draft-ietf-nemo-terminology-01.txt   draft-ietf-nemo-terminology-02.txt 
NEMO Working Group T. Ernst
Internet-Draft WIDE at Keio University
Expires: April 25, 2005 H-Y. Lach
Motorola Labs
October 25, 2004
Network Mobility Support Terminology
draft-ietf-nemo-terminology-02
Abstract
This document defines a terminology for discussing network mobility
issues and solution requirements.
NEMO Working Group T. Ernst NEMO Working Group T. Ernst
Internet-Draft WIDE at Keio University Internet-Draft WIDE at Keio University
Expires: August 16, 2004 H-Y. Lach Expires: April 25, 2005 H-Y. Lach
Motorola Labs Motorola Labs
February 16, 2004 October 25, 2004
Network Mobility Support Terminology Network Mobility Support Terminology
draft-ietf-nemo-terminology-01 draft-ietf-nemo-terminology-02
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Abstract Abstract
This document defines a terminology for discussing network mobility This document defines a terminology for discussing network mobility
problems and solution requirements. Network mobility arises when a issues and solution requirements.
router connecting an entire network to the Internet dynamically
changes its point of attachment to the Internet therefrom causing the
reachability of the entire network to be changed in the topology.
Such kind of network is referred to as a mobile network. Without
appropriate mechanisms, sessions established between nodes in the
mobile network and the global Internet cannot be maintained while the
mobile router changes its point of attachment.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Architecture Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Architecture Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1 Mobile Network (NEMO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2 Mobile Router (MR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 Egress Interface (E-face) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.4 Ingress Interface (I-face) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5 Mobile Network Prefix (MNP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.6 NEMO-link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.7 Mobile Network Node (MNN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.8 Correspondent Node (CN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. Functional Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Functional Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1 Mobile Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1 Local Fixed Node (LFN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2 NEMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2 Visiting Mobile Node (VMN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3 MONET [DEPRECIATED] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3 Local Mobile Node (LMN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4 Mobile Router (MR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.4 NEMO-enabled node (NEMO-node) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.5 Egress Interface (E-face) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.5 MIPv6-enabled (MIPv6-node) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.6 Ingress Interface (I-face) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.6 Correspondent Router (CR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.7 NEMO-prefix (MNP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.8 NEMO-link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.9 Mobile Network Node (MNN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.10 Node behind the MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.11 Local Fixed Node (LFN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.12 Local Mobile Node (LMN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.13 Visiting Mobile Node (VMN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.14 NEMO-enabled (NEMO-node) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.15 NEMO-enabled MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.16 MIPv6-enabled (MIPv6-node) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.17 Correspondent Node (CN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Nested Mobility Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Nested Mobility Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1 Nested Mobile Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1 Nested Mobile Network (nested-NEMO) . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2 root-NEMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2 root-NEMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3 parent-NEMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.3 parent-NEMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.4 sub-NEMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.4 sub-NEMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.5 root-MR (or TLMR, but depreciated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.5 root-MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.6 parent-MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.6 parent-MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.7 sub-MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.7 sub-MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Multihoming Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. Multihoming Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1 Multihomed Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.1 Multihomed host or MNN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2 Multihomed Mobile Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.2 Multihomed Mobile Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.3 Multihomed Mobile Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.3 Multihomed Mobile Network (multihomed-NEMO) . . . . . . . 14
5.4 Multihomed and Nested Mobile Network . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.4 Nested Multihomed Mobile Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.5 Illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.5 Illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. Mobility Support Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6. Home Network Model Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.1 Host mobility support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.1 Home Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.2 Network Mobility support (NEMO Support) . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.2 Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.3 NEMO Basic Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.3 Home Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.4 NEMO Extended Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.4 Mobile Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.5 Distributed Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.6 Mobile Aggregated Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.7 Aggregated Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.8 Extended Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.9 Virtual Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. Mobility Support Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.1 Host Mobility Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.2 Network Mobility Support (NEMO Support) . . . . . . . . . 18
7.3 NEMO Basic Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.4 NEMO Extended Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.5 MRHA Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7. New Text From Usage Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8. Miscellaneous Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.1 Home Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.1 Idle MNN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.2 Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.2 Idle Mobile Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.3 Home Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.4 MRHA Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.5 Mobile Aggregated Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.6 Aggregated Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.7 Extended Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7.8 Virtual Home Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8. Miscellaneous Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 9. Changes since draft-nemo-terminology-01.txt . . . . . . . . . 19
8.1 Idle MNN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8.2 Idle Mobile Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
9. Changes since draft-nemo-terminology-00.txt . . . . . . . . 17 10. Changes since draft-nemo-terminology-00.txt . . . . . . . . 19
10. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . 20 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Network mobility support is concerned with managing the mobility of Network mobility support is concerned with managing the mobility of
an entire network which changes its point of attachment to the an entire network. This arises when a router connecting an entire
Internet and thus its reachability in the Internet topology. If network to the Internet dynamically changes its point of attachment
network mobility is not explicitly supported by some mechanisms, to the Internet therefrom causing the reachability of the entire
existing sessions break and connectivity to the global Internet is network to be changed in the topology. Such network is referred to
as a mobile network. Without appropriate mechanisms to support
network mobility, sessions established between nodes in the mobile
network and the global Internet cannot be maintained while the mobile
router changes its point of attachment. As a result, existing
sessions would break and connectivity to the global Internet would be
lost. lost.
This document defines the specific terminology needed to describe the This document defines the specific terminology needed to describe the
problem space we face with network mobility and to edict the problem space, the design goals [4], and the solutions for network
solutions and the requirements they must comply with. This mobility support. This terminology complies with the usual IPv6
terminology complies with the usual IPv6 terminology [7] and the terminology [7] and the generic mobility-related terms already
generic mobility-related terms already defined in [2] and in the defined in [3] and in the Mobile IPv6 [1] specifications. Some terms
Mobile IPv6 [1] specifications. Some terms introduced in the present introduced in the present version of the draft may only be useful for
version of the draft may only be useful for the purpose of defining the purpose of defining the problem scope and functional requirements
the problem scope and functional requirements of network mobility of network mobility support.
support and shall be removed or refined once we agree on the
requirements.
The first section introduces terms to define the architecture Note that the abbreviation NEMO stands either for "a NEtwork that is
components; the second introduces terms to discuss the requirements, MObile" and for "NEtwork MObility". The former (see Section 2.1 is
the third, terms to discuss nested mobility; the forth defines used as a noun, e.g. "a NEMO" meaning "a mobile network". The
multihoming, and the last, miscellaneous terms which do not fit in latter (see Section 7 refers to the concept of "network mobility" as
either sections. The overall terminology is summarized in fig.1 to 5. in "NEMO Basic Support" and is also the working group's name.
Fig.1 shows a single mobile subnetwork. Fig.2. shows a larger mobile
network comprising several subnetworks, attached on a foreign link. Section 2 introduces terms to define the architecture while terms
Fig.3 illustrates a node changing its point of attachment within the needed to emphasize the distinct functionalities of those
mobile network. Fig.4 and 5 illustrate nested mobility whereas Fig.6 architecture components are described in Section 3. Section 4,
to Fig.8 illustrate multihoming. Section 5 and Section 6 respectively describe terms pertaining to
nested mobility, multihoming and those necessary to describe the
different configurations of mobile networks at home. The different
types of mobility are defined in Section 7. The last section lists
miscellaneous terms which do not fit in either sections.
2. Architecture Components 2. Architecture Components
Fig.1 and 2 illustrate the architecture components involved in A mobile network is composed by one or more mobile IP-subnet
network mobility. The terms "Fixed Node (FN)", "Mobile Node (MN)", (NEMO-link) and is viewed as a single unit. The unit is connected to
"Mobile Network", "Mobile Router (MR)", "Mobile Network Node (MNN)", the Internet by means of mobile routers (MRs). Nodes behind the MR
"home link", "foreign link", "ingress interface", "egress interface", (MNNs) primarily comprise fixed nodes (nodes unable to change their
access router (AR), home link, foreign link are defined in [2]. point of attachment while maintaining ongoing sessions), and
additionally mobile nodes (nodes able to change their point of
attachment while maintaining ongoing sessions). In most cases, the
internal structure of the mobile network will in effect be relatively
stable (no dynamic change of the topology), but this is not a general
assumption.
A mobile network is composed by one or more IP-subnet and is viewed Figure 1 illustrates the architecture components involved in network
as a single unit. It is connected to the Internet by means of mobile mobility and defined in the below paragraphs: Mobile Router (MR),
routers (MRs). Nodes behind the MR primarily comprise fixed nodes NEMO-link, Mobile Network Node (MNN), "ingress interface", "egress
(nodes unable to change their point of attachment while maintaining interface", and Correspondent Nodes (CNs). The other terms "access
ongoing sessions), and additionally mobile nodes (nodes able to router" (AR), "Fixed Node (FN)", "Mobile Node (MN)", "home agent"
change their point of attachment while maintaining ongoing sessions). (HA), "home link" and "foreign link" are not terms specific to
In most cases, the internal structure of the mobile network will in network mobility and are thus defined in [3].
effect be relatively stable (no dynamic change of the topology), but
this is not a general assumption.
____ _
| | CN ->|_|-| Internet
| CN | | _____
|____| |-| | |<- home link
___|____________________ _ | |-| _ | _
| | |-|_|-|_____| |-|_|-|-|_|<- HA (Home Agent)
| | | ^ | _
| Internet | foreign link ->| . |-|_|<- MR (Mobile Router)
| | .. AR (access ___|___
|________________________| router) _| |_
__|_ __|_ |_| |_|
| | Access | | ^ ^
| AR | Router | AR | MNN1 MNN2
|____| |____|
______|__ foreign __|_____________ home
link __|_ link
| |
| MR | Mobile Router
|____|
_________|_______ NEMO-link
__|__ __|__
| | | |
| MNN | | MNN | Mobile Network Nodes
|_____| |_____|
Fig.1: Architecture Components Figure 1: Mobile Network on the Home Link
Figure 2 shows a single mobile subnetwork. Figure 3 illustrates a
larger mobile network comprising several subnetworks, attached on a
foreign link.
_
CN ->|_|-|
| _____
_ | |-| | |<- home link
|_|-| _ | _ | |-| _ | _
2 MNNs -> _ |-|_|-|-|_|-|_____| |-|_|-|-|_|<- HA
|_|-| . | . |
| . |<- foreign .
single NEMO-link -> . link ^ AR
.
^ MR
Figure 2: Single Mobile Subnetwork on a Foreign Link
At the network layer, MRs get access to the global Internet from the At the network layer, MRs get access to the global Internet from the
Access Routers (ARs) on the visited link. The MR maintains the Access Routers (ARs) on the visited link. The MRs maintain the
Internet connectivity for the entire mobile network. It has one or Internet connectivity for the entire mobile network. A given MR has
more egress interface(s) and one or more ingress interface(s). When one or more egress interface(s) and one or more ingress interface(s).
forwarding a packet to the Internet the packet is transmitted When forwarding a packet to the Internet the packet is transmitted
upstream through one of the MR's egress interfaces to the AR; when upstream through one of the MR's egress interfaces to the AR; when
forwarding a packet from the AR down to the mobile network, the forwarding a packet from the AR down to the mobile network, the
packet is transmitted downstream through one of the MR's ingress packet is transmitted downstream through one of the MR's ingress
interfaces. interfaces.
2.1 Mobile Network (NEMO)
As defined in [3]:
An entire network, moving as a unit, which dynamically changes its
point of attachment to the Internet and thus its reachability in the
topology. The mobile network is composed of one or more IP-subnets
and is connected to the global Internet via one or more Mobile
Routers (MR). The internal configuration of the mobile network is
assumed to be relatively stable with respect to the MR.
2.2 Mobile Router (MR)
As defined in [3]:
A router capable of changing its point of attachment to the network,
moving from one link to another link. The MR is capable of
forwarding packets between two or more interfaces, and possibly
running a dynamic routing protocol modifying the state by which it
does packet forwarding.
A MR acting as a gateway between an entire mobile network and the
rest of the Internet has one or more egress interface(s) and one or
more ingress interface(s). Packets forwarded upstream to the rest of
the Internet are transmitted through one of the MR's egress
interface; packets forwarded downstream to the mobile network are
transmitted through one of the MR's ingress interface.
2.3 Egress Interface (E-face)
As defined in [3]:
The interface of a MR attached to the home link if the MR is at home,
or attached to a foreign link if the MR is in a foreign network.
2.4 Ingress Interface (I-face)
As defined in [3]:
The interface of a MR attached to a link inside the mobile network.
2.5 Mobile Network Prefix (MNP)
As defined in [3]:
A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an IP
address which identifies the entire mobile network within the
Internet topology. All nodes in a mobile network necessarily have an
address containing this prefix.
MNP is an acronym for Mobile Network Prefix.
2.6 NEMO-link
A link (subnet) located within the mobile network.
2.7 Mobile Network Node (MNN)
As defined in [3]:
Any node (host or router) located within a mobile network, either
permanently or temporarily. A Mobile Network Node may either be a
fixed node (LFN) or a mobile node (VMN or LMN).
2.8 Correspondent Node (CN)
Any node that is communicating with one or more MNNs. A CN could be
either located within a fixed network or within a mobile network, and
could be either fixed or mobile.
3. Functional Terms 3. Functional Terms
________________________ ________________________
| | | |
| | | |
| Internet | | Internet |
| | | |
|________________________| |________________________|
__|_ __|_
Access | | Access | |
skipping to change at page 6, line 26 skipping to change at page 8, line 35
| | | |
| ____|________________ NEMO-link 1 | ____|________________ NEMO-link 1
| __|__ __|__ | __|__ __|__
_____ | | | | | _____ | | | | |
| |__| | MNN | | MNN | | |__| | MNN | | MNN |
| MNN | | |_____| |_____| | MNN | | |_____| |_____|
|_____| | |_____| |
| NEMO-link 2 'i': MR's ingress interface | NEMO-link 2 'i': MR's ingress interface
'e': MR's egress interface 'e': MR's egress interface
Fig.2: Larger Mobile Network with 2 subnets Figure 3: Larger Mobile Network with 2 subnets
Within the term Mobile Network Node (MNN), we can distinguish between Within the term Mobile Network Node (MNN), we can distinguish between
LFN, VMN and LMN. The distinction is a property of how different Local Fixed Node (LFN), Visiting Mobile Node (VMN) and Local Mobile
types of nodes can move in the topology and is necessary to discuss Node (LMN). The distinction is a property of how different types of
issues related to mobility management and access control, but does nodes can move in the topology and is necessary to discuss issues
not preclude that mobility should be handled differently. Nodes are related to mobility management and access control, but does not imply
classified according to their function and capabilities with the that network mobility or host mobility should be handled differently.
rationale that nodes with different properties (may) have different Nodes are classified according to their function and capabilities
requirements. with the rationale that nodes with different properties (may) have
different requirements.
3.1 Mobile Network
As defined in [2])
3.2 NEMO
An abbreviation either for "NEtwork MObility" or for " a NEtwork that
is MObile". It the former, it refers to the concept of "network
mobility" like in "NEMO Basic Support" and is also the working
group's name. In the latter, it is used as a noun, e.g. "a NEMO"
meaning "a mobile network".
3.3 MONET [DEPRECIATED]
An abbreviation for MObile NETwork. MONET can be used as a noun, e.g.
a MONET" meaning "a mobile network". Not to be confused with MANET
(Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork)
3.4 Mobile Router (MR)
As defined in [2])
3.5 Egress Interface (E-face)
As defined in [2])
3.6 Ingress Interface (I-face)
As defined in [2])
3.7 NEMO-prefix (MNP)
An acronym for Mobile Network Prefix (as defined in [2])
3.8 NEMO-link
A link (subnet) located within the mobile network.
3.9 Mobile Network Node (MNN)
As defined in [2]). May be either a LFN, LMN, or a VMN.
3.10 Node behind the MR
Any MNN located in a mobile network, beside the MRs connecting the
mobile network to the Internet.
3.11 Local Fixed Node (LFN) 3.1 Local Fixed Node (LFN)
A fixed node (FN), either a host or a router, that belongs to the A fixed node (FN), either a host or a router, that belongs to the
mobile network and which doesn't move topologically with respect to mobile network and which is unable to change its point of attachment
the MR. It's address is taken from a NEMO-prefix. while maintaining ongoing sessions. Its address is taken from a MNP.
3.12 Local Mobile Node (LMN) 3.2 Visiting Mobile Node (VMN)
A mobile node (MN), either a host or a router which can move A mobile node (MN), either a host or a router whose home link doesn't
topologically with respect to the MR and whose home link belongs to belong to the mobile network and which is able to change its point of
the mobile network. It's address is taken from a NEMO-prefix. attachment while maintaining ongoing sessions. A VMN that gets
temporarily attached to a NEMO-link (used as a foreign link) obtains
an address on that link (i.e. the address is taken from a MNP).
3.13 Visiting Mobile Node (VMN) 3.3 Local Mobile Node (LMN)
A mobile node (MN), either a host or a router which can move A mobile node (MN), either a host or a router whose home link belongs
topologically with respect to the MR and whose home link doesn't to the mobile network and which is able to change its point of
belong to the mobile network. A VMN that gets temporarily attached to attachment while maintaining ongoing sessions. Its address is taken
a NEMO-link (used as a foreign link) obtains an address on that link from a MNP. Figure 4 illustrates a LMN changing its point of
(i.e. taken from a NEMO-prefix). attachment within the mobile network.
3.14 NEMO-enabled (NEMO-node) 3.4 NEMO-enabled node (NEMO-node)
A node that has been extended with network mobility support A node that has been extended with network mobility support
capabilities and that may take special actions based on that (details capabilities and that may take special actions based on that.
of the capabilities are not known yet, but it may be implementing
some sort of Route Optimization). In NEMO Basic Support, only the MR and the HA are NEMO-enabled.
In NEMO Extended Support, details of the capabilities are not known
yet, but NEMO-enabled nodes may be implementing some sort of Route
Optimization.
________________________ ________________________
| | | |
| | | |
| Internet | | Internet |
| | | |
|________________________| |________________________|
__|_ __|_ __|_ __|_
| | Access | | | | Access | |
| AR | Router | AR | | AR | Router | AR |
skipping to change at page 8, line 41 skipping to change at page 10, line 30
|--> | LMN | | __|_____________ NEMO-link 1 |--> | LMN | | __|_____________ NEMO-link 1
| |_____| | __|__ | | |_____| | __|__ |
| _____ | | | | _____ | | |
| | |__| | LFN | | | |__| | LFN |
| | LFN | | |_____| | | | LFN | | |_____| |
| |_____| | | | |_____| | |
| | NEMO-link 2 | | | NEMO-link 2 |
| | | |
|------------------------------| |------------------------------|
Fig.3: LFN and LMN: LMN changing from NEMO-link 1 to NEMO-link 2 Figure 4: LFN versus LMN
3.15 NEMO-enabled MR
A mobile router that has been extended with network mobility support
capabilities and that may take special actions based on that (for
instance as the ones defined in NEMO Basic Support [3]
3.16 MIPv6-enabled (MIPv6-node) 3.5 MIPv6-enabled (MIPv6-node)
A node which has been extended with host mobility support A node which has been extended with host mobility support
capabilities as defined in [1] and that may take special actions capabilities as defined Mobile IPv6 in [1] and that may take special
based on that actions based on that.
3.17 Correspondent Node (CN) 3.6 Correspondent Router (CR)
Any node that is communicating with one or more MNNs. A CN could A router topologically close to the CN that has been extented with
either be located in the fixed network or within the mobile network, some mobility support capabilities and that may take special actions
and could be either fixed or mobile. based on that. Details of the capabilities do not matter in the
present documents. The CR is said NEMO-enabled if such capabilities
are defined for network mobility support.
4. Nested Mobility Terms 4. Nested Mobility Terms
Nested mobility occurs when there are more than one level of Nested mobility occurs when there are more than one level of
mobility. A MNN acts as an Access Router (AR) and allows visiting mobility, i.e. when a mobile networks acts as an access network and
nodes to get attached to it. There are two cases of nested mobility: allows visiting nodes to get attached to it. There are two cases of
nested mobility:
o when the attaching node is a single node: VMN (see figure 4). For o when the attaching node is a single VMN (see figure 4). For
instance, when a passenger carrying a mobile phone gets Internet instance, when a passenger carrying a mobile phone gets Internet
access from the public access network deployed into a bus. access from the public access network deployed into a bus.
o when the attaching node is a router with nodes behind it, i.e. a o when the attaching node is a MR with nodes behind it, i.e. a
mobile network (see figure 5). For instance, when a passenger mobile network (see figure 5). For instance, when a passenger
carrying a PAN gets Internet access from the public access network carrying a PAN gets Internet access from the public access network
deployed in the bus. deployed in the bus.
For the second case, we introduce the following terms: For the second case, we introduce the following terms:
4.1 Nested Mobile Network 4.1 Nested Mobile Network (nested-NEMO)
A mobile network is said to be nested when a mobile network is A mobile network is said to be nested when a mobile network
getting attached to a larger mobile network. The aggregated hierarchy (sub-NEMO) is getting attached to a larger mobile network
of mobile networks becomes a single nested mobile network. (parent-NEMO). The aggregated hierarchy of mobile networks becomes a
single nested mobile network.
4.2 root-NEMO 4.2 root-NEMO
The mobile network at the top of the hierarchy connecting the The mobile network at the top of the hierarchy connecting the
aggregated nested mobile network to the Internet. aggregated nested mobile network to the Internet.
4.3 parent-NEMO 4.3 parent-NEMO
The upstream mobile network providing Internet access to a mobile The upstream mobile network providing Internet access to another
network down the hierarchy. mobile network down the hierarchy.
4.4 sub-NEMO 4.4 sub-NEMO
The downstream mobile network attached to a mobile network up the The downstream mobile network attached to another mobile network up
hierarchy. It becomes a subservient of the parent-NEMO. The sub-NEMO the hierarchy. It becomes a subservient of the parent-NEMO. The
is getting Internet access through the parent-NEMO and does not sub-NEMO is getting Internet access through the parent-NEMO and does
provide Internet access to the parent-NEMO. not provide Internet access to the parent-NEMO.
4.5 root-MR (or TLMR, but depreciated) 4.5 root-MR
The MR(s) of the root-NEMO used to connect the nested mobile network The MR(s) of the root-NEMO used to connect the nested mobile network
to the fixed Internet. Was referred to as "TMLR" (Top-Level Mobile to the fixed Internet. Was referred to as "TMLR" (Top-Level Mobile
Router) in former versions of this document. Router) in former versions of this document.
4.6 parent-MR 4.6 parent-MR
The MR(s) of the parent-NEMO. The MR(s) of the parent-NEMO.
4.7 sub-MR 4.7 sub-MR
skipping to change at page 10, line 49 skipping to change at page 12, line 32
| _____ |__| MR | Mobile Router | _____ |__| MR | Mobile Router
| | |__| |____| | | |__| |____|
----------> | VMN | | __|_____________ NEMO-link 1 ----------> | VMN | | __|_____________ NEMO-link 1
|_____| | __|__ __|__ |_____| | __|__ __|__
_____ | | | | | _____ | | | | |
| |__| | LFN | | LMN | | |__| | LFN | | LMN |
| LFN | | |_____| |_____| | LFN | | |_____| |_____|
|_____| | |_____| |
| NEMO-link 2 | NEMO-link 2
Fig.4: Nested Mobility: single VMN attached to a mobile network Figure 5: Nested Mobility: single VMN attached to a mobile network
________________________ _____
| | _ | |
| | _ |--|_|-| |-| _
| Internet | _ |--|_|--| |_____| | _ |-|_|
| | _ |--|_|--| | |-|_|-|
|________________________| |_|-| | |
__|__ __|__ |
| | | |
| AR1 | | AR2 |
|_____| |_____|
_____|_____________ foreign
__|__ link
| |
| _____ |__| MR1 | root-MR
|__| |__| |_____|
| | MR2 | | __|_____________ NEMO-link 1
| |_____| | __|__ __|__
_____ | | | | | |
| | | sub-MR | | LFN | | LMN |
| LFN |__| | |_____| |_____|
|_____| | |
| | NEMO-link 2
|-------------------| |---------------------------| MNN sub-MR root-MR AR AR HA
sub-NEMO root-NEMO
Fig.5: Nested Mobility: sub-NEMO attached to a larger mobile network <--------><------><-------><------><------------>
sub-NEMO root-NEMO fl Internet Home Network
Figure 6: Nested Mobility: sub-NEMO attached to a larger mobile
network
5. Multihoming Terms 5. Multihoming Terms
Multihoming, as currently defined by the IETF, covers Multihoming, as currently defined by the IETF, covers
site-multihoming [8] and host multihoming. site-multihoming [8] and host multihoming. We enlarge this
terminology to include "multihomed mobile router" and "multihomed
5.1 Multihomed Host mobile network". The specific configurations and issues pertaining
to multihomed mobile networks are coverd in [5].
Within host-multihoming, a host may either be:
o multi-addressed: multiple source addresses to choose between on a 5.1 Multihomed host or MNN
given interface; all IPv6 nodes are multi-addressed due to the
presence of link-local addresses on all interfaces.
o multi-interfaced: multiple interfaces to choose between, on the A host (e.g. a MNN) is multihomed when it has several IPv6 addresses
same link or not. to choose between, i.e. in the following cases when it is either:
o multi-linked: multiple links to choose between (just like multi-prefixed: multiple prefixes are advertised on the link(s)
multi-interfaced but all interfaces are NOT connected to the same the host is attached to, or.
link)
o multi-sited: when using IPv6 site-local address and attached to multi-interfaced: the host has multiple interfaces to choose
different sites between, on the same link or not.
5.2 Multihomed Mobile Router 5.2 Multihomed Mobile Router
A MR is multihomed when it has simultaneously more than one active From the definition of a multihomed host, it follows that a router is
connection to the Internet, that is when it is either: multihomed when it has several IPv6 addresses to choose between, i.e.
in the following cases when the MR is either:
o multi-egress-addressed MR: the MR has simultaneously multiple
active addresses to choose between on a given egress interface
o multi-egress-interfaced MR: the MR has simultaneously multiple
active egress interfaces on the same link or not
o multi-egress-linked MR: the MR has simultaneously multiple active
egress interfaces on distinct links
o multi-egress-sited MR: the MR is simultaneously attached to
different sites (possible distinct ISPs).
________________________ multi-prefixed: multiple prefixes are advertised on the link(s) a
| | MR's egress interface is attached to, or.
| |
| Internet |
| |
|________________________|
__|__ __|__
| | | |
| AR1 | | AR2 |
|_____| |_____|
foreign ______|_____ _____|______ foreign
link 1 | ____ | link 2
| | | |
|___| MR |___|
|____|
______|_____ NEMO-link
__|__
| |
| LFN |
|_____|
Fig.6: Multihomed Mobile Network: MR has multiple egress interfaces multi-interfaced: the MR has multiple egress interfaces to choose
between, on the same link or not.
5.3 Multihomed Mobile Network _____
_ _ | |
|_|-| _ |-|_|-| |-| _
_ |-|_|=| |_____| | _ |-|_|
|_|-| | |-|_|-|
|
MNNs MR AR Internet AR HA
A mobile network is multihomed when there more than one active egress Figure 7: MR with multiple E-faces
interface connected to the global Internet, that is when either:
o a MR is multihomed, or 5.3 Multihomed Mobile Network (multihomed-NEMO)
o multi-MR-NEMO: the mobile network has more than one MR to choose A mobile network is multihomed when either a MR is multihomed or
between there are multiple MRs to choose between, or multiple prefixes are
advertised in the mobile network.
________________________ MR1
| | _ |
| | _ |-|_|-| _____
| Internet | |_|-| |-| |
| | MNNs _ | | |-| _
|________________________| |_|-| _ |-|_____| | _ |-|_|
__|__ __|__ |-|_|-| |-|_|-|
| | | |
| AR1 | | AR2 |
|_____| |_____|
foreign ______|_____ _____|______ foreign
link 1 __|__ __|__ link 2
| | | |
| MR1 | | MR2 |
|_____| |_____|
_____|__________|_____ NEMO-link
__|__
| | | |
| LFN | MR2
|_____|
Fig.7: Multihomed Mobile Network: NEMO with multiple MRs
5.4 Multihomed and Nested Mobile Network
A nested mobile network is multihomed when there are more than one Figure 8: Single NEMO-link with Multiple MRs
active interface connected to the global Internet, that is when
either:
o a root-MR is multihomed, or 5.4 Nested Multihomed Mobile Network
o multi-rooted-NEMO: there are more than one root-MR to choose A nested mobile network is multihomed when either a root-MR is
between multihomed or there are multiple root-MRs to choose between or
multiple prefixes are advertised in the nested mobile network.
5.5 Illustration 5.5 Illustration
Fig.6 and 7 show two examples of multihomed mobile networks. Fig.8. Figure 7 and Figure 8 show two examples of multihomed mobile
shows two independent mobile networks. NEMO-1 is single-homed to the networks. Figure 9 shows two independent mobile networks. NEMO-1 is
Internet through MR1. NEMO-2 is multihomed to the Internet through single-homed to the Internet through MR1. NEMO-2 is multihomed to
MR2a and MR2b. Both mobile networks offer access to visiting nodes the Internet through MR2a and MR2b. Both mobile networks offer
and networks through an AR. access to visiting nodes and networks through an AR.
Let's consider the two following nested scenarios in Fig.8: Let's consider the two following nested scenarios in Figure 9:
Scenario 1: what happens when MR2a's egress interfaced is attached to Scenario 1: what happens when MR2a's egress interfaced is attached to
AR1 ? AR1 ?
* NEMO-2 becomes a subservient of NEMO-11 * NEMO-2 becomes a subservient of NEMO-1
* NEMO-1 becomes the parent-NEMO for NEMO-2 and the root-NEMO for * NEMO-1 becomes the parent-NEMO for NEMO-2 and the root-NEMO for
the aggregated nested mobile network the aggregated nested mobile network
* NEMO-2 becomes the sub-NEMO * NEMO-2 becomes the sub-NEMO
* MR1 is the root-MR for the aggregated nested mobile network * MR1 is the root-MR for the aggregated nested mobile network
* MR2a is a sub-MR in the aggregated nested mobile network * MR2a is a sub-MR in the aggregated nested mobile network
skipping to change at page 15, line 29 skipping to change at page 16, line 29
__|__ __|___ __|___ __|__ __|___ __|___
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| MR1 | | MR2a | | MR2b | | MR1 | | MR2a | | MR2b |
|_____| |______| |______| |_____| |______| |______|
NEMO-1 _____|____ ___|__________|___ NEMO-2 NEMO-1 _____|____ ___|__________|___ NEMO-2
__|__ __|__ __|__ __|__
| | | | | | | |
| LFN | AR1 | LFN | AR2 | LFN | AR1 | LFN | AR2
|_____| |_____| |_____| |_____|
Fig.8: Multihomed Nested Mobile Network Figure 9: Nested Multihomed Mobile Network
6. Mobility Support Terms
6.1 Host mobility support
Host Mobility Support is a mechanism which maintains session
continuity between mobile nodes and their correspondents upon the
mobile host's change of point of attachment. It could be achieved by
Mobile IPv6.
6.2 Network Mobility support (NEMO Support)
Network Mobility Support is a mechanism which maintains session
continuity between mobile network nodes and their correspondent upon
a mobile router's change of point of attachment. Solutions for this
problem are classified into NEMO Basic Support, and NEMO Extended
Support.
6.3 NEMO Basic Support
NEMO Basic Support is a solution to preserve session continuity by
means of bidirectional tunneling much like what is done using [1] for
mobile nodes. The solution for doing this is solely specified in [3].
6.4 NEMO Extended Support
NEMO Extended support is to provide the necessary optimization,
including routing optimization between arbitrary MNNs and CNs.
7. New Text From Usage Draft 6. Home Network Model Terms
The text in this section is taken from [5] and is subject to The terms in this section are useful to describe the possible
discussion on the mailing list. configurations of mobile networks are home. The configurations are
illustrated in [6]
7.1 Home Link 6.1 Home Link
The link attached to the interface at the Home Agent on which the The link attached to the interface at the Home Agent on which the
Home Prefix is configured. The interface can be a virtual interface, Home Prefix is configured. The interface can be a virtual interface,
in which case the Home Link is a virtual Home Link. in which case the Home Link is a virtual Home Link.
7.2 Home Network 6.2 Home Network
The Network formed by the application of the Home Prefix on the Home The Network formed by the application of the Home Prefix on the Home
Link. With Nemo, the concept of Home Network is extended as explained Link. With Nemo, the concept of Home Network is extended as
below. explained below.
7.3 Home Address 6.3 Home Address
With Mobile IPv6, a Home Address is derived from the Home Network With Mobile IPv6, a Home Address is derived from the Home Network
prefix. This is generalized in Nemo, with some limitations: A Home prefix. This is generalized in Nemo, with some limitations: A Home
Address can be either derived from the Home Network or from one of Address can be either derived from the Home Network or from one of
the Mobile Router's Mobile Network prefixes. the Mobile Router's Mobile Network prefixes.
7.4 MRHA Tunnel 6.4 Mobile Home Network
The bi-directional tunnel between a Mobile Router and its Home Agent A Mobile Network that also serves as a Home Network. The MR that
owns the MNP acts as a Home Agent for it.
7.5 Mobile Aggregated Prefix 6.5 Distributed Home Network
A Distributed Home Network is advertised by several sites that are
geographically distributed and meshed using tunnels in a VPN fashion.
6.6 Mobile Aggregated Prefix
An aggregation of Mobile Network Prefixes. An aggregation of Mobile Network Prefixes.
7.6 Aggregated Home Network 6..7 Aggregated Home Network
The Home Network associated with a Mobile Aggregated Prefix. This The Home Network associated with a Mobile Aggregated Prefix. This
Aggregation is advertised as a subnet on the Home Link, and thus used Aggregation is advertised as a subnet on the Home Link, and thus used
as Home Network for Nemo purposes. as Home Network for Nemo purposes.
7.7 Extended Home Network 6.8 Extended Home Network
The network associated with the aggregation of one or more Home The network associated with the aggregation of one or more Home
Network(s) and Mobile Network(s). As opposed to the Mobile IPv6 Home Network(s) and Mobile Network(s). As opposed to the Mobile IPv6 Home
Network that is a subnet, the extended Home Network is an aggregation Network that is a subnet, the extended Home Network is an aggregation
and is further subnetted. and is further subnetted.
7.8 Virtual Home Network 6.9 Virtual Home Network
The Home Network associated with a Virtual Network. The Extended Home The Home Network associated with a Virtual Network. The Extended
Network and the Aggregated Home Network can be configured as Virtual Home Network and the Aggregated Home Network can be configured as
Home Network. Virtual Home Network.
8. Miscellaneous Terms 7. Mobility Support Terms
7.1 Host Mobility Support
Host Mobility Support is a mechanism which maintains session
continuity between mobile nodes and their correspondents upon the
mobile host's change of point of attachment. It can be achieved
using Mobile IPv6 or other mobility support mechanisms.
7.2 Network Mobility Support (NEMO Support)
Network Mobility Support is a mechanism which maintains session
continuity between mobile network nodes and their correspondent upon
a mobile router's change of point of attachment. Solutions for this
problem are classified into NEMO Basic Support, and NEMO Extended
Support.
7.3 NEMO Basic Support
NEMO Basic Support is a solution to preserve session continuity by
means of bidirectional tunneling between MRs and their HAs much like
what is done with [1] for mobile nodes when Routing Optimization is
not used. Only the HA and the MR are NEMO-enabled. The solution for
doing this is solely specified in [2].
7.4 NEMO Extended Support
NEMO Extended support is to provide the necessary optimization,
including routing optimization between arbitrary MNNs and CNs.
7.5 MRHA Tunnel
The bi-directional tunnel between a Mobile Router and its Home Agent
8.. Miscellaneous Terms
8.1 Idle MNN 8.1 Idle MNN
A MNN that does not engage in any communication. A MNN that does not engage in any communication.
8.2 Idle Mobile Network 8.2 Idle Mobile Network
A mobile network that does not engage in any communication outside A mobile network that does not engage in any communication outside
the network may be considered idle from the global Internet. This the network can be considered idle from the global Internet. This
doesn't preclude that MNNs are themselves idle. Internal traffic doesn't imply that MNNs are themselves idle. Internal traffic
between any two MNNs located in the same mobile network is not between any two MNNs located in the same mobile network is not
concerned by this statement. concerned by this statement.
9. Changes since draft-nemo-terminology-00.txt 9. Changes since draft-nemo-terminology-01.txt
- NEMO will be used either as the concept for NEtwork MObility and a - Shorten abstract.
noun meaning "NEtwork that is MObile"
- Added TMLR as depreciated term (everyone should use root-MR - Reshaped some figures.
instead)
- Added NEMO-prefix - LFN, VMN, LMN: said that the node is able/unable to move while
maintaining/not maintaining ongoing sessions. Text already
appareared in the document, but not in the definition itself.
- Added NEMO-link - NEMO-enabled: said that MR and HA are the only NEMO-enabled nodes
in NEMO Basic Support
- Added NEMO-enabled MR - Removed "NEMO-enabled MR" as this definition is self-contained into
"NEMO-enabled Node"
- Precision that IP address of LFN, LMN, or VMN is taken from a - Rephrased the definition of "multihomed host", "multihomed router",
NEMO-prefix "multihomed mobile network" and removed the terms multi-addressed and
multi-sited, multi-rooted-NEMO, etc. Such terms were not so useful,
and somewhat too long.
- Added the case "multiple MNPs are advertised" to the definition of
mobile network
- Copy-pasted terms defined from RFC 3753 so that the document is
self-contained
- Updated References
- Added new term "Correspondent Router"
- Permanently removed NEMO-Prefix. Only MNP will be used
- Added terms "Mobile Home Network" and "Distributed Home Network" in
the Home Network Model section. These 2 terms were provided by
Pascal Thubert on July 30th 2004
10. Changes since draft-nemo-terminology-00.txt
- NEMO will be used either as the concept for NEtwork MObility and a
noun meaning "NEtwork that is MObile"
- Deprecated TMLR and MONET.
- Added NEMO-prefix, NEMO-link, NEMO-enabled MR.
- Precision that IP address of LFN, LMN, or VMN is taken from a MNP
- Added abbreviation E-face (Egress interface) and I-face (Ingress - Added abbreviation E-face (Egress interface) and I-face (Ingress
interface) interface)
- Some re-ordering of terms, and a few typos. - Some re-ordering of terms, and a few typos.
- Added some text from the usage draft [5] - Added some text from the usage draft-thubert-usages (now home
network model draft-ietf-nemo-home-network-models)
10. Acknowledgments 11. Acknowledgments
The material presented in this document takes most of the text from The material presented in this document takes most of the text from
our former internet-drafts submitted to MobileIP WG and to the former former internet-drafts submitted to the former MobileIP WG and the
MONET BOF. Authors would therefore like to thank both Motorola Labs MONET BOF. Authors would therefore like to thank both Motorola Labs
Paris and INRIA (PLANETE team, Grenoble, France), for the opportunity Paris and INRIA (PLANETE team, Grenoble, France) where this
to bring this terminology to the IETF, and particularly Claude terminology originated, for the opportunity to bring it to the IETF,
Castelluccia (INRIA) for his advices, suggestions, and direction, and particularly Claude Castelluccia for his advices, suggestions,
Alexandru Petrescu (Motorola) and Christophe Janneteau (Motorola). and direction, Alexandru Petrescu and Christophe Janneteau. We also
acknowledge input from Hesham Soliman, Mattias Petterson, Marcelo
We also acknowledge the input from Hesham Soliman (Ericsson), Mattias Bagnulo and numerous other people from the NEMO Working Group. The
Petterson (Ericsson), and numerous other people from the NEMO Working Home Network Model section is contributed by Pascal Thubert, Ryuji
Group Wakikawa and Vijay Devaparalli.
References 12 References
[1] Johnson, D., Perkins, C. and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in [1] Johnson, D., Perkins, C. and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in
IPv6", draft-ietf-mobileip-ipv6-24 (work in progress), July IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.
2003.
[2] Manner, J. and M. Kojo, "Mobility Related Terminology", [2] Devarapalli, V., "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support
draft-ietf-seamoby-terminology-04 (work in progress), April Protocol", draft-ietf-nemo-basic-support-03 (work in progress),
2003. June 2004.
[3] Devarapalli, V., "Network Mobility Basic Support Protocol", [3] Manner, J. and M. Kojo, "Mobility Related Terminology", RFC
draft-ietf-nemo-basic-support-02 (work in progress), December 3753, June 2004.
2003.
[4] Ernst, T., "Network Mobility Support Requirements", [4] Ernst, T., "Network Mobility Support Goals and Requirements",
draft-ietf-nemo-requirements-02 (work in progress), February draft-ietf-nemo-requirements-03 (work in progress), October
2004. 2004.
[5] Thubert, P., Wakikawa, R. and V. Devarapalli, "Examples of Basic [5] Ng, C-W., Paik, E-K. and T. Ernst, "Analysis of Multihoming in
NEMO Usage", draft-thubert-nemo-basic-usages (work in progress), Network Mobility Support", draft-ietf-nemo-multihoming-issues-01
February 2004. (work in progress), October 2004.
[6] Perkins, C., "IP Mobility support", IETF RFC 2002, October 1996. [6] Thubert, P., Wakikawa, R. and V. Devarapalli, "NEMO Home Network
Models", draft-ietf-nemo-home-network-models-01 (work in
progress), October 2004.
[7] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)", [7] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)",
IETF RFC 2460, December 1998. IETF RFC 2460, December 1998.
[8] Abley, J., Black, B. and V. Gill, "Goals for IPv6 [8] Abley, J., Black, B. and V. Gill, "Goals for IPv6
Site-Multihoming Architectures", IETF RFC 3582, August 2003. Site-Multihoming Architectures", RFC 3582, August 2003.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Ernst Thierry Thierry Ernst
WIDE at Keio University WIDE at Keio University
Jun Murai Lab., Keio University. Jun Murai Lab., Keio University.
K-square Town Campus, 1488-8 Ogura, Saiwa-Ku K-square Town Campus, 1488-8 Ogura, Saiwa-Ku
Kawasaki, Kanagawa 212-0054 Kawasaki, Kanagawa 212-0054
Japan Japan
Phone: +81-44-580-1600 Phone: +81-44-580-1600
Fax: +81-44-580-1437 Fax: +81-44-580-1437
EMail: ernst@sfc.wide.ad.jp EMail: ernst@sfc.wide.ad.jp
URI: http://www.sfc.wide.ad.jp/~ernst/ URI: http://www.sfc.wide.ad.jp/~ernst/
skipping to change at page 20, line 8 skipping to change at page 22, line 8
France France
Phone: +33-169-35-25-36 Phone: +33-169-35-25-36
Fax: Fax:
EMail: hong-yon.lach@motorola.com EMail: hong-yon.lach@motorola.com
URI: URI:
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