draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-06.txt   draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-07.txt 
Network Working Group K. Leung
MIP4 K. Leung
Internet-Draft G. Dommety Internet-Draft G. Dommety
Intended Status: Proposed Standard Cisco Systems Intended status: Standards Track Cisco Systems
Expires: May 6, 2008 V. Narayanan Expires: July 7, 2008 V. Narayanan
Qualcomm, Inc. Qualcomm, Inc.
A. Petrescu A. Petrescu
Motorola Motorola
October 31, 2007 January 4, 2008
Network Mobility (NEMO) Extensions for Mobile IPv4 Network Mobility (NEMO) Extensions for Mobile IPv4
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-06.txt draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-07.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on May 6, 2008. This Internet-Draft will expire on July 7, 2008.
Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).
Abstract Abstract
This document describes a protocol for supporting Mobile Networks This document describes a protocol for supporting Mobile Networks
between a Mobile Router and a Home Agent by extending the Mobile IPv4 between a Mobile Router and a Home Agent by extending the Mobile IPv4
protocol. A Mobile Router is responsible for the mobility of one or protocol. A Mobile Router is responsible for the mobility of one or
more network segments or subnets moving together. The Mobile Router more network segments or subnets moving together. The Mobile Router
hides its mobility from the nodes on the mobile network. The nodes hides its mobility from the nodes on the mobile network. The nodes
on the Mobile Network may be fixed in relationship to the Mobile on the Mobile Network may be fixed in relationship to the Mobile
Router and may not have any mobility function. Router and may not have any mobility function.
Extensions to Mobile IPv4 are introduced to support Mobile Networks. Extensions to Mobile IPv4 are introduced to support Mobile Networks.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Mobile Network Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4. Mobile Network Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1. Mobile Network Request Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4.1. Mobile Network Request Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2. Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension . . . . . . . . . 4 4.2. Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension . . . . . . . . . 6
5. Mobile Router Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. Mobile Router Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.1. Error Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5.1. Error Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Home Agent Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Home Agent Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6.1. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6.1. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6.2. Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6.2. Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.2.1. Registration Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6.2.1. Registration Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.2.2. Prefix Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6.2.2. Prefix Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.3. Mobile Network Prefix Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6.3. Mobile Network Prefix Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.4. Advertising Mobile Network Reachability . . . . . . . . .10 6.4. Advertising Mobile Network Reachability . . . . . . . . . 12
6.5. Establishment of Bi-directional Tunnel . . . . . . . . . .10 6.5. Establishment of Bi-directional Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.6. Sending Registration Replies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 6.6. Sending Registration Replies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.7. Mobile Network Prefix De-registration . . . . . . . . . .11 6.7. Mobile Network Prefix De-registration . . . . . . . . . . 13
7. Data Forwarding Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 7. Data Forwarding Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8. Nested Mobile Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 8. Nested Mobile Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and Home Agent. . . . .12 9. Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and Home Agent . . . . 15
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10.1 Security when Dynamic Routing Protocol is Used. . . . . . .13 10.1. Security when Dynamic Routing Protocol is Used . . . . . . 17
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
14. Changelog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Appendix A. ChangeLog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . .19 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 24
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document describes protocol extensions to Mobile IPv4 as per This document describes protocol extensions to Mobile IPv4 as per
[RFC3344] and its update [2], to enable support for Mobile RFC 3344 [RFC3344] and its update [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis], to
Networks. This draft addresses mainly the co-located Care-of enable support for Mobile Networks. This draft addresses mainly the
Address mode. Foreign Agent Care-of Address mode (with 'legacy' co-located Care-of Address mode. Foreign Agent Care-of Address mode
Foreign Agents, [RFC3344]) are supported but without optimization, (with 'legacy' Foreign Agents, RFC 3344 [RFC3344]) are supported but
double encapsulation being used. For an optimization of this mode, without optimization, double encapsulation being used. For an
the gentle reader is directed to [1]. optimization of this mode, the gentle reader is directed to an
extension document [I-D.ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa].
A Mobile Network is defined as a network segment or subnet that can A Mobile Network is defined as a network segment or subnet that can
change its point of attachment to the routing infrastructure. Such change its point of attachment to the routing infrastructure. Such
movement is performed by a Mobile Router, which is the mobility movement is performed by a Mobile Router, which is the mobility
entity that provides connectivity and reachability as well as entity that provides connectivity and reachability as well as session
session continuity for all the nodes in the Mobile Network. The continuity for all the nodes in the Mobile Network. The Mobile
Mobile Router typically serves as the default gateway for the hosts Router typically serves as the default gateway for the hosts on the
on the Mobile Network. Mobile Network.
Mobility for the Mobile Network is supported by the Mobile Router Mobility for the Mobile Network is supported by the Mobile Router
registering the point of attachment to its Home Agent. This registering the point of attachment to its Home Agent. This
signaling sets up the tunnel between the two entities. signaling sets up the tunnel between the two entities.
The Mobile Networks (either implicitly configured on the Home Agent The Mobile Networks (either implicitly configured on the Home Agent
or explicitly identified by the Mobile Router) are advertised by or explicitly identified by the Mobile Router) are advertised by the
the Home Agent for route propagation. Traffic to and from nodes in Home Agent for route propagation. Traffic to and from nodes in the
the Mobile Network are tunneled by the Home Agent to the Mobile Mobile Network are tunneled by the Home Agent to the Mobile Router,
Router, and vice versa. Though packets from the Mobile Network can and vice versa. Though packets from the Mobile Network can be
be forwarded directly without tunneling (if reverse tunneling is forwarded directly without tunneling (if reverse tunneling is not
not used) packets will be dropped if ingress filtering is turned used) packets will be dropped if ingress filtering is turned on.
on.
This document specifies an additional tunnel between a Mobile This document specifies an additional tunnel between a Mobile
Router's Home Address and the Home Agent. This tunnel is Router's Home Address and the Home Agent. This tunnel is
encapsulated within the normal tunnel between the Care-of Address encapsulated within the normal tunnel between the Care-of Address
(CoA) and Home Agent. In Foreign Agent CoA mode, the tunnel (CoA) and Home Agent. In Foreign Agent CoA mode, the tunnel between
between the Mobile Router and Home Agent is needed to allow the the Mobile Router and Home Agent is needed to allow the Foreign Agent
Foreign Agent to direct the decapsulated packet to the proper to direct the decapsulated packet to the proper visiting Mobile
visiting Mobile Router. However, in Collocated CoA mode, the Router. However, in Collocated CoA mode, the additional tunnel is
additional tunnel is not essential and could be eliminated because not essential and could be eliminated because the Mobile Router is
the Mobile Router is the recipient of the encapsulated packets for the recipient of the encapsulated packets for the Mobile Network; a
the Mobile Network; a proposal for this feature is in [1]. proposal for this feature is in an extension document
[I-D.ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa].
All traffic between the nodes in the Mobile Network and Correspondent All traffic between the nodes in the Mobile Network and Correspondent
Nodes passes through the Home Agent. This document does not cover Nodes passes through the Home Agent. This document does not cover
route optimization of this traffic. route optimization of this traffic.
A similar protocol has been documented in [RFC3963] for supporting A similar protocol has been documented in RFC 3963 [RFC3963] for
IPv6 mobile networks with Mobile IPv6 extensions. supporting IPv6 mobile networks with Mobile IPv6 extensions.
Multihoming for Mobile Routers is outside the scope of this Multihoming for Mobile Routers is outside the scope of this document.
document.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Terminology for network mobility support is defined in [RFC3344] Terminology for network mobility support is defined in RFC 3344
and its update [2]. In addition, this document defines the [RFC3344] and its update [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis]. In addition,
following terms. this document defines the following terms.
Mobile Network Prefix Mobile Network Prefix
The network prefix of the subnet delegated to a Mobile Router The network prefix of the subnet delegated to a Mobile Router
as the Mobile Network. as the Mobile Network.
Prefix Table Prefix Table
A list of Mobile Network Prefixes indexed by the Home Address A list of Mobile Network Prefixes indexed by the Home Address
of a Mobile Router. The Home Agent manages and uses Prefix of a Mobile Router. The Home Agent manages and uses Prefix
Table to determine which Mobile Network Prefixes belong to a Table to determine which Mobile Network Prefixes belong to a
particular Mobile Router. particular Mobile Router.
3. Requirements 3. Requirements
Although Mobile IPv4 stated that Mobile Network can be supported by Although Mobile IPv4 stated that Mobile Network can be supported by
the Mobile Router and Home Agent using static configuration or the Mobile Router and Home Agent using static configuration or
running a routing protocol, there is no solution for explicit running a routing protocol, there is no solution for explicit
registration of the Mobile Networks served by the Mobile Router. A registration of the Mobile Networks served by the Mobile Router. A
solution needs to provide the Home Agent a means to ensure that a solution needs to provide the Home Agent a means to ensure that a
Mobile Router claiming a certain Mobile Network Prefix is Mobile Router claiming a certain Mobile Network Prefix is authorized
authorized to do so. A solution would also expose the Mobile to do so. A solution would also expose the Mobile Network Prefixes
Network Prefixes (and potentially other subnet-relevant (and potentially other subnet-relevant information) in the exchanged
information) in the exchanged messages, to aid in network messages, to aid in network debugging.
debugging.
The following requirements for Mobile Network support are The following requirements for Mobile Network support are enumerated:
enumerated:
o A Mobile Router should be able to operate in explicit or implicit o A Mobile Router should be able to operate in explicit or implicit
mode. A Mobile Router may explicitly inform the Home Agent mode. A Mobile Router may explicitly inform the Home Agent which
which Mobile Network(s) need to be propagated via a routing Mobile Network(s) need to be propagated via a routing protocol. A
protocol. A Mobile Router may also function in implicit mode, Mobile Router may also function in implicit mode, where the Home
where the Home Agent may learn the mobile networks through other Agent may learn the mobile networks through other means, such as
means, such as from the AAA server, via pre-configuration, or from the AAA server, via pre-configuration, or via a dynamic
via a dynamic routing protocol. routing protocol.
o The Mobile Network should be supported using Foreign Agents that o The Mobile Network should be supported using Foreign Agents that
are compliant to [RFC3344] without any changes ('legacy' Foreign are compliant to RFC 3344 [RFC3344] without any changes ('legacy'
Agents). Foreign Agents).
o The mobile network should allow Fixed nodes, Mobile Nodes, or o The mobile network should allow Fixed Nodes, Mobile Nodes, or
Mobile Routers to be on it. Mobile Routers to be on it.
4. Mobile Network Extensions 4. Mobile Network Extensions
4.1. Mobile Network Request Extension 4.1. Mobile Network Request Extension
For Explicit Mode, the Mobile Router informs the Home Agent about For Explicit Mode, the Mobile Router informs the Home Agent about the
the Mobile Network Prefixes during registration. The Registration Mobile Network Prefixes during registration. The Registration
Request contains zero, one or several Mobile Network Request Request contains zero, one or several Mobile Network Request
extensions in addition to any other extensions defined by or in the extensions in addition to any other extensions defined by or in the
context of [RFC3344]. When several Mobile Networks are needed to context of RFC 3344 [RFC3344]. When several Mobile Networks are
be registered, each is included in a separate Mobile Network needed to be registered, each is included in a separate Mobile
Request extension, with its own Type, Length, Sub-Type, Prefix Network Request extension, with its own Type, Length, Sub-Type,
Length and Prefix fields. A Mobile Network Request extension is Prefix Length and Prefix fields. A Mobile Network Request extension
encoded in Type-Length-Value (TLV) format and respects the is encoded in Type-Length-Value (TLV) format and respects the
following format: following format:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Sub-Type | Prefix Length | | Type | Length | Sub-Type | Prefix Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Prefix | | Prefix |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: Type:
Mobile Network Extension (skippable type range to be assigned Mobile Network Extension (skippable type range to be assigned
by IANA) by IANA).
Length: Length:
6 6
Sub-Type: Sub-Type:
TBA (Mobile Network Request) TBA (Mobile Network Request)
Prefix Length: Prefix Length:
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the number of bits covering 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the number of bits covering
the network part of the address contained in the Prefix field. the network part of the address contained in the Prefix
field.
Prefix: Prefix:
32-bit unsigned integer in network byte-order containing an 32-bit unsigned integer in network byte-order containing an
IPv4 address whose first Prefix Length bits make up the Mobile IPv4 address whose first Prefix Length bits make up the
Network Prefix. Mobile Network Prefix.
4.2. Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension 4.2. Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension
The Registration Reply contains zero, one or several Mobile Network The Registration Reply contains zero, one or several Mobile Network
Acknowledgement extensions in addition to any other extensions Acknowledgement extensions in addition to any other extensions
defined by or in the context of [RFC3344] and its update [2]. defined by or in the context of RFC 3344 [RFC3344] and its update
For Implicit Mode, the Mobile Network Acknowledgement informs the [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis]. For Implicit Mode, the Mobile Network
Mobile Router the prefixes for which the Home Agent sets up Acknowledgement informs the Mobile Router the prefixes for which the
forwarding with respect to this Mobile Router. Policies such as Home Agent sets up forwarding with respect to this Mobile Router.
permitting only traffic from these Mobile Networks to be tunneled Policies such as permitting only traffic from these Mobile Networks
to the Home Agent may be applied by the Mobile Router. For to be tunneled to the Home Agent may be applied by the Mobile Router.
Explicit Mode, when several Mobile Networks are needed to be For Explicit Mode, when several Mobile Networks are needed to be
acknowledged explicitly, each is included in a separate Mobile acknowledged explicitly, each is included in a separate Mobile
Network Acknowledgement extension, with its own Type, Sub-Type, Network Acknowledgement extension, with its own Type, Sub-Type,
Length and Prefix Length fields. Optionally, all requested Mobile Length and Prefix Length fields. Optionally, all requested Mobile
Networks could be acknowledged using only one Mobile Network Networks could be acknowledged using only one Mobile Network
Acknowledgement extension with "Prefix Length" and "Prefix" fields Acknowledgement extension with "Prefix Length" and "Prefix" fields
set to zero. At least one Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension set to zero. At least one Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension
MUST be in a successful Registration Reply to indicate to the MUST be in a successful Registration Reply to indicate to the Mobile
Mobile Router that the Mobile Network Request extension was Router that the Mobile Network Request extension was processed,
processed, thereby not skipped by the Home Agent. thereby not skipped by the Home Agent.
A Registration Reply may contain any non-zero number of Explicit A Registration Reply may contain any non-zero number of Explicit Mode
Mode and Implicit Mode Acknowledgements sub-types. Both sub-types and Implicit Mode Acknowledgements sub-types. Both sub-types can be
can be present in a single Registration Reply. A Mobile Network present in a single Registration Reply. A Mobile Network
Acknowledgement extension is encoded in Type-Length-Value (TLV) Acknowledgement extension is encoded in Type-Length-Value (TLV)
format. When the registration is denied with code HA_MOBNET_ERROR, format. When the registration is denied with code HA_MOBNET_ERROR,
the Code field in the extension provides the reason for the the Code field in the extension provides the reason for the failure.
failure.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Sub-Type | Code | | Type | Length | Sub-Type | Code |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Prefix Length | Reserved | Prefix | Prefix Length | Reserved | Prefix
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: Type:
TBA - Mobile Network Extension (skippable type range to be TBA Mobile Network Extension (skippable type range to be
assigned by IANA) assigned by IANA).
Length: Length:
8 8
Sub-Type: Sub-Type:
TBA (Explicit Mode Acknowledgement) TBA (Explicit Mode Acknowledgement)
TBA (Implicit Mode Acknowledgement) TBA (Implicit Mode Acknowledgement)
Code: Code:
Value indicating success or failure. Value indicating success or failure:
TBA Success TBA Success
TBA Invalid prefix (MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN) TBA Invalid prefix (MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN)
TBA Mobile Router is not authorized for prefix TBA Mobile Router is not authorized for prefix
(MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED) (MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED)
TBA Forwarding setup failed (MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED) TBA Forwarding setup failed (MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED)
Prefix Length: Prefix Length:
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the number of bits covering 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the number of bits covering
the network part of the address contained in the Prefix field. the network part of the address contained in the Prefix
field.
Reserved: Reserved:
Sent as zero; ignored on reception. Sent as zero; ignored on reception.
Prefix: Prefix:
32-bit unsigned integer in network byte-order containing an 32-bit unsigned integer in network byte-order containing an
IPv4 address whose first Prefix Length bits make up the Mobile IPv4 address whose first Prefix Length bits make up the
Network Prefix. Mobile Network Prefix.
5. Mobile Router Operation 5. Mobile Router Operation
A Mobile Router's operation is generally derived from the behavior A Mobile Router's operation is generally derived from the behavior of
of a Mobile Node, as set in [RFC3344] and its update [2]. In a Mobile Node, as set in RFC 3344 [RFC3344] and its update
addition to maintaining mobility bindings for its Home Address, the [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis]. In addition to maintaining mobility
Mobile Router, together with the Home Agent, maintains forwarding bindings for its Home Address, the Mobile Router, together with the
information for the Mobile Network Prefix(es) assigned to the Home Agent, maintains forwarding information for the Mobile Network
Mobile Router. Prefix(es) assigned to the Mobile Router.
A Mobile Router SHOULD set the 'T' bit to 1 in all Registration A Mobile Router SHOULD set the 'T' bit to 1 in all Registration
Request messages it sends to indicate the need for reverse tunnels Request messages it sends to indicate the need for reverse tunnels
for all traffic. Without reverse tunnels, all the traffic from the for all traffic. Without reverse tunnels, all the traffic from the
mobile network will be subject to ingress filtering in the visited mobile network will be subject to ingress filtering in the visited
networks. Upon reception of a successful registration reply, the networks. Upon reception of a successful Registration Reply, the
Mobile Router processes the registration in accordance to Mobile Router processes the registration in accordance to RFC 3344
[RFC3344]. In addition, the following steps are taken: [RFC3344]. In addition, the following steps are taken:
o Check for Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension(s) in o Check for Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension(s) in
Registration Reply Registration Reply
o Create tunnel to the Home Agent if registered in reverse tunneling o Create tunnel to the Home Agent if registered in reverse tunneling
mode mode
o Set up default route via this tunnel or egress interface when o Set up default route via this tunnel or egress interface when
registered with or without reverse tunneling, respectively registered with or without reverse tunneling, respectively
In accordance with this specification, a Mobile Router may operate In accordance with this specification, a Mobile Router may operate in
in one of the following two modes: explicit and implicit. In one of the following two modes: explicit and implicit. In explicit
explicit mode, the Mobile Router includes Mobile Network Prefix mode, the Mobile Router includes Mobile Network Prefix information in
information in all Registration Requests (as Mobile Network Request all Registration Requests (as Mobile Network Request extensions),
extensions), while in implicit mode it does not include this while in implicit mode it does not include this information in any
information in any Registration Request. In this latter case, the Registration Request. In this latter case, the Home Agent obtains
Home Agent obtains the Mobile Network Prefixes by other means than the Mobile Network Prefixes by other means than Mobile IP. One
Mobile IP. One example of obtaining the Mobile Network Prefix is example of obtaining the Mobile Network Prefix is through static
through static configuration on the Home Agent. configuration on the Home Agent.
A Mobile Router can obtain a Collocated or Foreign Agent Care-of A Mobile Router can obtain a Collocated or Foreign Agent Care-of
Address while operating in explicit or implicit modes. Address while operating in explicit or implicit modes.
For de-registration, the Mobile Router sends a registration request For de-registration, the Mobile Router sends a registration request
with lifetime set to zero without any Mobile Network Request with lifetime set to zero without any Mobile Network Request
extensions. extensions.
5.1. Error Processing 5.1. Error Processing
A Mobile Router interprets the values of the Code field in the A Mobile Router interprets the values of the Code field in the Mobile
Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension of the Registration Reply Network Acknowledgement Extension of the Registration Reply in order
in order to identify any error related to managing the Mobile to identify any error related to managing the Mobile Network Prefixes
Network Prefixes by the Home Agent. by the Home Agent.
If the value of the Code field in the Registration Reply is set to If the value of the Code field in the Registration Reply is set to
HA_MOBNET_DISALLOWED, then the Mobile Router MUST stop sending HA_MOBNET_DISALLOWED, then the Mobile Router MUST stop sending
Registration Requests with any Mobile Network Prefix extensions to Registration Requests with any Mobile Network Prefix extensions to
that Home Agent. that Home Agent.
If the value of the Code field in the Registration Reply is set to If the value of the Code field in the Registration Reply is set to
HA_MOBNET_ERROR then the Mobile Router MUST stop sending Registration HA_MOBNET_ERROR then the Mobile Router MUST stop sending Registration
Requests that contain any of the Mobile Network Prefixes that are Requests that contain any of the Mobile Network Prefixes that are
defined by the values of the fields Prefix and Prefix Length in the defined by the values of the fields Prefix and Prefix Length in the
Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension. Note that the registration Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension. Note that the registration
is denied in this case and no forwarding for any Mobile Network is denied in this case and no forwarding for any Mobile Network
Prefixes would be set up by the Home Agent for the Mobile Router. Prefixes would be set up by the Home Agent for the Mobile Router.
It is possible that the Mobile Router receives a registration reply It is possible that the Mobile Router receives a Registration Reply
with no mobile network extensions if the registration was processed with no mobile network extensions if the registration was processed
by a Mobile IPv4 home agent that does not support this specification by a Mobile IPv4 home agent that does not support this specification
at all. In that case, the absence of mobile network extensions must at all. In that case, the absence of mobile network extensions must
be interpreted by the Mobile Router as the case where the Home Agent be interpreted by the Mobile Router as the case where the Home Agent
does not support mobile networks. does not support mobile networks.
All the error code values are TBA (To Be Assigned) subject to IANA All the error code values are TBA (To Be Assigned) subject to IANA
allocation. allocation.
6. Home Agent Operation 6. Home Agent Operation
6.1. Summary 6.1. Summary
A Home Agent MUST support all the operations specified in [RFC3344] A Home Agent MUST support all the operations specified in RFC 3344
and its update [2] for mobile node support. The Home Agent MUST [RFC3344] and its update [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis] for Mobile Node
support both implicit and explicit modes of operation for a Mobile support. The Home Agent MUST support both implicit and explicit
Router. modes of operation for a Mobile Router.
The Home Agent processes the registration in accordance to The Home Agent processes the registration in accordance to RFC 3344
[RFC3344], which includes route set up to the Mobile Router's Home [RFC3344], which includes route set up to the Mobile Router's Home
Address via the tunnel to the Care-of Address. In addition, for a Address via the tunnel to the Care-of Address. In addition, for a
Mobile Router registering in explicit mode, the following steps are Mobile Router registering in explicit mode, the following steps are
taken: taken:
1. Check that the Mobile Network Prefix information is valid 1. Check that the Mobile Network Prefix information is valid
2. Ensure the Mobile Network Prefix(es) is or are authorized to be 2. Ensure the Mobile Network Prefix(es) is or are authorized to be
on the Mobile Router on the Mobile Router
3. Create tunnel to the Mobile Router if it does not already exist 3. Create tunnel to the Mobile Router if it does not already exist
4. Set up route for the Mobile Network Prefix via this tunnel 4. Set up route for the Mobile Network Prefix via this tunnel
5. Propagate Mobile Network Prefix routes via routing protocol 5. Propagate Mobile Network Prefix routes via routing protocol
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successfully. successfully.
For deregistration, the Home Agent removes the tunnel to the Mobile For deregistration, the Home Agent removes the tunnel to the Mobile
Router and all routes using this tunnel. The Mobile Network Router and all routes using this tunnel. The Mobile Network
extensions are ignored. extensions are ignored.
6.2. Data Structures 6.2. Data Structures
6.2.1. Registration Table 6.2.1. Registration Table
The Registration Table in the Home Agent, in accordance with The Registration Table in the Home Agent, in accordance with RFC 3344
[RFC3344] and its update [2], contains binding information for [RFC3344] and its update [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis], contains binding
every Mobile Node registered with it. [RFC3344] and its update [2] information for every Mobile Node registered with it. RFC 3344
define the format of a Registration Table. In addition to all the [RFC3344] and its update [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis] define the format
parameters specified by [RFC3344] and its update [2], the Home of a Registration Table. In addition to all the parameters specified
Agent MUST store the Mobile Network Prefixes associated with the by RFC 3344 [RFC3344] and its update [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis], the
Home Agent MUST store the Mobile Network Prefixes associated with the
Mobile Router in the corresponding registration entry, when the Mobile Router in the corresponding registration entry, when the
corresponding registration was performed in explicit mode. When corresponding registration was performed in explicit mode. When the
the Home Agent is advertising reachability to Mobile Network Home Agent is advertising reachability to Mobile Network Prefixes
Prefixes served by a Mobile Router, this information stored in the served by a Mobile Router, the information stored in the Registration
Registration Table can be used. Table can be used.
6.2.2. Prefix Table 6.2.2. Prefix Table
The Home Agent must be able to authorize a Mobile Router for use of The Home Agent must be able to authorize a Mobile Router for use of
Mobile Network Prefixes when the Mobile Router is operating in Mobile Network Prefixes when the Mobile Router is operating in
explicit mode. Also, when the Mobile Router operates in implicit explicit mode. Also, when the Mobile Router operates in implicit
mode, the Home Agent must be able to locate the Mobile Network mode, the Home Agent must be able to locate the Mobile Network
Prefixes associated with that Mobile Router. The Home Agent may Prefixes associated with that Mobile Router. The Home Agent may
store the Home Address of the Mobile Router along with the mobile store the Home Address of the Mobile Router along with the mobile
network prefixes associated with that Mobile Router. If the Mobile network prefixes associated with that Mobile Router. If the Mobile
Router does not have a Home Address assigned, this table may store Router does not have a Home Address assigned, this table may store
the NAI [RFC2794] of the Mobile Router that will be used in dynamic the NAI RFC 2794 [RFC2794] of the Mobile Router that will be used in
Home Address assignment. dynamic Home Address assignment.
6.3. Mobile Network Prefix Registration 6.3. Mobile Network Prefix Registration
The Home Agent must process registration requests coming from The Home Agent must process registration requests coming from Mobile
Mobile Routers in accordance with this section. The document Routers in accordance with this section. The document RFC 3344
[RFC3344] and its update [2] specify that the Home Address of a [RFC3344] and its update [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis] specify that the
mobile node registering with a Home Agent must belong to a prefix Home Address of a mobile node registering with a Home Agent must
advertised on the home network. In accordance with this belong to a prefix advertised on the home network. In accordance
specification, however, the Home Address must be configured from a with this specification, however, the Home Address must be configured
prefix that is served by the Home Agent, not necessarily the one on from a prefix that is served by the Home Agent, not necessarily the
the home network. one on the home network.
If the registration request is valid, the Home Agent checks to see If the registration request is valid, the Home Agent checks to see if
if there are any Mobile Network Prefix extensions included in the there are any Mobile Network Prefix extensions included in the
Registration Request. Registration Request.
If so, the Mobile Network Prefix information is obtained from the If so, the Mobile Network Prefix information is obtained from the
included extensions, and the Home Address from the Home Address included extensions, and the Home Address from the Home Address field
field of the Registration Request. For every Mobile Network Prefix of the Registration Request. For every Mobile Network Prefix
extension included in the registration request, the Home Agent MUST extension included in the registration request, the Home Agent MUST
perform a check against the Prefix Table. If the Prefix Table does perform a check against the Prefix Table. If the Prefix Table does
not contain at least one entry pairing that Home Address to that not contain at least one entry pairing that Home Address to that
Mobile Network Prefix then the check fails, otherwise it succeeds. Mobile Network Prefix then the check fails, otherwise it succeeds.
Following this check against the Prefix Table, the Home Agent MUST Following this check against the Prefix Table, the Home Agent MUST
construct a Registration Reply containing Mobile Network construct a Registration Reply containing Mobile Network
Acknowledgement extensions. For a Mobile Network Prefix for which Acknowledgement extensions. For a Mobile Network Prefix for which
the check was unsuccessfull the Code field in the corresponding the check was unsuccessfull the Code field in the corresponding
Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension should be set to Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension should be set to
MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED. MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED.
For a Mobile Network Prefix for which the check was successfull the For a Mobile Network Prefix for which the check was successfull the
Code field in the respective Mobile Network Acknowledgement Code field in the respective Mobile Network Acknowledgement
extensions should be set to 0. extensions should be set to 0.
The Home Agent MUST attempt to set up forwarding for each Mobile The Home Agent MUST attempt to set up forwarding for each Mobile
Network Prefix extension for which the Prefix Table check was Network Prefix extension for which the Prefix Table check was
successfull. If the forwarding setup fails for a particular Mobile successfull. If the forwarding setup fails for a particular Mobile
Network Prefix (for reasons like not enough memory available, or Network Prefix (for reasons like not enough memory available, or not
not enough devices available, or other similar) the Code field in enough devices available, or other similar) the Code field in the
the respective Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension should be respective Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension should be set to
set to MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED. MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED.
If forwarding and setup was successful for at least one Mobile If forwarding and setup was successful for at least one Mobile
Network Prefix then the Code field of the Registration Reply Network Prefix then the Code field of the Registration Reply message
message should be set to 0. Otherwise that Code should be should be set to 0. Otherwise that Code should be HA_MOBNET_ERROR.
HA_MOBNET_ERROR.
If the registration request is sent in implicit mode, i.e., without If the registration request is sent in implicit mode, i.e., without
any Mobile Network Request extension, the Home Agent may use pre- any Mobile Network Request extension, the Home Agent may use pre-
configured mobile network prefix information for the Mobile Router to configured mobile network prefix information for the Mobile Router to
set up forwarding. set up forwarding.
If the Home Agent is updating an existing binding entry for the If the Home Agent is updating an existing binding entry for the
Mobile Router, it MUST check all the prefixes in the registration Mobile Router, it MUST check all the prefixes in the registration
table against the prefixes included in the registration request. table against the prefixes included in the registration request. If
If one or more mobile network prefix is missing from the included one or more mobile network prefix is missing from the included
information in the registration request, it MUST delete those information in the registration request, it MUST delete those
prefixes from the registration table. Also, the Home Agent MUST prefixes from the registration table. Also, the Home Agent MUST
disable forwarding for those prefixes. disable forwarding for those prefixes.
If all checks are successful, the Home Agent either creates a new If all checks are successful, the Home Agent either creates a new
entry for the Mobile Router or updates an existing binding entry entry for the Mobile Router or updates an existing binding entry for
for it and returns a successful registration reply back to the it and returns a successful registration reply back to the Mobile
Mobile Router or the Foreign Agent (if the registration request was Router or the Foreign Agent (if the registration request was received
received from a Foreign Agent). from a Foreign Agent).
In accordance with [RFC3344], the Home Agent does proxy ARP for the In accordance with RFC 3344 [RFC3344], the Home Agent does proxy ARP
Mobile Router Home Address, when the Mobile Router Home Address is for the Mobile Router Home Address, when the Mobile Router Home
derived from the home network. Address is derived from the home network.
If the 'T' bit is set, the Home Agent creates a bi-directional If the 'T' bit is set, the Home Agent creates a bi-directional tunnel
tunnel for the corresponding mobile network prefixes or updates the for the corresponding mobile network prefixes or updates the existing
existing bi-directional tunnel. This tunnel is maintained bi-directional tunnel. This tunnel is maintained independent of the
independent of the reverse tunnel for the Mobile Router home reverse tunnel for the Mobile Router home address itself.
address itself.
6.4. Advertising Mobile Network Reachability 6.4. Advertising Mobile Network Reachability
If the mobile network prefixes served by the Home Agent are If the mobile network prefixes served by the Home Agent are
aggregated with the home network prefix and if the Home Agent is aggregated with the home network prefix and if the Home Agent is the
the default router on the home network, the Home Agent does not default router on the home network, the Home Agent does not have to
have to advertise the Mobile Network Prefixes. The routes for the advertise the Mobile Network Prefixes. The routes for the Mobile
Mobile Network Prefix are automatically aggregated into the home Network Prefix are automatically aggregated into the home network
network prefix (it is assumed that the Mobile Network Prefixes are prefix (it is assumed that the Mobile Network Prefixes are
automatically aggregated into the home network prefix). If the automatically aggregated into the home network prefix). If the
Mobile Router updates the mobile network prefix routes via a Mobile Router updates the mobile network prefix routes via a dynamic
dynamic routing protocol, the Home Agent SHOULD propagate the routing protocol, the Home Agent SHOULD propagate the routes on the
routes on the appropriate networks. appropriate networks.
6.5. Establishment of Bi-directional Tunnel 6.5. Establishment of Bi-directional Tunnel
The Home Agent creates and maintains a bi-directional tunnel for The Home Agent creates and maintains a bi-directional tunnel for the
the mobile network prefixes of a Mobile Router registered with it. mobile network prefixes of a Mobile Router registered with it. A
A home agent supporting IPv4 Mobile Router operation MUST be able home agent supporting IPv4 Mobile Router operation MUST be able to
to forward packets destined to the mobile network prefixes served forward packets destined to the mobile network prefixes served by the
by the Mobile Router to its Care-of Address. Also, the Home Agent Mobile Router to its Care-of Address. Also, the Home Agent MUST be
MUST be able to accept packets tunneled by the Mobile Router with able to accept packets tunneled by the Mobile Router with the source
the source address of the outer header set to the Care-of Address address of the outer header set to the Care-of Address of the Mobile
of the Mobile Router and that of the inner header set to the Mobile Router and that of the inner header set to the Mobile Router's Home
Router's Home Address or an address from one of the registered Address or an address from one of the registered mobile network
mobile network prefixes. prefixes.
6.6. Sending Registration Replies 6.6. Sending Registration Replies
The Home Agent MUST set the status code in the registration reply The Home Agent MUST set the status code in the registration reply to
to 0 to indicate successful processing of the registration request 0 to indicate successful processing of the registration request and
and successful set up of forwarding for all the mobile network successful set up of forwarding for all the mobile network prefixes
prefixes served by the Mobile Router. The registration reply MUST served by the Mobile Router. The registration reply MUST contain at
contain at least one Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension. least one Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension.
If the Home Agent is unable to set up forwarding for one of more If the Home Agent is unable to set up forwarding for one of more
mobile network prefixes served by the Mobile Router, it MUST set the mobile network prefixes served by the Mobile Router, it MUST set the
Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension status code in the Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension status code in the
registration reply to MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED. When the prefix registration reply to MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED. When the prefix
length is zero or greater than 32, the status code MUST be set to length is zero or greater than 32, the status code MUST be set to
MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN. MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN.
If the Mobile Router is not authorized to forward packets to one or If the Mobile Router is not authorized to forward packets to one or
mobile network prefixes included in the request, the Home Agent MUST mobile network prefixes included in the request, the Home Agent MUST
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agent tears down the bi-directional tunnel and stops forwarding any agent tears down the bi-directional tunnel and stops forwarding any
packets to/from the Mobile Router. The Home Agent MUST ignore any packets to/from the Mobile Router. The Home Agent MUST ignore any
included Mobile Network Request extension in a de-registration included Mobile Network Request extension in a de-registration
request. request.
7. Data Forwarding Operation 7. Data Forwarding Operation
For traffic to the nodes in the Mobile Network, the Home Agent MUST For traffic to the nodes in the Mobile Network, the Home Agent MUST
perform double tunneling of the packet, if the Mobile Router had perform double tunneling of the packet, if the Mobile Router had
registered with a Foreign Agent Care-of Address. In this case, the registered with a Foreign Agent Care-of Address. In this case, the
Home Agent MUST encapsulate the packet with tunnel header (source Home Agent MUST encapsulate the packet with tunnel header (source IP
IP address set to Home Agent and destination IP address set to address set to Home Agent and destination IP address set to Mobile
Mobile Router's Home Address) and then encapsulate one more time Router's Home Address) and then encapsulate one more time with tunnel
with tunnel header (source IP address set to Home Agent and header (source IP address set to Home Agent and destination IP
destination IP address set to CoA). address set to CoA).
For optimization, the Home Agent SHOULD only encapsulate the packet For optimization, the Home Agent SHOULD only encapsulate the packet
with the tunnel header (source IP address set to Home Agent and with the tunnel header (source IP address set to Home Agent and
destination IP address set to CoA) for Collocated CoA mode. destination IP address set to CoA) for Collocated CoA mode.
When a Home Agent receives a packet from the mobile network prefix When a Home Agent receives a packet from the mobile network prefix in
in the bi-directional tunnel, it MUST de-encapsulate the packet and the bi-directional tunnel, it MUST de-encapsulate the packet and
route it as a normal IP packet. It MUST verify that the incoming route it as a normal IP packet. It MUST verify that the incoming
packet has the source IP address set to the Care-of Address of the packet has the source IP address set to the Care-of Address of the
Mobile Router. The packet MUST be dropped if the source address is Mobile Router. The packet MUST be dropped if the source address is
not set to the Care-of Address of the Mobile Router. not set to the Care-of Address of the Mobile Router.
For traffic from the nodes in the Mobile Network, the Mobile Router For traffic from the nodes in the Mobile Network, the Mobile Router
encapsulates the packet with a tunnel header (source IP address set encapsulates the packet with a tunnel header (source IP address set
to Mobile Router's Home Address and destination IP address set to to Mobile Router's Home Address and destination IP address set to
Home Agent) if reverse tunnel is enabled. Otherwise, the packet is Home Agent) if reverse tunnel is enabled. Otherwise, the packet is
routed directly to the Foreign Agent or access router. routed directly to the Foreign Agent or access router.
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Router remains the same whether the Mobile Router attaches to another Router remains the same whether the Mobile Router attaches to another
Mobile Router or to a fixed Access Router on the Internet. The Mobile Router or to a fixed Access Router on the Internet. The
solution described here does not place any restriction on the number solution described here does not place any restriction on the number
of levels for nested mobility. But note that this might introduce of levels for nested mobility. But note that this might introduce
significant overhead on the data packets as each level of nesting significant overhead on the data packets as each level of nesting
introduces another tunnel header encapsulation. introduces another tunnel header encapsulation.
9. Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and Home Agent 9. Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and Home Agent
There are several benefits of running a dynamic routing protocol There are several benefits of running a dynamic routing protocol
between the Mobile Router and the Home Agent. If the mobile between the Mobile Router and the Home Agent. If the mobile network
network is relatively large, including several wireless subnets, is relatively large, including several wireless subnets, then the
then the topology changes within the moving network can be exposed topology changes within the moving network can be exposed from the
from the Mobile Router to the Home Agent by using a dynamic routing Mobile Router to the Home Agent by using a dynamic routing protocol.
protocol. The purpose of the NEMOv4 protocol extensions to Mobile The purpose of the NEMOv4 protocol extensions to Mobile IPv4, as
IPv4, as defined in previous sections, is not to inform the Home defined in previous sections, is not to inform the Home Agent about
Agent about these topology changes, but to manage the mobility of these topology changes, but to manage the mobility of the Mobile
the Mobile Router. Router.
Similarly, topology changes in the home network can be exposed to Similarly, topology changes in the home network can be exposed to the
the Mobile Router by using a dynamic routing protocol. This may be Mobile Router by using a dynamic routing protocol. This may be
necessary when new fixed networks are added in the home network. necessary when new fixed networks are added in the home network.
Here too, the purpose of NEMOv4 extensions is not to inform the Here too, the purpose of NEMOv4 extensions is not to inform the
Mobile Router about topology changes at home. Mobile Router about topology changes at home.
Examples of dynamic routing protocol include but are not limited to Examples of dynamic routing protocol include but are not limited to
OSPF Version 2 [RFC2328], BGP [RFC4271] and RIP [RFC2453]. OSPF Version 2 RFC 2328 [RFC2328], BGP RFC 4271 [RFC4271] and RIP
RFC 2453 [RFC2453].
The recommendations are related to how the routing protocol and the The recommendations are related to how the routing protocol and the
Mobile IPv4 implementation work in tandem on the Mobile Router and Mobile IPv4 implementation work in tandem on the Mobile Router and on
on the Home Agent (1) without creating incoherent states in the the Home Agent (1) without creating incoherent states in the
forwarding information bases at home and on the Mobile Router (2) forwarding information bases at home and on the Mobile Router, (2)
without introducing topologically incorrect addressing information without introducing topologically incorrect addressing information in
in the visited domain and (3) efficiently avoid duplication of sent the visited domain and (3) efficiently avoid duplication of sent data
data or over-provisioning of security. or over-provisioning of security.
The information exchanged between the Mobile Router and the Home The information exchanged between the Mobile Router and the Home
Agent is sent over the bi-directional tunnel established by the Agent is sent over the bi-directional tunnel established by the
Mobile IPv4 exchange Registration Request - Registration Reply (see Mobile IPv4 exchange Registration Request - Registration Reply (see
section 6.5). If a network address and prefix about a subnet in Section 6.5). If a network address and prefix about a subnet in the
the moving network is sent by the Mobile Router within a routing moving network is sent by the Mobile Router within a routing protocol
protocol message then they SHOULD NOT be sent in the Mobile IPv4 message then they SHOULD NOT be sent in the Mobile IPv4 Registration
Registration Request too, in order to avoid incoherencies in the Request too, in order to avoid incoherencies in the forwarding
forwarding information bases. The Mobile Router SHOULD use NEMOv4 information bases. The Mobile Router SHOULD use NEMOv4 implicit mode
implicit mode in this case (see section 3). in this case (see Section 3).
The Mobile Router SHOULD NOT send routing protocol information The Mobile Router SHOULD NOT send routing protocol information
updates in the foreign network. The subnet addresses and prefixes updates in the foreign network. The subnet addresses and prefixes
valid in the moving network are topologically incorrect in the valid in the moving network are topologically incorrect in the
visited network. visited network.
If the Mobile Router and the Home Agent use a dynamic routing If the Mobile Router and the Home Agent use a dynamic routing
protocol over the tunnel interface, and if that protocol offers protocol over the tunnel interface, and if that protocol offers
security mechanisms to protect that protocol's messages, then the security mechanisms to protect that protocol's messages, then the
security recommendations in section 10.1 apply. security recommendations in Section 10.1 apply.
10. Security Considerations 10. Security Considerations
The Mobile Network extension is protected by the same rules for The Mobile Network extension is protected by the same rules for
Mobile IP extensions in registration messages. See the Security Mobile IP extensions in registration messages. See the Security
Considerations section in [RFC3344]. Considerations section in RFC 3344 [RFC3344].
The Home Agent MUST be able to verify that the Mobile Router is The Home Agent MUST be able to verify that the Mobile Router is
authorized to provide mobility service for the Mobile Networks in authorized to provide mobility service for the Mobile Networks in the
the registration request, before anchoring these Mobile Network registration request, before anchoring these Mobile Network Prefixes
Prefixes on behalf of the Mobile Router. Forwarding for prefixes on behalf of the Mobile Router. Forwarding for prefixes MUST NOT be
MUST NOT be set up without successful authorization of the Mobile set up without successful authorization of the Mobile Router for
Router for those prefixes. A registration failure MUST be notified those prefixes. A registration failure MUST be notified to the
to the mobile router when it cannot be successfully authorized for mobile router when it cannot be successfully authorized for prefixes
prefixes requested by it. requested by it.
All registration requests and replies MUST be authenticated by the All registration requests and replies MUST be authenticated by the
MN-HA Authentication Extension as specified in [RFC3344] and its MN-HA Authentication Extension as specified in RFC 3344 [RFC3344] and
update [2]. When the registration request is sent in explicit its update [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis]. When the registration request
mode, i.e., with one or more Mobile Network Prefix extensions, all is sent in explicit mode, i.e., with one or more Mobile Network
the Mobile Network Prefix extensions MUST be included before the Prefix extensions, all the Mobile Network Prefix extensions MUST be
MN-HA Authentication extension. Also, these extensions MUST be included before the MN-HA Authentication extension. Also, these
included in the calculation of the MN-HA authenticator value. extensions MUST be included in the calculation of the MN-HA
authenticator value.
The Mobile Router should perform ingress filtering on all the packets The Mobile Router should perform ingress filtering on all the packets
received on the mobile network prior to reverse tunneling them to the received on the mobile network prior to reverse tunneling them to the
Home Agent. The Mobile Router MUST drop any packets that do not have Home Agent. The Mobile Router MUST drop any packets that do not have
a source address belonging to the mobile network. a source address belonging to the mobile network.
The Mobile Router MUST also ensure that the source address of The Mobile Router MUST also ensure that the source address of packets
packets arriving on the mobile network is not the same as the arriving on the mobile network is not the same as the Mobile Router's
Mobile Router's IP address on any interface. These checks will IP address on any interface. These checks will protect against nodes
protect against nodes attempting to launch IP spoofing attacks attempting to launch IP spoofing attacks through the bi-directional
through the bi-directional tunnel. tunnel.
The Home Agent, upon receiving packets through the bi-directional The Home Agent, upon receiving packets through the bi-directional
tunnel, MUST verify that the source addresses of the outer IP header tunnel, MUST verify that the source addresses of the outer IP header
of the packets are set to the Mobile Router's care-of-address. Also, of the packets are set to the Mobile Router's care-of-address. Also,
it MUST ensure that the source address of the inner IP header is a it MUST ensure that the source address of the inner IP header is a
topologically correct address on the mobile network. This will topologically correct address on the mobile network. This will
prevent nodes from using the Home Agent to launch attacks inside the prevent nodes from using the Home Agent to launch attacks inside the
protected network. protected network.
10.1 Security when Dynamic Routing Protocol is Used 10.1. Security when Dynamic Routing Protocol is Used
If a dynamic routing protocol is used between the Mobile Router and If a dynamic routing protocol is used between the Mobile Router and
the Home Agent to propagate the mobile network information into the the Home Agent to propagate the mobile network information into the
home network, the routing updates SHOULD be protected with IPsec ESP home network, the routing updates SHOULD be protected with IPsec ESP
confidentiality between the Mobile Router and Home Agent, to prevent confidentiality between the Mobile Router and Home Agent, to prevent
information about home network topology from being visible to information about home network topology from being visible to
eavesdroppers. eavesdroppers.
A routing protocol message protected with ESP, and sent through the A routing protocol message protected with ESP, and sent through the
Mobile Router - Home Agent bidirectional tunnel, SHOULD NOT contain Mobile Router - Home Agent bidirectional tunnel, SHOULD NOT contain
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11. IANA Considerations 11. IANA Considerations
IANA to modify rules for the existing registry "Mobile IPv4 numbers - IANA to modify rules for the existing registry "Mobile IPv4 numbers -
per RFC 3344". The numbering space for Extensions that may appear in per RFC 3344". The numbering space for Extensions that may appear in
Mobile IP control messages (those sent to and from UDP port number Mobile IP control messages (those sent to and from UDP port number
434) should be modified. 434) should be modified.
The new Values and Names for the Type for Extensions appearing in The new Values and Names for the Type for Extensions appearing in
Mobile IP control messages are the following: Mobile IP control messages are the following:
Value Name
----- ------------------------------------------
TBA Mobile Network Extension (To Be Assigned by IANA)
A new number space should be created for the Values and Names for +-------+---------------------------------------------------+
the Sub-Type for Mobile Network Extensions. This number space is | Value | Name |
+-------+---------------------------------------------------+
| TBA | Mobile Network Extension (To Be Assigned by IANA) |
+-------+---------------------------------------------------+
Table 1: New Values and Names for Extensions in Mobile IP Control
Messages
A new number space should be created for the Values and Names for the
Sub-Type for Mobile Network Extensions. This number space is
initially defined to hold the following entries, allocated by this initially defined to hold the following entries, allocated by this
document: document:
Value Name +-------+-----------------------------------------+
----- ------------------------------------------ | Value | Name |
TBA Mobile Network Request Extension +-------+-----------------------------------------+
TBA Explicit Mode Acknowledgement Extension | TBA | Mobile Network Request Extension |
TBA Implicit Mode Acknowledgement Extension | TBA | Explicit Mode Acknowledgement Extension |
| TBA | Implicit Mode Acknowledgement Extension |
+-------+-----------------------------------------+
The policy of future assignments to this number space should be Table 2: New Values and Names for the Sub-Type for Mobile Network
following Expert Review (and not necessarily IETF Consensus). Extensions
The new Code values for Mobile IP Registration Reply messages are The policy of future assignments to this number space should be
the following: following Expert Review.
Code Values for Mobile IP Registration Reply messages The new Code Values for Mobile IP Registration Reply messages are the
----------------------------------------------------- following (for a registration denied by the Home Agent):
Registration denied by the Home Agent: (To Be Assigned by IANA) +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| Value | Name |
+-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| TBA | Mobile Network Prefix operation error (HA_MOBNET_ERROR) |
| TBA | Mobile Router operation is not permitted |
| | (HA_MOBNET_DISALLOWED) |
+-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
TBA Mobile Network Prefix operation error (HA_MOBNET_ERROR) Table 3: New Code Values for Mobile IP Registration Reply
TBA Mobile Router operation is not permitted
(HA_MOBNET_DISALLOWED)
A new number space should be created for the Code Values for the A new number space should be created for the Code Values for the
Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension. This number space is Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension. This number space is
initially defined to hold the following entries, allocated by this initially defined to hold the following entries, allocated by this
document: document (result of registration, as sent by the Home Agent):
Code Values for Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension +-----+-------------------------------------------------------------+
-------------------------------------------------------- | TBA | Success |
| TBA | Invalid prefix length (MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN) |
| TBA | Mobile Router is not authorized for prefix |
| | (MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED) |
| TBA | Forwarding setup failed (MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED) |
+-----+-------------------------------------------------------------+
Result of registration, as sent by the Home Agent: Table 4: New Code Values for Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension
TBA Success
TBA Invalid prefix length (MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN)
TBA Mobile Router is not authorized for prefix
(MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED)
TBA Forwarding setup failed (MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED)
The policy of future assignments to this number space should be The policy of future assignments to this number space should be
following Expert Review (and not necessarily IETF Consensus). following Expert Review.
The current non-modified numbering spaces could be consulted at the The current non-modified numbering spaces could be consulted at the
following URL: http://www.iana.org/assignments/mobileip-numbers URL http://www.iana.org/assignments/mobileip-numbers (contents last
(contents last updated 2007-10-26 and last browsed 2007-10-31). updated 2007-12-20 and last browsed 2008-01-04).
12. Acknowledgements 12. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Christophe Janneteau, George The authors would like to thank Christophe Janneteau, George
Popovich, Ty Bekiares, Ganesh Srinivasan, Alpesh Patel, Ryuji Popovich, Ty Bekiares, Ganesh Srinivasan, Alpesh Patel, Ryuji
Wakikawa, George Tsirtsis, and Henrik Levkowetz for their helpful Wakikawa, George Tsirtsis, and Henrik Levkowetz for their helpful
discussions, reviews and comments. Vijay Devarapalli extensively discussions, reviews and comments. Vijay Devarapalli extensively
reviewed one of the later versions of the draft. Hans Sjostrand reviewed one of the later versions of the draft. Hans Sjostrand
(Hans Sj\"ostrand) identified the last clarifications with respect (Hans Sj\"ostrand) identified the last clarifications with respect to
to Foreign Agent mode treatment. Pete McCann contributed necessary Foreign Agent mode treatment. Pete McCann contributed necessary
refinements of many statements. refinements of many statements.
13. References 13. References
13.1. Normative References 13.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2794] Calhoun, P. and C. Perkins, "Mobile IP Network Access [RFC2328] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998.
Identifier Extension for IPv4", RFC 2794, March 2000.
[RFC2453] Malkin, G., "RIP Version 2", RFC 2453, STD 56, November [RFC2453] Malkin, G., "RIP Version 2", STD 56, RFC 2453,
1998. November 1998.
[RFC2328] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", RFC 2328, STD 54, April [RFC2794] Calhoun, P. and C. Perkins, "Mobile IP Network Access
1998. Identifier Extension for IPv4", RFC 2794, March 2000.
[RFC3344] Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC 3344, [RFC3344] Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC 3344,
August 2002. August 2002.
[RFC4271] Rekhter, Y, Ed., Li, T. and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway [RFC4271] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway
Protocol (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006. Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006.
13.2. Informative References 13.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa]
Tsirtsis, G., Park, V., Narayanan, V., and K. Leung, "FA
extensions to NEMOv4 Base", draft-ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa-01
(work in progress), November 2007.
[I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis]
Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4, revised",
draft-ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis-05 (work in progress),
July 2007.
[RFC3963] Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P. [RFC3963] Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P.
Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol", Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol",
RFC 3963, January 2005. RFC 3963, January 2005.
[1] Tsirtsis, G., Park, V., Narayanan, V., and K. Leung, "FA Appendix A. ChangeLog
extensions to NEMOv4 Base",
draft-ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa-01.txt, IETF Internet-Draft,
Work in Progress, March 19, 2007.
[2] Perkins, C., Ed., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4, The changes are listed in reverse chronological order, most recent
revised", draft-ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis-05.txt, IETF changes appearing at the top of the list.
Internet-Draft, Work in Progress, July 9, 2007.
14. Changelog From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-06.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-07.txt
The changes are listed in reverse chronological order, most recent o encoded the draft into xml. Compiled with xml2rfc version
changes appearing at the top of the list: 1.33pre4.
o checked against 'idnits' script version 2.05.03.
o substituted 'Care-of Address' for 'CoA'.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-05.txt to From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-05.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-06.txt draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-06.txt
-substituted "TBA" for "1" in Sub-type of Mobile Network Request
o substituted "TBA" for "1" in Sub-type of Mobile Network Request
Extension. Extension.
-substituted "TBA" for "0" in Code of Mobile Network
o substituted "TBA" for "0" in Code of Mobile Network
Acknowledgement Extension and in the IANA Section. Acknowledgement Extension and in the IANA Section.
-modified the IANA section to request definition two new spaces
o modified the IANA section to request definition two new spaces
(instead of just defining new values) for Sub-Type of Mobile (instead of just defining new values) for Sub-Type of Mobile
Network Extensions and for Code Values for Mobile Network Network Extensions and for Code Values for Mobile Network
Acknowledgement Extension, and to suggest "Expert Review" as Acknowledgement Extension, and to suggest "Expert Review" as
method of new assignments in these two spaces (and not method of new assignments in these two spaces (and not necessarily
necessarily "IETF Conssensus"). "IETF Consensus").
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-04.txt to From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-04.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-05.txt draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-05.txt
-updated the Acknowledgements section.
-capitalized all occurences of "Home Address", "Mobile Router" o updated the Acknowledgements section.
and "Care-of Address".
-refined many statements. o capitalized all occurences of "Home Address", "Mobile Router" and
-checked against 'idnits' script version 2.04.16. "Care-of Address".
o refined many statements.
o checked against 'idnits' script version 2.04.16.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-03.txt to From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-03.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-04.txt draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-04.txt
-more changes in Introduction to say that with FA mode only the o more changes in Introduction to say that with FA mode only the
non-optimized double-encapsulation operation is supported and non-optimized double-encapsulation operation is supported and
[1] proposes a optimization. [I-D.ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa] proposes a optimization.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-02.txt to From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-02.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-03.txt draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-03.txt
-changed a sentence in the Introduction to say that FA mode _is_
supported but unoptimized, and that a reference [1] optimizes o changed a sentence in the Introduction to say that FA mode _is_
that mode. supported but unoptimized, and that a reference
-added reference [2] to the rfc3344bis draft. [I-D.ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa] optimizes that mode.
o added reference [I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis] to the rfc3344bis
draft.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-01.txt to From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-01.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-02.txt draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-02.txt
-changed title from "IPv4 Network Mobility (NEMO) Protocol" to
o changed title from "IPv4 Network Mobility (NEMO) Protocol" to
"Network Mobility (NEMO) Extensions for Mobile IPv4". "Network Mobility (NEMO) Extensions for Mobile IPv4".
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-00.txt to From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-00.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-01.txt draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-01.txt
-added a section on Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and
Home Agent. o added a section on Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and Home
-added a security subsection about running simultaneously a Agent.
secure routing protocol with secure Mobile IPv4.
-added a date tag on the IANA URL for Mobile IP numbering o added a security subsection about running simultaneously a secure
spaces. routing protocol with secure Mobile IPv4.
-substituted 'Mobile Router' for 'MR' everywhere.
-updated reference to NEMOv4 FA draft. o added a date tag on the IANA URL for Mobile IP numbering spaces.
o substituted 'Mobile Router' for 'MR' everywhere.
o updated reference to NEMOv4 FA draft.
From draft-ietf-nemo-v4-base-01.txt to From draft-ietf-nemo-v4-base-01.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-00.txt: draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-00.txt:
-changed draft name, headers and footers.
-changed title. o changed draft name, headers and footers.
-a more coherent use of terms 'subnet', 'prefix' and 'mobile
o changed title.
o a more coherent use of terms 'subnet', 'prefix' and 'mobile
network'. network'.
-clarified only co-located CoA mode is supported (not FA CoA).
for Mobile Routers in this specification. And added reference o clarified only co-located CoA mode is supported (not FA CoA) for
to the FA NEMO optimizations draft. Mobile Routers in this specification. And added reference to the
-changed 'devices' to 'hosts'. FA NEMO optimizations draft.
-changed 'moving networks' to 'mobile networks'.
-clarified what 'reachability' in a certain context is: packets o changed 'devices' to 'hosts'.
may be dropped if ingress filtering is turned on.
-removed the MR-FA-CoA tunnel overhead optimization. There is o changed 'moving networks' to 'mobile networks'.
o clarified what 'reachability' in a certain context is: packets may
be dropped if ingress filtering is turned on.
o removed the MR-FA-CoA tunnel overhead optimization. There is
still an issue with text at HA doing optimization. still an issue with text at HA doing optimization.
This document was first presented as an individual contribution to This document was first presented as an individual contribution to
the NEMO Working Group, then adopted as a WG item to that group. the NEMO Working Group, then adopted as a WG item to that group. The
The 01 version in the NEMO WG has been Last Called on the 01 version in the NEMO WG has been Last Called on the INFORMATIONAL
INFORMATIONAL track. The evolution was: track. The evolution was:
From version draft-ietf-nemo-v4-base-00 to From version draft-ietf-nemo-v4-base-00 to
draft-ietf-nemo-v4-base-01: draft-ietf-nemo-v4-base-01:
-removed error code HA_MOBNET_UNSUPPORTED.
-changed all values to be assigned by IANA, from specific o removed error code HA_MOBNET_UNSUPPORTED.
numbers to "TBA" (To Be Assigned).
-substituted "egress interface" for "roaming interface". o changed all values to be assigned by IANA, from specific numbers
-changed HA behaviour upon reception of MNPs. In 00 the HA to "TBA" (To Be Assigned).
replied positively only if all MNPs in RegReq were valid, in 01
a reply is constructed specifying which MNP was valid and which o substituted "egress interface" for "roaming interface".
not.
-clarified a 3-line paragraph saying that RegRep may contain o changed HA behaviour upon reception of MNPs. In 00 the HA replied
both implicit and explicit acknowledgements. positively only if all MNPs in RegReq were valid, in 01 a reply is
constructed specifying which MNP was valid and which not.
o clarified a 3-line paragraph saying that RegRep may contain both
implicit and explicit acknowledgements.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Kent Leung Kent Leung
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
170 W. Tasman Drive 170 W. Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
US USA
Phone: +1 408-526-5030 Phone: +1 408-526-5030
Email: kleung@cisco.com Email: kleung@cisco.com
Gopal Dommety Gopal Dommety
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
170 W. Tasman Drive 170 W. Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
US USA
Phone: +1 408-525-1404 Phone: +1 408-525-1404
Email: gdommety@cisco.com Email: gdommety@cisco.com
Vidya Narayanan Vidya Narayanan
QUALCOMM, Inc. QUALCOMM, Inc.
5775 Morehouse Dr 5775 Morehouse Dr
San Diego, CA San Diego, CA
USA USA
Phone: +1 858-845-2483 Phone: +1 858-845-2483
Email: vidyan@qualcomm.com Email: vidyan@qualcomm.com
Alexandru Petrescu Alexandru Petrescu
Motorola Motorola
Parc les Algorithmes Saint Aubin Parc les Algorithmes Saint Aubin
Gif-sur-Yvette 91193 Gif-sur-Yvette, Essonne 91140
France France
Phone: +33169354827 Phone: +33169354827
Email: Alexandru.Petrescu@motorola.com Email: alexandru.petrescu@motorola.com
Comments are solicited and should be addressed to the working Full Copyright Statement
group's mailing list at mip4@ietf.org and/or the authors.
Intellectual Property Statement Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND
THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
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skipping to change at page 19, line 29 skipping to change at page 24, line 45
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REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE
IETF TRUST AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY
WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE
ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
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Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). This document is subject to
the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.
Acknowledgment Acknowledgment
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
Internet Society. Administrative Support Activity (IASA).
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