEP are defined, which use different sets of parameters for using OAEP are defined, which use different
hash functions. In the first case, the default parameters specified hash functions. In the first case, the default parameters specified
by RFC 3447 in Section A.2.1 are used. (Those default parameters are in Appendix A.2.1 of RFC 3447 are used. (Those default parameters
the SHA-1 hash function and the MGF1 with SHA-1 mask generation are the SHA-1 hash function and the MGF1 with SHA-1 mask generation
function.) In the second case, the SHA-256 hash function and the function.) In the second case, the SHA-256 hash function and the
MGF1 with SHA-256 mask generation function are used. MGF1 with SHA-256 mask generation function are used.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
CEK using the corresponding algorithm: CEK using the corresponding algorithm:
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| alg Param Value | Key Management Algorithm | | "alg" Param Value | Key Management Algorithm |
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| RSA-OAEP | RSAES OAEP using default parameters | | RSA-OAEP | RSAES OAEP using default parameters |
| RSA-OAEP-256 | RSAES OAEP using SHA-256 and MGF1 with SHA-256 | | RSA-OAEP-256 | RSAES OAEP using SHA-256 and MGF1 with |
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------+ | | SHA-256 |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms. A key of size 2048 bits or larger MUST be used with these algorithms.
(This requirement is based on Table 4 (Security-strength time frames) (This requirement is based on Table 4 (Security-strength time frames)
of NIST SP 800-57 [NIST.800-57], which requires 112 bits of security of NIST SP 800-57 [NIST.800-57], which requires 112 bits of security
for new uses, and Table 2 (Comparable strengths) of the same, which for new uses, and Table 2 (Comparable strengths) of the same, which
states that 2048 bit RSA keys provide 112 bits of security.) states that 2048-bit RSA keys provide 112 bits of security.)
An example using RSAES OAEP with the default parameters is shown in An example using RSAES OAEP with the default parameters is shown in
Appendix A.1 of [JWE]. Appendix A.1 of [JWE].
4.4. Key Wrapping with AES Key Wrap 4.4. Key Wrapping with AES Key Wrap
This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with the This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE CEK with the
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm [RFC3394] using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm [RFC3394] using
the default initial value specified in Section 2.2.3.1. the default initial value specified in Section 2.2.3.1 of that
document.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
CEK using the corresponding algorithm and key size: CEK using the corresponding algorithm and key size:
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| alg Param | Key Management Algorithm | | "alg" Param | Key Management Algorithm |
| Value | | | Value | |
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| A128KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using 128 | | A128KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using |
| | bit key | | | 128-bit key |
| A192KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using 192 | | A192KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using |
| | bit key | | | 192-bit key |
| A256KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using 256 | | A256KW | AES Key Wrap with default initial value using |
| | bit key | | | 256-bit key |
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.3 of [JWE]. An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.3 of [JWE].
4.5. Direct Encryption with a Shared Symmetric Key 4.5. Direct Encryption with a Shared Symmetric Key
This section defines the specifics of directly performing symmetric This section defines the specifics of directly performing symmetric
key encryption without performing a key wrapping step. In this case, key encryption without performing a key wrapping step. In this case,
the shared symmetric key is used directly as the Content Encryption the shared symmetric key is used directly as the Content Encryption
Key (CEK) value for the "enc" algorithm. An empty octet sequence is Key (CEK) value for the "enc" algorithm. An empty octet sequence is
used as the JWE Encrypted Key value. The "alg" Header Parameter used as the JWE Encrypted Key value. The "alg" (algorithm) Header
value "dir" is used in this case. Parameter value "dir" is used in this case.
Refer to the security considerations on key lifetimes in Section 8.2 Refer to the security considerations on key lifetimes in Section 8.2
and AES GCM in Section 8.4 when considering utilizing direct and AES GCM in Section 8.4 when considering utilizing direct
encryption. encryption.
4.6. Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static 4.6. Key Agreement with Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static
(ECDH-ES) (ECDH-ES)
This section defines the specifics of key agreement with Elliptic This section defines the specifics of key agreement with Elliptic
Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static [RFC6090], in combination with Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Static [RFC6090], in combination with
skipping to change at page 16, line 39 skipping to change at page 16, line 8
2. as a symmetric key used to wrap the CEK with the "A128KW", 2. as a symmetric key used to wrap the CEK with the "A128KW",
"A192KW", or "A256KW" algorithms, in the Key Agreement with Key "A192KW", or "A256KW" algorithms, in the Key Agreement with Key
Wrapping mode. Wrapping mode.
A new ephemeral public key value MUST be generated for each key A new ephemeral public key value MUST be generated for each key
agreement operation. agreement operation.
In Direct Key Agreement mode, the output of the Concat KDF MUST be a In Direct Key Agreement mode, the output of the Concat KDF MUST be a
key of the same length as that used by the "enc" algorithm. In this key of the same length as that used by the "enc" algorithm. In this
case, the empty octet sequence is used as the JWE Encrypted Key case, the empty octet sequence is used as the JWE Encrypted Key
value. The "alg" Header Parameter value "ECDH-ES" is used in the value. The "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter value "ECDH-ES" is
Direct Key Agreement mode. used in the Direct Key Agreement mode.
In Key Agreement with Key Wrapping mode, the output of the Concat KDF In Key Agreement with Key Wrapping mode, the output of the Concat KDF
MUST be a key of the length needed for the specified key wrapping MUST be a key of the length needed for the specified key wrapping
algorithm. In this case, the JWE Encrypted Key is the CEK wrapped algorithm. In this case, the JWE Encrypted Key is the CEK wrapped
with the agreed upon key. with the agreed-upon key.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
CEK using the result of the key agreement algorithm as the key CEK using the result of the key agreement algorithm as the key
encryption key for the corresponding key wrapping algorithm: encryption key for the corresponding key wrapping algorithm:
+----------------+--------------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| alg Param | Key Management Algorithm | | "alg" Param | Key Management Algorithm |
| Value | | | Value | |
+----------------+--------------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| ECDH-ES+A128KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with | | ECDH-ES+A128KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with |
| | "A128KW" | | | "A128KW" |
| ECDH-ES+A192KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with | | ECDH-ES+A192KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with |
| | "A192KW" | | | "A192KW" |
| ECDH-ES+A256KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with | | ECDH-ES+A256KW | ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and CEK wrapped with |
| | "A256KW" | | | "A256KW" |
+----------------+--------------------------------------------------+ +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
4.6.1. Header Parameters Used for ECDH Key Agreement 4.6.1. Header Parameters Used for ECDH Key Agreement
The following Header Parameter names are used for key agreement as The following Header Parameter names are used for key agreement as
defined below. defined below.
4.6.1.1. "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) Header Parameter 4.6.1.1. "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) Header Parameter
The "epk" (ephemeral public key) value created by the originator for The "epk" (ephemeral public key) value created by the originator for
the use in key agreement algorithms. This key is represented as a the use in key agreement algorithms. This key is represented as a
JSON Web Key [JWK] public key value. It MUST contain only public key JSON Web Key [JWK] public key value. It MUST contain only public key
parameters and SHOULD contain only the minimum JWK parameters parameters and SHOULD contain only the minimum JWK parameters
necessary to represent the key; other JWK parameters included can be necessary to represent the key; other JWK parameters included can be
checked for consistency and honored or can be ignored. This Header checked for consistency and honored, or they can be ignored. This
Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed by Header Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed
implementations when these algorithms are used. by implementations when these algorithms are used.
4.6.1.2. "apu" (Agreement PartyUInfo) Header Parameter 4.6.1.2. "apu" (Agreement PartyUInfo) Header Parameter
The "apu" (agreement PartyUInfo) value for key agreement algorithms The "apu" (agreement PartyUInfo) value for key agreement algorithms
using it (such as "ECDH-ES"), represented as a base64url encoded using it (such as "ECDH-ES"), represented as a base64url-encoded
string. When used, the PartyUInfo value contains information about string. When used, the PartyUInfo value contains information about
the producer. Use of this Header Parameter is OPTIONAL. This Header the producer. Use of this Header Parameter is OPTIONAL. This Header
Parameter MUST be understood and processed by implementations when Parameter MUST be understood and processed by implementations when
these algorithms are used. these algorithms are used.
4.6.1.3. "apv" (Agreement PartyVInfo) Header Parameter 4.6.1.3. "apv" (Agreement PartyVInfo) Header Parameter
The "apv" (agreement PartyVInfo) value for key agreement algorithms The "apv" (agreement PartyVInfo) value for key agreement algorithms
using it (such as "ECDH-ES"), represented as a base64url encoded using it (such as "ECDH-ES"), represented as a base64url encoded
string. When used, the PartyVInfo value contains information about string. When used, the PartyVInfo value contains information about
the recipient. Use of this Header Parameter is OPTIONAL. This the recipient. Use of this Header Parameter is OPTIONAL. This
Header Parameter MUST be understood and processed by implementations Header Parameter MUST be understood and processed by implementations
when these algorithms are used. when these algorithms are used.
4.6.2. Key Derivation for ECDH Key Agreement 4.6.2. Key Derivation for ECDH Key Agreement
The key derivation process derives the agreed upon key from the The key derivation process derives the agreed-upon key from the
shared secret Z established through the ECDH algorithm, per Section shared secret Z established through the ECDH algorithm, per
6.2.2.2 of [NIST.800-56A]. Section 6.2.2.2 of [NIST.800-56A].
Key derivation is performed using the Concat KDF, as defined in Key derivation is performed using the Concat KDF, as defined in
Section 5.8.1 of [NIST.800-56A], where the Digest Method is SHA-256. Section 5.8.1 of [NIST.800-56A], where the Digest Method is SHA-256.
The Concat KDF parameters are set as follows: The Concat KDF parameters are set as follows:
Z Z
This is set to the representation of the shared secret Z as an This is set to the representation of the shared secret Z as an
octet sequence. octet sequence.
keydatalen keydatalen
This is set to the number of bits in the desired output key. For This is set to the number of bits in the desired output key. For
"ECDH-ES", this is length of the key used by the "enc" algorithm. "ECDH-ES", this is length of the key used by the "enc" algorithm.
For "ECDH-ES+A128KW", "ECDH-ES+A192KW", and "ECDH-ES+A256KW", this For "ECDH-ES+A128KW", "ECDH-ES+A192KW", and "ECDH-ES+A256KW", this
is 128, 192, and 256, respectively. is 128, 192, and 256, respectively.
AlgorithmID AlgorithmID
The AlgorithmID value is of the form Datalen || Data, where Data The AlgorithmID value is of the form Datalen || Data, where Data
is a variable-length string of zero or more octets, and Datalen is is a variable-length string of zero or more octets, and Datalen is
a fixed-length, big endian 32 bit counter that indicates the a fixed-length, big-endian 32-bit counter that indicates the
length (in octets) of Data. In the Direct Key Agreement case, length (in octets) of Data. In the Direct Key Agreement case,
Data is set to the octets of the ASCII representation of the "enc" Data is set to the octets of the ASCII representation of the "enc"
Header Parameter value. In the Key Agreement with Key Wrapping Header Parameter value. In the Key Agreement with Key Wrapping
case, Data is set to the octets of the ASCII representation of the case, Data is set to the octets of the ASCII representation of the
"alg" Header Parameter value. "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter value.
PartyUInfo PartyUInfo
The PartyUInfo value is of the form Datalen || Data, where Data is The PartyUInfo value is of the form Datalen || Data, where Data is
a variable-length string of zero or more octets, and Datalen is a a variable-length string of zero or more octets, and Datalen is a
fixed-length, big endian 32 bit counter that indicates the length fixed-length, big-endian 32-bit counter that indicates the length
(in octets) of Data. If an "apu" (agreement PartyUInfo) Header (in octets) of Data. If an "apu" (agreement PartyUInfo) Header
Parameter is present, Data is set to the result of base64url Parameter is present, Data is set to the result of base64url
decoding the "apu" value and Datalen is set to the number of decoding the "apu" value and Datalen is set to the number of
octets in Data. Otherwise, Datalen is set to 0 and Data is set to octets in Data. Otherwise, Datalen is set to 0 and Data is set to
the empty octet sequence. the empty octet sequence.
PartyVInfo PartyVInfo
The PartyVInfo value is of the form Datalen || Data, where Data is The PartyVInfo value is of the form Datalen || Data, where Data is
a variable-length string of zero or more octets, and Datalen is a a variable-length string of zero or more octets, and Datalen is a
fixed-length, big endian 32 bit counter that indicates the length fixed-length, big-endian 32-bit counter that indicates the length
(in octets) of Data. If an "apv" (agreement PartyVInfo) Header (in octets) of Data. If an "apv" (agreement PartyVInfo) Header
Parameter is present, Data is set to the result of base64url Parameter is present, Data is set to the result of base64url
decoding the "apv" value and Datalen is set to the number of decoding the "apv" value and Datalen is set to the number of
octets in Data. Otherwise, Datalen is set to 0 and Data is set to octets in Data. Otherwise, Datalen is set to 0 and Data is set to
the empty octet sequence. the empty octet sequence.
SuppPubInfo SuppPubInfo
This is set to the keydatalen represented as a 32 bit big endian This is set to the keydatalen represented as a 32-bit big-endian
integer. integer.
SuppPrivInfo SuppPrivInfo
This is set to the empty octet sequence. This is set to the empty octet sequence.
Applications need to specify how the "apu" and "apv" parameters are Applications need to specify how the "apu" and "apv" Header
used for that application. The "apu" and "apv" values MUST be Parameters are used for that application. The "apu" and "apv" values
distinct, when used. Applications wishing to conform to MUST be distinct, when used. Applications wishing to conform to
[NIST.800-56A] need to provide values that meet the requirements of [NIST.800-56A] need to provide values that meet the requirements of
that document, e.g., by using values that identify the producer and that document, e.g., by using values that identify the producer and
consumer. Alternatively, applications MAY conduct key derivation in consumer. Alternatively, applications MAY conduct key derivation in
a manner similar to The Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Method a manner similar to "Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Method" [RFC2631]:
[RFC2631]: In that case, the "apu" field MAY either be omitted or in that case, the "apu" parameter MAY either be omitted or represent
represent a random 512-bit value (analogous to PartyAInfo in a random 512-bit value (analogous to PartyAInfo in Ephemeral-Static
Ephemeral-Static mode in RFC 2631) and the "apv" field SHOULD NOT be mode in RFC 2631) and the "apv" parameter SHOULD NOT be present.
present.
See Appendix C for an example key agreement computation using this See Appendix C for an example key agreement computation using this
method. method.
4.7. Key Encryption with AES GCM 4.7. Key Encryption with AES GCM
This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE Content This section defines the specifics of encrypting a JWE Content
Encryption Key (CEK) with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Encryption Key (CEK) with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in
Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) [AES, NIST.800-38D]. Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) ([AES] and [NIST.800-38D]).
Use of an Initialization Vector of size 96 bits is REQUIRED with this Use of an Initialization Vector (IV) of size 96 bits is REQUIRED with
algorithm. The Initialization Vector is represented in base64url this algorithm. The IV is represented in base64url-encoded form as
encoded form as the "iv" (initialization vector) Header Parameter the "iv" (initialization vector) Header Parameter value.
value.
The Additional Authenticated Data value used is the empty octet The Additional Authenticated Data value used is the empty octet
string. string.
The requested size of the Authentication Tag output MUST be 128 bits, The requested size of the Authentication Tag output MUST be 128 bits,
regardless of the key size. regardless of the key size.
The JWE Encrypted Key value is the Ciphertext output. The JWE Encrypted Key value is the ciphertext output.
The Authentication Tag output is represented in base64url encoded The Authentication Tag output is represented in base64url-encoded
form as the "tag" (authentication tag) Header Parameter value. form as the "tag" (authentication tag) Header Parameter value.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
CEK using the corresponding algorithm and key size: CEK using the corresponding algorithm and key size:
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------+ +-------------------+---------------------------------------------+
| alg Param Value | Key Management Algorithm | | "alg" Param Value | Key Management Algorithm |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------+ +-------------------+---------------------------------------------+
| A128GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 128 bit key | | A128GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 128-bit key |
| A192GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 192 bit key | | A192GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 192-bit key |
| A256GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 256 bit key | | A256GCMKW | Key wrapping with AES GCM using 256-bit key |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------+ +-------------------+---------------------------------------------+
4.7.1. Header Parameters Used for AES GCM Key Encryption 4.7.1. Header Parameters Used for AES GCM Key Encryption
The following Header Parameters are used for AES GCM key encryption. The following Header Parameters are used for AES GCM key encryption.
4.7.1.1. "iv" (Initialization Vector) Header Parameter 4.7.1.1. "iv" (Initialization Vector) Header Parameter
The "iv" (initialization vector) Header Parameter value is the The "iv" (initialization vector) Header Parameter value is the
base64url encoded representation of the 96 bit Initialization Vector base64url-encoded representation of the 96-bit IV value used for the
value used for the key encryption operation. This Header Parameter key encryption operation. This Header Parameter MUST be present and
MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed by MUST be understood and processed by implementations when these
implementations when these algorithms are used. algorithms are used.
4.7.1.2. "tag" (Authentication Tag) Header Parameter 4.7.1.2. "tag" (Authentication Tag) Header Parameter
The "tag" (authentication tag) Header Parameter value is the The "tag" (authentication tag) Header Parameter value is the
base64url encoded representation of the 128 bit Authentication Tag base64url-encoded representation of the 128-bit Authentication Tag
value resulting from the key encryption operation. This Header value resulting from the key encryption operation. This Header
Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed by Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed by
implementations when these algorithms are used. implementations when these algorithms are used.
4.8. Key Encryption with PBES2 4.8. Key Encryption with PBES2
This section defines the specifics of performing password-based This section defines the specifics of performing password-based
encryption of a JWE CEK, by first deriving a key encryption key from encryption of a JWE CEK, by first deriving a key encryption key from
a user-supplied password using PBES2 schemes as specified in Section a user-supplied password using PBES2 schemes as specified in
6.2 of [RFC2898], then by encrypting the JWE CEK using the derived Section 6.2 of [RFC2898], then by encrypting the JWE CEK using the
key. derived key.
These algorithms use HMAC SHA-2 algorithms as the Pseudo-Random These algorithms use HMAC SHA-2 algorithms as the Pseudorandom
Function (PRF) for the PBKDF2 key derivation and AES Key Wrap Function (PRF) for the PBKDF2 key derivation and AES Key Wrap
[RFC3394] for the encryption scheme. The PBES2 password input is an [RFC3394] for the encryption scheme. The PBES2 password input is an
octet sequence; if the password to be used is represented as a text octet sequence; if the password to be used is represented as a text
string rather than an octet sequence, the UTF-8 encoding of the text string rather than an octet sequence, the UTF-8 encoding of the text
string MUST be used as the octet sequence. The salt parameter MUST string MUST be used as the octet sequence. The salt parameter MUST
be computed from the "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Header Parameter value be computed from the "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Header Parameter value
and the "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter value as specified in the and the "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter value as specified in the
"p2s" definition below. The iteration count parameter MUST be "p2s" definition below. The iteration count parameter MUST be
provided as the "p2c" Header Parameter value. The algorithms provided as the "p2c" (PBES2 count) Header Parameter value. The
respectively use HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, and HMAC SHA-512 as the algorithms respectively use HMAC SHA-256, HMAC SHA-384, and HMAC
PRF and use 128, 192, and 256 bit AES Key Wrap keys. Their derived- SHA-512 as the PRF and use 128-, 192-, and 256-bit AES Key Wrap keys.
key lengths respectively are 16, 24, and 32 octets. Their derived-key lengths respectively are 16, 24, and 32 octets.
The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to The following "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter values are used to
indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the indicate that the JWE Encrypted Key is the result of encrypting the
CEK using the result of the corresponding password-based encryption CEK using the result of the corresponding password-based encryption
algorithm as the key encryption key for the corresponding key algorithm as the key encryption key for the corresponding key
wrapping algorithm: wrapping algorithm:
+--------------------+----------------------------------------------+ +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
| alg Param Value | Key Management Algorithm | | "alg" Param Value | Key Management Algorithm |
+--------------------+----------------------------------------------+ +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
| PBES2-HS256+A128KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-256 and "A128KW" | | PBES2-HS256+A128KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-256 and "A128KW" |
| | wrapping | | | wrapping |
| PBES2-HS384+A192KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-384 and "A192KW" | | PBES2-HS384+A192KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-384 and "A192KW" |
| | wrapping | | | wrapping |
| PBES2-HS512+A256KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-512 and "A256KW" | | PBES2-HS512+A256KW | PBES2 with HMAC SHA-512 and "A256KW" |
| | wrapping | | | wrapping |
+--------------------+----------------------------------------------+ +--------------------+----------------------------------------------+
See Appendix C of JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] for an example key See Appendix C of the JWK specification [JWK] for an example key
encryption computation using "PBES2-HS256+A128KW". encryption computation using "PBES2-HS256+A128KW".
4.8.1. Header Parameters Used for PBES2 Key Encryption 4.8.1. Header Parameters Used for PBES2 Key Encryption
The following Header Parameters are used for Key Encryption with The following Header Parameters are used for Key Encryption with
PBES2. PBES2.
4.8.1.1. "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Parameter 4.8.1.1. "p2s" (PBES2 Salt Input) Header Parameter
The "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Header Parameter encodes a Salt Input The "p2s" (PBES2 salt input) Header Parameter encodes a Salt Input
value, which is used as part of the PBKDF2 salt value. The "p2s" value, which is used as part of the PBKDF2 salt value. The "p2s"
value is BASE64URL(Salt Input). This Header Parameter MUST be value is BASE64URL(Salt Input). This Header Parameter MUST be
present and MUST be understood and processed by implementations when present and MUST be understood and processed by implementations when
these algorithms are used. these algorithms are used.
The salt expands the possible keys that can be derived from a given The salt expands the possible keys that can be derived from a given
password. A Salt Input value containing 8 or more octets MUST be password. A Salt Input value containing 8 or more octets MUST be
used. A new Salt Input value MUST be generated randomly for every used. A new Salt Input value MUST be generated randomly for every
encryption operation; see RFC 4086 [RFC4086] for considerations on encryption operation; see RFC 4086 [RFC4086] for considerations on
generating random values. The salt value used is (UTF8(Alg) || 0x00 generating random values. The salt value used is (UTF8(Alg) || 0x00
|| Salt Input), where Alg is the "alg" Header Parameter value. || Salt Input), where Alg is the "alg" (algorithm) Header Parameter
value.
4.8.1.2. "p2c" (PBES2 count) Parameter 4.8.1.2. "p2c" (PBES2 Count) Header Parameter
The "p2c" (PBES2 count) Header Parameter contains the PBKDF2 The "p2c" (PBES2 count) Header Parameter contains the PBKDF2
iteration count, represented as a positive JSON integer. This Header iteration count, represented as a positive JSON integer. This Header
Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed by Parameter MUST be present and MUST be understood and processed by
implementations when these algorithms are used. implementations when these algorithms are used.
The iteration count adds computational expense, ideally compounded by The iteration count adds computational expense, ideally compounded by
the possible range of keys introduced by the salt. A minimum the possible range of keys introduced by the salt. A minimum
iteration count of 1000 is RECOMMENDED. iteration count of 1000 is RECOMMENDED.
5. Cryptographic Algorithms for Content Encryption 5. Cryptographic Algorithms for Content Encryption
JWE uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt and integrity protect JWE uses cryptographic algorithms to encrypt and integrity-protect
the Plaintext and to also integrity protect additional authenticated the plaintext and to integrity-protect the Additional Authenticated
data. Data.
5.1. "enc" (Encryption Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE 5.1. "enc" (Encryption Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWE
The table below is the set of "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header The table below is the set of "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header
Parameter values that are defined by this specification for use with Parameter values that are defined by this specification for use with
JWE. JWE.
+---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+ +---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+
| enc Param | Content Encryption Algorithm | Implementation | | "enc" Param | Content Encryption Algorithm | Implementation |
| Value | | Requirements | | Value | | Requirements |
+---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+ +---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+
| A128CBC-HS256 | AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 | Required | | A128CBC-HS256 | AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 | Required |
| | authenticated encryption | | | | authenticated encryption | |
| | algorithm, as defined in | | | | algorithm, as defined in Section | |
| | Section 5.2.3 | | | | 5.2.3 | |
| A192CBC-HS384 | AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 | Optional | | A192CBC-HS384 | AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 | Optional |
| | authenticated encryption | | | | authenticated encryption | |
| | algorithm, as defined in | | | | algorithm, as defined in Section | |
| | Section 5.2.4 | | | | 5.2.4 | |
| A256CBC-HS512 | AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 | Required | | A256CBC-HS512 | AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 | Required |
| | authenticated encryption | | | | authenticated encryption | |
| | algorithm, as defined in | | | | algorithm, as defined in Section | |
| | Section 5.2.5 | | | | 5.2.5 | |
| A128GCM | AES GCM using 128 bit key | Recommended | | A128GCM | AES GCM using 128-bit key | Recommended |
| A192GCM | AES GCM using 192 bit key | Optional | | A192GCM | AES GCM using 192-bit key | Optional |
| A256GCM | AES GCM using 256 bit key | Recommended | | A256GCM | AES GCM using 256-bit key | Recommended |
+---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+ +---------------+----------------------------------+----------------+
All also use a JWE Initialization Vector value and produce JWE All also use a JWE Initialization Vector value and produce JWE
Ciphertext and JWE Authentication Tag values. Ciphertext and JWE Authentication Tag values.
See Appendix A.3 for a table cross-referencing the JWE "enc" See Appendix A.3 for a table cross-referencing the JWE "enc"
(encryption algorithm) values defined in this specification with the (encryption algorithm) values defined in this specification with the
equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages. equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
5.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms 5.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms
This section defines a family of authenticated encryption algorithms This section defines a family of authenticated encryption algorithms
built using a composition of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) [AES] built using a composition of AES [AES] in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)
in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode [NIST.800-38A] with PKCS #7 mode [NIST.800-38A] with PKCS #7 padding operations per Section 6.3
padding [RFC5652], Section 6.3 operations and HMAC [RFC2104, SHS] of [RFC5652] and HMAC ([RFC2104] and [SHS]) operations. This
operations. This algorithm family is called AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2. It algorithm family is called AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2. It also defines three
also defines three instances of this family, the first using 128 bit instances of this family: the first using 128-bit CBC keys and HMAC
CBC keys and HMAC SHA-256, the second using 192 bit CBC keys and HMAC SHA-256, the second using 192-bit CBC keys and HMAC SHA-384, and the
SHA-384, and the third using 256 bit CBC keys and HMAC SHA-512. Test third using 256-bit CBC keys and HMAC SHA-512. Test cases for these
cases for these algorithms can be found in Appendix B. algorithms can be found in Appendix B.
These algorithms are based upon Authenticated Encryption with AES-CBC These algorithms are based upon "Authenticated Encryption with AES-
and HMAC-SHA [I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2], performing the same CBC and HMAC-SHA" [AEAD-CBC-SHA], performing the same cryptographic
cryptographic computations, but with the Initialization Vector and computations, but with the Initialization Vector (IV) and
Authentication Tag values remaining separate, rather than being Authentication Tag values remaining separate, rather than being
concatenated with the Ciphertext value in the output representation. concatenated with the ciphertext value in the output representation.
This option is discussed in Appendix B of that specification. This This option is discussed in Appendix B of that specification. This
algorithm family is a generalization of the algorithm family in algorithm family is a generalization of the algorithm family in
[I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2], and can be used to implement [AEAD-CBC-SHA] and can be used to implement those algorithms.
those algorithms.
5.2.1. Conventions Used in Defining AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 5.2.1. Conventions Used in Defining AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2
We use the following notational conventions. We use the following notational conventions.
CBC-PKCS5-ENC(X, P) denotes the AES CBC encryption of P using PKCS CBC-PKCS7-ENC(X, P) denotes the AES-CBC encryption of P using PKCS
#7 padding using the cipher with the key X. #7 padding utilizing the cipher with the key X.
MAC(Y, M) denotes the application of the MAC to the message M
MAC(Y, M) denotes the application of the Message Authentication using the key Y.
Code (MAC) to the message M, using the key Y.
5.2.2. Generic AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithm 5.2.2. Generic AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithm
This section defines AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 in a manner that is This section defines AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 in a manner that is
independent of the AES CBC key size or hash function to be used. independent of the AES-CBC key size or hash function to be used.
Section 5.2.2.1 and Section 5.2.2.2 define the generic encryption and Sections 5.2.2.1 and 5.2.2.2 define the generic encryption and
decryption algorithms. Sections 5.2.3 through 5.2.5 define instances decryption algorithms. Sections 5.2.3 through 5.2.5 define instances
of AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 that specify those details. of AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 that specify those details.
5.2.2.1. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Encryption 5.2.2.1. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Encryption
The authenticated encryption algorithm takes as input four octet The authenticated encryption algorithm takes as input four octet
strings: a secret key K, a plaintext P, additional authenticated data strings: a secret key K, a plaintext P, Additional Authenticated Data
A, and an initialization vector IV. The authenticated ciphertext A, and an Initialization Vector IV. The authenticated ciphertext
value E and the authentication tag value T are provided as outputs. value E and the Authentication Tag value T are provided as outputs.
The data in the plaintext are encrypted and authenticated, and the The data in the plaintext are encrypted and authenticated, and the
additional authenticated data are authenticated, but not encrypted. Additional Authenticated Data are authenticated, but not encrypted.
The encryption process is as follows, or uses an equivalent set of The encryption process is as follows, or uses an equivalent set of
steps: steps:
1. The secondary keys MAC_KEY and ENC_KEY are generated from the 1. The secondary keys MAC_KEY and ENC_KEY are generated from the
input key K as follows. Each of these two keys is an octet input key K as follows. Each of these two keys is an octet
string. string.
MAC_KEY consists of the initial MAC_KEY_LEN octets of K, in MAC_KEY consists of the initial MAC_KEY_LEN octets of K, in
order. order.
skipping to change at page 24, line 25 skipping to change at page 24, line 12
ENC_KEY consists of the final ENC_KEY_LEN octets of K, in ENC_KEY consists of the final ENC_KEY_LEN octets of K, in
order. order.
The number of octets in the input key K MUST be the sum of The number of octets in the input key K MUST be the sum of
MAC_KEY_LEN and ENC_KEY_LEN. The values of these parameters are MAC_KEY_LEN and ENC_KEY_LEN. The values of these parameters are
specified by the Authenticated Encryption algorithms in Sections specified by the Authenticated Encryption algorithms in Sections
5.2.3 through 5.2.5. Note that the MAC key comes before the 5.2.3 through 5.2.5. Note that the MAC key comes before the
encryption key in the input key K; this is in the opposite order encryption key in the input key K; this is in the opposite order
of the algorithm names in the identifier "AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2". of the algorithm names in the identifier "AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2".
2. The Initialization Vector (IV) used is a 128 bit value generated 2. The IV used is a 128-bit value generated randomly or
randomly or pseudorandomly for use in the cipher. pseudorandomly for use in the cipher.
3. The plaintext is CBC encrypted using PKCS #7 padding using 3. The plaintext is CBC encrypted using PKCS #7 padding using
ENC_KEY as the key, and the IV. We denote the ciphertext output ENC_KEY as the key and the IV. We denote the ciphertext output
from this step as E. from this step as E.
4. The octet string AL is equal to the number of bits in the 4. The octet string AL is equal to the number of bits in the
additional authenticated data A expressed as a 64-bit unsigned Additional Authenticated Data A expressed as a 64-bit unsigned
big endian integer. big-endian integer.
5. A message authentication tag T is computed by applying HMAC 5. A message Authentication Tag T is computed by applying HMAC
[RFC2104] to the following data, in order: [RFC2104] to the following data, in order:
the additional authenticated data A, the Additional Authenticated Data A,
the Initialization Vector IV,
the initialization vector IV,
the ciphertext E computed in the previous step, and the ciphertext E computed in the previous step, and
the octet string AL defined above. the octet string AL defined above.
The string MAC_KEY is used as the MAC key. We denote the output The string MAC_KEY is used as the MAC key. We denote the output
of the MAC computed in this step as M. The first T_LEN bits of M of the MAC computed in this step as M. The first T_LEN octets of
are used as T. M are used as T.
6. The Ciphertext E and the Authentication Tag T are returned as the 6. The ciphertext E and the Authentication Tag T are returned as the
outputs of the authenticated encryption. outputs of the authenticated encryption.
The encryption process can be illustrated as follows. Here K, P, A, The encryption process can be illustrated as follows. Here K, P, A,
IV, and E denote the key, plaintext, additional authenticated data, IV, and E denote the key, plaintext, Additional Authenticated Data,
initialization vector, and ciphertext, respectively. Initialization Vector, and ciphertext, respectively.
MAC_KEY = initial MAC_KEY_LEN octets of K, MAC_KEY = initial MAC_KEY_LEN octets of K,
ENC_KEY = final ENC_KEY_LEN octets of K, ENC_KEY = final ENC_KEY_LEN octets of K,
E = CBC-PKCS7-ENC(ENC_KEY, P),
E = CBC-PKCS5-ENC(ENC_KEY, P),
M = MAC(MAC_KEY, A || IV || E || AL), M = MAC(MAC_KEY, A || IV || E || AL),
T = initial T_LEN octets of M. T = initial T_LEN octets of M.
5.2.2.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Decryption 5.2.2.2. AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Decryption
The authenticated decryption operation has five inputs: K, A, IV, E, The authenticated decryption operation has five inputs: K, A, IV, E,
and T as defined above. It has only a single output, either a and T as defined above. It has only a single output: either a
plaintext value P or a special symbol FAIL that indicates that the plaintext value P or a special symbol FAIL that indicates that the
inputs are not authentic. The authenticated decryption algorithm is inputs are not authentic. The authenticated decryption algorithm is
as follows, or uses an equivalent set of steps: as follows, or uses an equivalent set of steps:
1. The secondary keys MAC_KEY and ENC_KEY are generated from the 1. The secondary keys MAC_KEY and ENC_KEY are generated from the
input key K as in Step 1 of Section 5.2.2.1. input key K as in Step 1 of Section 5.2.2.1.
2. The integrity and authenticity of A and E are checked by 2. The integrity and authenticity of A and E are checked by
computing an HMAC with the inputs as in Step 5 of computing an HMAC with the inputs as in Step 5 of
Section 5.2.2.1. The value T, from the previous step, is Section 5.2.2.1. The value T, from the previous step, is
compared to the first MAC_KEY length bits of the HMAC output. If compared to the first MAC_KEY length bits of the HMAC output. If
those values are identical, then A and E are considered valid, those values are identical, then A and E are considered valid,
and processing is continued. Otherwise, all of the data used in and processing is continued. Otherwise, all of the data used in
the MAC validation are discarded, and the Authenticated the MAC validation are discarded, and the authenticated
Encryption decryption operation returns an indication that it decryption operation returns an indication that it failed, and
failed, and the operation halts. (But see Section 11.5 of [JWE] the operation halts. (But see Section 11.5 of [JWE] for security
for security considerations on thwarting timing attacks.) considerations on thwarting timing attacks.)
3. The value E is decrypted and the PKCS #7 padding is checked and 3. The value E is decrypted and the PKCS #7 padding is checked and
removed. The value IV is used as the initialization vector. The removed. The value IV is used as the Initialization Vector. The
value ENC_KEY is used as the decryption key. value ENC_KEY is used as the decryption key.
4. The plaintext value is returned. 4. The plaintext value is returned.
5.2.3. AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 5.2.3. AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256
This algorithm is a concrete instantiation of the generic This algorithm is a concrete instantiation of the generic
AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithm above. It uses the HMAC message AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithm above. It uses the HMAC message
authentication code [RFC2104] with the SHA-256 hash function [SHS] to authentication code [RFC2104] with the SHA-256 hash function [SHS] to
provide message authentication, with the HMAC output truncated to 128 provide message authentication, with the HMAC output truncated to 128
bits, corresponding to the HMAC-SHA-256-128 algorithm defined in bits, corresponding to the HMAC-SHA-256-128 algorithm defined in
[RFC4868]. For encryption, it uses AES in the Cipher Block Chaining [RFC4868]. For encryption, it uses AES in the CBC mode of operation
(CBC) mode of operation as defined in Section 6.2 of [NIST.800-38A], as defined in Section 6.2 of [NIST.800-38A], with PKCS #7 padding and
with PKCS #7 padding and a 128 bit initialization vector (IV) value. a 128-bit IV value.
The AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 parameters specific to AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 The AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 parameters specific to AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256
are: are:
The input key K is 32 octets long. The input key K is 32 octets long.
ENC_KEY_LEN is 16 octets. ENC_KEY_LEN is 16 octets.
MAC_KEY_LEN is 16 octets. MAC_KEY_LEN is 16 octets.
The SHA-256 hash algorithm is used for the HMAC. The SHA-256 hash algorithm is used for the HMAC.
The HMAC-SHA-256 output is truncated to T_LEN=16 octets, by The HMAC-SHA-256 output is truncated to T_LEN=16 octets, by
stripping off the final 16 octets. stripping off the final 16 octets.
5.2.4. AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 5.2.4. AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384
AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 is based on AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256, but AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 is based on AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256, but
with the following differences: with the following differences:
The input key K is 48 octets long instead of 32. The input key K is 48 octets long instead of 32.
ENC_KEY_LEN is 24 octets instead of 16. ENC_KEY_LEN is 24 octets instead of 16.
MAC_KEY_LEN is 24 octets instead of 16. MAC_KEY_LEN is 24 octets instead of 16.
SHA-384 is used for the HMAC instead of SHA-256. SHA-384 is used for the HMAC instead of SHA-256.
The HMAC SHA-384 value is truncated to T_LEN=24 octets instead of The HMAC SHA-384 value is truncated to T_LEN=24 octets instead of
16. 16.
5.2.5. AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 5.2.5. AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512
AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 is based on AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256, but AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 is based on AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256, but
with the following differences: with the following differences:
The input key K is 64 octets long instead of 32. The input key K is 64 octets long instead of 32.
ENC_KEY_LEN is 32 octets instead of 16. ENC_KEY_LEN is 32 octets instead of 16.
MAC_KEY_LEN is 32 octets instead of 16. MAC_KEY_LEN is 32 octets instead of 16.
SHA-512 is used for the HMAC instead of SHA-256. SHA-512 is used for the HMAC instead of SHA-256.
The HMAC SHA-512 value is truncated to T_LEN=32 octets instead of The HMAC SHA-512 value is truncated to T_LEN=32 octets instead of
16. 16.
5.2.6. Content Encryption with AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 5.2.6. Content Encryption with AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2
This section defines the specifics of performing authenticated This section defines the specifics of performing authenticated
encryption with the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms. encryption with the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms.
The CEK is used as the secret key K. The CEK is used as the secret key K.
skipping to change at page 27, line 20 skipping to change at page 26, line 41
This section defines the specifics of performing authenticated This section defines the specifics of performing authenticated
encryption with the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms. encryption with the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms.
The CEK is used as the secret key K. The CEK is used as the secret key K.
The following "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameter values The following "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameter values
are used to indicate that the JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication are used to indicate that the JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication
Tag values have been computed using the corresponding algorithm: Tag values have been computed using the corresponding algorithm:
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+ +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
| enc Param | Content Encryption Algorithm | | "enc" Param | Content Encryption Algorithm |
| Value | | | Value | |
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+ +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
| A128CBC-HS256 | AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 authenticated encryption | | A128CBC-HS256 | AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 authenticated encryption |
| | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.3 | | | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.3 |
| A192CBC-HS384 | AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 authenticated encryption | | A192CBC-HS384 | AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 authenticated encryption |
| | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.4 | | | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.4 |
| A256CBC-HS512 | AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 authenticated encryption | | A256CBC-HS512 | AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 authenticated encryption |
| | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.5 | | | algorithm, as defined in Section 5.2.5 |
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+ +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
5.3. Content Encryption with AES GCM 5.3. Content Encryption with AES GCM
This section defines the specifics of performing authenticated This section defines the specifics of performing authenticated
encryption with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Galois/Counter encryption with AES in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) ([AES] and
Mode (GCM) [AES, NIST.800-38D]. [NIST.800-38D]).
The CEK is used as the encryption key. The CEK is used as the encryption key.
Use of an initialization vector of size 96 bits is REQUIRED with this Use of an IV of size 96 bits is REQUIRED with this algorithm.
algorithm.
The requested size of the Authentication Tag output MUST be 128 bits, The requested size of the Authentication Tag output MUST be 128 bits,
regardless of the key size. regardless of the key size.
The following "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameter values The following "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameter values
are used to indicate that the JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication are used to indicate that the JWE Ciphertext and JWE Authentication
Tag values have been computed using the corresponding algorithm and Tag values have been computed using the corresponding algorithm and
key size: key size:
+-----------------+------------------------------+ +-------------------+------------------------------+
| enc Param Value | Content Encryption Algorithm | | "enc" Param Value | Content Encryption Algorithm |
+-----------------+------------------------------+ +-------------------+------------------------------+
| A128GCM | AES GCM using 128 bit key | | A128GCM | AES GCM using 128-bit key |
| A192GCM | AES GCM using 192 bit key | | A192GCM | AES GCM using 192-bit key |
| A256GCM | AES GCM using 256 bit key | | A256GCM | AES GCM using 256-bit key |
+-----------------+------------------------------+ +-------------------+------------------------------+
An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.1 of [JWE]. An example using this algorithm is shown in Appendix A.1 of [JWE].
6. Cryptographic Algorithms for Keys 6. Cryptographic Algorithms for Keys
A JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] is a JSON data structure that represents a A JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] is a JSON data structure that represents a
cryptographic key. These keys can be either asymmetric or symmetric. cryptographic key. These keys can be either asymmetric or symmetric.
They can hold both public and private information about the key. They can hold both public and private information about the key.
This section defines the parameters for keys using the algorithms This section defines the parameters for keys using the algorithms
specified by this document. specified by this document.
6.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter Values 6.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter Values
The table below is the set of "kty" (key type) parameter values that The table below is the set of "kty" (key type) parameter values that
are defined by this specification for use in JWKs. are defined by this specification for use in JWKs.
+-------------+------------------------------------+----------------+ +-------------+--------------------------------+--------------------+
| kty Param | Key Type | Implementation | | "kty" Param | Key Type | Implementation |
| Value | | Requirements | | Value | | Requirements |
+-------------+------------------------------------+----------------+ +-------------+--------------------------------+--------------------+
| EC | Elliptic Curve [DSS] | Recommended+ | | EC | Elliptic Curve [DSS] | Recommended+ |
| RSA | RSA [RFC3447] | Required | | RSA | RSA [RFC3447] | Required |
| oct | Octet sequence (used to represent | Required | | oct | Octet sequence (used to | Required |
| | symmetric keys) | | | | represent symmetric keys) | |
+-------------+------------------------------------+----------------+ +-------------+--------------------------------+--------------------+
The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements indicates that the The use of "+" in the Implementation Requirements column indicates
requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future version of that the requirement strength is likely to be increased in a future
the specification. version of the specification.
6.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys 6.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Keys
JWKs can represent Elliptic Curve [DSS] keys. In this case, the JWKs can represent Elliptic Curve [DSS] keys. In this case, the
"kty" member value is "EC". "kty" member value is "EC".
6.2.1. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Public Keys 6.2.1. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Public Keys
An elliptic curve public key is represented by a pair of coordinates An Elliptic Curve public key is represented by a pair of coordinates
drawn from a finite field, which together define a point on an drawn from a finite field, which together define a point on an
elliptic curve. The following members MUST be present for all Elliptic Curve. The following members MUST be present for all
elliptic curve public keys: Elliptic Curve public keys:
o "crv" o "crv"
o "x" o "x"
The following member MUST also be present for elliptic curve public The following member MUST also be present for Elliptic Curve public
keys for the three curves defined in the following section: keys for the three curves defined in the following section:
o "y" o "y"
6.2.1.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter 6.2.1.1. "crv" (Curve) Parameter
The "crv" (curve) member identifies the cryptographic curve used with The "crv" (curve) parameter identifies the cryptographic curve used
the key. Curve values from [DSS] used by this specification are: with the key. Curve values from [DSS] used by this specification
are:
o "P-256" o "P-256"
o "P-384" o "P-384"
o "P-521" o "P-521"
These values are registered in the IANA "JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve"
These values are registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve
registry defined in Section 7.6. Additional "crv" values can be registry defined in Section 7.6. Additional "crv" values can be
registered by other specifications. Specifications registering registered by other specifications. Specifications registering
additional curves must define what parameters are used to represent additional curves must define what parameters are used to represent
keys for the curves registered. The "crv" value is a case-sensitive keys for the curves registered. The "crv" value is a case-sensitive
string. string.
SEC1 [SEC1] point compression is not supported for any of these three SEC1 [SEC1] point compression is not supported for any of these three
curves. curves.
6.2.1.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter 6.2.1.2. "x" (X Coordinate) Parameter
The "x" (x coordinate) member contains the x coordinate for the The "x" (x coordinate) parameter contains the x coordinate for the
elliptic curve point. It is represented as the base64url encoding of Elliptic Curve point. It is represented as the base64url encoding of
the octet string representation of the coordinate, as defined in the octet string representation of the coordinate, as defined in
Section 2.3.5 of SEC1 [SEC1]. The length of this octet string MUST Section 2.3.5 of SEC1 [SEC1]. The length of this octet string MUST
be the full size of a coordinate for the curve specified in the "crv" be the full size of a coordinate for the curve specified in the "crv"
parameter. For example, if the value of "crv" is "P-521", the octet parameter. For example, if the value of "crv" is "P-521", the octet
string must be 66 octets long. string must be 66 octets long.
6.2.1.3. "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter 6.2.1.3. "y" (Y Coordinate) Parameter
The "y" (y coordinate) member contains the y coordinate for the The "y" (y coordinate) parameter contains the y coordinate for the
elliptic curve point. It is represented as the base64url encoding of Elliptic Curve point. It is represented as the base64url encoding of
the octet string representation of the coordinate, as defined in the octet string representation of the coordinate, as defined in
Section 2.3.5 of SEC1 [SEC1]. The length of this octet string MUST Section 2.3.5 of SEC1 [SEC1]. The length of this octet string MUST
be the full size of a coordinate for the curve specified in the "crv" be the full size of a coordinate for the curve specified in the "crv"
parameter. For example, if the value of "crv" is "P-521", the octet parameter. For example, if the value of "crv" is "P-521", the octet
string must be 66 octets long. string must be 66 octets long.
6.2.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Private Keys 6.2.2. Parameters for Elliptic Curve Private Keys
In addition to the members used to represent Elliptic Curve public In addition to the members used to represent Elliptic Curve public
keys, the following member MUST be present to represent Elliptic keys, the following member MUST be present to represent Elliptic
Curve private keys. Curve private keys.
6.2.2.1. "d" (ECC Private Key) Parameter 6.2.2.1. "d" (ECC Private Key) Parameter
The "d" (ECC private key) member contains the Elliptic Curve private The "d" (ECC private key) parameter contains the Elliptic Curve
key value. It is represented as the base64url encoding of the octet private key value. It is represented as the base64url encoding of
string representation of the private key value, as defined in Section the octet string representation of the private key value, as defined
2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1]. The length of this octet string MUST be in Section 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1]. The length of this octet string
ceiling(log-base-2(n)/8) octets (where n is the order of the curve). MUST be ceiling(log-base-2(n)/8) octets (where n is the order of the
curve).
6.3. Parameters for RSA Keys 6.3. Parameters for RSA Keys
JWKs can represent RSA [RFC3447] keys. In this case, the "kty" JWKs can represent RSA [RFC3447] keys. In this case, the "kty"
member value is "RSA". The semantics of the parameters defined below member value is "RSA". The semantics of the parameters defined below
are the same as those defined in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 of RFC 3447. are the same as those defined in Sections 3.1 and 3.2 of RFC 3447.
6.3.1. Parameters for RSA Public Keys 6.3.1. Parameters for RSA Public Keys
The following members MUST be present for RSA public keys. The following members MUST be present for RSA public keys.
6.3.1.1. "n" (Modulus) Parameter 6.3.1.1. "n" (Modulus) Parameter
The "n" (modulus) member contains the modulus value for the RSA The "n" (modulus) parameter contains the modulus value for the RSA
public key. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value. public key. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.
Note that implementers have found that some cryptographic libraries Note that implementers have found that some cryptographic libraries
prefix an extra zero-valued octet to the modulus representations they prefix an extra zero-valued octet to the modulus representations they
return, for instance, returning 257 octets for a 2048 bit key, rather return, for instance, returning 257 octets for a 2048-bit key, rather
than 256. Implementations using such libraries will need to take than 256. Implementations using such libraries will need to take
care to omit the extra octet from the base64url encoded care to omit the extra octet from the base64url-encoded
representation. representation.
6.3.1.2. "e" (Exponent) Parameter 6.3.1.2. "e" (Exponent) Parameter
The "e" (exponent) member contains the exponent value for the RSA The "e" (exponent) parameter contains the exponent value for the RSA
public key. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value. public key. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.
For instance, when representing the value 65537, the octet sequence For instance, when representing the value 65537, the octet sequence
to be base64url encoded MUST consist of the three octets [1, 0, 1]; to be base64url-encoded MUST consist of the three octets [1, 0, 1];
the resulting representation for this value is "AQAB". the resulting representation for this value is "AQAB".
6.3.2. Parameters for RSA Private Keys 6.3.2. Parameters for RSA Private Keys
In addition to the members used to represent RSA public keys, the In addition to the members used to represent RSA public keys, the
following members are used to represent RSA private keys. The following members are used to represent RSA private keys. The
parameter "d" is REQUIRED for RSA private keys. The others enable parameter "d" is REQUIRED for RSA private keys. The others enable
optimizations and SHOULD be included by producers of JWKs optimizations and SHOULD be included by producers of JWKs
representing RSA private keys. If the producer includes any of the representing RSA private keys. If the producer includes any of the
other private key parameters, then all of the others MUST be present, other private key parameters, then all of the others MUST be present,
with the exception of "oth", which MUST only be present when more with the exception of "oth", which MUST only be present when more
than two prime factors were used. than two prime factors were used.
6.3.2.1. "d" (Private Exponent) Parameter 6.3.2.1. "d" (Private Exponent) Parameter
The "d" (private exponent) member contains the private exponent value The "d" (private exponent) parameter contains the private exponent
for the RSA private key. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt value for the RSA private key. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-
encoded value. encoded value.
6.3.2.2. "p" (First Prime Factor) Parameter 6.3.2.2. "p" (First Prime Factor) Parameter
The "p" (first prime factor) member contains the first prime factor. The "p" (first prime factor) parameter contains the first prime
It is represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value. factor. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.
6.3.2.3. "q" (Second Prime Factor) Parameter 6.3.2.3. "q" (Second Prime Factor) Parameter
The "q" (second prime factor) member contains the second prime The "q" (second prime factor) parameter contains the second prime
factor. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value. factor. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.
6.3.2.4. "dp" (First Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter 6.3.2.4. "dp" (First Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter
The "dp" (first factor CRT exponent) member contains the Chinese The "dp" (first factor CRT exponent) parameter contains the Chinese
Remainder Theorem (CRT) exponent of the first factor. It is Remainder Theorem (CRT) exponent of the first factor. It is
represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value. represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.
6.3.2.5. "dq" (Second Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter 6.3.2.5. "dq" (Second Factor CRT Exponent) Parameter
The "dq" (second factor CRT exponent) member contains the Chinese The "dq" (second factor CRT exponent) parameter contains the CRT
Remainder Theorem (CRT) exponent of the second factor. It is exponent of the second factor. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-
represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value. encoded value.
6.3.2.6. "qi" (First CRT Coefficient) Parameter 6.3.2.6. "qi" (First CRT Coefficient) Parameter
The "qi" (first CRT coefficient) member contains the Chinese The "qi" (first CRT coefficient) parameter contains the CRT
Remainder Theorem (CRT) coefficient of the second factor. It is coefficient of the second factor. It is represented as a
represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value. Base64urlUInt-encoded value.
6.3.2.7. "oth" (Other Primes Info) Parameter 6.3.2.7. "oth" (Other Primes Info) Parameter
The "oth" (other primes info) member contains an array of information The "oth" (other primes info) parameter contains an array of
about any third and subsequent primes, should they exist. When only information about any third and subsequent primes, should they exist.
two primes have been used (the normal case), this parameter MUST be When only two primes have been used (the normal case), this parameter
omitted. When three or more primes have been used, the number of MUST be omitted. When three or more primes have been used, the
array elements MUST be the number of primes used minus two. For more number of array elements MUST be the number of primes used minus two.
information on this case, see the description of the OtherPrimeInfo For more information on this case, see the description of the
parameters in Section A.1.2 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447], upon which the OtherPrimeInfo parameters in Appendix A.1.2 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447],
following parameters are modelled. If the consumer of a JWK does not upon which the following parameters are modeled. If the consumer of
support private keys with more than two primes and it encounters a a JWK does not support private keys with more than two primes and it
private key that includes the "oth" parameter, then it MUST NOT use encounters a private key that includes the "oth" parameter, then it
the key. Each array element MUST be an object with the following MUST NOT use the key. Each array element MUST be an object with the
members: following members.
6.3.2.7.1. "r" (Prime Factor) 6.3.2.7.1. "r" (Prime Factor)
The "r" (prime factor) parameter within an "oth" array member The "r" (prime factor) parameter within an "oth" array member
represents the value of a subsequent prime factor. It is represented represents the value of a subsequent prime factor. It is represented
as a Base64urlUInt encoded value. as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.
6.3.2.7.2. "d" (Factor CRT Exponent) 6.3.2.7.2. "d" (Factor CRT Exponent)
The "d" (Factor CRT Exponent) parameter within an "oth" array member The "d" (factor CRT exponent) parameter within an "oth" array member
represents the CRT exponent of the corresponding prime factor. It is represents the CRT exponent of the corresponding prime factor. It is
represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value. represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.
6.3.2.7.3. "t" (Factor CRT Coefficient) 6.3.2.7.3. "t" (Factor CRT Coefficient)
The "t" (factor CRT coefficient) parameter within an "oth" array The "t" (factor CRT coefficient) parameter within an "oth" array
member represents the CRT coefficient of the corresponding prime member represents the CRT coefficient of the corresponding prime
factor. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt encoded value. factor. It is represented as a Base64urlUInt-encoded value.
6.4. Parameters for Symmetric Keys 6.4. Parameters for Symmetric Keys
When the JWK "kty" member value is "oct" (octet sequence), the member When the JWK "kty" member value is "oct" (octet sequence), the member
"k" is used to represent a symmetric key (or another key whose value "k" (see Section 6.4.1) is used to represent a symmetric key (or
is a single octet sequence). An "alg" member SHOULD also be present another key whose value is a single octet sequence). An "alg" member
to identify the algorithm intended to be used with the key, unless SHOULD also be present to identify the algorithm intended to be used
the application uses another means or convention to determine the with the key, unless the application uses another means or convention
algorithm used. to determine the algorithm used.
6.4.1. "k" (Key Value) Parameter 6.4.1. "k" (Key Value) Parameter
The "k" (key value) member contains the value of the symmetric (or The "k" (key value) parameter contains the value of the symmetric (or
other single-valued) key. It is represented as the base64url other single-valued) key. It is represented as the base64url
encoding of the octet sequence containing the key value. encoding of the octet sequence containing the key value.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
The following registration procedure is used for all the registries The following registration procedure is used for all the registries
established by this specification. established by this specification.
Values are registered on a Specification Required [RFC5226] basis The registration procedure for values is Specification Required
after a three-week review period on the jose-reg-review@ietf.org [RFC5226] after a three-week review period on the
mailing list, on the advice of one or more Designated Experts. jose-reg-review@ietf.org mailing list, on the advice of one or more
However, to allow for the allocation of values prior to publication, Designated Experts. However, to allow for the allocation of values
the Designated Expert(s) may approve registration once they are prior to publication, the Designated Experts may approve registration
satisfied that such a specification will be published. once they are satisfied that such a specification will be published.
Registration requests must be sent to the jose-reg-review@ietf.org Registration requests sent to the mailing list for review should use
mailing list for review and comment, with an appropriate subject an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request to register algorithm:
(e.g., "Request to register algorithm: example"). example").
Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either Within the review period, the Designated Experts will either approve
approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision or deny the registration request, communicating this decision to the
to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation and, if
and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request successful.
successful. Registration requests that are undetermined for a period
longer than 21 days can be brought to the IESG's attention (using the Registration requests that are undetermined for a period longer than
21 days can be brought to the IESG's attention (using the
iesg@ietf.org mailing list) for resolution. iesg@ietf.org mailing list) for resolution.
Criteria that should be applied by the Designated Expert(s) includes Criteria that should be applied by the Designated Experts include
determining whether the proposed registration duplicates existing determining whether the proposed registration duplicates existing
functionality, determining whether it is likely to be of general functionality, whether it is likely to be of general applicability or
applicability or whether it is useful only for a single application, useful only for a single application, and whether the registration
and whether the registration description is clear. description is clear.
IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s) IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Experts
and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
list. list.
It is suggested that multiple Designated Experts be appointed who are It is suggested that multiple Designated Experts be appointed who are
able to represent the perspectives of different applications using able to represent the perspectives of different applications using
this specification, in order to enable broadly-informed review of this specification, in order to enable broadly informed review of
registration decisions. In cases where a registration decision could registration decisions. In cases where a registration decision could
be perceived as creating a conflict of interest for a particular be perceived as creating a conflict of interest for a particular
Expert, that Expert should defer to the judgment of the other Expert, that Expert should defer to the judgment of the other
Expert(s). Experts.
[[ Note to the RFC Editor and IANA: Pearl Liang of ICANN had
requested that the draft supply the following proposed registry
description information. It is to be used for all registries
established by this specification.
o Protocol Category: JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE)
o Registry Location: http://www.iana.org/assignments/jose
o Webpage Title: (same as the protocol category)
o Registry Name: (same as the section title, but excluding the word
"Registry", for example "JSON Web Signature and Encryption
Algorithms")
]]
7.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry 7.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Signature and This specification establishes the IANA "JSON Web Signature and
Encryption Algorithms registry for values of the JWS and JWE "alg" Encryption Algorithms" registry for values of the JWS and JWE "alg"
(algorithm) and "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameters. The (algorithm) and "enc" (encryption algorithm) Header Parameters. The
registry records the algorithm name, the algorithm usage locations, registry records the algorithm name, the algorithm description, the
implementation requirements, and a reference to the specification algorithm usage locations, the implementation requirements, the
that defines it. The same algorithm name can be registered multiple change controller, and a reference to the specification that defines
times, provided that the sets of usage locations are disjoint. it. The same algorithm name can be registered multiple times,
provided that the sets of usage locations are disjoint.
It is suggested that when multiple variations of algorithms are being It is suggested that the length of the key be included in the
algorithm name when multiple variations of algorithms are being
registered that use keys of different lengths and the key lengths for registered that use keys of different lengths and the key lengths for
each need to be fixed (for instance, because they will be created by each need to be fixed (for instance, because they will be created by
key derivation functions), that the length of the key be included in key derivation functions). This allows readers of the JSON text to
the algorithm name. This allows readers of the JSON text to more more easily make security decisions.
easily make security decisions.
The Designated Expert(s) should perform reasonable due diligence that The Designated Experts should perform reasonable due diligence that
algorithms being registered are either currently considered algorithms being registered either are currently considered
cryptographically credible or are being registered as Deprecated or cryptographically credible or are being registered as Deprecated or
Prohibited. Prohibited.
The implementation requirements of an algorithm may be changed over The implementation requirements of an algorithm may be changed over
time as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change time as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change
the status of an algorithm to Deprecated, or to change the status of the status of an algorithm to Deprecated or to change the status of
an algorithm from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of an algorithm from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of
implementation requirements are only permitted on a Specification implementation requirements are only permitted on a Specification
Required basis after review by the Designated Experts(s), with the Required basis after review by the Designated Experts, with the new
new specification defining the revised implementation requirements specification defining the revised implementation requirements level.
level.
7.1.1. Registration Template 7.1.1. Registration Template
Algorithm Name: Algorithm Name:
The name requested (e.g., "HS256"). This name is a case-sensitive The name requested (e.g., "HS256"). This name is a case-sensitive
ASCII string. Names may not match other registered names in a ASCII string. Names may not match other registered names in a
case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Experts state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this there is a compelling reason to allow an exception.
particular case.
Algorithm Description: Algorithm Description:
Brief description of the Algorithm (e.g., "HMAC using SHA-256"). Brief description of the algorithm (e.g., "HMAC using SHA-256").
Algorithm Usage Location(s): Algorithm Usage Location(s):
The algorithm usage location. This must be one or more of the The algorithm usage locations. This must be one or more of the
values "alg" or "enc" if the algorithm is to be used with JWS or values "alg" or "enc" if the algorithm is to be used with JWS or
JWE. The value "JWK" is used if the algorithm identifier will be JWE. The value "JWK" is used if the algorithm identifier will be
used as a JWK "alg" member value, but will not be used with JWS or used as a JWK "alg" member value, but will not be used with JWS or
JWE; this could be the case, for instance, for non-authenticated JWE; this could be the case, for instance, for non-authenticated
encryption algorithms. Other values may be used with the approval encryption algorithms. Other values may be used with the approval
of a Designated Expert. of a Designated Expert.
JOSE Implementation Requirements: JOSE Implementation Requirements:
The algorithm implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which The algorithm implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which
must be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated, must be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated,
or Prohibited. Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or or Prohibited. Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or
"-". The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is "-". The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is
likely to be increased in a future version of the specification. likely to be increased in a future version of the specification.
The use of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely The use of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely
to be decreased in a future version of the specification. Any to be decreased in a future version of the specification. Any
identifiers registered for non-authenticated encryption algorithms identifiers registered for non-authenticated encryption algorithms
or other algorithms that are otherwise unsuitable for direct use or other algorithms that are otherwise unsuitable for direct use
as JWS or JWE algorithms must be registered as "Prohibited". as JWS or JWE algorithms must be registered as "Prohibited".
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, list the "IESG". For others, give the
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, name of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal
email address, home page URI) may also be included. address, email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the documents. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
be included but is not required. included but is not required.
Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): Algorithm Analysis Documents(s):
References to publication(s) in well-known cryptographic References to a publication or publications in well-known
conferences, by national standards bodies, or by other cryptographic conferences, by national standards bodies, or by
authoritative sources analyzing the cryptographic soundness of the other authoritative sources analyzing the cryptographic soundness
algorithm to be registered. The designated experts may require of the algorithm to be registered. The Designated Experts may
convincing evidence of the cryptographic soundness of a new require convincing evidence of the cryptographic soundness of a
algorithm to be provided with the registration request unless the new algorithm to be provided with the registration request unless
algorithm is being registered as Deprecated or Prohibited. Having the algorithm is being registered as Deprecated or Prohibited.
gone through working group and IETF review, the initial Having gone through working group and IETF review, the initial
registrations made by this document are exempt from the need to registrations made by this document are exempt from the need to
provide this information. provide this information.
7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Algorithm Name: "HS256" o Algorithm Name: "HS256"
o Algorithm Description: HMAC using SHA-256 o Algorithm Description: HMAC using SHA-256
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "HS384" o Algorithm Name: "HS384"
o Algorithm Description: HMAC using SHA-384 o Algorithm Description: HMAC using SHA-384
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "HS512" o Algorithm Name: "HS512"
o Algorithm Description: HMAC using SHA-512 o Algorithm Description: HMAC using SHA-512
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "RS256" o Algorithm Name: "RS256"
o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-256 o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-256
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "RS384" o Algorithm Name: "RS384"
o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-384 o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-384
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "RS512" o Algorithm Name: "RS512"
o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-512 o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-512
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "ES256" o Algorithm Name: "ES256"
o Algorithm Description: ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 o Algorithm Description: ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+ o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "ES384" o Algorithm Name: "ES384"
o Algorithm Description: ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 o Algorithm Description: ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "ES512" o Algorithm Name: "ES512"
o Algorithm Description: ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 o Algorithm Description: ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "PS256" o Algorithm Name: "PS256"
o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 with SHA- o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 with
256 SHA-256
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "PS384" o Algorithm Name: "PS384"
o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 with SHA- o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 with
384 SHA-384
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "PS512" o Algorithm Name: "PS512"
o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 with SHA- o Algorithm Description: RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 with
512 SHA-512
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "none" o Algorithm Name: "none"
o Algorithm Description: No digital signature or MAC performed o Algorithm Description: No digital signature or MAC performed
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.6 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "RSA1_5" o Algorithm Name: "RSA1_5"
o Algorithm Description: RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 o Algorithm Description: RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended- o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended-
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.2 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "RSA-OAEP" o Algorithm Name: "RSA-OAEP"
o Algorithm Description: RSAES OAEP using default parameters o Algorithm Description: RSAES OAEP using default parameters
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+ o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.3 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "RSA-OAEP-256" o Algorithm Name: "RSA-OAEP-256"
o Algorithm Description: RSAES OAEP using SHA-256 and MGF1 with SHA- o Algorithm Description: RSAES OAEP using SHA-256 and MGF1 with
256 SHA-256
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.3 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A128KW" o Algorithm Name: "A128KW"
o Algorithm Description: AES Key Wrap using 128 bit key o Algorithm Description: AES Key Wrap using 128-bit key
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.4 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A192KW" o Algorithm Name: "A192KW"
o Algorithm Description: AES Key Wrap using 192 bit key o Algorithm Description: AES Key Wrap using 192-bit key
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.4 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A256KW" o Algorithm Name: "A256KW"
o Algorithm Description: AES Key Wrap using 256 bit key o Algorithm Description: AES Key Wrap using 256-bit key
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.4 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "dir" o Algorithm Name: "dir"
o Algorithm Description: Direct use of a shared symmetric key o Algorithm Description: Direct use of a shared symmetric key
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.5 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES" o Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES"
o Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF o Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+ o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.6 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES+A128KW" o Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES+A128KW"
o Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A128KW" o Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A128KW"
wrapping wrapping
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.6 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES+A192KW" o Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES+A192KW"
o Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A192KW" o Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A192KW"
wrapping wrapping
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.6 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES+A256KW" o Algorithm Name: "ECDH-ES+A256KW"
o Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A256KW" o Algorithm Description: ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A256KW"
wrapping wrapping
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.6 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A128GCMKW" o Algorithm Name: "A128GCMKW"
o Algorithm Description: Key wrapping with AES GCM using 128 bit key o Algorithm Description: Key wrapping with AES GCM using 128-bit key
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.7 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.7 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A192GCMKW" o Algorithm Name: "A192GCMKW"
o Algorithm Description: Key wrapping with AES GCM using 192 bit key o Algorithm Description: Key wrapping with AES GCM using 192-bit key
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.7 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.7 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A256GCMKW" o Algorithm Name: "A256GCMKW"
o Algorithm Description: Key wrapping with AES GCM using 256 bit key o Algorithm Description: Key wrapping with AES GCM using 256-bit key
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.7 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.7 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "PBES2-HS256+A128KW" o Algorithm Name: "PBES2-HS256+A128KW"
o Algorithm Description: PBES2 with HMAC SHA-256 and "A128KW" o Algorithm Description: PBES2 with HMAC SHA-256 and "A128KW"
wrapping wrapping
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.8 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.8 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "PBES2-HS384+A192KW" o Algorithm Name: "PBES2-HS384+A192KW"
o Algorithm Description: PBES2 with HMAC SHA-384 and "A192KW" o Algorithm Description: PBES2 with HMAC SHA-384 and "A192KW"
wrapping wrapping
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.8 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.8 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "PBES2-HS512+A256KW" o Algorithm Name: "PBES2-HS512+A256KW"
o Algorithm Description: PBES2 with HMAC SHA-512 and "A256KW" o Algorithm Description: PBES2 with HMAC SHA-512 and "A256KW"
wrapping wrapping
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "alg"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.8 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.8 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A128CBC-HS256" o Algorithm Name: "A128CBC-HS256"
o Algorithm Description: AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 authenticated o Algorithm Description: AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 authenticated
encryption algorithm encryption algorithm
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 5.2.3 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A192CBC-HS384" o Algorithm Name: "A192CBC-HS384"
o Algorithm Description: AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 authenticated o Algorithm Description: AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 authenticated
encryption algorithm encryption algorithm
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 5.2.4 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A256CBC-HS512" o Algorithm Name: "A256CBC-HS512"
o Algorithm Description: AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 authenticated o Algorithm Description: AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 authenticated
encryption algorithm encryption algorithm
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 5.2.5 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A128GCM" o Algorithm Name: "A128GCM"
o Algorithm Description: AES GCM using 128 bit key o Algorithm Description: AES GCM using 128-bit key
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 5.3 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A192GCM" o Algorithm Name: "A192GCM"
o Algorithm Description: AES GCM using 192 bit key o Algorithm Description: AES GCM using 192-bit key
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 5.3 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
o Algorithm Name: "A256GCM" o Algorithm Name: "A256GCM"
o Algorithm Description: AES GCM using 256 bit key o Algorithm Description: AES GCM using 256-bit key
o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc" o Algorithm Usage Location(s): "enc"
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 5.3 of RFC 7518
o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a o Algorithm Analysis Documents(s): n/a
7.2. Header Parameter Names Registration 7.2. Header Parameter Names Registration
This specification registers the Header Parameter names defined in This section registers the Header Parameter names defined in Sections
Section 4.6.1, Section 4.7.1, and Section 4.8.1 in the IANA JSON Web 4.6.1, 4.7.1, and 4.8.1 of this specification in the IANA "JSON Web
Signature and Encryption Header Parameters registry defined in [JWS]. Signature and Encryption Header Parameters" registry established by
[JWS].
7.2.1. Registry Contents 7.2.1. Registry Contents
o Header Parameter Name: "epk" o Header Parameter Name: "epk"
o Header Parameter Description: Ephemeral Public Key o Header Parameter Description: Ephemeral Public Key
o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.6.1.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.6.1.1 of RFC 7518
o Header Parameter Name: "apu" o Header Parameter Name: "apu"
o Header Parameter Description: Agreement PartyUInfo o Header Parameter Description: Agreement PartyUInfo
o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.6.1.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.6.1.2 of RFC 7518
o Header Parameter Name: "apv" o Header Parameter Name: "apv"
o Header Parameter Description: Agreement PartyVInfo o Header Parameter Description: Agreement PartyVInfo
o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.6.1.3 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.6.1.3 of RFC 7518
o Header Parameter Name: "iv" o Header Parameter Name: "iv"
o Header Parameter Description: Initialization Vector o Header Parameter Description: Initialization Vector
o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.7.1.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.7.1.1 of RFC 7518
o Header Parameter Name: "tag" o Header Parameter Name: "tag"
o Header Parameter Description: Authentication Tag o Header Parameter Description: Authentication Tag
o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.7.1.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.7.1.2 of RFC 7518
o Header Parameter Name: "p2s" o Header Parameter Name: "p2s"
o Header Parameter Description: PBES2 salt o Header Parameter Description: PBES2 Salt Input
o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.8.1.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.8.1.1 of RFC 7518
o Header Parameter Name: "p2c" o Header Parameter Name: "p2c"
o Header Parameter Description: PBES2 count o Header Parameter Description: PBES2 Count
o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE o Header Parameter Usage Location(s): JWE
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.8.1.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.8.1.2 of RFC 7518
7.3. JSON Web Encryption Compression Algorithms Registry 7.3. JSON Web Encryption Compression Algorithms Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Encryption This specification establishes the IANA "JSON Web Encryption
Compression Algorithms registry for JWE "zip" member values. The Compression Algorithms" registry for JWE "zip" member values. The
registry records the compression algorithm value and a reference to registry records the compression algorithm value and a reference to
the specification that defines it. the specification that defines it.
7.3.1. Registration Template 7.3.1. Registration Template
Compression Algorithm Value: Compression Algorithm Value:
The name requested (e.g., "DEF"). Because a core goal of this The name requested (e.g., "DEF"). Because a core goal of this
specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Experts state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this there is a compelling reason to allow an exception.
particular case.
Compression Algorithm Description: Compression Algorithm Description:
Brief description of the compression algorithm (e.g., "DEFLATE"). Brief description of the compression algorithm (e.g., "DEFLATE").
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, list "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the documents. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
be included but is not required. included but is not required.
7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Compression Algorithm Value: "DEF" o Compression Algorithm Value: "DEF"
o Compression Algorithm Description: DEFLATE o Compression Algorithm Description: DEFLATE
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] o Specification Document(s): JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE]
7.4. JSON Web Key Types Registry 7.4. JSON Web Key Types Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry This specification establishes the IANA "JSON Web Key Types" registry
for values of the JWK "kty" (key type) parameter. The registry for values of the JWK "kty" (key type) parameter. The registry
records the "kty" value, implementation requirements, and a reference records the "kty" value, implementation requirements, and a reference
to the specification that defines it. to the specification that defines it.
The implementation requirements of a key type may be changed over The implementation requirements of a key type may be changed over
time as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change time as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change
the status of a key type to Deprecated, or to change the status of a the status of a key type to Deprecated or to change the status of a
key type from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of key type from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of
implementation requirements are only permitted on a Specification implementation requirements are only permitted on a Specification
Required basis after review by the Designated Experts(s), with the Required basis after review by the Designated Experts, with the new
new specification defining the revised implementation requirements specification defining the revised implementation requirements level.
level.
7.4.1. Registration Template 7.4.1. Registration Template
"kty" Parameter Value: "kty" Parameter Value:
The name requested (e.g., "EC"). Because a core goal of this The name requested (e.g., "EC"). Because a core goal of this
specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Experts state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this there is a compelling reason to allow an exception.
particular case.
Key Type Description: Key Type Description:
Brief description of the Key Type (e.g., "Elliptic Curve"). Brief description of the Key Type (e.g., "Elliptic Curve").
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, list "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
JOSE Implementation Requirements: JOSE Implementation Requirements:
The key type implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which The key type implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which
must be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated, must be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated,
or Prohibited. Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or or Prohibited. Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or
"-". The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is "-". The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is
likely to be increased in a future version of the specification. likely to be increased in a future version of the specification.
The use of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely The use of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely
to be decreased in a future version of the specification. to be decreased in a future version of the specification.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the documents. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
be included but is not required. included but is not required.
7.4.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.4.2. Initial Registry Contents
This specification registers the values defined in Section 6.1. This section registers the values defined in Section 6.1.
o "kty" Parameter Value: "EC" o "kty" Parameter Value: "EC"
o Key Type Description: Elliptic Curve o Key Type Description: Elliptic Curve
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+ o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2 of RFC 7518
o "kty" Parameter Value: "RSA" o "kty" Parameter Value: "RSA"
o Key Type Description: RSA o Key Type Description: RSA
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3 of RFC 7518
o "kty" Parameter Value: "oct" o "kty" Parameter Value: "oct"
o Key Type Description: Octet sequence o Key Type Description: Octet Sequence
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Required
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.4 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.4 of RFC 7518
7.5. JSON Web Key Parameters Registration 7.5. JSON Web Key Parameters Registration
This specification registers the parameter names defined in Sections This section registers the parameter names defined in Sections 6.2,
6.2, 6.3, and 6.4 in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry 6.3, and 6.4 of this specification in the IANA "JSON Web Key
defined in [JWK]. Parameters" registry established by [JWK].
7.5.1. Registry Contents 7.5.1. Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "crv" o Parameter Name: "crv"
o Parameter Description: Curve o Parameter Description: Curve
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC"
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "x" o Parameter Name: "x"
o Parameter Description: X Coordinate o Parameter Description: X Coordinate
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC"
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.2 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "y" o Parameter Name: "y"
o Parameter Description: Y Coordinate o Parameter Description: Y Coordinate
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC"
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.3 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.3 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "d" o Parameter Name: "d"
o Parameter Description: ECC Private Key o Parameter Description: ECC Private Key
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "EC"
o Parameter Information Class: Private o Parameter Information Class: Private
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.2.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.2.1 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "n" o Parameter Name: "n"
o Parameter Description: Modulus o Parameter Description: Modulus
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.1.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.1.1 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "e" o Parameter Name: "e"
o Parameter Description: Exponent o Parameter Description: Exponent
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.1.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.1.2 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "d" o Parameter Name: "d"
o Parameter Description: Private Exponent o Parameter Description: Private Exponent
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
o Parameter Information Class: Private o Parameter Information Class: Private
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.1 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "p" o Parameter Name: "p"
o Parameter Description: First Prime Factor o Parameter Description: First Prime Factor
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
o Parameter Information Class: Private o Parameter Information Class: Private
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.2 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "q" o Parameter Name: "q"
o Parameter Description: Second Prime Factor o Parameter Description: Second Prime Factor
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
o Parameter Information Class: Private o Parameter Information Class: Private
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.3 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.3 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "dp" o Parameter Name: "dp"
o Parameter Description: First Factor CRT Exponent o Parameter Description: First Factor CRT Exponent
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
o Parameter Information Class: Private o Parameter Information Class: Private
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.4 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.4 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "dq" o Parameter Name: "dq"
o Parameter Description: Second Factor CRT Exponent o Parameter Description: Second Factor CRT Exponent
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
o Parameter Information Class: Private o Parameter Information Class: Private
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.5 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.5 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "qi" o Parameter Name: "qi"
o Parameter Description: First CRT Coefficient o Parameter Description: First CRT Coefficient
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
o Parameter Information Class: Private o Parameter Information Class: Private
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.6 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.6 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "oth" o Parameter Name: "oth"
o Parameter Description: Other Primes Info o Parameter Description: Other Primes Info
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "RSA"
o Parameter Information Class: Private o Parameter Information Class: Private
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.7 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.3.2.7 of RFC 7518
o Parameter Name: "k" o Parameter Name: "k"
o Parameter Description: Key Value o Parameter Description: Key Value
o Used with "kty" Value(s): "oct" o Used with "kty" Value(s): "oct"
o Parameter Information Class: Private o Parameter Information Class: Private
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.4.1 of RFC 7518
7.6. JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve Registry 7.6. JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve This section establishes the IANA "JSON Web Key Elliptic Curve"
registry for JWK "crv" member values. The registry records the curve registry for JWK "crv" member values. The registry records the curve
name, implementation requirements, and a reference to the name, implementation requirements, and a reference to the
specification that defines it. This specification registers the specification that defines it. This specification registers the
parameter names defined in Section 6.2.1.1. parameter names defined in Section 6.2.1.1.
The implementation requirements of a curve may be changed over time The implementation requirements of a curve may be changed over time
as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change the as the cryptographic landscape evolves, for instance, to change the
status of a curve to Deprecated, or to change the status of a curve status of a curve to Deprecated or to change the status of a curve
from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of implementation from Optional to Recommended+ or Required. Changes of implementation
requirements are only permitted on a Specification Required basis requirements are only permitted on a Specification Required basis
after review by the Designated Experts(s), with the new specification after review by the Designated Experts, with the new specification
defining the revised implementation requirements level. defining the revised implementation requirements level.
7.6.1. Registration Template 7.6.1. Registration Template
Curve Name: Curve Name:
The name requested (e.g., "P-256"). Because a core goal of this The name requested (e.g., "P-256"). Because a core goal of this
specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Experts state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this there is a compelling reason to allow an exception.
particular case.
Curve Description: Curve Description:
Brief description of the curve (e.g., "P-256 curve"). Brief description of the curve (e.g., "P-256 Curve").
JOSE Implementation Requirements: JOSE Implementation Requirements:
The curve implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which must The curve implementation requirements for JWS and JWE, which must
be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated, or be one the words Required, Recommended, Optional, Deprecated, or
Prohibited. Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or "-". Prohibited. Optionally, the word can be followed by a "+" or "-".
The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is likely The use of "+" indicates that the requirement strength is likely
to be increased in a future version of the specification. The use to be increased in a future version of the specification. The use
of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely to be of "-" indicates that the requirement strength is likely to be
decreased in a future version of the specification. decreased in a future version of the specification.
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, list "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document or documents that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URIs that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the documents. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
be included but is not required. included but is not required.
7.6.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.6.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Curve Name: "P-256" o Curve Name: "P-256"
o Curve Description: P-256 curve o Curve Description: P-256 Curve
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+ o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Recommended+
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of RFC 7518
o Curve Name: "P-384" o Curve Name: "P-384"
o Curve Description: P-384 curve o Curve Description: P-384 Curve
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of RFC 7518
o Curve Name: "P-521" o Curve Name: "P-521"
o Curve Description: P-521 curve o Curve Description: P-521 Curve
o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional o JOSE Implementation Requirements: Optional
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 6.2.1.1 of RFC 7518
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
All of the security issues that are pertinent to any cryptographic All of the security issues that are pertinent to any cryptographic
application must be addressed by JWS/JWE/JWK agents. Among these application must be addressed by JWS/JWE/JWK agents. Among these
issues are protecting the user's asymmetric private and symmetric issues are protecting the user's asymmetric private and symmetric
secret keys and employing countermeasures to various attacks. secret keys and employing countermeasures to various attacks.
The security considerations in [AES], [DSS], [JWE], [JWK], [JWS], The security considerations in [AES], [DSS], [JWE], [JWK], [JWS],
[NIST.800-38D], [NIST.800-56A], [NIST.800-107], [RFC2104], [RFC3394], [NIST.800-38D], [NIST.800-56A], [NIST.800-107], [RFC2104], [RFC3394],
skipping to change at page 50, line 39 skipping to change at page 50, line 27
Many algorithms have associated security considerations related to Many algorithms have associated security considerations related to
key lifetimes and/or the number of times that a key may be used. key lifetimes and/or the number of times that a key may be used.
Those security considerations continue to apply when using those Those security considerations continue to apply when using those
algorithms with JOSE data structures. See NIST SP 800-57 algorithms with JOSE data structures. See NIST SP 800-57
[NIST.800-57] for specific guidance on key lifetimes. [NIST.800-57] for specific guidance on key lifetimes.
8.3. RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 Security Considerations 8.3. RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 Security Considerations
While Section 8 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] explicitly calls for people not While Section 8 of RFC 3447 [RFC3447] explicitly calls for people not
to adopt RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 for new applications and instead requests to adopt RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 for new applications and instead requests
that people transition to RSASSA-PSS, this specification does include that people transition to RSASSA-PSS, this specification does include
RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5, for interoperability reasons, because it is RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5, for interoperability reasons, because it is
commonly implemented. commonly implemented.
Keys used with RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 must follow the constraints in Keys used with RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 must follow the constraints in
Section 7.2 of RFC 3447. Also, keys with a low public key exponent Section 7.2 of RFC 3447. Also, keys with a low public key exponent
value, as described in Section 3 of Twenty years of attacks on the value, as described in Section 3 of "Twenty Years of Attacks on the
RSA cryptosystem [Boneh99], must not be used. RSA Cryptosystem" [Boneh99], must not be used.
8.4. AES GCM Security Considerations 8.4. AES GCM Security Considerations
Keys used with AES GCM must follow the constraints in Section 8.3 of Keys used with AES GCM must follow the constraints in Section 8.3 of
[NIST.800-38D], which states: "The total number of invocations of the [NIST.800-38D], which states: "The total number of invocations of the
authenticated encryption function shall not exceed 2^32, including authenticated encryption function shall not exceed 2^32, including
all IV lengths and all instances of the authenticated encryption all IV lengths and all instances of the authenticated encryption
function with the given key". In accordance with this rule, AES GCM function with the given key". In accordance with this rule, AES GCM
MUST NOT be used with the same key value more than 2^32 times. MUST NOT be used with the same key value more than 2^32 times.
An Initialization Vector value MUST NOT ever be used multiple times An IV value MUST NOT ever be used multiple times with the same AES
with the same AES GCM key. One way to prevent this is to store a GCM key. One way to prevent this is to store a counter with the key
counter with the key and increment it with every use. The counter and increment it with every use. The counter can also be used to
can also be used to prevent exceeding the 2^32 limit above. prevent exceeding the 2^32 limit above.
This security consideration does not apply to the composite AES-CBC This security consideration does not apply to the composite AES-CBC
HMAC SHA-2 or AES Key Wrap algorithms. HMAC SHA-2 or AES Key Wrap algorithms.
8.5. Unsecured JWS Security Considerations 8.5. Unsecured JWS Security Considerations
Unsecured JWSs (JWSs that use the "alg" value "none") provide no Unsecured JWSs (JWSs that use the "alg" value "none") provide no
integrity protection. Thus, they must only be used in contexts in integrity protection. Thus, they must only be used in contexts in
which the payload is secured by means other than a digital signature which the payload is secured by means other than a digital signature
or MAC value, or need not be secured. or MAC value, or they need not be secured.
An example means of preventing accepting Unsecured JWSs by default is An example means of preventing accepting Unsecured JWSs by default is
for the "verify" method of a hypothetical JWS software library to for the "verify" method of a hypothetical JWS software library to
have a Boolean "acceptUnsecured" parameter that indicates "none" is have a Boolean "acceptUnsecured" parameter that indicates "none" is
an acceptable "alg" value. As another example, the "verify" method an acceptable "alg" value. As another example, the "verify" method
might take a list of algorithms that are acceptable to the might take a list of algorithms that are acceptable to the
application as a parameter and would reject Unsecured JWS values if application as a parameter and would reject Unsecured JWS values if
"none" is not in that list. "none" is not in that list.
The following example illustrates the reasons for not accepting The following example illustrates the reasons for not accepting
Unsecured JWSs at a global level. Suppose an application accepts Unsecured JWSs at a global level. Suppose an application accepts
JWSs over two channels, (1) HTTP and (2) HTTPS with client JWSs over two channels, (1) HTTP and (2) HTTPS with client
authentication. It requires a JWS signature on objects received over authentication. It requires a JWS Signature on objects received over
HTTP, but accepts Unsecured JWSs over HTTPS. If the application were HTTP, but accepts Unsecured JWSs over HTTPS. If the application were
to globally indicate that "none" is acceptable, then an attacker to globally indicate that "none" is acceptable, then an attacker
could provide it with an Unsecured JWS over HTTP and still have that could provide it with an Unsecured JWS over HTTP and still have that
object successfully validate. Instead, the application needs to object successfully validate. Instead, the application needs to
indicate acceptance of "none" for each object received over HTTPS indicate acceptance of "none" for each object received over HTTPS
(e.g., by setting "acceptUnsecured" to "true" for the first (e.g., by setting "acceptUnsecured" to "true" for the first
hypothetical JWS software library above), but not for each object hypothetical JWS software library above), but not for each object
received over HTTP. received over HTTP.
8.6. Denial of Service Attacks 8.6. Denial-of-Service Attacks
Receiving agents that validate signatures and sending agents that Receiving agents that validate signatures and sending agents that
encrypt messages need to be cautious of cryptographic processing encrypt messages need to be cautious of cryptographic processing
usage when validating signatures and encrypting messages using keys usage when validating signatures and encrypting messages using keys
larger than those mandated in this specification. An attacker could larger than those mandated in this specification. An attacker could
supply content using keys that would result in excessive supply content using keys that would result in excessive
cryptographic processing, for example, keys larger than those cryptographic processing, for example, keys larger than those
mandated in this specification. Implementations should set and mandated in this specification. Implementations should set and
enforce upper limits on the key sizes they accept. Section 5.6.1 enforce upper limits on the key sizes they accept. Section 5.6.1
(Comparable Algorithm Strengths) of NIST SP 800-57 [NIST.800-57] (Comparable Algorithm Strengths) of NIST SP 800-57 [NIST.800-57]
contains statements on largest approved key sizes that may be contains statements on largest approved key sizes that may be
applicable. applicable.
8.7. Reusing Key Material when Encrypting Keys 8.7. Reusing Key Material when Encrypting Keys
It is NOT RECOMMENDED to reuse the same entire set of key material It is NOT RECOMMENDED to reuse the same entire set of key material
(Key Encryption Key, Content Encryption Key, Initialization Vector, (Key Encryption Key, Content Encryption Key, Initialization Vector,
etc.) to encrypt multiple JWK or JWK Set objects, or to encrypt the etc.) to encrypt multiple JWK or JWK Set objects, or to encrypt the
same JWK or JWK Set object multiple times. One suggestion for same JWK or JWK Set object multiple times. One suggestion for
preventing re-use is to always generate at least one new piece of key preventing reuse is to always generate at least one new piece of key
material for each encryption operation (e.g., a new Content material for each encryption operation (e.g., a new Content
Encryption Key, a new Initialization Vector, and/or a new PBES2 Encryption Key, a new IV, and/or a new PBES2 Salt), based on the
Salt), based on the considerations noted in this document as well as considerations noted in this document as well as from RFC 4086
from RFC 4086 [RFC4086]. [RFC4086].
8.8. Password Considerations 8.8. Password Considerations
Passwords are vulnerable to a number of attacks. To help mitigate Passwords are vulnerable to a number of attacks. To help mitigate
some of these limitations, this document applies principles from RFC some of these limitations, this document applies principles from RFC
2898 [RFC2898] to derive cryptographic keys from user-supplied 2898 [RFC2898] to derive cryptographic keys from user-supplied
passwords. passwords.
However, the strength of the password still has a significant impact. However, the strength of the password still has a significant impact.
A high-entropy password has greater resistance to dictionary attacks. A high-entropy password has greater resistance to dictionary attacks.
[NIST.800-63-1] contains guidelines for estimating password entropy, [NIST.800-63-2] contains guidelines for estimating password entropy,
which can help applications and users generate stronger passwords. which can help applications and users generate stronger passwords.
An ideal password is one that is as large as (or larger than) the An ideal password is one that is as large as (or larger than) the
derived key length. However, passwords larger than a certain derived key length. However, passwords larger than a certain
algorithm-specific size are first hashed, which reduces an attacker's algorithm-specific size are first hashed, which reduces an attacker's
effective search space to the length of the hash algorithm. It is effective search space to the length of the hash algorithm. It is
RECOMMENDED that a password used for "PBES2-HS256+A128KW" be no RECOMMENDED that a password used for "PBES2-HS256+A128KW" be no
shorter than 16 octets and no longer than 128 octets and a password shorter than 16 octets and no longer than 128 octets and a password
used for "PBES2-HS512+A256KW" be no shorter than 32 octets and no used for "PBES2-HS512+A256KW" be no shorter than 32 octets and no
longer than 128 octets long. longer than 128 octets long.
skipping to change at page 53, line 40 skipping to change at page 53, line 30
8.14. RSA Private Key Representations and Blinding 8.14. RSA Private Key Representations and Blinding
See Section 9.3 of [JWK] for security considerations on RSA private See Section 9.3 of [JWK] for security considerations on RSA private
key representations and blinding. key representations and blinding.
9. Internationalization Considerations 9. Internationalization Considerations
Passwords obtained from users are likely to require preparation and Passwords obtained from users are likely to require preparation and
normalization to account for differences of octet sequences generated normalization to account for differences of octet sequences generated
by different input devices, locales, etc. It is RECOMMENDED that by different input devices, locales, etc. It is RECOMMENDED that
applications to perform the steps outlined in applications perform the steps outlined in [PRECIS] to prepare a
[I-D.ietf-precis-saslprepbis] to prepare a password supplied directly password supplied directly by a user before performing key derivation
by a user before performing key derivation and encryption. and encryption.
10. References 10. References
10.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[AES] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), [AES] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)", FIPS PUB 197, "Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)", FIPS PUB 197,
November 2001. November 2001, <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/
fips/fips197/fips-197.pdf>.
[Boneh99] "Twenty years of attacks on the RSA cryptosystem", Notices [Boneh99] "Twenty Years of Attacks on the RSA Cryptosystem", Notices
of the American Mathematical Society (AMS), Vol. 46, No. of the American Mathematical Society (AMS), Vol. 46,
2, pp. 203-213 http://crypto.stanford.edu/~dabo/pubs/ No. 2, pp. 203-213, 1999, <http://crypto.stanford.edu/
papers/RSA-survey.pdf, 1999. ~dabo/pubs/papers/RSA-survey.pdf>.
[DSS] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Digital [DSS] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
Signature Standard (DSS)", FIPS PUB 186-4, July 2013. "Digital Signature Standard (DSS)", FIPS PUB 186-4, July
2013, <http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/
NIST.FIPS.186-4.pdf>.
[JWE] Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)", [JWE] Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)",
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption (work in progress), RFC 7516, DOI 10.17487/RFC7516, May 2015,
January 2015. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7516>.
[JWK] Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", [JWK] Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", RFC 7517,
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key (work in progress), DOI 10.17487/RFC7517, May 2015,
January 2015. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7517>.
[JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web [JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work Signature (JWS)", RFC 7515, DOI 10.17487/RFC7515, May
in progress), January 2015. 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7515>.
[NIST.800-38A] [NIST.800-38A]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation", "Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation", NIST
NIST PUB 800-38A, December 2001. Special Publication 800-38A, December 2001,
<http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-38a/
sp800-38a.pdf>.
[NIST.800-38D] [NIST.800-38D]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: "Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation:
Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC", NIST PUB 800-38D, Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC", NIST Special
December 2001. Publication 800-38D, December 2001,
<http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-38D/
SP-800-38D.pdf>.
[NIST.800-56A] [NIST.800-56A]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes "Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes
Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography", NIST Special Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography", NIST Special
Publication 800-56A, Revision 2, May 2013. Publication 800-56A, Revision 2, May 2013,
<http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/
NIST.SP.800-56Ar2.pdf>.
[NIST.800-57] [NIST.800-57]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Recommendation for Key Management - Part 1: General "Recommendation for Key Management - Part 1: General
(Revision 3)", NIST Special Publication 800-57, Part 1, (Revision 3)", NIST Special Publication 800-57, Part 1,
Revision 3, July 2012. Revision 3, July 2012, <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/
nistpubs/800-57/sp800-57_part1_rev3_general.pdf>.
[RFC20] Cerf, V., "ASCII format for Network Interchange", RFC 20, [RFC20] Cerf, V., "ASCII format for Network Interchange", STD 80,
October 1969. RFC 20, DOI 10.17487/RFC0020, October 1969,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc20>.
[RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed- [RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC:
Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104, Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
February 1997. DOI 10.17487/RFC2104, February 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2104>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2898] Kaliski, B., "PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography [RFC2898] Kaliski, B., "PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography
Specification Version 2.0", RFC 2898, September 2000. Specification Version 2.0", RFC 2898,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2898, September 2000,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2898>.
[RFC3394] Schaad, J. and R. Housley, "Advanced Encryption Standard [RFC3394] Schaad, J. and R. Housley, "Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES) Key Wrap Algorithm", RFC 3394, September 2002. (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm", RFC 3394, DOI 10.17487/RFC3394,
September 2002, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3394>.
[RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography [RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003. Version 2.1", RFC 3447, DOI 10.17487/RFC3447, February
2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3447>.
[RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO [RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003. 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, DOI 10.17487/RFC3629, November
2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3629>.
[RFC4868] Kelly, S. and S. Frankel, "Using HMAC-SHA-256, HMAC-SHA- [RFC4868] Kelly, S. and S. Frankel, "Using HMAC-SHA-256,
384, and HMAC-SHA-512 with IPsec", RFC 4868, May 2007. HMAC-SHA-384, and HMAC-SHA-512 with IPsec", RFC 4868,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4868, May 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4868>.
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", [RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
RFC 4949, August 2007. FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.
[RFC5652] Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70, [RFC5652] Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70,
RFC 5652, September 2009. RFC 5652, DOI 10.17487/RFC5652, September 2009,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5652>.
[RFC6090] McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic [RFC6090] McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic
Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090, February 2011. Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6090, February 2011,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6090>.
[RFC7159] Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data [RFC7159] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014. Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.
[SEC1] Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group, "SEC 1: [SEC1] Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group, "SEC 1:
Elliptic Curve Cryptography", Version 2.0, May 2009. Elliptic Curve Cryptography", Version 2.0, May 2009,
<http://www.secg.org/sec1-v2.pdf>.
[SHS] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure [SHS] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
Hash Standard (SHS)", FIPS PUB 180-4, March 2012. "Secure Hash Standard (SHS)", FIPS PUB 180-4, March 2012,
<http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips180-4/
fips-180-4.pdf>.
[UNICODE] The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard", 1991-, [UNICODE] The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard",
<http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/>. <http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/>.
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[CanvasApp] [AEAD-CBC-SHA]
Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010.
[I-D.ietf-precis-saslprepbis]
Saint-Andre, P. and A. Melnikov, "Preparation,
Enforcement, and Comparison of Internationalized Strings
Representing Usernames and Passwords",
draft-ietf-precis-saslprepbis-13 (work in progress),
December 2014.
[I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2]
McGrew, D., Foley, J., and K. Paterson, "Authenticated McGrew, D., Foley, J., and K. Paterson, "Authenticated
Encryption with AES-CBC and HMAC-SHA", Encryption with AES-CBC and HMAC-SHA", Work in Progress,
draft-mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2-05 (work in progress), draft-mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2-05, July 2014.
July 2014.
[I-D.miller-jose-jwe-protected-jwk]
Miller, M., "Using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Web
Encryption (JWE) for Protecting JSON Web Key (JWK)
Objects", draft-miller-jose-jwe-protected-jwk-02 (work in
progress), June 2013.
[I-D.rescorla-jsms] [CanvasApp]
Rescorla, E. and J. Hildebrand, "JavaScript Message Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010,
Security Format", draft-rescorla-jsms-00 (work in <http://developers.facebook.com/docs/authentication/
progress), March 2011. canvas>.
[JCA] Oracle, "Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) Reference [JCA] Oracle, "Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) Reference
Guide", 2014. Guide", 2014, <http://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/techno
tes/guides/security/crypto/CryptoSpec.html>.
[JSE] Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura (editor), "JSON Simple [JSE] Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura (editor), "JSON Simple
Encryption", September 2010. Encryption", September 2010,
<http://jsonenc.info/enc/1.0/>.
[JSS] Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura (editor), "JSON Simple Sign", [JSMS] Rescorla, E. and J. Hildebrand, "JavaScript Message
September 2010. Security Format", Work in Progress,
draft-rescorla-jsms-00, March 2011.
[JSS] Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura, Ed., "JSON Simple Sign 1.0",
Draft 01, September 2010, <http://jsonenc.info/jss/1.0/>.
[JWE-JWK] Miller, M., "Using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Web
Encryption (JWE) for Protecting JSON Web Key (JWK)
Objects", Work in Progress,
draft-miller-jose-jwe-protected-jwk-02, June 2013.
[MagicSignatures] [MagicSignatures]
Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic Panzer, J., Ed., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic
Signatures", January 2011. Signatures", January 2011,
<http://salmon-protocol.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/
draft-panzer-magicsig-01.html>.
[NIST.800-107] [NIST.800-107]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Recommendation for Applications Using Approved Hash "Recommendation for Applications Using Approved Hash
Algorithms", NIST Special Publication 800-107, Revision 1, Algorithms", NIST Special Publication 800-107, Revision 1,
August 2012. August 2012, <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/
nistpubs/800-107-rev1/sp800-107-rev1.pdf>.
[NIST.800-63-1] [NIST.800-63-2]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
"Electronic Authentication Guideline", NIST Special "Electronic Authentication Guideline", NIST Special
Publication 800-63-1, December 2011. Publication 800-63-2, August 2013,
<http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/
NIST.SP.800-63-2.pdf>.
[PRECIS] Saint-Andre, P. and A. Melnikov, "Preparation,
Enforcement, and Comparison of Internationalized Strings
Representing Usernames and Passwords", Work in Progress,
draft-ietf-precis-saslprepbis-16, April 2015.
[RFC2631] Rescorla, E., "Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Method", [RFC2631] Rescorla, E., "Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Method",
RFC 2631, June 1999. RFC 2631, DOI 10.17487/RFC2631, June 1999,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2631>.
[RFC3275] Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., and D. Solo, "(Extensible Markup [RFC3275] Eastlake 3rd, D., Reagle, J., and D. Solo, "(Extensible
Language) XML-Signature Syntax and Processing", RFC 3275, Markup Language) XML-Signature Syntax and Processing",
March 2002. RFC 3275, DOI 10.17487/RFC3275, March 2002,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3275>.
[RFC4086] Eastlake, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, "Randomness [RFC4086] Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, June 2005. "Randomness Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4086, June 2005,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4086>.
[RFC5116] McGrew, D., "An Interface and Algorithms for Authenticated [RFC5116] McGrew, D., "An Interface and Algorithms for Authenticated
Encryption", RFC 5116, January 2008. Encryption", RFC 5116, DOI 10.17487/RFC5116, January 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5116>.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.
[W3C.NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411] [W3C.NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411]
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Solo, D., Hirsch, F., Roessler, Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Solo, D., Hirsch, F., Roessler,
T., Yiu, K., Datta, P., and S. Cantor, "XML Signature T., Yiu, K., Datta, P., and S. Cantor, "XML Signature
Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web
Consortium Note NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411, April 2013, Consortium Note NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411, April 2013,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411/>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411/>.
[W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210] [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210]
Eastlake, D. and J. Reagle, "XML Encryption Syntax and Eastlake, D. and J. Reagle, "XML Encryption Syntax and
Processing", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC- Processing", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-
xmlenc-core-20021210, December 2002, xmlenc-core-20021210, December 2002,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xmlenc-core-20021210>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xmlenc-core-20021210>.
[W3C.REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411] [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411]
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Hirsch, F., and T. Roessler, Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Hirsch, F., and T. Roessler,
"XML Encryption Syntax and Processing Version 1.1", World "XML Encryption Syntax and Processing Version 1.1", World
Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xmlenc-core1- Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xmlenc-
20130411, April 2013, core1-20130411, April 2013,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411/>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/REC-xmlenc-core1-20130411/>.
Appendix A. Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference Appendix A. Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference
This appendix contains tables cross-referencing the cryptographic This appendix contains tables cross-referencing the cryptographic
algorithm identifier values defined in this specification with the algorithm identifier values defined in this specification with the
equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages. equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
See XML DSIG [RFC3275], XML DSIG 2.0 See XML DSIG [RFC3275], XML DSIG 2.0
[W3C.NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411], XML Encryption [W3C.NOTE-xmldsig-core2-20130411], XML Encryption
[W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210], XML Encryption 1.1 [W3C.REC-xmlenc-core-20021210], XML Encryption 1.1
skipping to change at page 58, line 12 skipping to change at page 60, line 12
[JCA] for more information about the names defined by those [JCA] for more information about the names defined by those
documents. documents.
A.1. Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference A.1. Digital Signature/MAC Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference
This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWS digital This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWS digital
signature and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values defined in this signature and MAC "alg" (algorithm) values defined in this
specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards specification with the equivalent identifiers used by other standards
and software packages. and software packages.
+-------+------------------------------+-------------+--------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| JWS | XML DSIG | JCA | OID | | JWS | XML DSIG |
+-------+------------------------------+-------------+--------------+ | | JCA | OID |
| HS256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | HmacSHA256 | 1.2.840.1135 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | ldsig-more#hmac-sha256 | | 49.2.9 | | HS256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#hmac-sha256 |
| HS384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | HmacSHA384 | 1.2.840.1135 | | | HmacSHA256 | 1.2.840.113549.2.9 |
| | ldsig-more#hmac-sha384 | | 49.2.10 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| HS512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | HmacSHA512 | 1.2.840.1135 | | HS384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#hmac-sha384 |
| | ldsig-more#hmac-sha512 | | 49.2.11 | | | HmacSHA384 | 1.2.840.113549.2.10 |
| RS256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA256withR | 1.2.840.1135 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | ldsig-more#rsa-sha256 | SA | 49.1.1.11 | | HS512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#hmac-sha512 |
| RS384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA384withR | 1.2.840.1135 | | | HmacSHA512 | 1.2.840.113549.2.11 |
| | ldsig-more#rsa-sha384 | SA | 49.1.1.12 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| RS512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA512withR | 1.2.840.1135 | | RS256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#rsa-sha256 |
| | ldsig-more#rsa-sha512 | SA | 49.1.1.13 | | | SHA256withRSA | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.11 |
| ES256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA256withE | 1.2.840.1004 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | ldsig-more#ecdsa-sha256 | CDSA | 5.4.3.2 | | RS384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#rsa-sha384 |
| ES384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA384withE | 1.2.840.1004 | | | SHA384withRSA | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.12 |
| | ldsig-more#ecdsa-sha384 | CDSA | 5.4.3.3 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| ES512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xm | SHA512withE | 1.2.840.1004 | | RS512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#rsa-sha512 |
| | ldsig-more#ecdsa-sha512 | CDSA | 5.4.3.4 | | | SHA512withRSA | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.13 |
| PS256 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xm | SHA256withR | 1.2.840.1135 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | ldsig-more#sha256-rsa-MGF1 | SAandMGF1 | 49.1.1.10 | | ES256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#ecdsa-sha256 |
| PS384 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xm | SHA384withR | 1.2.840.1135 | | | SHA256withECDSA | 1.2.840.10045.4.3.2 |
| | ldsig-more#sha384-rsa-MGF1 | SAandMGF1 | 49.1.1.10 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| PS512 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xm | SHA512withR | 1.2.840.1135 | | ES384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#ecdsa-sha384 |
| | ldsig-more#sha512-rsa-MGF1 | SAandMGF1 | 49.1.1.10 | | | SHA384withECDSA | 1.2.840.10045.4.3.3 |
+-------+------------------------------+-------------+--------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| ES512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmldsig-more#ecdsa-sha512 |
| | SHA512withECDSA | 1.2.840.10045.4.3.4 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| PS256 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xmldsig-more#sha256-rsa-MGF1 |
| | SHA256withRSAandMGF1 | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.10 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| PS384 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xmldsig-more#sha384-rsa-MGF1 |
| | SHA384withRSAandMGF1 | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.10 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| PS512 | http://www.w3.org/2007/05/xmldsig-more#sha512-rsa-MGF1 |
| | SHA512withRSAandMGF1 | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.10 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
A.2. Key Management Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference A.2. Key Management Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference
This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWE "alg" This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWE "alg"
(algorithm) values defined in this specification with the equivalent (algorithm) values defined in this specification with the equivalent
identifiers used by other standards and software packages. identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
+----------+----------------------+-------------------+-------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| JWE | XML ENC | JCA | OID | | JWE | XML ENC |
+----------+----------------------+-------------------+-------------+ | | JCA | OID |
| RSA1_5 | http://www.w3.org/20 | RSA/ECB/PKCS1Padd | 1.2.840.113 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | 01/04/xmlenc#rsa-1_5 | ing | 549.1.1.1 | | RSA1_5 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#rsa-1_5 |
| RSA-OAEP | http://www.w3.org/20 | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithS | 1.2.840.113 | | | RSA/ECB/PKCS1Padding | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.1 |
| | 01/04/xmlenc#rsa-oae | HA-1AndMGF1Paddin | 549.1.1.7 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | p-mgf1p | g | | | RSA-OAEP | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#rsa-oaep-mgf1p |
| RSA-OAEP | http://www.w3.org/20 | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithS | 1.2.840.113 | | | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-1AndMGF1Padding | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.7 |
| -256 | 09/xmlenc11#rsa-oaep | HA-256AndMGF1Padd | 549.1.1.7 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | & | ing & | | | RSA-OAEP-256 | http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#rsa-oaep |
| | http://www.w3.org/2 | MGF1ParameterSp | | | | & http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#mgf1sha256 |
| | 009/xmlenc11#mgf1sha | ec.SHA256 | | | | RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-256AndMGF1Padding | |
| | 256 | | | | | & MGF1ParameterSpec.SHA256 | 1.2.840.113549.1.1.7 |
| ECDH-ES | http://www.w3.org/20 | ECDH | 1.3.132.1.1 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | 09/xmlenc11#ECDH-ES | | 2 | | ECDH-ES | http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#ECDH-ES |
| A128KW | http://www.w3.org/20 | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1. | | | ECDH | 1.3.132.1.12 |
| | 01/04/xmlenc#kw-aes1 | | 101.3.4.1.5 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | 28 | | | | A128KW | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#kw-aes128 |
| A192KW | http://www.w3.org/20 | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1. | | | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.5 |
| | 01/04/xmlenc#kw-aes1 | | 101.3.4.1.2 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | 92 | | 5 | | A192KW | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#kw-aes192 |
| A256KW | http://www.w3.org/20 | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1. | | | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.25 |
| | 01/04/xmlenc#kw-aes2 | | 101.3.4.1.4 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | 56 | | 5 | | A256KW | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#kw-aes256 |
+----------+----------------------+-------------------+-------------+ | | AESWrap | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.45 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
A.3. Content Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference A.3. Content Encryption Algorithm Identifier Cross-Reference
This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWE "enc" This section contains a table cross-referencing the JWE "enc"
(encryption algorithm) values defined in this specification with the (encryption algorithm) values defined in this specification with the
equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages. equivalent identifiers used by other standards and software packages.
For the composite algorithms "A128CBC-HS256", "A192CBC-HS384", and For the composite algorithms "A128CBC-HS256", "A192CBC-HS384", and
"A256CBC-HS512", the corresponding AES CBC algorithm identifiers are "A256CBC-HS512", the corresponding AES-CBC algorithm identifiers are
listed. listed.
+----------+-------------------------+--------------+---------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| JWE | XML ENC | JCA | OID | | JWE | XML ENC |
+----------+-------------------------+--------------+---------------+ | | JCA | OID |
| A128CBC- | http://www.w3.org/2001/ | AES/CBC/PKCS | 2.16.840.1.10 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| HS256 | 04/xmlenc#aes128-cbc | 5Padding | 1.3.4.1.2 | | A128CBC-HS256 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#aes128-cbc |
| A192CBC- | http://www.w3.org/2001/ | AES/CBC/PKCS | 2.16.840.1.10 | | | AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.2 |
| HS384 | 04/xmlenc#aes192-cbc | 5Padding | 1.3.4.1.22 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| A256CBC- | http://www.w3.org/2001/ | AES/CBC/PKCS | 2.16.840.1.10 | | A192CBC-HS384 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#aes192-cbc |
| HS512 | 04/xmlenc#aes256-cbc | 5Padding | 1.3.4.1.42 | | | AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.22 |
| A128GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/ | AES/GCM/NoPa | 2.16.840.1.10 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| | xmlenc11#aes128-gcm | dding | 1.3.4.1.6 | | A256CBC-HS512 | http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#aes256-cbc |
| A192GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/ | AES/GCM/NoPa | 2.16.840.1.10 | | | AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.42 |
| | xmlenc11#aes192-gcm | dding | 1.3.4.1.26 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| A256GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/ | AES/GCM/NoPa | 2.16.840.1.10 | | A128GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#aes128-gcm |
| | xmlenc11#aes256-gcm | dding | 1.3.4.1.46 | | | AES/GCM/NoPadding | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.6 |
+----------+-------------------------+--------------+---------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| A192GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#aes192-gcm |
| | AES/GCM/NoPadding | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.26 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| A256GCM | http://www.w3.org/2009/xmlenc11#aes256-gcm |
| | AES/GCM/NoPadding | 2.16.840.1.101.3.4.1.46 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
Appendix B. Test Cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms Appendix B. Test Cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 Algorithms
The following test cases can be used to validate implementations of The following test cases can be used to validate implementations of
the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms defined in Section 5.2. They are the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms defined in Section 5.2. They are
also intended to correspond to test cases that may appear in a future also intended to correspond to test cases that may appear in a future
version of [I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2], demonstrating that version of [AEAD-CBC-SHA], demonstrating that the cryptographic
the cryptographic computations performed are the same. computations performed are the same.
The variable names are those defined in Section 5.2. All values are The variable names are those defined in Section 5.2. All values are
hexadecimal. hexadecimal.
B.1. Test Cases for AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 B.1. Test Cases for AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256
AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256
K = 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f K = 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f
skipping to change at page 64, line 8 skipping to change at page 66, line 8
2e 62 69 a8 c5 6a 81 6d bc 1b 26 77 61 95 5b c5 2e 62 69 a8 c5 6a 81 6d bc 1b 26 77 61 95 5b c5
fd 30 a5 65 c6 16 ff b2 f3 64 ba ec e6 8f c4 07 fd 30 a5 65 c6 16 ff b2 f3 64 ba ec e6 8f c4 07
53 bc fc 02 5d de 36 93 75 4a a1 f5 c3 37 3b 9c 53 bc fc 02 5d de 36 93 75 4a a1 f5 c3 37 3b 9c
T = 4d d3 b4 c0 88 a7 f4 5c 21 68 39 64 5b 20 12 bf T = 4d d3 b4 c0 88 a7 f4 5c 21 68 39 64 5b 20 12 bf
2e 62 69 a8 c5 6a 81 6d bc 1b 26 77 61 95 5b c5 2e 62 69 a8 c5 6a 81 6d bc 1b 26 77 61 95 5b c5
Appendix C. Example ECDH-ES Key Agreement Computation Appendix C. Example ECDH-ES Key Agreement Computation
This example uses ECDH-ES Key Agreement and the Concat KDF to derive This example uses ECDH-ES Key Agreement and the Concat KDF to derive
the Content Encryption Key (CEK) in the manner described in the CEK in the manner described in Section 4.6. In this example, the
Section 4.6. In this example, the ECDH-ES Direct Key Agreement mode ECDH-ES Direct Key Agreement mode ("alg" value "ECDH-ES") is used to
("alg" value "ECDH-ES") is used to produce an agreed upon key for AES produce an agreed-upon key for AES GCM with a 128-bit key ("enc"
GCM with a 128 bit key ("enc" value "A128GCM"). value "A128GCM").
In this example, a producer Alice is encrypting content to a consumer In this example, a producer Alice is encrypting content to a consumer
Bob. The producer (Alice) generates an ephemeral key for the key Bob. The producer (Alice) generates an ephemeral key for the key
agreement computation. Alice's ephemeral key (in JWK format) used agreement computation. Alice's ephemeral key (in JWK format) used
for the key agreement computation in this example (including the for the key agreement computation in this example (including the
private part) is: private part) is:
{"kty":"EC", {"kty":"EC",
"crv":"P-256", "crv":"P-256",
"x":"gI0GAILBdu7T53akrFmMyGcsF3n5dO7MmwNBHKW5SV0", "x":"gI0GAILBdu7T53akrFmMyGcsF3n5dO7MmwNBHKW5SV0",
"y":"SLW_xSffzlPWrHEVI30DHM_4egVwt3NQqeUD7nMFpps", "y":"SLW_xSffzlPWrHEVI30DHM_4egVwt3NQqeUD7nMFpps",
"d":"0_NxaRPUMQoAJt50Gz8YiTr8gRTwyEaCumd-MToTmIo" "d":"0_NxaRPUMQoAJt50Gz8YiTr8gRTwyEaCumd-MToTmIo"
} }
skipping to change at page 64, line 36 skipping to change at page 66, line 36
The consumer's (Bob's) key (in JWK format) used for the key agreement The consumer's (Bob's) key (in JWK format) used for the key agreement
computation in this example (including the private part) is: computation in this example (including the private part) is:
{"kty":"EC", {"kty":"EC",
"crv":"P-256", "crv":"P-256",
"x":"weNJy2HscCSM6AEDTDg04biOvhFhyyWvOHQfeF_PxMQ", "x":"weNJy2HscCSM6AEDTDg04biOvhFhyyWvOHQfeF_PxMQ",
"y":"e8lnCO-AlStT-NJVX-crhB7QRYhiix03illJOVAOyck", "y":"e8lnCO-AlStT-NJVX-crhB7QRYhiix03illJOVAOyck",
"d":"VEmDZpDXXK8p8N0Cndsxs924q6nS1RXFASRl6BfUqdw" "d":"VEmDZpDXXK8p8N0Cndsxs924q6nS1RXFASRl6BfUqdw"
} }
Header Parameter values used in this example are as follows. In this Header Parameter values used in this example are as follows. The
example, the "apu" (agreement PartyUInfo) parameter value is the "apu" (agreement PartyUInfo) Header Parameter value is the base64url
base64url encoding of the UTF-8 string "Alice" and the "apv" encoding of the UTF-8 string "Alice" and the "apv" (agreement
(agreement PartyVInfo) parameter value is the base64url encoding of PartyVInfo) Header Parameter value is the base64url encoding of the
the UTF-8 string "Bob". The "epk" parameter is used to communicate UTF-8 string "Bob". The "epk" (ephemeral public key) Header
the producer's (Alice's) ephemeral public key value to the consumer Parameter is used to communicate the producer's (Alice's) ephemeral
(Bob). public key value to the consumer (Bob).
{"alg":"ECDH-ES", {"alg":"ECDH-ES",
"enc":"A128GCM", "enc":"A128GCM",
"apu":"QWxpY2U", "apu":"QWxpY2U",
"apv":"Qm9i", "apv":"Qm9i",
"epk": "epk":
{"kty":"EC", {"kty":"EC",
"crv":"P-256", "crv":"P-256",
"x":"gI0GAILBdu7T53akrFmMyGcsF3n5dO7MmwNBHKW5SV0", "x":"gI0GAILBdu7T53akrFmMyGcsF3n5dO7MmwNBHKW5SV0",
"y":"SLW_xSffzlPWrHEVI30DHM_4egVwt3NQqeUD7nMFpps" "y":"SLW_xSffzlPWrHEVI30DHM_4egVwt3NQqeUD7nMFpps"
skipping to change at page 65, line 31 skipping to change at page 67, line 31
often not directly exposed by libraries, due to NIST security often not directly exposed by libraries, due to NIST security
requirements, and only serves as an input to a KDF.) In this requirements, and only serves as an input to a KDF.) In this
example, Z is following the octet sequence (using JSON array example, Z is following the octet sequence (using JSON array
notation): notation):
[158, 86, 217, 29, 129, 113, 53, 211, 114, 131, 66, 131, 191, 132, [158, 86, 217, 29, 129, 113, 53, 211, 114, 131, 66, 131, 191, 132,
38, 156, 251, 49, 110, 163, 218, 128, 106, 72, 246, 218, 167, 121, 38, 156, 251, 49, 110, 163, 218, 128, 106, 72, 246, 218, 167, 121,
140, 254, 144, 196]. 140, 254, 144, 196].
keydatalen keydatalen
This value is 128 - the number of bits in the desired output key This value is 128 - the number of bits in the desired output key
(because "A128GCM" uses a 128 bit key). (because "A128GCM" uses a 128-bit key).
AlgorithmID AlgorithmID
This is set to the octets representing the 32 bit big endian value This is set to the octets representing the 32-bit big-endian value
7 - [0, 0, 0, 7] - the number of octets in the AlgorithmID content 7 - [0, 0, 0, 7] - the number of octets in the AlgorithmID content
"A128GCM", followed, by the octets representing the ASCII string "A128GCM", followed, by the octets representing the ASCII string
"A128GCM" - [65, 49, 50, 56, 71, 67, 77]. "A128GCM" - [65, 49, 50, 56, 71, 67, 77].
PartyUInfo PartyUInfo
This is set to the octets representing the 32 bit big endian value This is set to the octets representing the 32-bit big-endian value
5 - [0, 0, 0, 5] - the number of octets in the PartyUInfo content 5 - [0, 0, 0, 5] - the number of octets in the PartyUInfo content
"Alice", followed, by the octets representing the UTF-8 string "Alice", followed, by the octets representing the UTF-8 string
"Alice" - [65, 108, 105, 99, 101]. "Alice" - [65, 108, 105, 99, 101].
PartyVInfo PartyVInfo
This is set to the octets representing the 32 bit big endian value This is set to the octets representing the 32-bit big-endian value
3 - [0, 0, 0, 3] - the number of octets in the PartyUInfo content 3 - [0, 0, 0, 3] - the number of octets in the PartyUInfo content
"Bob", followed, by the octets representing the UTF-8 string "Bob" "Bob", followed, by the octets representing the UTF-8 string "Bob"
- [66, 111, 98]. - [66, 111, 98].
SuppPubInfo SuppPubInfo
This is set to the octets representing the 32 bit big endian value This is set to the octets representing the 32-bit big-endian value
128 - [0, 0, 0, 128] - the keydatalen value. 128 - [0, 0, 0, 128] - the keydatalen value.
SuppPrivInfo SuppPrivInfo
This is set to the empty octet sequence. This is set to the empty octet sequence.
Concatenating the parameters AlgorithmID through SuppPubInfo results Concatenating the parameters AlgorithmID through SuppPubInfo results
in an OtherInfo value of: in an OtherInfo value of:
[0, 0, 0, 7, 65, 49, 50, 56, 71, 67, 77, 0, 0, 0, 5, 65, 108, 105, [0, 0, 0, 7, 65, 49, 50, 56, 71, 67, 77, 0, 0, 0, 5, 65, 108, 105,
99, 101, 0, 0, 0, 3, 66, 111, 98, 0, 0, 0, 128] 99, 101, 0, 0, 0, 3, 66, 111, 98, 0, 0, 0, 128]
skipping to change at page 66, line 31 skipping to change at page 68, line 31
156, 251, 49, 110, 163, 218, 128, 106, 72, 246, 218, 167, 121, 140, 156, 251, 49, 110, 163, 218, 128, 106, 72, 246, 218, 167, 121, 140,
254, 144, 196, 254, 144, 196,
0, 0, 0, 7, 65, 49, 50, 56, 71, 67, 77, 0, 0, 0, 5, 65, 108, 105, 99, 0, 0, 0, 7, 65, 49, 50, 56, 71, 67, 77, 0, 0, 0, 5, 65, 108, 105, 99,
101, 0, 0, 0, 3, 66, 111, 98, 0, 0, 0, 128] 101, 0, 0, 0, 3, 66, 111, 98, 0, 0, 0, 128]
The resulting derived key, which is the first 128 bits of the round 1 The resulting derived key, which is the first 128 bits of the round 1
hash output is: hash output is:
[86, 170, 141, 234, 248, 35, 109, 32, 92, 34, 40, 205, 113, 167, 16, [86, 170, 141, 234, 248, 35, 109, 32, 92, 34, 40, 205, 113, 167, 16,
26] 26]
The base64url encoded representation of this derived key is: The base64url-encoded representation of this derived key is:
VqqN6vgjbSBcIijNcacQGg VqqN6vgjbSBcIijNcacQGg
Appendix D. Acknowledgements Acknowledgements
Solutions for signing and encrypting JSON content were previously Solutions for signing and encrypting JSON content were previously
explored by Magic Signatures [MagicSignatures], JSON Simple Sign explored by "Magic Signatures" [MagicSignatures], "JSON Simple Sign
[JSS], Canvas Applications [CanvasApp], JSON Simple Encryption [JSE], 1.0" [JSS], "Canvas Applications" [CanvasApp], "JSON Simple
and JavaScript Message Security Format [I-D.rescorla-jsms], all of Encryption" [JSE], and "JavaScript Message Security Format" [JSMS],
which influenced this draft. all of which influenced this document.
The Authenticated Encryption with AES-CBC and HMAC-SHA
[I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2] specification, upon which the
AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 algorithms are based, was written by David A.
McGrew and Kenny Paterson. The test cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 are
based upon those for [I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2] by John
Foley.
Matt Miller wrote Using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Web The "Authenticated Encryption with AES-CBC and HMAC-SHA"
Encryption (JWE) for Protecting JSON Web Key (JWK) Objects [AEAD-CBC-SHA] specification, upon which the AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2
algorithms are based, was written by David A. McGrew and Kenny
Paterson. The test cases for AES_CBC_HMAC_SHA2 are based upon those
for [AEAD-CBC-SHA] by John Foley.
[I-D.miller-jose-jwe-protected-jwk], which the password-based Matt Miller wrote "Using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Web
encryption content of this draft is based upon. Encryption (JWE) for Protecting JSON Web Key (JWK) Objects"
[JWE-JWK], upon which the password-based encryption content of this
document is based.
This specification is the work of the JOSE Working Group, which This specification is the work of the JOSE working group, which
includes dozens of active and dedicated participants. In particular, includes dozens of active and dedicated participants. In particular,
the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording
that influenced this specification: that influenced this specification:
Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, Carsten Bormann, John Bradley, Brian Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, Carsten Bormann, John Bradley, Brian
Campbell, Alissa Cooper, Breno de Medeiros, Vladimir Dzhuvinov, Roni Campbell, Alissa Cooper, Breno de Medeiros, Vladimir Dzhuvinov, Roni
Even, Stephen Farrell, Yaron Y. Goland, Dick Hardt, Joe Hildebrand, Even, Stephen Farrell, Yaron Y. Goland, Dick Hardt, Joe Hildebrand,
Jeff Hodges, Edmund Jay, Charlie Kaufman, Barry Leiba, James Manger, Jeff Hodges, Edmund Jay, Charlie Kaufman, Barry Leiba, James Manger,
Matt Miller, Kathleen Moriarty, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John Matt Miller, Kathleen Moriarty, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John
Panzer, Emmanuel Raviart, Eric Rescorla, Pete Resnick, Nat Sakimura, Panzer, Emmanuel Raviart, Eric Rescorla, Pete Resnick, Nat Sakimura,
Jim Schaad, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner. Jim Schaad, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner.
Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and
Sean Turner, Stephen Farrell, and Kathleen Moriarty served as Sean Turner, Stephen Farrell, and Kathleen Moriarty served as
Security area directors during the creation of this specification. Security Area Directors during the creation of this specification.
Appendix E. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-40
o Clarified the definitions of UTF8(STRING) and ASCII(STRING).
-39
o Added the Algorithm Analysis Documents(s) field to the IANA JSON
Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms registry.
o Updated the reference to draft-ietf-precis-saslprepbis.
-38
o Require discarding private keys with an "oth" parameter when the
implementation does not support private keys with more than two
primes.
o Replaced uses of the phrases "JWS object" and "JWE object" with
"JWS" and "JWE".
-37
o Restricted algorithm names to using only ASCII characters.
o Added language about ignoring private keys with an "oth" parameter
when the implementation does not support private keys with more
than two primes.
o Updated the example IANA registration request subject line.
-36
o Moved the normative "alg":"none" security considerations text into
the algorithm definition.
o Specified that registration reviews occur on the
jose-reg-review@ietf.org mailing list.
-35
o Addressed AppsDir reviews by Carsten Bormann.
o Adjusted some table column widths.
-34
o Addressed IESG review comments by Barry Leiba, Alissa Cooper, Pete
Resnick, Stephen Farrell, and Richard Barnes.
-33
o Changed the registration review period to three weeks.
o Acknowledged additional contributors.
-32
o Added a note to implementers about libraries that prefix an extra
zero-valued octet to RSA modulus representations returned.
o Addressed secdir review comments by Charlie Kaufman, Scott Kelly,
and Stephen Kent.
o Addressed Gen-ART review comments by Roni Even.
o Replaced the term Plaintext JWS with Unsecured JWS.
-31
o Referenced NIST SP 800-57 for guidance on key lifetimes.
o Updated the reference to draft-mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2.
-30
o Cleaned up the reference syntax in a few places.
o Applied minor wording changes to the Security Considerations
section.
-29
o Replaced the terms JWS Header, JWE Header, and JWT Header with a
single JOSE Header term defined in the JWS specification. This
also enabled a single Header Parameter definition to be used and
reduced other areas of duplication between specifications.
-28
o Specified the use of PKCS #7 padding with AES CBC, rather than
PKCS #5. (PKCS #7 is a superset of PKCS #5, and is appropriate
for the 16 octet blocks used by AES CBC.)
o Revised the introduction to the Security Considerations section.
Also introduced additional subsection headings for security
considerations items and moved a few security consideration items
from here to the JWS and JWE drafts.
-27
o Described additional security considerations.
o Updated the JCA and XMLENC parameters for "RSA-OAEP-256" and the
JCA parameters for "A128KW", "A192KW", "A256KW", and "ECDH-ES".
-26
o Added algorithm identifier "RSA-OAEP-256" for RSAES OAEP using
SHA-256 and MGF1 with SHA-256.
o Clarified that the ECDSA signature values R and S are represented
as octet sequences as defined in Section 2.3.7 of SEC1 [SEC1].
o Noted that octet sequences are depicted using JSON array notation.
o Updated references, including to W3C specifications.
-25
o Corrected an external section number reference that had changed.
-24
o Replaced uses of the term "associated data" wherever it was used
to refer to a data value with "additional authenticated data",
since both terms were being used as synonyms, causing confusion.
o Updated the JSON reference to RFC 7159.
-23
o No changes were made, other than to the version number and date.
-22
o Corrected RFC 2119 terminology usage.
o Replaced references to draft-ietf-json-rfc4627bis with RFC 7158.
-21
o Compute the PBES2 salt parameter as (UTF8(Alg) || 0x00 || Salt
Input), where the "p2s" Header Parameter encodes the Salt Input
value and Alg is the "alg" Header Parameter value.
o Changed some references from being normative to informative,
addressing issue #90.
-20
o Replaced references to RFC 4627 with draft-ietf-json-rfc4627bis,
addressing issue #90.
-19
o Used tables to show the correspondence between algorithm
identifiers and algorithm descriptions and parameters in the
algorithm definition sections, addressing issue #183.
o Changed the "Implementation Requirements" registry field names to
"JOSE Implementation Requirements" to make it clear that these
implementation requirements apply only to JWS and JWE
implementations.
-18
o Changes to address editorial and minor issues #129, #134, #135,
#158, #161, #185, #186, and #187.
o Added and used Description registry fields.
-17
o Explicitly named all the logical components of a JWS and JWE and
defined the processing rules and serializations in terms of those
components, addressing issues #60, #61, and #62.
o Removed processing steps in algorithm definitions that duplicated
processing steps in JWS or JWE, addressing issue #56.
o Replaced verbose repetitive phases such as "base64url encode the
octets of the UTF-8 representation of X" with mathematical
notation such as "BASE64URL(UTF8(X))".
o Terms used in multiple documents are now defined in one place and
incorporated by reference. Some lightly used or obvious terms
were also removed. This addresses issue #58.
o Changes to address minor issue #53.
-16
o Added a DataLen prefix to the AlgorithmID value in the Concat KDF
computation.
o Added OIDs for encryption algorithms, additional signature
algorithm OIDs, and additional XML DSIG/ENC URIs in the algorithm
cross-reference tables.
o Changes to address editorial and minor issues #28, #36, #39, #52,
#53, #55, #127, #128, #136, #137, #141, #150, #151, #152, and
#155.
-15
o Changed statements about rejecting JWSs to statements about
validation failing, addressing issue #35.
o Stated that changes of implementation requirements are only
permitted on a Specification Required basis, addressing issue #38.
o Made "oct" a required key type, addressing issue #40.
o Updated the example ECDH-ES key agreement values.
o Changes to address editorial and minor issues #34, #37, #49, #63,
#123, #124, #125, #130, #132, #133, #138, #139, #140, #142, #143,
#144, #145, #148, #149, #150, and #162.
-14
o Removed "PBKDF2" key type and added "p2s" and "p2c" header
parameters for use with the PBES2 algorithms.
o Made the RSA private key parameters that are there to enable
optimizations be RECOMMENDED rather than REQUIRED.
o Added algorithm identifiers for AES algorithms using 192 bit keys
and for RSASSA-PSS using HMAC SHA-384.
o Added security considerations about key lifetimes, addressing
issue #18.
o Added an example ECDH-ES key agreement computation.
-13
o Added key encryption with AES GCM as specified in
draft-jones-jose-aes-gcm-key-wrap-01, addressing issue #13.
o Added security considerations text limiting the number of times
that an AES GCM key can be used for key encryption or direct
encryption, per Section 8.3 of NIST SP 800-38D, addressing issue
#28.
o Added password-based key encryption as specified in
draft-miller-jose-jwe-protected-jwk-02.
-12
o In the Direct Key Agreement case, the Concat KDF AlgorithmID is
set to the octets of the UTF-8 representation of the "enc" header
parameter value.
o Restored the "apv" (agreement PartyVInfo) parameter.
o Moved the "epk", "apu", and "apv" Header Parameter definitions to
be with the algorithm descriptions that use them.
o Changed terminology from "block encryption" to "content
encryption".
-11
o Removed the Encrypted Key value from the AAD computation since it
is already effectively integrity protected by the encryption
process. The AAD value now only contains the representation of
the JWE Encrypted Header.
o Removed "apv" (agreement PartyVInfo) since it is no longer used.
o Added more information about the use of PartyUInfo during key
agreement.
o Use the keydatalen as the SuppPubInfo value for the Concat KDF
when doing key agreement, as RFC 2631 does.
o Added algorithm identifiers for RSASSA-PSS with SHA-256 and SHA-
512.
o Added a Parameter Information Class value to the JSON Web Key
Parameters registry, which registers whether the parameter conveys
public or private information.
-10
o Changed the JWE processing rules for multiple recipients so that a
single AAD value contains the header parameters and encrypted key
values for all the recipients, enabling AES GCM to be safely used
for multiple recipients.
-09
o Expanded the scope of the JWK parameters to include private and
symmetric key representations, as specified by
draft-jones-jose-json-private-and-symmetric-key-00.
o Changed term "JWS Secured Input" to "JWS Signing Input".
o Changed from using the term "byte" to "octet" when referring to 8
bit values.
o Specified that AES Key Wrap uses the default initial value
specified in Section 2.2.3.1 of RFC 3394. This addressed issue
#19.
o Added Key Management Mode definitions to terminology section and
used the defined terms to provide clearer key management
instructions. This addressed issue #5.
o Replaced "A128CBC+HS256" and "A256CBC+HS512" with "A128CBC-HS256"
and "A256CBC-HS512". The new algorithms perform the same
cryptographic computations as [I-D.mcgrew-aead-aes-cbc-hmac-sha2],
but with the Initialization Vector and Authentication Tag values
remaining separate from the Ciphertext value in the output
representation. Also deleted the header parameters "epu"
(encryption PartyUInfo) and "epv" (encryption PartyVInfo), since
they are no longer used.
o Changed from using the term "Integrity Value" to "Authentication
Tag".
-08
o Changed the name of the JWK key type parameter from "alg" to
"kty".
o Replaced uses of the term "AEAD" with "Authenticated Encryption",
since the term AEAD in the RFC 5116 sense implied the use of a
particular data representation, rather than just referring to the
class of algorithms that perform authenticated encryption with
associated data.
o Applied editorial improvements suggested by Jeff Hodges. Many of
these simplified the terminology used.
o Added seriesInfo information to Internet Draft references.
-07
o Added a data length prefix to PartyUInfo and PartyVInfo values.
o Changed the name of the JWK RSA modulus parameter from "mod" to
"n" and the name of the JWK RSA exponent parameter from "xpo" to
"e", so that the identifiers are the same as those used in RFC
3447.
o Made several local editorial changes to clean up loose ends left
over from to the decision to only support block encryption methods
providing integrity.
-06
o Removed the "int" and "kdf" parameters and defined the new
composite Authenticated Encryption algorithms "A128CBC+HS256" and
"A256CBC+HS512" to replace the former uses of AES CBC, which
required the use of separate integrity and key derivation
functions.
o Included additional values in the Concat KDF calculation -- the
desired output size and the algorithm value, and optionally
PartyUInfo and PartyVInfo values. Added the optional header
parameters "apu" (agreement PartyUInfo), "apv" (agreement
PartyVInfo), "epu" (encryption PartyUInfo), and "epv" (encryption
PartyVInfo).
o Changed the name of the JWK RSA exponent parameter from "exp" to
"xpo" so as to allow the potential use of the name "exp" for a
future extension that might define an expiration parameter for
keys. (The "exp" name is already used for this purpose in the JWT
specification.)
o Applied changes made by the RFC Editor to RFC 6749's registry
language to this specification.
-05
o Support both direct encryption using a shared or agreed upon
symmetric key, and the use of a shared or agreed upon symmetric
key to key wrap the CMK. Specifically, added the "alg" values
"dir", "ECDH-ES+A128KW", and "ECDH-ES+A256KW" to finish filling in
this set of capabilities.
o Updated open issues.
-04
o Added text requiring that any leading zero bytes be retained in
base64url encoded key value representations for fixed-length
values.
o Added this language to Registration Templates: "This name is case
sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case
insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted."
o Described additional open issues.
o Applied editorial suggestions.
-03
o Always use a 128 bit "authentication tag" size for AES GCM,
regardless of the key size.
o Specified that use of a 128 bit IV is REQUIRED with AES CBC. It
was previously RECOMMENDED.
o Removed key size language for ECDSA algorithms, since the key size
is implied by the algorithm being used.
o Stated that the "int" key size must be the same as the hash output
size (and not larger, as was previously allowed) so that its size
is defined for key generation purposes.
o Added the "kdf" (key derivation function) header parameter to
provide crypto agility for key derivation. The default KDF
remains the Concat KDF with the SHA-256 digest function.
o Clarified that the "mod" and "exp" values are unsigned.
o Added Implementation Requirements columns to algorithm tables and
Implementation Requirements entries to algorithm registries.
o Changed AES Key Wrap to RECOMMENDED.
o Moved registries JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header
Parameters and JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values to
the JWS specification.
o Moved JSON Web Key Parameters registry to the JWK specification.
o Changed registration requirements from RFC Required to
Specification Required with Expert Review.
o Added Registration Template sections for defined registries.
o Added Registry Contents sections to populate registry values.
o No longer say "the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input
(which is the same as the ASCII representation)". Just call it
"the ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input".
o Added "Collision Resistant Namespace" to the terminology section.
o Numerous editorial improvements.
-02
o For AES GCM, use the "additional authenticated data" parameter to
provide integrity for the header, encrypted key, and ciphertext
and use the resulting "authentication tag" value as the JWE
Authentication Tag.
o Defined minimum required key sizes for algorithms without
specified key sizes.
o Defined KDF output key sizes.
o Specified the use of PKCS #5 padding with AES CBC.
o Generalized text to allow key agreement to be employed as an
alternative to key wrapping or key encryption.
o Clarified that ECDH-ES is a key agreement algorithm.
o Required implementation of AES-128-KW and AES-256-KW.
o Removed the use of "A128GCM" and "A256GCM" for key wrapping.
o Removed "A512KW" since it turns out that it's not a standard
algorithm.
o Clarified the relationship between "typ" header parameter values
and MIME types.
o Generalized language to refer to Message Authentication Codes
(MACs) rather than Hash-based Message Authentication Codes (HMACs)
unless in a context specific to HMAC algorithms.
o Established registries: JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header
Parameters, JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms, JSON Web
Signature and Encryption "typ" Values, JSON Web Key Parameters,
and JSON Web Key Algorithm Families.
o Moved algorithm-specific definitions from JWK to JWA.
o Reformatted to give each member definition its own section
heading.
-01
o Moved definition of "alg":"none" for JWSs here from the JWT
specification since this functionality is likely to be useful in
more contexts that just for JWTs.
o Added Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key Wrap Algorithm using
512 bit keys ("A512KW").
o Added text "Alternatively, the Encoded JWS Signature MAY be
base64url decoded to produce the JWS Signature and this value can
be compared with the computed HMAC value, as this comparison
produces the same result as comparing the encoded values".
o Corrected the Magic Signatures reference.
o Made other editorial improvements suggested by JOSE working group
participants.
-00
o Created the initial IETF draft based upon
draft-jones-json-web-signature-04 and
draft-jones-json-web-encryption-02 with no normative changes.
o Changed terminology to no longer call both digital signatures and
HMACs "signatures".
Author's Address Author's Address
Michael B. Jones Michael B. Jones
Microsoft Microsoft
Email: mbj@microsoft.com EMail: mbj@microsoft.com
URI: http://self-issued.info/ URI: http://self-issued.info/
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