Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET)                              T. Clausen
Internet-Draft                          LIX, Ecole Polytechnique, France
Expires: January 29, 2007
Intended status: Standards Track                             C. Dearlove
Expires: August 2, 2007                  BAE Systems Advanced Technology
                                                                  Centre
                                                                 J. Dean
                                               Naval Research Laboratory
                                                                C. Adjih
                                                      INRIA Rocquencourt
                                                           July 28, 2006
                                                        January 29, 2007

                Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format
                      draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-02
                      draft-ietf-manet-packetbb-03

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). (2007).

Abstract

   This document specifies a multi-message packet format that may be
   used by mobile ad hoc network routing and other protocols.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Applicability Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Protocol Overview and Functioning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  Signaling Framework  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.1.  Packets  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.2.  Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       5.2.1.  Address Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.3.  TLVs and TLV Blocks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       5.3.1.  TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 13
       5.3.2.  Constraints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     5.4.  Padding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   6.  TLV specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     6.1.  Address Block TLV Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Appendix A.   Illustrations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Appendix A.1. Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Appendix A.2. Message and Padding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   Appendix A.3. Message Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   Appendix A.4. Address Block  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   Appendix A.5. TLV Block  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 28
   Appendix A.6. TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 28
   Appendix B.   Complete Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 31
   Appendix C.   Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 33
   Appendix D.   Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 34
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 35
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 35 36

1.  Introduction

   Signaling in a MANET (mobile ad hoc network) routing protocol
   consists, mainly, of stating IP addresses and attributes associated
   with such IP addresses.  Since this is a task common to many such
   protocols, this specification presents a generalized packet format,
   suitable for signaling.  This format may be employed both by mobile
   ad hoc network routing protocols and by other protocols with similar
   requirements.

   This document is a specification specifies the syntax of a general purpose multi-message
   packet format.
   Messages encapsulate protocol format for information (including addresses and
   their attributes), and are themselves are encapsulated in packets.
   The structure exchange between MANET routers.
   Messages consist of addresses, attributes, messages, and packets a message header, which is
   specified via regular expressions.  This specification gives the
   syntax, but not the interpretation, designed for control
   of the information carried within message dissemination, and a packet, other than the header information message body, which may be used to
   control contains protocol
   information.  Only the dissemination syntax of the messages.  Packets are intended to
   be encapsulated by a suitable transport protocol, typically UDP, message body is specified.  All
   syntactical entities, including messages and
   carried over IP (IPv4 or IPv6). packets, are specified
   using regular expressions.

   This document specifies:

   o  A packet format, allowing zero or more messages to be contained
      within a single transmission, and optionally including a packet
      header.

   o  A message format, where a message is composed of a message header
      and a message body.

   o  A message header format containing *all* necessary information to
      allow a node to make forwarding decisions without inspecting and
      processing the message body.  Message header information permits
      single- and multi-hop message diffusion.

   o  A message body format, containing attributes associated with the
      message or the originator of the message, as well as blocks of
      addresses with associated attributes.

   o  An address block format, where an address block represents sets of
      addresses in a compact (compressed) form.

   o  A generalized type-length-value (TLV) format representing
      attributes.  Multiple TLVs can be included and associated with a
      packet, a message, an address, or a set of addresses.

   The specification has been explicitly designed with the following
   properties in mind:

   Parsing logic  - the regular expression specification facilitates
      generic, protocol independent, parsing logic.

   Extensibility  - packets and messages defined by a protocol using
      this specification are extensible through defining new message
      types and new TLVs.  Full backward compatibility can be
      maintained.

   Efficiency  - when reported addresses share common bit sequences
      (e.g. prefixes or IPv6 interface identifiers) the address block
      representation allows for a compact representation.

   Separation of forwarding and processing  - duplicate detection and
      controlled scope message forwarding decisions can be made solely
      using information contained in the message header, without
      processing the message body.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. [1].

   Additionally, this document uses the following terminology:

   Packet  - the top level entity in this specification.  Packets are
      transmitted hop-by-hop and are not forwarded.  A packet contains
      zero or more messages, and may contain a packet header.

   Message  - the fundamental entity carrying protocol information, in
      the form of addresses and TLVs.  Messages are transmitted in
      packets, and may be forwarded based on their header information.

   Address  - an address of the same type and length as the source IP address in
      the IP datagram carrying the packet.

   TLV  - a Type-Length-Value structure.  This is a generic way in which
      an attribute can be represented and correctly parsed, without the
      parser having to understand the attribute.

   element  - a syntactic entity defined in the regular expression
      specification, represented using the notation <foo>.

   <foo>  - if <foo> is an 8 or 16 bit field then <foo> is also used to
      represent the value of that field.

   ?  - zero or one occurrences of the preceding element.

   *  - zero or more occurrences of the preceding element.

   +  - one or more occurrences of the preceding element.

   bar  - a variable, usually obtained through calculations based on the
      value(s) of field(s).  Variables are introduced in into the
      specification solely as a means to clarify the description.

   address-length  - a variable whose value is the length of an address
      in octets, it is 4 if using IPv4, 16 if using IPv6.

3.  Applicability Statement

   This specification describes a generic multi-message packet format,
   for carrying MANET routing protocol signals.  The specification has
   been developed from that used by OLSR (The Optimized Link State
   Routing Protocol) [4].

   The specification is designed specifically with IP (IPv4/IPv6) in
   mind.  All addresses within a control message are assumed to be of
   the same size, deduced from IP.  In the case of mixed IPv6 and IPv4
   addresses, IPv4 addresses are carried in IPv6 as specified in [2].

   The messages defined by this specification are designed to carry
   routing protocol signals between MANET routers, and to support scope
   limited diffusion, as well as point to point signaling in a multi-hop
   network.

   The packets defined by this specification are designed to carry a
   number of messages between neighboring nodes in a single transmission
   and over a single logical hop.  The packets may use any transport
   mechanism (unicast, multicast) and transport protocol (TCP, UDP, ...)
   appropriate to the protocol using this specification.  When the
   diffusion mechanism enabled by this specification is employed, UDP
   may be most appropriate.

   This specification is particularly appropriate for extensible
   protocols.  It offers external extensibility in the form of new
   message types.  It offers internal extensibility in the form of TLVs,
   which may be added to existing message types.

   A protocol using the multi-message packet format defined by this
   specification may constrain the syntax (for example requiring a full
   message header) and features (for example specifying the suggested
   diffusion mechanism) that it will employ.

4.  Protocol Overview and Functioning

   This specification does not describe a protocol.  It describes a
   packet format, which may be used by any mobile ad hoc network routing
   or other protocol.

5.  Signaling Framework

   This section provides syntactical specification of a packet,
   represented by the element <packet> and the elements from which it is
   composed.  The specification is given in the form of regular
   expressions.  Illustrations of specified elements are given in
   Appendix A.

   The length of a <packet> is obtained as the size of the payload of
   the transport protocol employed.

5.1.  Packets

   <packet> is defined by:

       <packet> = {<packet-header><pad-octet>*}?
                  {<message><pad-octet>*}*

   where <message> is defined in Section 5.2, and <pad-octet> is defined
   in Section 5.4.  The packet is parsed until all octets are used.

   <packet-header> is defined by:

       <packet-header> = <zero>
                         <packet-semantics>
                         <packet-seq-number>?
                         <tlv-block>?

   where:

   <zero>  is an 8 bit field with all bits cleared ('0').  This field
      serves to identify that the packet starts with a packet header.

   <packet-semantics>  is an 8 bit field, specifying the composition of
      the packet header:

      bit 0 (pnoseqnum):  if cleared ('0'), then the packet header
         contains a <packet-seq-number>.  If set ('1'), then the packet
         header does not include a <packet-seq-number>.

      bit 1 (ptlv):  if cleared ('0'), then the packet header does not
         include a TLV block.  If set ('1'), then the packet header
         includes a TLV block.

      bits 2-7:  are RESERVED, and MUST each be cleared ('0') to be in
         conformance with this version of the specification.

   <packet-seq-number>  is omitted if the pnoseqnum bit is set ('1'),
      otherwise is a 16 bit field, specifying a packet sequence number.

   <tlv-block>  is omitted if the ptlv bit is cleared ('0'), and is
      otherwise defined in Section 5.3.

   Note that since the message type zero is reserved (see Section 7),
   the presence or absence of a packet header can be determined by
   inspecting the first octet of the packet.

5.2.  Messages

   Information is carried through messages.  Messages contain:

   o  A message header.

   o  A message TLV block that contains zero or more TLVs, associated
      with the whole message.

   o  Zero or more address blocks, each containing one or more
      addresses.

   o  A TLV block, containing zero or more TLVs, following each address
      block.

   <message> is defined by:

       <message>         = <msg-header>
                           <tlv-block>
                           {<addr-block><tlv-block>}*

       <msg-header>      = <msg-type>
                           <msg-semantics>
                           <msg-size>
                           <msg-header-info>

       <msg-header-info> = <originator-address>?
                           <hop-limit>?
                           <hop-count>?
                           <msg-seq-number>?

   where:

   <tlv-block>  is defined in Section 5.3.

   <addr-block>  is defined in Section 5.2.1.

   <msg-type>  is an 8 bit field, specifying the type of message.  A
      type with all bits cleared ('0') MUST NOT be used.  The two most
      significant bits have the following semantics:

      bit 7 (msguser): message types with this bit cleared ('0') are
         defined in this specification or can be allocated via standards
         action.  Message types with this bit set ('1') are reserved for
         private/local use.

      bit 6 (msgprot): for message types with the msg-user bit cleared
         ('0'), this bit specifies, if cleared ('0'), that the message
         type is protocol independent, i.e. is not specific to any one
         protocol, or, if set ('1'), that the message type is specific
         to the protocol for which it is defined.

   <msg-semantics> is an 8

   <msg-semantics>  is an 8 bit field, specifying the interpretation of
      the remainder of the message header:

      bit 0 (noorig):  if cleared ('0'), then <originator-address> and
         <msg-seq-number> are included in <msg-header-info>.  If set
         ('1'), then <originator-address> and <msg-seq-number> are not
         included in <msg-header-info>; this reduced message header does
         not provide for duplicate suppression.

      bit 1 (nohops):  if cleared ('0'), then <hop-limit> and <hop-count> <hop-
         count> are included in the <msg-header-info>.  If set ('1'),
         then <hop-limit> and <hop-count> are not included in the <msg-
         header-info>; this reduced message header does not provide for
         scope-delimited forwarding.

      bit 2 (typedep):  if cleared ('0'), then the message sequence
         number in the message is type-independent.  If set ('1'), then
         the message sequence number contained in the message is type
         dependent (the message originator maintains a sequence number
         specific to <msg-type>).  This bit MUST be cleared ('0') if the
         noorig bit is set ('1').

      bits 3-7:  are RESERVED and MUST each be cleared ('0') to be in
         conformance with this version of the specification.

   <msg-size>  is a 16 bit field, specifying the size of the <message>,
      counted in octets.

   <originator-address>  is an identifier of length equal to address-
      length, which serves to uniquely identify the node that originated
      the message.

   <hop-limit>  is an 8 bit field, which contains the maximum number of
      hops a message should be further transmitted.

   <hop-count>  is an 8 bit field, which contains the number of hops a
      message has traveled.

   <msg-seq-number>  is a 16 bit field, which contains a unique number,
      generated by the originator node.  The <originator-address>, <msg-
      seq-number>, and, if the typedep bit in the <msg-semantics> field
      is set, the <msg-type> of a message serves to uniquely identify
      the message in the network.

5.2.1.  Address Blocks

   An address is specified as a sequence of address-length octets of the
   form head:mid:
   tail. head:mid:tail.  An address block is an ordered set of addresses
   sharing the same head and tail, and having individual mids.

   <address block> is defined by:

       <address-block> = <num-addr>
                         <head-octet>
                         <addr-semantics>
                         <head-length>?
                         <head>?
                         <tail-octet>?
                         <tail-length>?
                         <tail>?
                         <mid>*

   where:

   <num-addr>  is an 8 bit field containing the number of addresses
      represented in the address block, which MUST NOT be zero.

   <head-octet>

   <addr-semantics>  is an 8 bit field, where:

      bits 0-6: contain field specifying the length interpretation of
      the head.  The corresponding
         variable head-length is calculated by:

         head-length = <head-octet> & 127 remainder of the address block:

      bit 7 (notail): 0 (nohead):  if cleared ('0') ('0'), then the address block contains a
         <tail-octet>. <head-length> is included
         in <address-block>, and <head> may be included in <address-
         block>.  If set ('1') ('1'), then no <tail-octet> <head-length> and <head> are not
         included in <address-block>.

      bit 1 (notail) and bit 2 (zerotail):  MUST NOT both be set ('1').
         Otherwise, they are interpreted according to Table 1.

          +--------+----------+---------------+-----------------+
          | notail | zerotail | <tail-length> |      <tail>     |
          +--------+----------+---------------+-----------------+
          |    0   |     0    |    included   | may be included |
          |        |          |               |                 |
          |    0   |     1    |    included   |   not included  |
          |        |          |               |                 |
          |    1   |     0    |  not included |   not included  |
          +--------+----------+---------------+-----------------+

                                     Table 1
      bits 3-7:  are RESERVED and MUST each be cleared ('0') to be in
         accordance with this version of the specification.

   <head-length>  if present is an 8 bit field, which contains the total
      length (in octets) of the head of all of the addresses.

   head-length  is included. a variable, defined to equal <head-length> if
      present, or 0 otherwise.

   <head>  is omitted if head-length == 0, otherwise it is a field of
      the head-length leftmost octets of all the addresses.

   <tail-octet> is omitted

   <tail-length>  if the notail bit is set ('1'), otherwise it present is an 8 bit field, where:

      bits 0-6: contain which contains the total
      length (in octets) of the tail.  The corresponding
         variable tail-length is calculated by:

         tail-length = <tail-octet> & 127

      bit 7 (zerotail): if cleared ('0'), then a <tail> is included.  If
         set ('1') then no <tail> is included, and the tail-length
         rightmost octets tail of all of each address in the block are zero-valued.

      If the <tail-octet> is omitted then addresses.

   tail-length = 0.  is a variable, defined to equal <tail-length> if
      present, or 0 otherwise.

   <tail>  is omitted if tail-length == 0 or if the zerotail bit is set
      ('1'), otherwise it is a field of the head-length leftmost tail-length rightmost octets
      of all the addresses.  If the zerotail bit is set ('1') then the
      tail-length rightmost octets of all the addresses are all 0.

   mid-length  is a variable, which MUST be non-negative, calculated defined by:

      *  mid-length = address-length - head-length - tail-length

   <mid>  is omitted if mid-length == 0, otherwise each <mid> is a field
      of length mid-length octets, representing the mid of the
      corresponding address in the address block.

5.3.  TLVs and TLV Blocks

   A TLV block is defined by:

       <tlv-block> = <tlv-length>
                     <tlv>*

   where:

   <tlv-length>  is a 16 bit field, which contains the total length (in
      octets) of the immediately following <tlv>s. <tlv> elements.

   <tlv>  is defined in Section 5.3.1.

5.3.1.  TLVs

   There are three kinds of TLV, each represented by an element <tlv>:

   o  A packet TLV, included in a packet header.

   o  A message TLV, included in a message before all address blocks.

   o  An address block TLV, included in a TLV block following an address
      block.  An address block TLV applies to:

      *  all addresses in the address block; OR

      *  any continuous sequence of addresses in the address block; OR

      *  a single address in the address block.

   <tlv> is defined by:

       <tlv> = <tlv-type>
               <tlv-semantics>
               <index-start>?
               <index-stop>?
               <length>?
               <value>?

   where:

   <tlv-type>  is an 8 bit field, specifying the type of the TLV.  The
      two most significant bits have the following semantics:

      bit 7 (tlvuser): TLV types with this bit cleared ('0') are defined
         in this specification or can be allocated via standards action.
         TLV types with this bit set ('1') are reserved for private/
         local use.

      bit 6 (tlvprot): for TLV types with the tlv-user bit cleared
         ('0'), this bit specifies, if cleared ('0'), that the TLV type
         is protocol independent, i.e. is not TLV,
      specific to any one
         protocol, or, if set ('1'), that the TLV type is specific to
         the protocol for which it is defined. kind (i.e. packet- message- or address block
      TLV).

   <tlv-semantics>  is an 8 bit field specifying the interpretation of
      the remainder of the TLV:

      bit 0 (extended) and bit 1 (novalue): must not  MUST NOT both be set ('1').
         Otherwise, they are interpreted according to Table 1. 2.

           +----------+---------+--------------+--------------+
           | extended | novalue |    length   <length>   |     value    <value>   |
           +----------+---------+--------------+--------------+
           |     0    |    0    |    8 bits    |   included   |
           |          |         |              |              |
           |     0    |    1    | not included | not included |
           |          |         |              |              |
           |     1    |    0    |    16 bits   |   included   |
           +----------+---------+--------------+--------------+

                                     Table 1 2

      bit 2 (noindex) and bit 3 (singleindex): must not  MUST NOT both be set
         ('1').  Otherwise, they  The former MUST be set ('1') and the latter MUST be
         cleared ('0') for packet or message TLVs.  They are interpreted
         according to Table 2. 3.

         +---------+-------------+---------------+--------------+
         | noindex | singleindex | <index-start> | <index-stop> |
         +---------+-------------+---------------+--------------+
         |    0    |      0      |    included   |   included   |
         |         |             |               |              |
         |    0    |      1      |    included   | not included |
         |         |             |               |              |
         |    1    |      0      |  not included | not included |
         +---------+-------------+---------------+--------------+

                                     Table 2 3

      bit 4 (multivalue):  this bit serves to specify how the value <value>
         field is interpreted interpreted, as specified below.  This bit MUST be
         cleared ('0') for packet or message TLVs, if the singleindex
         bit is set ('1'), or if the novalue bit is set ('1').

      bits 5-7:  are RESERVED and MUST each be cleared ('0') to be in
         accordance with this version of the specification.

   <index-start> and <index-stop>  when present are each an 8 bit field,
      interpreted as follows:

      index-start and index-stop  are variables, defined according to
         Table 3. 4.  The variable end-index is calculated defined as follows:

         +  For message and packet TLVs:

            -  end-index = 0
         +  For address block TLVs:

            -  end-index = <num-addr> - 1

         +---------+-------------+---------------+---------------+
         | noindex | singleindex | index-start = |  index-stop = |
         +---------+-------------+---------------+---------------+
         |    0    |      0      | <index-start> |  <index-stop> |
         |         |             |               |               |
         |    0    |      1      | <index-start> | <index-start> |
         |         |             |               |               |
         |    1    |      0      |       0       |   end-index   |
         +---------+-------------+---------------+---------------+

                                     Table 3 4

         For an address block TLV, the TLV applies to the addresses from
         position index-start to position index-stop (inclusive) in the
         address block. block, where the first address has position zero.

      number-values  is a variable, calculated defined by:

         +  number-values = index-stop - index-start + 1

   <length>  is omitted or is a 8 or 16 bit field according to Table 1. 2.
      If present it MUST NOT be zero.  If the multivalue bit is set
      ('1') then <length> MUST be an integral multiple of number-values,
      and the variable single-length is calculated defined by:

      *  single-length = <length> / number-values

      if

      If the multivalue bit is cleared ('0'), then the variable single-length single-
      length is defined by:

      *  single-length = <length>

   <value>  if present (see Table 1), this 2) is a field of length <length>
      octets.  In an address block TLV, <value> is associated with the
      addresses from index-start to index-stop, inclusive.  If the
      multivalue bit is cleared ('0') then the whole of this field is
      associated with each of the indicated addresses.  If the
      multivalue bit is set ('1') then this field is divided equally
      into number-values fields, each of length single-length octets and
      these are associated, in order, with the indicated addresses.

5.3.2.  Constraints

   TLVs in the same tlv TLV block MUST be sorted in ascending TLV type
   order.

   Two or more TLVs of the same type associated with the same address
   block MUST NOT both cover any address.

   TLVs of the same type associated with the same address block MUST be
   sorted in ascending index-start order.

5.4.  Padding

   Packet headers and messages can be padded to ensure 32 bit alignment
   of each message contained within the packet and of the overall packet
   length.

   All syntactical elements are an integer multiple of octets, hence padding can be
   accomplished by inserting an integer number of <pad-
   octets> <pad-octet> elements
   after the syntactical element that is to be 32 bit aligned.

   The number of <pad-octet>s <pad-octet> elements required to achieve this 32 bit
   alignment is calculated as the smallest number (0 to 3) that, when added to the
   size of the preceding elements elements, produces an integer multiple of 4.

   <pad-octet>  is an 8 bit field with all bits cleared ('0').

   There is no need to indicate if padding is included, since a <pad-
   octet> will always precede either a message or the end of the packet.
   In the former case, the start of a message is indicated by the next
   non-zero octet parsed.

   The padding after a message may be freely changed when a message is
   forwarded without affecting the message.

6.  TLV specification

   This document specifies one address block TLV, which is included to
   allow a standardized way of representing network addresses.

6.1.  Address Block TLV Specification

   +----------------------+------+--------+----------------------------+
   |         Name         | Type | Length | Value                      |
   +----------------------+------+--------+----------------------------+
   |     PREFIX_LENGTH    |   0  | 8 bits | Indicates that the address |
   |                      |      |        | is a network address,      |
   |                      |      |        | rather than a host         |
   |                      |      |        | address.  The value is the |
   |                      |      |        | length of the              |
   |                      |      |        | prefix/netmask.            |
   +----------------------+------+--------+----------------------------+

                                  Table 4 5

   An address in an address block without an associated PREFIX_LENGTH
   TLV may be considered to have a prefix length equal to the address
   length (in bits). in bits (i.e. address-length times 8).

7.  IANA Considerations

   A new registry for message types must be created with initial
   assignments as specified in Table 5. 6.  Future values in the range
   5-127 of the Message Type can be allocated using standards action [3].  Additionally,
   values in the range 128-255 are reserved for private/local use.

   A new registry for packet TLV types must be created, with no initial
   assignments.  Future values in the range 0-127 of the Message Type can be allocated using
   standards action [3].  Additionally, values in the range 128-255 are
   reserved for private/local use.

   A new registry for message TLV types must be created with no initial
   assignments.  Future values in the range 0-127 of the Message Type can be allocated using
   standards action [3].  Additionally, values in the range 128-255 are
   reserved for private/local use.

   A new registry for address block TLV types must be created with
   initial assignments as specified in Table 6. 7.  Future values in the
   range 1-127 of the Message Type can be allocated using standards action [3].
   Additionally, values in the range 128-255 are reserved for private/local private/
   local use.

            +-------+----------------------------------------+
            | Value | Description                            |
            +-------+----------------------------------------+
            |   0   | MUST NOT be allocated.                 |
            |       |                                        |
            |  1-4  | RESERVED                               |
            +-------+----------------------------------------+

                                  Table 5 6

   Message type 0 MUST NOT be allocated because a zero-octet signifies a
   packet header and zero-octets are used for padding.  Message types 1
   to 4 are reserved because they are used by OLSR [4], which uses a
   compatible packet/message header format.

   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+
   |      Mnemonic      | Value | Description                          |
   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+
   |    PREFIX_LENGTH   |   0   | Indicates that associated addresses  |
   |                    |       | are network addresses, with given    |
   |                    |       | prefix length.                       |
   +--------------------+-------+--------------------------------------+

                                  Table 6 7

8.  Security Considerations

   Packets

   Messages are designed to be transmitted only one hop, carriers of protocol information and not
   forwarded.  Hop-by-hop packet level security MAY be implemented,
   between nodes with an existing security association, by including a
   suitable packet TLV containing a cryptographic signature to the
   packet.  Since packets are received as transmitted, signatures can be
   calculated based on the entire packet content, or on parts thereof as
   appropriate.

   Messages MAY,
   at each hop MAY hop, be forwarded and/or processed, processed according to the
   information in the message header and by the protocol employing using this
   specification.  With immutable messages,  If forwarded messages are unchanged by this protocol,
   then end-to-end security MAY be implemented, between nodes with an
   existing security association, by including a suitable message TLV
   containing a cryptographic signature to the message.  Since <hop-count> <hop-
   count> and <hop-limit> are the only fields that may be modified when
   such a message is forwarded,
   signatures this signature can be calculated based
   on the entire message, including the message header, with the <hop-
   count> and <hop-limit> fields set to zero ('0') if present.

   Packets are designed to carry a number of messages between
   neighboring nodes in a single transmission and over a single logical
   hop.  Hop-by-hop packet level security MAY be implemented, between
   nodes with an existing security association, by including a suitable
   packet TLV containing a cryptographic signature to the packet.  Since
   packets are received as transmitted, this signature can be calculated
   based on the entire message, including
   the message header with the <hop-count> and <hop-limit> fields set to
   zero ('0'). packet, or on parts thereof as appropriate.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.

   [2]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
        Addressing Architecture", RFC 3513, April 2003.

   [3]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
        Considerations Section in RFCs", October 1998.

9.2.  Informative References

   [4]  Clausen, T. and P. Jacquet, "The Optimized Link State Routing
        Protocol", RFC 3626, October 2003.

Appendix A.  Illustrations

   This informative appendix illustrates the elements, which are
   normatively specified in Section 5 using regular expressions.

   Bits labeled Reserved or Resv are cleared ('0').  Bits labeled N and
   M may be cleared ('0') or set ('1').  Octets labeled Padding are
   cleared ('0'), and are optional.

Appendix A.1.  Packet

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| Reserved  |0|0|    Packet Sequence Number     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| Reserved  |0|1|            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| Reserved  |1|0|    Packet Sequence Number     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Packet TLV Block                        |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| Reserved  |1|1|                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     |                       Packet TLV Block                        |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message + Padding                       |
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix A.2.  Message and Padding

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Message Type  |  Resv   |N|0|0|         Message Size          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Originator Address                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hop Limit   |   Hop Count   |    Message Sequence Number    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                         Message Body                          |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Message Type  |  Resv   |0|0|1|         Message Size          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hop Limit   |   Hop Count   |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     |                         Message Body                          |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Message Type  |  Resv   |N|1|0|         Message Size          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Originator Address                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |    Message Sequence Number    |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     |                         Message Body                          |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Message Type  |  Resv   |0|1|1|         Message Size          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                         Message Body                          |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |            Padding            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix A.3.  Message Body

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                       Message TLV Block                       |
     |                                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                               |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               |
     |                                                               |
     |                         Address Block                         |
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               |
     |                       Address TLV Block                       |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     |                                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                               |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               |
     |                                                               |
     |                         Address Block                         |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     |                       Address TLV Block                       Address TLV Block                       |
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix A.4.  Address Block

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Number Addrs  |  Resv   |0|0|0|  Head Length  |     Head      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Head (cont)  |  Tail Length  |             Tail              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Number Addrs  |  Resv   |0|0|1|  Tail Length  |     Tail      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Tail (cont)  |              Mid              |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               |
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Number Addrs  |  Resv   |0|1|0|  Head Length  |     Head      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Head (cont)  |              Mid              |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               |
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix A.4.  Address Block
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Number Addrs  |0| Head Length  |             Head  Resv   |0|1|1|              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Mid (cont)           |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Mid (cont)           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Number Addrs  |1|  |  Resv   |1|0|0|  Head Length  |     Head      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0| Tail Length
     |  Head (cont)  |  Tail Length  |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Mid (cont)   |                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               |
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Number Addrs  |1| Head  |  Resv   |1|0|1|  Tail Length  |             Head      Mid      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1| Tail Length
     |  Mid (cont)   |                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               |
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix A.5.  TLV Block

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            Length             |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     |                              TLV                              |
     |                                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                               |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               |
     |                                                               |
     :                              ...                              :
     |                                                               |
     |                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                               |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     |                              TLV                              |
     |                                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix A.6.  TLV

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |Resv |M|0|0|0|0|  Index Start  |  Index Stop   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |    Length     |                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               |
     |                             Value                             |
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |Resv |0|0|0|0|1| |M|0|0|0|1|  Index Start  |  Index Stop   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            Length             |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     |                             Value                             |
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |Resv |M|0|0|1|0| |0|0|0|1|0|  Index Start  |  Index Stop   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |            Length             |                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
     |                                                               |
     |                             Value                             |
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |Resv |M|0|1|0|0|    Length     |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+               |
     |                                                               |
     |                             Value                             |
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |Resv |0|0|1|0|1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |M|0|1|0|1|            Length             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                             Value                             |
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |Resv |M|0|1|1|0|            Length             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                             Value                             |
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |0|0|1|1|0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |Resv |0|1|0|0|0|  Index Start  |    Length     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     |                             Value                             |
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |Resv |0|1|0|0|1|  Index Start  |    Length     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Length (cont) |                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               |
     |                                                               |
     |                             Value                             |
     |                                                               |
     |               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |Resv |0|1|0|1|0|  Index Start  |    Length     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Length (cont) |                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                                               |
     |                                                               |
     |                             Value                             |
     |                                                               |
     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix B.  Complete Example

   An example packet, using IPv4 addresses (length four octets) is
   shown.  This packet has a header, with a packet sequence number but
   no packet TLV block, and contains a single unfragmented message.  The message has
   a complete message header, a message TLV block of content length 9
   octets containing a single TLV (with the noindex bit of its semantics
   octet set and value length 6 octets) and then two address blocks each
   with a following TLV block.  The first address block contains 3
   addresses (head
   addresses, has the notail bit of the its semantics octet set, and has
   head length 2 octets, no tail, hence mid length two
   octets) and octets.  It is followed by
   a TLV block of with content length 9 octets containing two TLVs.  The
   first of these TLVs has the noindex bit of its semantics octet set
   and has a single value of length 2 octets, which applies to all of
   the addresses in the preceding address block.  The second of these
   TLVs has the novalue bit of its semantics octet set and hence has no
   length or value fields (it does have index fields, which indicate
   those addresses this TLV applies to).  The second address block
   contains 2 addresses (head length 0 octets, hence no head
   octets, addresses, has the nohead and zerotail bits of its
   semantics octet set, and has tail length 2 octets, zero-valued tail not included, hence mid length
   two octets) and octets.  The two tail octets of each address are zero.  It is
   followed by a TLV block of content length 5 octets.  This TLV block
   contains a single TLV of type PREFIX_LENGTH that has the multivalue
   and noindex bits of its semantics octet set and a value field length
   of 2 octets, indicating two values each of one octet length.  There are two
   is one final padding octets octet that are is not included in the message length
   of 62 59 octets.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0| Reserved  |0|0|    Packet Sequence Number     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Message Type  |  Resv   |N|0|0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0| 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                      Originator Address                       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hop Limit   |   Hop Count   |    Message Sequence Number    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1|   TLV Type    |Resv |0|0|1|0|0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0|                     Value                     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                 Value (cont)                  |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|             Head              |      Mid      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid (cont)   |              Mid              |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid (cont)              |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   TLV Type    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+    |Resv |0|0|1|0|0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|     Value     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Value (cont)  |   TLV Type    |Resv |0|0|0|0|1| |0|0|0|1|0|  Index Start  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Index Stop   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+   |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|1 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0|1 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|      Mid      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid (cont)              |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1| PREFIX_LENGTH |Resv |1|0|1|0|0|0 |1|0|1|0|0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |    Value0     |    Value1     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Appendix C.  Contributors

   This specification is the result of the joint efforts of the
   following contributors from the OLSRv2 Design Team -- listed
   alphabetically.

   o  Cedric Adjih, INRIA, France, <Cedric.Adjih@inria.fr>

   o  Emmanuel Baccelli, Hitachi Labs Europe, France,
      <Emmanuel.Baccelli@inria.fr>

   o  Thomas Heide Clausen, LIX, Ecole Polytechnique, France,
      <T.Clausen@computer.org>

   o  Justin W. Dean, NRL, USA<jdean@itd.nrl.navy.mil>

   o  Christopher Dearlove, BAE Systems, UK,
      <chris.dearlove@baesystems.com>

   o  Satoh Hiroki, Hitachi SDL, Japan, <h-satoh@sdl.hitachi.co.jp>

   o  Philippe Jacquet, INRIA, France, <Philippe.Jacquet@inria.fr>

   o  Monden Kazuya, Hitachi SDL, Japan, <monden@sdl.hitachi.co.jp>

Appendix D.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge the team behind OLSRv1, as
   specified in RFC 3626, including Anis Laouiti, Pascale Minet, Laurent
   Viennot (all at INRIA, France), and Amir Qayuum Qayyum (Center for Advanced
   Research in Engineering, Pakistan) for their contributions.

   The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the following people
   for intense technical discussions, early reviews and comments on the
   specification and its components: Joe Macker (NRL), Alan Cullen (BAE
   Systems), Ian Chakeres (Boeing), Charlie E. Perkins (Nokia), Andreas
   Schjonhaug (LIX), Florent Brunneau (LIX), Yasunori Owada (Niigata
   University) and the entire IETF MANET working group.

Authors' Addresses

   Thomas Heide Clausen
   LIX, Ecole Polytechnique, France

   Phone: +33 6 6058 9349
   Email: T.Clausen@computer.org
   URI:   http://www.lix.polytechnique.fr/Labo/Thomas.Clausen/

   Christopher M. Dearlove
   BAE Systems Advanced Technology Centre

   Phone: +44 1245 242194
   Email: chris.dearlove@baesystems.com
   URI:   http://www.baesystems.com/ocs/sharedservices/atc/

   Justin W. Dean
   Naval Research Laboratory

   Phone: +1 202 767 3397
   Email: jdean@itd.nrl.navy.mil
   URI:   http://pf.itd.nrl.navy.mil/

   Cedric Adjih
   INRIA Rocquencourt

   Phone: +33 1 3963 5215
   Email: Cedric.Adjih@inria.fr
   URI:   http://menetou.inria.fr/~adjih/

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