draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-11.txt   rfc5177.txt 
MIP4 K. Leung Network Working Group K. Leung
Internet-Draft G. Dommety Request for Comments: 5177 G. Dommety
Intended status: Standards Track Cisco Systems Category: Standards Track Cisco Systems
Expires: September 12, 2008 V. Narayanan V. Narayanan
Qualcomm, Inc. Qualcomm, Inc.
A. Petrescu A. Petrescu
Motorola Motorola
March 11, 2008
Network Mobility (NEMO) Extensions for Mobile IPv4 Network Mobility (NEMO) Extensions for Mobile IPv4
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-11.txt
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Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008). This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
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and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
Abstract Abstract
This document describes a protocol for supporting Mobile Networks This document describes a protocol for supporting Mobile Networks
between a Mobile Router and a Home Agent by extending the Mobile IPv4 between a Mobile Router and a Home Agent by extending the Mobile IPv4
protocol. A Mobile Router is responsible for the mobility of one or protocol. A Mobile Router is responsible for the mobility of one or
more network segments or subnets moving together. The Mobile Router more network segments or subnets moving together. The Mobile Router
hides its mobility from the nodes on the mobile network. The nodes hides its mobility from the nodes on the Mobile Network. The nodes
on the Mobile Network may be fixed in relationship to the Mobile on the Mobile Network may be fixed in relationship to the Mobile
Router and may not have any mobility function. Router and may not have any mobility function.
Extensions to Mobile IPv4 are introduced to support Mobile Networks. Extensions to Mobile IPv4 are introduced to support Mobile Networks.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Examples of Mobile Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Examples of Mobile Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Overview of Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Overview of Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. Mobile Network Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. Mobile Network Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1. Mobile Network Request Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1. Mobile Network Request Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2. Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2. Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension . . . . . . . . . 9
5. Mobile Router Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. Mobile Router Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.1. Error Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.1. Error Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.2. Mobile Router Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.2. Mobile Router Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6. Home Agent Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. Home Agent Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.1. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.1. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2. Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.2. Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.2.1. Registration Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.2.1. Registration Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.2.2. Prefix Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.2.2. Prefix Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.3. Mobile Network Prefix Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.3. Mobile Network Prefix Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.4. Advertising Mobile Network Reachability . . . . . . . . . 16 6.4. Advertising Mobile Network Reachability . . . . . . . . . 16
6.5. Establishment of Bi-directional Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.5. Establishment of Bi-directional Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.6. Sending Registration Replies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.6. Sending Registration Replies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.7. Mobile Network Prefix De-registration . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.7. Mobile Network Prefix Deregistration . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. Data Forwarding Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7. Data Forwarding Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8. Nested Mobile Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8. Nested Mobile Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9. Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and Home Agent . . . . 18 9. Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and Home Agent . . . . 18
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
10.1. Security when Dynamic Routing Protocol is Used . . . . . . 20 10.1. Security when Dynamic Routing Protocol Is Used . . . . . . 20
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Appendix A. ChangeLog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 30
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document describes network mobility extensions to the Mobile This document describes network mobility extensions to the Mobile
IPv4 protocol. The goal of introducing these extensions is to IPv4 protocol. The goal of introducing these extensions is to
acommodate mobility scenarios where groups of hosts and routers move accommodate mobility scenarios where groups of hosts and routers move
homogeneously (as a whole). It is required that all hosts and homogeneously (as a whole). It is required that all hosts and
routers in a mobile network be able to run applications connecting to routers in a Mobile Network be able to run applications connecting to
the Internet, and to be reachable from the Internet. the Internet, and be reachable from the Internet.
For details regarding terminology related to network mobility (NEMO), For details regarding terminology related to network mobility (NEMO),
the gentle reader is suggested a quick read of RFC 4885 [RFC4885]. a quick read of RFC 4885 [RFC4885] is suggested.
1.1. Examples of Mobile Networks 1.1. Examples of Mobile Networks
A mobile network links together a set of hosts and routers. A Mobile Network links together a set of hosts and routers.
Connecting this mobile network to the Internet is ensured at two Connecting this Mobile Network to the Internet is ensured at two
levels: first, a Mobile Router is connected on one side to the Mobile levels: first, a Mobile Router is connected on one side to the Mobile
Network and on another side to a wireless access system; second, a Network and on another side to a wireless access system; second, a
Home Agent placed on the home link manages traffic between the Home Agent placed on the home link manages traffic between the
Correspondent Node and a Local Fixed Node (LFN, a node in the mobile Correspondent Node and a Local Fixed Node (LFN, a node in the Mobile
network) by means of encapsulating traffic. Network) by means of encapsulating traffic.
A scenario of applicability for this mobile network is described A scenario of applicability for this Mobile Network is described
next. A mobile network is formed by a wireless-enabled Personal next. A Mobile Network is formed by a wireless-enabled Personal
Digital Assistant (PDA) and a portable photographic camera, linked Digital Assistant (PDA) and a portable photographic camera, linked
together by Bluetooth wireless link-layer technology. This is together by Bluetooth wireless link-layer technology. This is
sometimes referred to as a Personal Area Network (PAN). In the sometimes referred to as a Personal Area Network (PAN). In the
illustration below one can notice the PDA playing the role of a illustration below, one can notice the PDA playing the role of a
Mobile Router and the camera the role of Local Fixed Node: Mobile Router and the camera the role of Local Fixed Node.
---- ----
| HA | | HA |
---- -------- ---- --------
| / \ ---- | / \ ----
-+--------| Internet |---------| CN | -+--------| Internet |---------| CN |
\ / ---- \ / ----
-------- --------
/ \ / \
/ \ / \
skipping to change at page 4, line 29 skipping to change at page 4, line 29
/ |cellular / |cellular
| ---- ---- | ---- ----
Mobile | | MR | |LFN | ---movement--> Mobile | | MR | |LFN | ---movement-->
Network < ---- ---- Network < ---- ----
| | | | | |
| -+-----------+- | -+-----------+-
\ Bluetooth \ Bluetooth
The camera (Local Fixed Node) uploads photographic content to a The camera (Local Fixed Node) uploads photographic content to a
Correspondent Node (CN) server. When the mobile network moves away, Correspondent Node (CN) server. When the Mobile Network moves away,
the Mobile Router serving the mobile network changes its point of the Mobile Router serving the Mobile Network changes its point of
attachment from one cellular access (Access Router) to another, attachment from one cellular access (Access Router) to another,
obtaining a new Care-of Address. The Home Agent (HA) encapsulates obtaining a new Care-of Address. The Home Agent (HA) encapsulates
application traffic for CN and LFN. application traffic for the CN and LFN.
Whereas the illustration above is a very simple instantiation of the Whereas the illustration above is a very simple instantiation of the
applicability of Mobile IP-based mobile networks, more complex mobile applicability of Mobile IP-based Mobile Networks, more complex Mobile
networks are easily acommodated by the Mobile IPv4 extensions Networks are easily accommodated by the Mobile IPv4 extensions
presented in this document (NEMOv4). For example, laptop computers presented in this document (NEMOv4). For example, laptop computers
used by passengers in a bus, train, ship or in a plane should all be used by passengers in a bus, train, ship, or plane should all be
considered as forming mobile networks, as long as they move together considered as forming Mobile Networks, as long as they move together
(homogeneously). (homogeneously).
1.2. Overview of Protocol 1.2. Overview of Protocol
As introduced previously, this document presents extensions to the As introduced previously, this document presents extensions to the
Mobile IPv4 protocol. The entities sending and receiving these Mobile IPv4 protocol. The entities sending and receiving these
extensions are the Mobile Router and the Home Agent. The Local Fixed extensions are the Mobile Router and the Home Agent. The Local Fixed
Node is relieved from running Mobile IP software and, although it Node is relieved from running Mobile IP software and, although it
moves (together with the mobile network), its IP stack is not seing moves (together with the Mobile Network), its IP stack is not seeing
any change in addressing. any change in addressing.
Mobility for the entire Mobile Network is supported by the Mobile Mobility for the entire Mobile Network is supported by the Mobile
Router registering its current point of attachment (Care-of Address) Router registering its current point of attachment (Care-of Address)
to its Home Agent: Mobile Router sends an extended Registration to its Home Agent: the Mobile Router sends an extended Registration
Request to Home Agent which returns an extended Registration Reply. Request to the Home Agent, which returns an extended Registration
This signaling sets up the tunnel between the two entities, as Reply. This signaling sets up the tunnel between the two entities,
illustrated in the following figure: as illustrated in the following figure:
LFN MR HA CN LFN MR HA CN
| | | | | | | |
| | Extended Registration | | | | Extended Registration | |
| |---------------------->| | | |---------------------->| |
| | Request | | | | Request | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | Extended Registration | | | | Extended Registration | |
| |<----------------------| | | |<----------------------| |
skipping to change at page 5, line 34 skipping to change at page 5, line 41
| | | | | | | |
|<--------o=======================o-------->| |<--------o=======================o-------->|
| | Encapsulated | | | | Encapsulated | |
| | Application Traffic | | | | Application Traffic | |
| | | | | | | |
The prefix(es) used within a Mobile Network (either implicitly The prefix(es) used within a Mobile Network (either implicitly
configured on the Home Agent or explicitly identified by the Mobile configured on the Home Agent or explicitly identified by the Mobile
Router in the Registration Request) is/are advertised by the Home Router in the Registration Request) is/are advertised by the Home
Agent for route propagation in the home network. Traffic to and from Agent for route propagation in the home network. Traffic to and from
nodes in the Mobile Network are tunelled by the Home Agent to the nodes in the Mobile Network are tunneled by the Home Agent to the
Mobile Router, and vice versa. Though packets from a Local Fixed Mobile Router, and vice versa. Though packets from a Local Fixed
Node placed in the Mobile Network can be forwarded by the Mobile Node placed in the Mobile Network can be forwarded by the Mobile
Router directly without tunneling (if reverse tunneling were not Router directly without tunneling (if reverse tunneling were not
used) these packets will be dropped if ingress filtering is turned on used), these packets will be dropped if ingress filtering is turned
at the Access Router. on at the Access Router.
Extensively relating to Mobile IPv4 RFC 3344 [RFC3344], this Extensively relating to Mobile IPv4 [RFC3344], this specification
specification addresses mainly the co-located Care-of Address mode. addresses mainly the co-located Care-of Address mode. Foreign Agent
Foreign Agent Care-of Address mode (with 'legacy' Foreign Agents, Care-of Address mode (with 'legacy' Foreign Agents [RFC3344]) is
RFC 3344 [RFC3344]) are supported but without optimization, double supported but without optimization, and with double encapsulation
encapsulation being used. For an optimization of this mode, the being used. For an optimization of this mode, the gentle reader is
gentle reader is directed to an extension document directed to an extension document [NEMOv4-FA].
[I-D.ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa].
Compared to Mobile IPv4, this document specifies an additional tunnel Compared to Mobile IPv4, this document specifies an additional tunnel
between a Mobile Router's Home Address and the Home Agent. This between a Mobile Router's Home Address and the Home Agent. This
tunnel is encapsulated within the normal tunnel between the Care-of tunnel is encapsulated within the normal tunnel between the Care-of
Address (CoA) and Home Agent. In Foreign Agent CoA mode, the tunnel Address (CoA) and Home Agent. In Foreign Agent CoA mode, the tunnel
between the Mobile Router and Home Agent is needed to allow the between the Mobile Router and Home Agent is needed to allow the
Foreign Agent to direct the decapsulated packet to the proper Foreign Agent to direct the decapsulated packet to the proper
visiting Mobile Router. However, in Collocated CoA mode, the visiting Mobile Router. However, in co-located CoA mode, the
additional tunnel is not essential and could be eliminated because additional tunnel is not essential and could be eliminated because
the Mobile Router is the recipient of the encapsulated packets for the Mobile Router is the recipient of the encapsulated packets for
the Mobile Network; a proposal for this feature is in a further the Mobile Network; a proposal for this feature is in the extending
extending document [I-D.ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa]. document mentioned above [NEMOv4-FA].
All traffic between the nodes in the Mobile Network and Correspondent All traffic between the nodes in the Mobile Network and the
Nodes passes through the Home Agent. This document does not touch on Correspondent Nodes passes through the Home Agent. This document
aspects related to route optimization of this traffic. does not touch on aspects related to route optimization of this
traffic.
A similar protocol has been documented in RFC 3963 [RFC3963] for A similar protocol has been documented in RFC 3963 [RFC3963] for
supporting IPv6 mobile networks with Mobile IPv6 extensions. supporting IPv6 Mobile Networks with Mobile IPv6 extensions.
Multihoming for Mobile Routers is outside the scope of this document. Multihoming for Mobile Routers is outside the scope of this document.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Terminology for Mobile IPv4 mobility support is defined in RFC 3344 Terminology for Mobile IPv4 mobility support is defined in RFC 3344
skipping to change at page 7, line 8 skipping to change at page 7, line 13
kayak. kayak.
Mobile Network Prefix Mobile Network Prefix
The network prefix of the subnet delegated to a Mobile Router The network prefix of the subnet delegated to a Mobile Router
as the Mobile Network. as the Mobile Network.
Prefix Table Prefix Table
A list of Mobile Network Prefixes indexed by the Home Address A list of Mobile Network Prefixes indexed by the Home Address
of a Mobile Router. The Home Agent manages and uses Prefix of a Mobile Router. The Home Agent manages and uses the
Table to determine which Mobile Network Prefixes belong to a Prefix Table to determine which Mobile Network Prefixes
particular Mobile Router. belong to a particular Mobile Router.
Local Fixed Node Local Fixed Node
RFC 4885 [RFC4885] defines a Local Fixed Node (LFN) to be a RFC 4885 [RFC4885] defines a Local Fixed Node (LFN) to be a
fixed node belonging to the mobile network and unable to fixed node belonging to the Mobile Network and unable to
change its point of attachment. This definition should not change its point of attachment. This definition should not
be confused with "Long, Fat Network, LFN" of RFC 1323 be confused with "Long, Fat Network, LFN" of RFC 1323
[RFC1323], at least because this latter is pronounced [RFC1323], at least because the latter is pronounced
"elephan(t)" whereas a NEMO LFN is distinctively pronounced "elephan(t)" whereas a NEMO LFN is distinctively pronounced
"elefen". "elefen".
3. Requirements 3. Requirements
Although the original Mobile IPv4 specifications stated that Mobile Although the original Mobile IPv4 specifications stated that Mobile
Networks can be supported by the Mobile Router and Home Agent using Networks can be supported by the Mobile Router and Home Agent using
static configuration or running a routing protocol (see Section 4.5 static configuration or running a routing protocol (see Section 4.5
of RFC 3344 [RFC3344]), there is no solution for explicit of RFC 3344 [RFC3344]), there is no solution for explicit
registration of the Mobile Networks served by the Mobile Router. A registration of the Mobile Networks served by the Mobile Router. A
skipping to change at page 7, line 41 skipping to change at page 7, line 46
to do so. A solution would also expose the Mobile Network Prefixes to do so. A solution would also expose the Mobile Network Prefixes
(and potentially other subnet-relevant information) in the exchanged (and potentially other subnet-relevant information) in the exchanged
messages, to aid in network debugging. messages, to aid in network debugging.
The following requirements for Mobile Network support are enumerated: The following requirements for Mobile Network support are enumerated:
o A Mobile Router should be able to operate in explicit or implicit o A Mobile Router should be able to operate in explicit or implicit
mode. A Mobile Router may explicitly inform the Home Agent which mode. A Mobile Router may explicitly inform the Home Agent which
Mobile Network(s) need to be propagated via a routing protocol. A Mobile Network(s) need to be propagated via a routing protocol. A
Mobile Router may also function in implicit mode, where the Home Mobile Router may also function in implicit mode, where the Home
Agent may learn the mobile networks through other means, such as Agent may learn the Mobile Networks through other means, such as
from the AAA server, via pre-configuration, or via a dynamic from the AAA server, via pre-configuration, or via a dynamic
routing protocol. routing protocol.
o The Mobile Network should be supported using Foreign Agents that o The Mobile Network should be supported using Foreign Agents that
are compliant to RFC 3344 [RFC3344] without any changes ('legacy' are compliant to RFC 3344 [RFC3344] without any changes ('legacy'
Foreign Agents). Foreign Agents).
o The mobile network should allow Fixed Nodes, Mobile Nodes, or o The Mobile Network should allow Fixed Nodes, Mobile Nodes, or
Mobile Routers to be on it. Mobile Routers to be on it.
o The Local Fixed Nodes on a mobile network should be able to o The Local Fixed Nodes on a Mobile Network should be able to
execute their sessions without running themselves Mobile IP execute their sessions without running Mobile IP stacks. The
stacks. The Mobile Router managing the LFNs' mobile network is Mobile Router managing the LFNs' Mobile Network is 'hiding'
'hiding' mobility events like the changes of the Care-of Address mobility events like the changes of the Care-of Address from the
from the Local Fixed Nodes in that mobile network. Local Fixed Nodes in that Mobile Network.
4. Mobile Network Extensions 4. Mobile Network Extensions
4.1. Mobile Network Request Extension 4.1. Mobile Network Request Extension
For Explicit Mode, the Mobile Router informs the Home Agent about the For Explicit Mode, the Mobile Router informs the Home Agent about the
Mobile Network Prefixes during registration. The Registration Mobile Network Prefixes during registration. The Registration
Request contains zero, one or several Mobile Network Request Request contains zero, one, or several Mobile Network Request
extensions in addition to any other extensions defined by or in the extensions in addition to any other extensions defined by or in the
context of RFC 3344 [RFC3344]. When several Mobile Networks are context of RFC 3344 [RFC3344]. When several Mobile Networks need to
needed to be registered, each is included in a separate Mobile be registered, each is included in a separate Mobile Network Request
Network Request extension, with its own Type, Length, Sub-Type, extension, with its own Type, Length, Sub-Type, Prefix Length, and
Prefix Length and Prefix. A Mobile Network Request extension is Prefix. A Mobile Network Request extension is encoded in Type-
encoded in Type-Length-Value (TLV) format and respects the following Length-Value (TLV) format and respects the following ordering:
ordering:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Sub-Type | Prefix Length | | Type | Length | Sub-Type | Prefix Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Prefix | | Prefix |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: Type:
Mobile Network Extension (skippable type range to be assigned 148 Mobile Network Extension
by IANA).
Length: Length:
Decimal 6. Decimal 6.
Sub-Type: Sub-Type:
TBA (Mobile Network Request) 0 (Mobile Network Request)
Prefix Length: Prefix Length:
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the number of leftmost bits 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the number of
covering the network part of the address contained in the leftmost bits covering the network part of the
Prefix field. address contained in the Prefix field.
Prefix: Prefix:
32-bit unsigned integer in network byte-order containing an 32-bit unsigned integer in network byte-order containing an
IPv4 address whose leftmost Prefix Length bits make up the IPv4 address whose leftmost Prefix Length bits make up the
Mobile Network Prefix. Mobile Network Prefix.
4.2. Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension 4.2. Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension
The Registration Reply contains zero, one or several Mobile Network The Registration Reply contains zero, one or several Mobile Network
Acknowledgement extensions in addition to any other extensions Acknowledgement extensions in addition to any other extensions
defined by or in the context of RFC 3344 [RFC3344]. For Implicit defined by or in the context of RFC 3344 [RFC3344]. For Implicit
Mode, the Mobile Network Acknowledgement informs the Mobile Router Mode, the Mobile Network Acknowledgement informs the Mobile Router
the prefixes for which the Home Agent sets up forwarding with respect the prefixes for which the Home Agent sets up forwarding with respect
to this Mobile Router. Policies such as permitting only traffic from to this Mobile Router. Policies such as permitting only traffic from
these Mobile Networks to be tunneled to the Home Agent may be applied these Mobile Networks to be tunneled to the Home Agent may be applied
by the Mobile Router. For Explicit Mode, when several Mobile by the Mobile Router. For Explicit Mode, when several Mobile
Networks are needed to be acknowledged explicitly, each is included Networks need to be acknowledged explicitly, each is included in a
in a separate Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension, with its own separate Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension, with its own Type,
Type, Sub-Type, Length, Prefix and Prefix Length fields. At least Sub-Type, Length, Prefix, and Prefix Length fields. At least one
one Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension MUST be in a successful Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension MUST be in a successful
Registration Reply to indicate to the Mobile Router that the Mobile Registration Reply to indicate to the Mobile Router that the Mobile
Network Request extension was processed, thereby not skipped by the Network Request extension was processed, and therefore was not
Home Agent. skipped by the Home Agent.
A Registration Reply may contain any non-zero number of Explicit Mode A Registration Reply may contain any non-zero number of Explicit Mode
and Implicit Mode Acknowledgements sub-types. Both sub-types can be and Implicit Mode Acknowledgements sub-types. Both sub-types can be
present in a single Registration Reply. A Mobile Network present in a single Registration Reply. A Mobile Network
Acknowledgement extension is encoded in Type-Length-Value (TLV) Acknowledgement extension is encoded in Type-Length-Value (TLV)
format. When the registration is denied with Code HA_MOBNET_ERROR format. When the registration is denied with Code HA_MOBNET_ERROR
(Code field in the Registration Reply), the Code field in the (Code field in the Registration Reply), the Code field in the
included Mobile Network Extension provides the reason for the included Mobile Network Extension provides the reason for the
failure. failure.
skipping to change at page 10, line 14 skipping to change at page 10, line 4
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Sub-Type | Code | | Type | Length | Sub-Type | Code |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Prefix Length | Reserved | Prefix... | Prefix Length | Reserved | Prefix...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
...Prefix | ...Prefix |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type: Type:
TBA Mobile Network Extension (skippable type range to be 148 Mobile Network Extension
assigned by IANA).
Length: Length:
Decimal 8. Decimal 8.
Sub-Type: Sub-Type:
TBA (Explicit Mode Acknowledgement) 1 (Explicit Mode Acknowledgement)
TBA (Implicit Mode Acknowledgement) 2 (Implicit Mode Acknowledgement)
Code: Code:
Value indicating success or failure: Value indicating success or failure:
TBA Success 0 Success
TBA Invalid prefix (MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN) 1 Invalid prefix (MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN)
TBA Mobile Router is not authorized for prefix 2 Mobile Router is not authorized for prefix
(MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED) (MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED)
TBA Forwarding setup failed (MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED) 3 Forwarding setup failed (MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED)
Prefix Length: Prefix Length:
8-bit unsigned integer indicating the number of leftmost bits 8-bit unsigned integer indicating the number of
covering the network part of the address contained in the leftmost bits covering the network part of the
Prefix field. address contained in the Prefix field.
Reserved: Reserved:
Sent as zero; ignored on reception. Sent as zero; ignored on reception.
Prefix: Prefix:
32-bit unsigned integer in network byte-order containing an 32-bit unsigned integer in network byte-order containing an
IPv4 address whose leftmost Prefix Length bits make up the IPv4 address whose leftmost Prefix Length bits make up the
Mobile Network Prefix. Mobile Network Prefix.
skipping to change at page 11, line 27 skipping to change at page 11, line 17
A Mobile Router's operation is generally derived from the behavior of A Mobile Router's operation is generally derived from the behavior of
a Mobile Node, as set in RFC 3344 [RFC3344]. In addition to a Mobile Node, as set in RFC 3344 [RFC3344]. In addition to
maintaining mobility bindings for its Home Address, the Mobile maintaining mobility bindings for its Home Address, the Mobile
Router, together with the Home Agent, maintains forwarding Router, together with the Home Agent, maintains forwarding
information for the Mobile Network Prefix(es) assigned to the Mobile information for the Mobile Network Prefix(es) assigned to the Mobile
Router. Router.
A Mobile Router SHOULD set the 'T' bit to 1 in all Registration A Mobile Router SHOULD set the 'T' bit to 1 in all Registration
Request messages it sends to indicate the need for reverse tunnels Request messages it sends to indicate the need for reverse tunnels
for all traffic. Without reverse tunnels, all the traffic from the for all traffic. Without reverse tunnels, all the traffic from the
mobile network will be subject to ingress filtering in the visited Mobile Network will be subject to ingress filtering in the visited
networks. Upon reception of a successful Registration Reply, the networks. Upon reception of a successful Registration Reply, the
Mobile Router processes the registration in accordance to RFC 3344 Mobile Router processes the registration in accordance to RFC 3344
[RFC3344]. In addition, the following steps are taken: [RFC3344]. In addition, the following steps are taken:
o Check for Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension(s) in o Check for Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension(s) in
Registration Reply Registration Reply.
o Create tunnel to the Home Agent if registered in reverse tunneling o Create tunnel to the Home Agent if the Mobile Router is registered
mode in reverse tunneling mode.
o Set up default route via this tunnel or egress interface when o Set up default route via this tunnel or egress interface when the
registered with or without reverse tunneling, respectively Mobile Router is registered with or without reverse tunneling,
respectively.
In accordance with this specification, a Mobile Router may operate in In accordance with this specification, a Mobile Router may operate in
one of the following two modes: explicit and implicit. In explicit one of the following two modes: explicit and implicit. In explicit
mode, the Mobile Router includes Mobile Network Prefix information in mode, the Mobile Router includes Mobile Network Prefix information in
all Registration Requests (as Mobile Network Request extensions), all Registration Requests (as Mobile Network Request extensions),
while in implicit mode it does not include this information in any while in implicit mode it does not include this information in any
Registration Request. In this latter case, the Home Agent obtains Registration Request. In the latter case, the Home Agent obtains the
the Mobile Network Prefixes by other means than Mobile IP. One Mobile Network Prefixes by other means than Mobile IP. One example
example of obtaining the Mobile Network Prefix is through static of obtaining the Mobile Network Prefix is through static
configuration on the Home Agent. configuration on the Home Agent.
A Mobile Router can obtain a Collocated or Foreign Agent Care-of A Mobile Router can obtain a co-located or Foreign Agent Care-of
Address while operating in explicit or implicit modes. Address while operating in explicit or implicit modes.
For de-registration, the Mobile Router sends a registration request For deregistration, the Mobile Router sends a registration request
with lifetime set to zero without any Mobile Network Request with lifetime set to zero without any Mobile Network Request
extensions. extensions.
5.1. Error Processing 5.1. Error Processing
In a Mobile IP Registration Reply message there may be two Code In a Mobile IP Registration Reply message, there may be two Code
fields: one proper to the Registration Reply header (the 'proper' fields: one proper to the Registration Reply header (the 'proper'
Code) and one within the Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension Code) and one within the Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension
(simply the 'Code'). A Mobile Router interprets the values of the (simply the 'Code'). A Mobile Router interprets the values of the
Code field in the Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension of the Code field in the Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension of the
Registration Reply in order to identify any error related to managing Registration Reply in order to identify any error related to managing
the Mobile Network Prefixes by the Home Agent. It also interprets the Mobile Network Prefixes by the Home Agent. It also interprets
the values of the Code field in the Registration Reply header (the the values of the Code field in the Registration Reply header (the
proper Code). proper Code).
If the value of the Code field in the Registration Reply (the proper) If the value of the Code field in the Registration Reply (the proper)
is set to HA_MOBNET_DISALLOWED, then the Mobile Router MUST stop is set to HA_MOBNET_DISALLOWED, then the Mobile Router MUST stop
sending Registration Requests with any Mobile Network Prefix sending Registration Requests with any Mobile Network Prefix
extensions to that Home Agent. extensions to that Home Agent.
If the value of the Code field in the Registration Reply (the proper) If the value of the Code field in the Registration Reply (the proper)
is set to HA_MOBNET_ERROR then the Mobile Router MUST stop sending is set to HA_MOBNET_ERROR, then the Mobile Router MUST stop sending
Registration Requests that contain any of the Mobile Network Prefixes Registration Requests that contain any of the Mobile Network Prefixes
that are defined by the values of the fields Prefix and Prefix Length that are defined by the values of the fields Prefix and Prefix Length
in the Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension. Note that the in the Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension. Note that the
registration is denied in this case and no forwarding for any Mobile registration is denied in this case, and no forwarding for any Mobile
Network Prefixes would be set up by the Home Agent for the Mobile Network Prefixes would be set up by the Home Agent for the Mobile
Router. Router.
It is possible that the Mobile Router receives a Registration Reply It is possible that the Mobile Router receives a Registration Reply
with no mobile network extensions if the registration was processed with no Mobile Network extensions if the registration was processed
by a Mobile IPv4 home agent that does not support this specification by a Mobile IPv4 Home Agent that does not support this specification
at all. In that case, the absence of mobile network extensions must at all. In that case, the absence of Mobile Network extensions must
be interpreted by the Mobile Router as the case where the Home Agent be interpreted by the Mobile Router as the case where the Home Agent
does not support mobile networks. does not support Mobile Networks.
All the error code values are TBA (To Be Assigned) subject to IANA All the error code values have been assigned by IANA; see Section 11.
allocation.
5.2. Mobile Router Management 5.2. Mobile Router Management
Operating a Mobile Router in a Mobile IPv4 environment has certain Operating a Mobile Router in a Mobile IPv4 environment has certain
requirements on the management of the necessary initial configuration requirements on the management of the necessary initial configuration
and supervision of the ongoing status information. Mobile Router and supervision of the ongoing status information. Mobile Router
maintenance indicators may need to be exposed in a manner consistent maintenance indicators may need to be exposed in a manner consistent
with other Mobile IPv4 indicators. with other Mobile IPv4 indicators.
The objects for the Management Information Base (MIB) for Mobile IPv4 The objects for the Management Information Base (MIB) for Mobile IPv4
are defined in RFC 2006 [RFC2006]. The structure of the basic model are defined in RFC 2006 [RFC2006]. The structure of the basic model
of Mobile IP protocol describes three entities: Mobile Node, Home of Mobile IP protocol describes three entities: Mobile Node, Home
Agent and Foreign Agent. In addition to these entities this document Agent, and Foreign Agent. In addition to these entities, this
proposes a functional entity to be the Mobile Router. document proposes a functional entity to be the Mobile Router.
The necessary initial configuration at a NEMOv4-enabled Home Agent The necessary initial configuration at a NEMOv4-enabled Home Agent
includes, but is not limited to, the contents of the Prefix Table. includes, but is not limited to, the contents of the Prefix Table.
The Mobile Router MAY need to store the Mobile Network Prefixes as The Mobile Router MAY need to store the Mobile Network Prefixes as
the initial configuration. the initial configuration.
The definition of MIB objects related to Mobile Router and of a The definition of MIB objects related to the Mobile Router and to a
NEMOv4-enabled Home Agent is outside the scope of this document. NEMOv4-enabled Home Agent is outside the scope of this document.
6. Home Agent Operation 6. Home Agent Operation
6.1. Summary 6.1. Summary
A Home Agent MUST support all the operations specified in RFC 3344 A Home Agent MUST support all the operations specified in RFC 3344
[RFC3344] for Mobile Node support. The Home Agent MUST support both [RFC3344] for Mobile Node support. The Home Agent MUST support both
implicit and explicit modes of operation for a Mobile Router. implicit and explicit modes of operation for a Mobile Router.
The Home Agent processes the registration in accordance to RFC 3344 The Home Agent processes the registration in accordance to RFC 3344
[RFC3344], which includes route set up to the Mobile Router's Home [RFC3344], which includes route set up to the Mobile Router's Home
Address via the tunnel to the Care-of Address. In addition, for a Address via the tunnel to the Care-of Address. In addition, for a
Mobile Router registering in explicit mode, the following steps are Mobile Router registering in explicit mode, the following steps are
taken: taken:
1. Check that the Mobile Network Prefix information is valid 1. Check that the Mobile Network Prefix information is valid.
2. Ensure the Mobile Network Prefix(es) is or are authorized to be 2. Ensure the Mobile Network Prefix(es) is/are authorized to be on
on the Mobile Router the Mobile Router.
3. Create tunnel to the Mobile Router if it does not already exist 3. Create a tunnel to the Mobile Router if it does not already
exist.
4. Set up route for the Mobile Network Prefix via this tunnel 4. Set up route for the Mobile Network Prefix via this tunnel.
5. Propagate Mobile Network Prefix routes via routing protocol if 5. Propagate Mobile Network Prefix routes via routing protocol if
necessary necessary.
6. Send the Registration Reply with the Mobile Network 6. Send the Registration Reply with the Mobile Network
Acknowledgement extension(s) Acknowledgement extension(s).
If there are any subnet routes via the tunnel to the Mobile Router If there are any subnet routes via the tunnel to the Mobile Router
that are not specified in the Mobile Network extensions, these routes that are not specified in the Mobile Network extensions, these routes
are removed. are removed.
In the case where the Mobile Node is not permitted to act as a Mobile In the case where the Mobile Node is not permitted to act as a Mobile
Router, the Home Agent sends a Registration Reply message whose Code Router, the Home Agent sends a Registration Reply message whose Code
field is HA_MOBNET_DISALLOWED (the proper Code field of the field is HA_MOBNET_DISALLOWED (the proper Code field of the
Registration Reply). Registration Reply).
skipping to change at page 14, line 42 skipping to change at page 14, line 35
Mobile Network Prefixes served by a Mobile Router, the information Mobile Network Prefixes served by a Mobile Router, the information
stored in the Registration Table can be used. stored in the Registration Table can be used.
6.2.2. Prefix Table 6.2.2. Prefix Table
The Home Agent must be able to authorize a Mobile Router for use of The Home Agent must be able to authorize a Mobile Router for use of
Mobile Network Prefixes when the Mobile Router is operating in Mobile Network Prefixes when the Mobile Router is operating in
explicit mode. Also, when the Mobile Router operates in implicit explicit mode. Also, when the Mobile Router operates in implicit
mode, the Home Agent must be able to locate the Mobile Network mode, the Home Agent must be able to locate the Mobile Network
Prefixes associated with that Mobile Router. The Home Agent may Prefixes associated with that Mobile Router. The Home Agent may
store the Home Address of the Mobile Router along with the mobile store the Home Address of the Mobile Router along with the Mobile
network prefixes associated with that Mobile Router. If the Mobile Network prefixes associated with that Mobile Router. If the Mobile
Router does not have a Home Address assigned, this table may store Router does not have a Home Address assigned, this table may store
the NAI RFC 2794 [RFC2794] of the Mobile Router that will be used in the Network Access Identifier (NAI) [RFC2794] of the Mobile Router
dynamic Home Address assignment. that will be used in dynamic Home Address assignment.
6.3. Mobile Network Prefix Registration 6.3. Mobile Network Prefix Registration
The Home Agent must process registration requests coming from Mobile The Home Agent must process Registration Requests coming from Mobile
Routers in accordance with this section. The document RFC 3344 Routers in accordance with this section. RFC 3344 [RFC3344]
[RFC3344] specifies that the Home Address of a mobile node specifies that the Home Address of a mobile node registering with a
registering with a Home Agent must belong to a prefix advertised on Home Agent must belong to a prefix advertised on the home network.
the home network. In accordance with this specification, however, In accordance with this specification, however, the Home Address must
the Home Address must be configured from a prefix that is served by be configured from a prefix that is served by the Home Agent, not
the Home Agent, not necessarily the one on the home network. necessarily the one on the home network.
If the registration request is valid, the Home Agent checks to see if If the Registration Request is valid, the Home Agent checks to see if
there are any Mobile Network Prefix extensions included in the there are any Mobile Network Prefix extensions included in the
Registration Request. Registration Request.
If so, the Mobile Network Prefix information is obtained from the If so, the Mobile Network Prefix information is obtained from the
included extensions, and the Home Address from the Home Address field included extensions, and the Home Address from the Home Address field
of the Registration Request. For every Mobile Network Prefix of the Registration Request. For every Mobile Network Prefix
extension included in the registration request, the Home Agent MUST extension included in the registration request, the Home Agent MUST
perform a check against the Prefix Table. If the Prefix Table does perform a check against the Prefix Table. If the Prefix Table does
not contain at least one entry pairing that Home Address to that not contain at least one entry pairing that Home Address to that
Mobile Network Prefix then the check fails, otherwise it succeeds. Mobile Network Prefix, then the check fails; otherwise, it succeeds.
Following this check against the Prefix Table, the Home Agent MUST Following this check against the Prefix Table, the Home Agent MUST
construct a Registration Reply containing Mobile Network construct a Registration Reply containing Mobile Network
Acknowledgement extensions. For a Mobile Network Prefix for which Acknowledgement extensions. For a Mobile Network Prefix for which
the check was unsuccessful the Code field in the corresponding Mobile the check was unsuccessful, the Code field in the corresponding
Network Acknowledgement extension should be set to Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension should be set to
MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED. MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED.
For a Mobile Network Prefix for which the check was successful the For a Mobile Network Prefix for which the check was successful, the
Code field in the respective Mobile Network Acknowledgement Code field in the respective Mobile Network Acknowledgement
extensions should be set to 0. extensions should be set to 0.
The Home Agent MUST attempt to set up forwarding for each Mobile The Home Agent MUST attempt to set up forwarding for each Mobile
Network Prefix extension for which the Prefix Table check was Network Prefix extension for which the Prefix Table check was
successful. If the forwarding setup fails for a particular Mobile successful. If the forwarding setup fails for a particular Mobile
Network Prefix (for reasons when, for example, there is not enough Network Prefix (for reasons such as not enough memory available or
memory available, or not enough devices available, or other reason) not enough devices available), the Code field in the respective
the Code field in the respective Mobile Network Acknowledgement Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension should be set to
extension should be set to MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED. MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED.
If forwarding and setup was successful for at least one Mobile If forwarding and setup was successful for at least one Mobile
Network Prefix then the Code field (proper) of the Registration Reply Network Prefix, then the Code field (the proper) of the Registration
message should be set to 0. Otherwise, when forwarding and setup was Reply message should be set to 0. Otherwise, when forwarding and
unsuccessful for each and every Mobile Network Prefixes, that Code setup was unsuccessful for each and every Mobile Network Prefixes,
(proper) should be HA_MOBNET_ERROR. that Code (the proper) should be HA_MOBNET_ERROR.
If the registration request is sent in implicit mode, i.e., without If the Registration Request is sent in implicit mode, i.e., without
any Mobile Network Request extension, the Home Agent may use pre- any Mobile Network Request extension, the Home Agent may use pre-
configured mobile network prefix information for the Mobile Router to configured Mobile Network prefix information for the Mobile Router to
set up forwarding. set up forwarding.
If the Home Agent is updating an existing binding entry for the If the Home Agent is updating an existing binding entry for the
Mobile Router, it MUST check all the prefixes in the registration Mobile Router, it MUST check all the prefixes in the Registration
table against the prefixes included in the registration request. If Table against the prefixes included in the Registration Request. If
one or more mobile network prefix is missing from the included one or more Mobile Network prefixes are missing from the included
information in the registration request, it MUST delete those information in the registration request, the Home Agent MUST delete
prefixes from the registration table. Also, the Home Agent MUST those prefixes from the registration table. Also, the Home Agent
disable forwarding for those prefixes. MUST disable forwarding for those prefixes.
If all checks are successful, the Home Agent either creates a new If all checks are successful, the Home Agent either creates a new
entry for the Mobile Router or updates an existing binding entry for entry for the Mobile Router or updates an existing binding entry for
it and returns a successful registration reply back to the Mobile it and returns a successful registration reply back to the Mobile
Router or the Foreign Agent (if the registration request was received Router or the Foreign Agent (if the Registration Request was received
from a Foreign Agent). from a Foreign Agent).
In accordance with RFC 3344 [RFC3344], the Home Agent does proxy ARP In accordance with RFC 3344 [RFC3344], the Home Agent does proxy
for the Mobile Router Home Address, when the Mobile Router Home Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for the Mobile Router Home Address
Address is derived from the home network. when the Mobile Router Home Address is derived from the home network.
If the 'T' bit is set, the Home Agent creates a bi-directional tunnel If the 'T' bit is set, the Home Agent creates a bi-directional tunnel
for the corresponding mobile network prefixes or updates the existing for the corresponding Mobile Network prefixes or updates the existing
bi-directional tunnel. This tunnel is maintained independent of the bi-directional tunnel. This tunnel is maintained independent of the
reverse tunnel for the Mobile Router home address itself. reverse tunnel for the Mobile Router home address itself.
6.4. Advertising Mobile Network Reachability 6.4. Advertising Mobile Network Reachability
If the mobile network prefixes served by the Home Agent are If the Mobile Network prefixes served by the Home Agent are
aggregated with the home network prefix and if the Home Agent is the aggregated with the home network prefix and if the Home Agent is the
default router on the home network, the Home Agent does not have to default router on the home network, the Home Agent does not have to
advertise the Mobile Network Prefixes. The routes for the Mobile advertise the Mobile Network Prefixes. The routes for the Mobile
Network Prefix are automatically aggregated into the home network Network Prefix are automatically aggregated into the home network
prefix (it is assumed that the Mobile Network Prefixes are prefix (it is assumed that the Mobile Network Prefixes are
automatically aggregated into the home network prefix). If the automatically aggregated into the home network prefix). If the
Mobile Router updates the mobile network prefix routes via a dynamic Mobile Router updates the Mobile Network prefix routes via a dynamic
routing protocol, the Home Agent SHOULD propagate the routes on the routing protocol, the Home Agent SHOULD propagate the routes on the
appropriate networks. appropriate networks.
6.5. Establishment of Bi-directional Tunnel 6.5. Establishment of Bi-directional Tunnel
The Home Agent creates and maintains a bi-directional tunnel for the The Home Agent creates and maintains a bi-directional tunnel for the
mobile network prefixes of a Mobile Router registered with it. A Mobile Network prefixes of a Mobile Router registered with it. A
home agent supporting IPv4 Mobile Router operation MUST be able to Home Agent supporting IPv4 Mobile Router operation MUST be able to
forward packets destined to the mobile network prefixes served by the forward packets destined to the Mobile Network prefixes served by the
Mobile Router to its Care-of Address. Also, the Home Agent MUST be Mobile Router to its Care-of Address. Also, the Home Agent MUST be
able to accept packets tunneled by the Mobile Router with the source able to accept packets tunneled by the Mobile Router with the source
address of the outer header set to the Care-of Address of the Mobile address of the outer header set to the Care-of Address of the Mobile
Router and that of the inner header set to the Mobile Router's Home Router and that of the inner header set to the Mobile Router's Home
Address or an address from one of the registered mobile network Address or an address from one of the registered Mobile Network
prefixes. prefixes.
6.6. Sending Registration Replies 6.6. Sending Registration Replies
The Home Agent MUST set the status code in the registration reply to The Home Agent MUST set the status code in the registration reply to
0 to indicate successful processing of the registration request and 0 to indicate successful processing of the Registration Request and
successful set up of forwarding for at least one mobile network successful setup of forwarding for at least one Mobile Network prefix
prefixes served by the Mobile Router. The registration reply MUST served by the Mobile Router. The Registration Reply MUST contain at
contain at least one Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension. least one Mobile Network Acknowledgement extension.
If the Home Agent is unable to set up forwarding for one or more If the Home Agent is unable to set up forwarding for one or more
mobile network prefixes served by the Mobile Router, it MUST set the Mobile Network prefixes served by the Mobile Router, it MUST set the
Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension status Code in the Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension status Code in the
registration reply to MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED. When the prefix Registration Reply to MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED. When the prefix
length is zero or greater than decimal 32, the status Code MUST be length is zero or greater than decimal 32, the status Code MUST be
set to MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN. set to MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN.
If the Mobile Router is not authorized to forward packets to a mobile If the Mobile Router is not authorized to forward packets to a Mobile
network prefixes included in the request, the Home Agent MUST set the Network prefix included in the request, the Home Agent MUST set the
Code to MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED. Code to MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED.
6.7. Mobile Network Prefix De-registration 6.7. Mobile Network Prefix Deregistration
If the received registration request is for de-registration of the If the received Registration Request is for deregistration of the
Care-of Address, the Home Agent, upon successful processing of it, Care-of Address, the Home Agent, upon successful processing of it,
MUST delete the entry(ies) from its registration table. The home MUST delete the entry (or entries) from its Registration Table. The
agent tears down the bi-directional tunnel and stops forwarding any Home Agent tears down the bi-directional tunnel and stops forwarding
packets to/from the Mobile Router. The Home Agent MUST ignore any any packets to/from the Mobile Router. The Home Agent MUST ignore
included Mobile Network Request extension in a de-registration any included Mobile Network Request extension in a deregistration
request. request.
7. Data Forwarding Operation 7. Data Forwarding Operation
For traffic to the nodes in the Mobile Network, the Home Agent MUST For traffic to the nodes in the Mobile Network, the Home Agent MUST
perform double tunneling of the packet, if the Mobile Router had perform double tunneling of the packet, if the Mobile Router had
registered with a Foreign Agent Care-of Address. In this case, the registered with a Foreign Agent Care-of Address. In this case, the
Home Agent MUST encapsulate the packet with tunnel header (source IP Home Agent MUST encapsulate the packet with the tunnel header (source
address set to Home Agent and destination IP address set to Mobile IP address set to Home Agent, and destination IP address set to
Router's Home Address) and then encapsulate one more time with tunnel Mobile Router's Home Address) and then encapsulate one more time with
header (source IP address set to Home Agent and destination IP the tunnel header (source IP address set to Home Agent, and
address set to CoA). destination IP address set to CoA).
For optimization, the Home Agent SHOULD only encapsulate the packet For optimization, the Home Agent SHOULD only encapsulate the packet
with the tunnel header (source IP address set to Home Agent and with the tunnel header (source IP address set to Home Agent, and
destination IP address set to CoA) for Collocated CoA mode. destination IP address set to CoA) for co-located CoA mode.
When a Home Agent receives a packet from the mobile network prefix in When a Home Agent receives a packet from the Mobile Network prefix in
the bi-directional tunnel, it MUST de-encapsulate the packet and the bi-directional tunnel, it MUST de-encapsulate the packet and
route it as a normal IP packet. It MUST verify that the incoming route it as a normal IP packet. It MUST verify that the incoming
packet has the source IP address set to the Care-of Address of the packet has the source IP address set to the Care-of Address of the
Mobile Router. The packet MUST be dropped if the source address is Mobile Router. The packet MUST be dropped if the source address is
not set to the Care-of Address of the Mobile Router. not set to the Care-of Address of the Mobile Router.
For traffic from the nodes in the Mobile Network, the Mobile Router For traffic from the nodes in the Mobile Network, the Mobile Router
encapsulates the packet with a tunnel header (source IP address set encapsulates the packet with a tunnel header (source IP address set
to Mobile Router's Home Address and destination IP address set to to Mobile Router's Home Address, and destination IP address set to
Home Agent) if reverse tunnel is enabled. Otherwise, the packet is Home Agent) if reverse tunnel is enabled. Otherwise, the packet is
routed directly to the Foreign Agent or access router. routed directly to the Foreign Agent or access router.
In Collocated CoA mode, the Mobile Router MAY encapsulate one more In co-located CoA mode, the Mobile Router MAY encapsulate one more
times with a tunnel header (source IP address set to the CoA and time with a tunnel header (source IP address set to the CoA and
destination IP address set to Home Agent). destination IP address set to Home Agent).
8. Nested Mobile Networks 8. Nested Mobile Networks
Nested Network Mobility is a scenario where a Mobile Router allows Nested Network Mobility is a scenario where a Mobile Router allows
another Mobile Router to attach to its Mobile Network. There could another Mobile Router to attach to its Mobile Network. There could
be arbitrary levels of nested mobility. The operation of each Mobile be arbitrary levels of nested mobility. The operation of each Mobile
Router remains the same whether the Mobile Router attaches to another Router remains the same whether the Mobile Router attaches to another
Mobile Router or to a fixed Access Router on the Internet. The Mobile Router or to a fixed Access Router on the Internet. The
solution described here does not place any restriction on the number solution described here does not place any restriction on the number
of levels for nested mobility. Two issues should be noted though. of levels for nested mobility. Two issues should be noted though.
First, whenever physical loops occur in a nested aggregation of First, whenever physical loops occur in a nested aggregation of
mobile networks this protocol does neither detect nor solve them - Mobile Networks, this protocol neither detects nor solves them --
datagram forwarding may be blocked. Second, Mobile Routers in a deep datagram forwarding may be blocked. Second, Mobile Routers in a deep
nested aggregation of mobile networks might introduce significant nested aggregation of Mobile Networks might introduce significant
overhead on the data packets as each level of nesting introduces overhead on the data packets as each level of nesting introduces
another tunnel header encapsulation. Applications that do not another tunnel header encapsulation. Applications that do not
support MTU discovery are adversely affected by the additional header support MTU discovery are adversely affected by the additional header
encapsulations, because the usable MTU is reduced with each level of encapsulations because the usable MTU is reduced with each level of
nesting. nesting.
9. Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and Home Agent 9. Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and Home Agent
There are several benefits of running a dynamic routing protocol There are several benefits of running a dynamic routing protocol
between the Mobile Router and the Home Agent. If the mobile network between the Mobile Router and the Home Agent. If the Mobile Network
is relatively large, including several wireless subnets, then the is relatively large, including several wireless subnets, then the
topology changes within the moving network can be exposed from the topology changes within the moving network can be exposed from the
Mobile Router to the Home Agent by using a dynamic routing protocol. Mobile Router to the Home Agent by using a dynamic routing protocol.
The purpose of the NEMOv4 protocol extensions to Mobile IPv4, as The purpose of the NEMOv4 protocol extensions to Mobile IPv4, as
defined in previous sections, is not to inform the Home Agent about defined in previous sections, is not to inform the Home Agent about
these topology changes, but to manage the mobility of the Mobile these topology changes, but to manage the mobility of the Mobile
Router. Router.
Similarly, topology changes in the home network can be exposed to the Similarly, topology changes in the home network can be exposed to the
Mobile Router by using a dynamic routing protocol. This may be Mobile Router by using a dynamic routing protocol. This may be
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topology changes within the moving network can be exposed from the topology changes within the moving network can be exposed from the
Mobile Router to the Home Agent by using a dynamic routing protocol. Mobile Router to the Home Agent by using a dynamic routing protocol.
The purpose of the NEMOv4 protocol extensions to Mobile IPv4, as The purpose of the NEMOv4 protocol extensions to Mobile IPv4, as
defined in previous sections, is not to inform the Home Agent about defined in previous sections, is not to inform the Home Agent about
these topology changes, but to manage the mobility of the Mobile these topology changes, but to manage the mobility of the Mobile
Router. Router.
Similarly, topology changes in the home network can be exposed to the Similarly, topology changes in the home network can be exposed to the
Mobile Router by using a dynamic routing protocol. This may be Mobile Router by using a dynamic routing protocol. This may be
necessary when new fixed networks are added in the home network. necessary when new fixed networks are added in the home network.
Here too, the purpose of NEMOv4 extensions is not to inform the Here too, the purpose of NEMOv4 extensions is not to inform the
Mobile Router about topology changes at home. Mobile Router about topology changes at home.
Examples of dynamic routing protocol include but are not limited to Examples of dynamic routing protocols include, but are not limited
OSPF Version 2 RFC 2328 [RFC2328], BGP RFC 4271 [RFC4271] and RIP to, OSPF Version 2 [RFC2328], BGP [RFC4271], and RIP [RFC2453].
RFC 2453 [RFC2453].
The recommendations are related to how the routing protocol and the The recommendations are related to how the routing protocol and the
Mobile IPv4 implementation work in tandem on the Mobile Router and on Mobile IPv4 implementation work in tandem on the Mobile Router and on
the Home Agent (1) without creating incoherent states in the the Home Agent (1) without creating incoherent states in the
forwarding information bases at home and on the Mobile Router, (2) forwarding information bases at home and on the Mobile Router, (2)
without introducing topologically incorrect addressing information in without introducing topologically incorrect addressing information in
the visited domain and (3) efficiently avoid duplication of sent data the visited domain, and (3) without duplicating sent data or over-
or over-provisioning of security. provisioning security.
The information exchanged between the Mobile Router and the Home The information exchanged between the Mobile Router and the Home
Agent is sent over the bi-directional tunnel established by the Agent is sent over the bi-directional tunnel established by the
Mobile IPv4 exchange Registration Request - Registration Reply (see Mobile IPv4 exchange Registration Request - Registration Reply (see
Section 6.5). If a network address and prefix about a subnet in the Section 6.5). If a network address and prefix of a subnet in the
moving network is sent by the Mobile Router within a routing protocol moving network is sent by the Mobile Router within a routing protocol
message then they SHOULD NOT be sent in the Mobile IPv4 Registration message, then they SHOULD NOT be sent in the Mobile IPv4 Registration
Request too, in order to avoid incoherencies in the forwarding Request too. This avoids incoherencies in the forwarding information
information bases. The Mobile Router SHOULD use NEMOv4 implicit mode bases. The Mobile Router SHOULD use NEMOv4 implicit mode in this
in this case (see Section 3). case (see Section 3).
The Mobile Router SHOULD NOT send routing protocol information The Mobile Router SHOULD NOT send routing protocol information
updates in the foreign network. The subnet addresses and prefixes updates in the foreign network. The subnet addresses and prefixes
valid in the moving network are topologically incorrect in the valid in the moving network are topologically incorrect in the
visited network. visited network.
If the Mobile Router and the Home Agent use a dynamic routing If the Mobile Router and the Home Agent use a dynamic routing
protocol over the tunnel interface, and if that protocol offers protocol over the tunnel interface, and if that protocol offers
security mechanisms to protect that protocol's messages, then the security mechanisms to protect that protocol's messages, then the
security recommendations in Section 10.1 apply. security recommendations in Section 10.1 apply.
10. Security Considerations 10. Security Considerations
The Mobile Network extension is protected by the same rules for The Mobile Network extension is protected by the same rules as for
Mobile IP extensions in registration messages. See the Security Mobile IP extensions in registration messages. See the Security
Considerations section in RFC 3344 [RFC3344]. Considerations section in RFC 3344 [RFC3344].
The Home Agent MUST be able to verify that the Mobile Router is The Home Agent MUST be able to verify that the Mobile Router is
authorized to provide mobility service for the Mobile Networks in the authorized to provide mobility service for the Mobile Networks in the
registration request, before anchoring these Mobile Network Prefixes Registration Request, before anchoring these Mobile Network Prefixes
on behalf of the Mobile Router. Forwarding for prefixes MUST NOT be on behalf of the Mobile Router. Forwarding for prefixes MUST NOT be
set up without successful authorization of the Mobile Router for set up without successful authorization of the Mobile Router for
those prefixes. A registration failure MUST be notified to the those prefixes. The Mobile Router MUST be notified when there is a
mobile router when it cannot be successfully authorized for prefixes registration failure because it cannot be successfully authorized for
requested by it. prefixes it requested.
All registration requests and replies MUST be authenticated by the All Registration Requests and replies MUST be authenticated by the
MN-HA Authentication Extension as specified in RFC 3344 [RFC3344]. MN-HA Authentication Extension as specified in RFC 3344 [RFC3344].
When the registration request is sent in explicit mode, i.e., with When the registration request is sent in explicit mode, i.e., with
one or more Mobile Network Prefix extensions, all the Mobile Network one or more Mobile Network Prefix extensions, all the Mobile Network
Prefix extensions MUST be included before the MN-HA Authentication Prefix extensions MUST be included before the MN-HA Authentication
extension. Also, these extensions MUST be included in the extension. Also, these extensions MUST be included in the
calculation of the MN-HA authenticator value. calculation of the MN-HA authenticator value.
The Mobile Router should perform ingress filtering on all the packets The Mobile Router should perform ingress filtering on all the packets
received on the mobile network prior to reverse tunneling them to the received on the Mobile Network prior to reverse tunneling them to the
Home Agent. The Mobile Router MUST drop any packets that do not have Home Agent. The Mobile Router MUST drop any packets that do not have
a source address belonging to the mobile network. a source address belonging to the Mobile Network.
The Mobile Router MUST also ensure that the source address of packets The Mobile Router MUST also ensure that the source address of packets
arriving on the mobile network is not the same as the Mobile Router's arriving on the Mobile Network is not the same as the Mobile Router's
IP address on any interface. These checks will protect against nodes IP address on any interface. These checks will protect against nodes
attempting to launch IP spoofing attacks through the bi-directional attempting to launch IP spoofing attacks through the bi-directional
tunnel. tunnel.
The Home Agent, upon receiving packets through the bi-directional The Home Agent, upon receiving packets through the bi-directional
tunnel, MUST verify that the source addresses of the outer IP header tunnel, MUST verify that the source addresses of the outer IP header
of the packets are set to the Mobile Router's care-of-address. Also, of the packets are set to the Mobile Router's Care-of Address. Also,
it MUST ensure that the source address of the inner IP header is a it MUST ensure that the source address of the inner IP header is a
topologically correct address on the mobile network. This will topologically correct address on the Mobile Network. This will
prevent nodes from using the Home Agent to launch attacks inside the prevent nodes from using the Home Agent to launch attacks inside the
protected network. protected network.
10.1. Security when Dynamic Routing Protocol is Used 10.1. Security when Dynamic Routing Protocol Is Used
If a dynamic routing protocol is used between the Mobile Router and If a dynamic routing protocol is used between the Mobile Router and
the Home Agent to propagate the mobile network information into the the Home Agent to propagate the Mobile Network information into the
home network, the routing updates SHOULD be protected with IPsec ESP home network, the routing updates SHOULD be protected with IPsec ESP
confidentiality between the Mobile Router and Home Agent, to prevent confidentiality between the Mobile Router and Home Agent, to prevent
information about home network topology from being visible to information about home network topology from being visible to
eavesdroppers. eavesdroppers.
11. IANA Considerations 11. IANA Considerations
IANA to assign rules for the existing registry "Mobile IPv4 numbers - IANA has assigned rules for the existing registry "Mobile IPv4
per RFC 3344". The numbering space for Extensions that may appear in numbers - per RFC 3344". The numbering space for Extensions that may
Mobile IP control messages (those sent to and from UDP port number appear in Mobile IP control messages (those sent to and from UDP port
434) should be modified. number 434) should be modified.
The new Values and Names for the Type for Extensions appearing in The new Values and Names for the Type for Extensions appearing in
Mobile IP control messages are the following: Mobile IP control messages are the following:
+-------+---------------------------------------------------+ +-------+--------------------------+
| Value | Name | | Value | Name |
+-------+---------------------------------------------------+ +-------+--------------------------+
| TBA | Mobile Network Extension (To Be Assigned by IANA) | | 148 | Mobile Network Extension |
+-------+---------------------------------------------------+ +-------+--------------------------+
Table 1: New Values and Names for Extensions in Mobile IP Control Table 1: New Values and Names for Extensions in Mobile IP Control
Messages Messages
A new number space should be created for the Values and Names for the A new number space has been created for the Values and Names for the
Sub-Type for Mobile Network Extensions. This number space is Sub-Type for Mobile Network Extensions. This number space is
initially defined to hold the following entries, allocated by this initially defined to hold the following entries, allocated by this
document: document:
+-------+-----------------------------------------+ +-------+-----------------------------------------+
| Value | Name | | Value | Name |
+-------+-----------------------------------------+ +-------+-----------------------------------------+
| TBA | Mobile Network Request Extension | | 0 | Mobile Network Request Extension |
| TBA | Explicit Mode Acknowledgement Extension | | 1 | Explicit Mode Acknowledgement Extension |
| TBA | Implicit Mode Acknowledgement Extension | | 2 | Implicit Mode Acknowledgement Extension |
+-------+-----------------------------------------+ +-------+-----------------------------------------+
Table 2: New Values and Names for the Sub-Type for Mobile Network Table 2: New Values and Names for the Sub-Type for Mobile Network
Extensions Extensions
The policy of future assignments to this number space should be The policy of future assignments to this number space is following
following Standards Action or IESG Approval (see [RFC2434]). Standards Action or IESG Approval (see [RFC2434]).
The new Code Values for Mobile IP Registration Reply messages are the The new Code Values for Mobile IP Registration Reply messages are the
following (for a registration denied by the Home Agent): following (for a registration denied by the Home Agent):
+-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| Value | Name | | Value | Name |
+-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| TBA | Mobile Network Prefix operation error (HA_MOBNET_ERROR) | | 147 | Mobile Network Prefix operation error (HA_MOBNET_ERROR) |
| TBA | Mobile Router operation is not permitted | | 148 | Mobile Router operation is not permitted |
| | (HA_MOBNET_DISALLOWED) | | | (HA_MOBNET_DISALLOWED) |
+-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
Table 3: New Code Values for Mobile IP Registration Reply Table 3: New Code Values for Mobile IP Registration Reply
A new number space has been created for the Code Values for the
A new number space should be created for the Code Values for the
Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension. This number space is Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension. This number space is
initially defined to hold the following entries, allocated by this initially defined to hold the following entries, allocated by this
document (result of registration, as sent by the Home Agent): document (result of registration, as sent by the Home Agent):
+-----+-------------------------------------------------------------+ +---+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| TBA | Success | | 0 | Success |
| TBA | Invalid prefix length (MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN) | | 1 | Invalid prefix length (MOBNET_INVALID_PREFIX_LEN) |
| TBA | Mobile Router is not authorized for prefix | | 2 | Mobile Router is not authorized for prefix |
| | (MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED) | | | (MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED) |
| TBA | Forwarding setup failed (MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED) | | 3 | Forwarding setup failed (MOBNET_FWDING_SETUP_FAILED) |
+-----+-------------------------------------------------------------+ +---+---------------------------------------------------------------+
Table 4: New Code Values for Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension Table 4: New Code Values for Mobile Network Acknowledgement Extension
The policy of future assignments to this number space should be The policy of future assignments to this number space is following
following Standards Action or IESG Approval (see [RFC2434]). Standards Action or IESG Approval (see [RFC2434]).
The current non-modified numbering spaces could be consulted at the
URL http://www.iana.org/assignments/mobileip-numbers (contents last
updated 2007-12-20 and last browsed 2008-01-04).
12. Acknowledgements 12. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Christophe Janneteau, George The authors would like to thank Christophe Janneteau, George
Popovich, Ty Bekiares, Ganesh Srinivasan, Alpesh Patel, Ryuji Popovich, Ty Bekiares, Ganesh Srinivasan, Alpesh Patel, Ryuji
Wakikawa, George Tsirtsis, and Henrik Levkowetz for their helpful Wakikawa, George Tsirtsis, and Henrik Levkowetz for their helpful
discussions, reviews and comments. Vijay Devarapalli extensively discussions, reviews, and comments. Vijay Devarapalli extensively
reviewed one of the later versions of the draft. Hans Sjostrand reviewed one of the later versions of the document. Hans Sjostrand
(Hans Sj\"ostrand) identified the last clarifications with respect to identified the last clarifications with respect to Foreign Agent mode
Foreign Agent mode treatment. Pete McCann contributed necessary treatment. Pete McCann contributed necessary refinements of many
refinements of many statements. statements.
Mobile IPv4 versions as early as 1996 (RFC 2002) described Mobile Mobile IPv4 versions as early as 1996 (RFC 2002 by Charles Perkins)
Networks and Mobile Routers support. Charles Perkins. described Mobile Networks and Mobile Routers support.
Fred Templin indicated the potential confusion for the term "LFN". Fred Templin indicated the potential confusion for the term "LFN".
Amanda Baber of IANA agreed on the principles of allocating numbers Amanda Baber of IANA agreed on the principles of allocating numbers
for this specification and suggested improvements on the IANA for this specification and suggested improvements on the IANA
section. section.
Tim Polk of IESG identified a deeply entrenched error on managing the Tim Polk of the IESG identified a deeply entrenched error on managing
Code fields. the Code fields.
Lars Eggert of IESG suggested the acommodation of the otherwise legal Lars Eggert of the IESG suggested the accommodation of the otherwise
non-contiguous netmask fields, instead of simply prefix lengths. legal non-contiguous netmask fields, instead of simply prefix
lengths.
Dan Romascanu of IESG indicated the necessity of manageability of Dan Romascanu of the IESG indicated the necessity of manageability of
Mobile Routers and NEMOv4-enabled Home Agents and their deployability Mobile Routers and NEMOv4-enabled Home Agents and their deployability
in MIP4 environments. in MIP4 environments.
David Borman of TSV-DIR reviewed this document as part of the David Borman of TSV-DIR reviewed this document as part of the
transport area directorate's ongoing effort to review key IETF transport area directorate's ongoing effort to review key IETF
documents. The implications of the growth of usable MTU adversely documents. The implications of the growth of usable MTU adversely
affecting applications deep in a mobile network were suggested. affecting applications deep in a Mobile Network were suggested.
Gonzalo Camarillo provided a generalist review by an additional set Gonzalo Camarillo provided a generalist review by an additional set
of eyes for documents as they are being considered for publication of eyes for documents as they are being considered for publication
(General Area Review Team). (General Area Review Team).
Jari Arkko of IESG reviewed, suggested necessary improvements to, and Jari Arkko of the IESG reviewed, suggested necessary improvements to,
diligently shepherded this document through IESG. and diligently shepherded this document through IESG.
13. References 13. References
13.1. Normative References 13.1. Normative References
[RFC1323] Jacobson, V., Braden, B., and D. Borman, "TCP Extensions [RFC1323] Jacobson, V., Braden, B., and D. Borman, "TCP Extensions
for High Performance", RFC 1323, May 1992. for High Performance", RFC 1323, May 1992.
[RFC2006] Cong, D., Hamlen, M., and C. Perkins, "The Definitions of [RFC2006] Cong, D., Hamlen, M., and C. Perkins, "The Definitions
Managed Objects for IP Mobility Support using SMIv2", of Managed Objects for IP Mobility Support using SMIv2",
RFC 2006, October 1996. RFC 2006, October 1996.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2328] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998. [RFC2328] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, April 1998.
[RFC2434] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC2434] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
October 1998. October 1998.
skipping to change at page 24, line 7 skipping to change at page 24, line 7
Identifier Extension for IPv4", RFC 2794, March 2000. Identifier Extension for IPv4", RFC 2794, March 2000.
[RFC3344] Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC 3344, [RFC3344] Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC 3344,
August 2002. August 2002.
[RFC4271] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway [RFC4271] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway
Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006. Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006.
13.2. Informative References 13.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa] [NEMOv4-FA] Tsirtsis, G., Park, V., Narayanan, V., and K. Leung, "FA
Tsirtsis, G., Park, V., Narayanan, V., and K. Leung, "FA extensions to NEMOv4 Base", Work in Progress,
extensions to NEMOv4 Base", draft-ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa-02 February 2008.
(work in progress), November 2007.
[RFC3963] Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P. [RFC3963] Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P.
Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol", Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support
RFC 3963, January 2005. Protocol", RFC 3963, January 2005.
[RFC4885] Ernst, T. and H-Y. Lach, "Network Mobility Support [RFC4885] Ernst, T. and H-Y. Lach, "Network Mobility Support
Terminology", RFC 4885, July 2007. Terminology", RFC 4885, July 2007.
Appendix A. ChangeLog
[RFC Editor: please remove this section prior to publication. (said
IESG member Russ Housley on 6th of February 2008: "Please delete
Appendix A before publication as an RFC.")]
The changes are listed in reverse chronological order, most recent
changes appearing at the top of the list.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-10.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-11.txt:
o Based on David Ward comment removed the section discussing on non-
contiguous netmasks, as well as the Optional Netmask fields (but
still kept the prefixlen-based contiguous netmasks.)
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-09.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-10.txt:
o Changed "192.168.1.1" notation to "192.0.2.0" documentation style
addresses, as suggested by idnits.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-08.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-09.txt, following IANA and IESG
comments:
o Introduced an Optional Netmask field in both registrations and
replies. This is used when address/prefixlength is not a
sufficient expression of network mask, for example when the subnet
mask needs to be expressed as a non-contiguous set of 1bits (e.g.
255.255.0.255). Also described the reasoning of this in a section
of its own.
o Extended the Introduction section with two subsections: example of
mobile network and overall protocol operation. Illustrated two
figures.
o Added Local Fixed Node term definition and some citations to
reference rfc4885 "Network Mobility Support Terminology".
o Clarified text about the Code field. There are two Code fields:
one in Registration Reply header (the Code proper) and one in the
Mobile Network Extension header. Also clarified conditions of
proper Code being 0 successful and and relationships of proper
Code 0 to Code in the Mobile Network Extension.
o Added a sub-section 'Mobile Router Management' about the initial
configuration, ongoing supervision and management indicators of a
Mobile Router and Home Agent.
o Substituted 'MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED' for 'MOBNET_UNAUTHORIZED_MR'.
o Substituted 'IANA to assign rules' for 'IANA to modify rules'.
o Stressed that "applications that do not support MTU discovery are
adversely affected by the additional header encapsulations,
because the usable MTU is reduced with each level of nesting."
o Removed citations and reference to rfc3344bis
(draft-ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis-05).
o Removed citations and reference to rfc2434bis
(draft-narten-iana-considerations-rfc2434bis-08).
o Extended the Acknowledgements section.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-07.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-08.txt, following AD Review (Jari
Arkko):
o HA propagates Mobile Network Prefix only if necessary (previously
it was always doing it).
o emphasized that within nested mobile networks looping may occur
and this document doesn't do anything to address this.
o dropped a phrase which said that Mobile-Home auth extension
shouldn't be used when ESP protects the routing protocol message,
because that extension is only applied to Registration messages
(not tunneled data, which usually contains routing protocol
exchange).
o recommending "Standards Action or IESG Review" instead of "Expert
Review" for this numbering space, and added reference to a draft
for 2434bis.
o editorial: re-phrased about how Mobile IPv4 claimed mobile
networks support.
o editorial: added a necessary paragraph in the Acknowledgements
section.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-06.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-07.txt
o encoded the draft into xml. Compiled with xml2rfc version
1.33pre4.
o checked against 'idnits' script version 2.05.03.
o substituted 'Care-of Address' for 'CoA'.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-05.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-06.txt
o substituted "TBA" for "1" in Sub-type of Mobile Network Request
Extension.
o substituted "TBA" for "0" in Code of Mobile Network
Acknowledgement Extension and in the IANA Section.
o modified the IANA section to request definition two new spaces
(instead of just defining new values) for Sub-Type of Mobile
Network Extensions and for Code Values for Mobile Network
Acknowledgement Extension, and to suggest "Expert Review" as
method of new assignments in these two spaces (and not necessarily
"IETF Consensus").
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-04.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-05.txt
o updated the Acknowledgements section.
o capitalized all occurences of "Home Address", "Mobile Router" and
"Care-of Address".
o refined many statements.
o checked against 'idnits' script version 2.04.16.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-03.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-04.txt
o more changes in Introduction to say that with FA mode only the
non-optimized double-encapsulation operation is supported and
[I-D.ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa] proposes a optimization.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-02.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-03.txt
o changed a sentence in the Introduction to say that FA mode _is_
supported but unoptimized, and that a reference
[I-D.ietf-mip4-nemov4-fa] optimizes that mode.
o added I-D.ietf-mip4-rfc3344bis reference to the rfc3344bis draft.
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-01.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-02.txt
o changed title from "IPv4 Network Mobility (NEMO) Protocol" to
"Network Mobility (NEMO) Extensions for Mobile IPv4".
From draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-00.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-01.txt
o added a section on Routing Protocol between Mobile Router and Home
Agent.
o added a security subsection about running simultaneously a secure
routing protocol with secure Mobile IPv4.
o added a date tag on the IANA URL for Mobile IP numbering spaces.
o substituted 'Mobile Router' for 'MR' everywhere.
o updated reference to NEMOv4 FA draft.
From draft-ietf-nemo-v4-base-01.txt to
draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-v4-base-00.txt:
o changed draft name, headers and footers.
o changed title.
o a more coherent use of terms 'subnet', 'prefix' and 'mobile
network'.
o clarified only co-located CoA mode is supported (not FA CoA) for
Mobile Routers in this specification. And added reference to the
FA NEMO optimizations draft.
o changed 'devices' to 'hosts'.
o changed 'moving networks' to 'mobile networks'.
o clarified what 'reachability' in a certain context is: packets may
be dropped if ingress filtering is turned on.
o removed the MR-FA-CoA tunnel overhead optimization. There is
still an issue with text at HA doing optimization.
This document was first presented as an individual contribution to
the NEMO Working Group, then adopted as a WG item to that group. The
01 version in the NEMO WG has been Last Called on the INFORMATIONAL
track. The evolution was:
From version draft-ietf-nemo-v4-base-00 to
draft-ietf-nemo-v4-base-01:
o removed error code HA_MOBNET_UNSUPPORTED.
o changed all values to be assigned by IANA, from specific numbers
to "TBA" (To Be Assigned).
o substituted "egress interface" for "roaming interface".
o changed HA behaviour upon reception of MNPs. In 00 the HA replied
positively only if all MNPs in RegReq were valid, in 01 a reply is
constructed specifying which MNP was valid and which not.
o clarified a 3-line paragraph saying that RegRep may contain both
implicit and explicit acknowledgements.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Kent Leung Kent Leung
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
170 W. Tasman Drive 170 W. Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
USA USA
Phone: +1 408-526-5030 Phone: +1 408-526-5030
Email: kleung@cisco.com EMail: kleung@cisco.com
Gopal Dommety Gopal Dommety
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
170 W. Tasman Drive 170 W. Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
USA USA
Phone: +1 408-525-1404 Phone: +1 408-525-1404
Email: gdommety@cisco.com EMail: gdommety@cisco.com
Vidya Narayanan Vidya Narayanan
QUALCOMM, Inc. QUALCOMM, Inc.
5775 Morehouse Dr 5775 Morehouse Dr
San Diego, CA San Diego, CA
USA USA
Phone: +1 858-845-2483 Phone: +1 858-845-2483
Email: vidyan@qualcomm.com EMail: vidyan@qualcomm.com
Alexandru Petrescu Alexandru Petrescu
Motorola Motorola
Parc les Algorithmes Saint Aubin Parc les Algorithmes Saint Aubin
Gif-sur-Yvette, Essonne 91140 Gif-sur-Yvette, Essonne 91140
France France
Phone: +33 169354827 Phone: +33 169354827
Email: alexandru.petrescu@motorola.com EMail: alexandru.petrescu@motorola.com
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights. retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
skipping to change at page 30, line 44 skipping to change at line 1096
attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
http://www.ietf.org/ipr. http://www.ietf.org/ipr.
The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at
ietf-ipr@ietf.org. ietf-ipr@ietf.org.
Acknowledgment
Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
Administrative Support Activity (IASA).
 End of changes. 152 change blocks. 
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