draft-ietf-netlmm-pmipv6-heartbeat-01.txt   draft-ietf-netlmm-pmipv6-heartbeat-02.txt 
NETLMM Working Group V. Devarapalli (ed.) NETLMM Working Group V. Devarapalli (ed.)
Internet-Draft WiChorus Internet-Draft WiChorus
Intended status: Standards Track R. Koodli (ed.) Intended status: Standards Track R. Koodli (ed.)
Expires: April 3, 2009 Starent Networks Expires: June 14, 2009 Starent Networks
H. Lim H. Lim
N. Kant N. Kant
Stoke Stoke
S. Krishnan S. Krishnan
Ericsson Ericsson
J. Laganier J. Laganier
DOCOMO Euro-Labs DOCOMO Euro-Labs
September 30, 2008 December 11, 2008
Heartbeat Mechanism for Proxy Mobile IPv6 Heartbeat Mechanism for Proxy Mobile IPv6
draft-ietf-netlmm-pmipv6-heartbeat-01.txt draft-ietf-netlmm-pmipv6-heartbeat-02.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on April 3, 2009. This Internet-Draft will expire on June 14, 2009.
Abstract Abstract
Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based mobility management protocol. Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based mobility management protocol.
The mobility entities involved in the Proxy Mobile IPv6 protocol, the The mobility entities involved in the Proxy Mobile IPv6 protocol, the
Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) and the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA), Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) and the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA),
setup tunnels dynamically to manage mobility for a mobile node within setup tunnels dynamically to manage mobility for a mobile node within
the Proxy Mobile IPv6 domain. This document describes a heartbeat the Proxy Mobile IPv6 domain. This document describes a heartbeat
mechanism between the MAG and the LMA to detect failures quickly and mechanism between the MAG and the LMA to detect failures quickly and
take appropriate action. take appropriate action.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Heartbeat Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Heartbeat Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1. Failure Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. Failure Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Restart Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. Restart Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3. Heartbeat Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.3. Heartbeat Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.4. Restart Counter Mobility Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.4. Restart Counter Mobility Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Exchanging Heartbeat Messages over an IPv4 Transport 4. Exchanging Heartbeat Messages over an IPv4 Transport
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. Configuration Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Configuration Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 11 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 11
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Proxy Mobile IPv6 [2] enables network-based mobility for IPv6 hosts Proxy Mobile IPv6 [RFC5213] enables network-based mobility for IPv6
that do not implement any mobility protocols. The protocol is hosts that do not implement any mobility protocols. The protocol is
described in detail in [2]. In order to facilitate the network-based described in detail in [RFC5213]. In order to facilitate the
mobility, the PMIPv6 protocol defines a Mobile Access Gateway (MAG), network-based mobility, the PMIPv6 protocol defines a Mobile Access
which acts as a proxy for the Mobile IPv6 [6] signaling, and the Gateway (MAG), which acts as a proxy for the Mobile IPv6 [RFC3775]
Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) which acts similar to a Home Agent, signaling, and the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) which acts similar to
anchoring a Mobile Node's sessions within a Proxy Mobile IPv6 a Home Agent, anchoring a Mobile Node's sessions within a Proxy
(PMIPv6) domain. The LMA and the MAG establish a bidirectional Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) domain. The LMA and the MAG establish a
tunnel for forwarding all data traffic belonging to the Mobile Nodes. bidirectional tunnel for forwarding all data traffic belonging to the
Mobile Nodes.
In a distributed environment such as a PMIPv6 domain consisting of In a distributed environment such as a PMIPv6 domain consisting of
LMA and MAGs, it is necessary for the nodes to 1) have a consistent LMA and MAGs, it is necessary for the nodes to 1) have a consistent
state about each others reachability, and 2) quickly inform peers in state about each others reachability, and 2) quickly inform peers in
the event of recovery from node failures. So, when the LMA restarts the event of recovery from node failures. So, when the LMA restarts
after a failure, the MAG should (quickly) learn about the restart so after a failure, the MAG should (quickly) learn about the restart so
that it could take appropriate actions (such as releasing any that it could take appropriate actions (such as releasing any
resources). When there are no failures, a MAG should know about resources). When there are no failures, a MAG should know about
LMA's reachability (and vice versa) so that the path can be assumed LMA's reachability (and vice versa) so that the path can be assumed
to be functioning. to be functioning.
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heartbeat message is a mobility header message (protocol type 135) heartbeat message is a mobility header message (protocol type 135)
which is periodically exchanged at a configurable threshold of time which is periodically exchanged at a configurable threshold of time
or sent unsolicited soon after a node restart. This document does or sent unsolicited soon after a node restart. This document does
not specify the specific actions (such as releasing resources) that a not specify the specific actions (such as releasing resources) that a
node takes as a response to processing the heartbeat messages. node takes as a response to processing the heartbeat messages.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [1]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
3. Heartbeat Mechanism 3. Heartbeat Mechanism
The MAG and the LMA exchange heartbeat messages every The MAG and the LMA exchange heartbeat messages every
HEARTBEAT_INTERVAL seconds to detect the current status of HEARTBEAT_INTERVAL seconds to detect the current status of
reachability between them. The MAG initiates the heartbeat exchange reachability between them. The MAG initiates the heartbeat exchange
to test if the LMA is reachable by sending a Heartbeat Request to test if the LMA is reachable by sending a Heartbeat Request
message to the LMA. Each Heartbeat Request contains a sequence message to the LMA. Each Heartbeat Request contains a sequence
number that is incremented monotonically. The sequence number on the number that is incremented monotonically. The sequence number on the
last Heartbeat Request message is always recorded by the MAG, and is last Heartbeat Request message is always recorded by the MAG, and is
used to match the corresponding Heartbeat Response. Similarly, the used to match the corresponding Heartbeat Response. Similarly, the
LMA also initiates a heartbeat exchange with the MAG, by sending a LMA also initiates a heartbeat exchange with the MAG, by sending a
Heartbeat Request message, to check if the MAG is reachable. The Heartbeat Request message, to check if the MAG is reachable. The
format of the Heartbeat message is described in Section 3.3. format of the Heartbeat message is described in Section 3.3.
A Heartbeat Request message can be sent only if the MAG has at least A Heartbeat Request message can be sent only if the MAG has at least
one proxy binding cache entry at the LMA for a mobile node attached one proxy binding cache entry at the LMA for a mobile node attached
to the MAG. If there are no proxy binding cache entries at the LMA to the MAG. If there are no proxy binding cache entries at the LMA
for any of the mobile nodes attached to the MAG, then the heartbeat for any of the mobile nodes attached to the MAG, then the heartbeat
message MUST NOT be sent. Similarly, the LMA MUST NOT send a message SHOULD NOT be sent. Similarly, the LMA SHOULD NOT send a
Heartbeat Request message to a MAG if there is no active binding Heartbeat Request message to a MAG if there is no active binding
cache entry created by the MAG. A PMIPv6 node SHOULD always respond cache entry created by the MAG. A PMIPv6 node SHOULD always respond
to a Heartbeat Request message with a Heartbeat Response message, to a Heartbeat Request message with a Heartbeat Response message,
irrespective of whether there is an active binding cache entry. irrespective of whether there is an active binding cache entry.
The HEARTBEAT_INTERVAL SHOULD NOT be configured to a value less than The HEARTBEAT_INTERVAL SHOULD NOT be configured to a value less than
30 seconds. Sending heartbeat messages too often may become an 30 seconds. Sending heartbeat messages too often may become an
overhead on the path between the MAG and the LMA. The overhead on the path between the MAG and the LMA. The
HEARTBEAT_INTERVAL can be set to a much larger value on the LMA, if HEARTBEAT_INTERVAL can be set to a much larger value on the LMA, if
required, to reduce of burden of sending periodic heartbeat messages. required, to reduce of burden of sending periodic heartbeat messages.
If the LMA or the MAG do not support the heartbeat messages, they If the LMA or the MAG do not support the heartbeat messages, they
should respond with an ICMP Parameter Problem, Code 0, message to the respond with a Binding Error message with status set to '2'
initiator. The 'Pointer' field in the ICMP Parameter Problem message (unrecognized MH type value) as described in [RFC3775]. When the
SHOULD point to the 'MH Type' field, indicating that the particular Binding Error message with status set to '2' is received in response
Mobility Header message is not supported. When the ICMP Parameter to Heartbeat Request message, the initiating MAG or the LMA MUST NOT
Problem message is received in response to Heartbeat Request message, use heartbeat messages with the other end again.
the initiating MAG or the LMA MUST NOT use heartbeat messages with
the other end again. If a PMIPv6 node has detected that a peer PMIPv6 node has failed or
restarted without retaining the PMIPv6 session state, it should mark
the corresponding binding update list or binding cache entries as
invalid. The PMIPv6 node may also take other actions which are
outside the scope of this document.
3.1. Failure Detection 3.1. Failure Detection
A PMIPv6 node, (MAG or LMA) matches every received Heartbeat Response A PMIPv6 node, (MAG or LMA) matches every received Heartbeat Response
to the Heartbeat Request sent using the sequence number. Before to the Heartbeat Request sent using the sequence number. Before
sending the next Heartbeat Request, it increments a local variable sending the next Heartbeat Request, it increments a local variable
MISSING_HEARTBEAT if it has not received a Heartbeat Response for the MISSING_HEARTBEAT if it has not received a Heartbeat Response for the
previous request. When this local variable MISSING_HEARTBEAT exceeds previous request. When this local variable MISSING_HEARTBEAT exceeds
a configurable parameter MISSING_HEARTBEATS_ALLOWED, the PMIPv6 node a configurable parameter MISSING_HEARTBEATS_ALLOWED, the PMIPv6 node
concludes that the peer PMIPv6 node is not reachable. The PMIPv6 concludes that the peer PMIPv6 node is not reachable. If a Heartbeat
node may then take appropriate actions which are outside the scope of Response message is received, the MISSING_HEARTBEATS counter is
this document. If a Heartbeat Response message is received, the reset.
MISSING_HEARTBEATS counter is reset.
3.2. Restart Detection 3.2. Restart Detection
The section describes a mechanism for detecting failure recovery The section describes a mechanism for detecting failure recovery
without session persistence. In case the LMA or the MAG crashes and without session persistence. In case the LMA or the MAG crashes and
re-boots and loses all state with respect to the PMIPv6 sessions, it re-boots and loses all state with respect to the PMIPv6 sessions, it
would be beneficial for the peer PMIPv6 node to discover the failure would be beneficial for the peer PMIPv6 node to discover the failure
and the loss of session state and establish the sessions again. and the loss of session state and establish the sessions again.
Each PMIPv6 node (both the MAG and LMA) MUST maintain a monotonically Each PMIPv6 node (both the MAG and LMA) MUST maintain a monotonically
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The PMIPv6 node that receives the Heartbeat Response message compares The PMIPv6 node that receives the Heartbeat Response message compares
the Restart Counter value with the previously received value. If the the Restart Counter value with the previously received value. If the
value is different, the receiving node assumes that the peer PMIPv6 value is different, the receiving node assumes that the peer PMIPv6
node had crashed and recovered. If the Restart Counter value changes node had crashed and recovered. If the Restart Counter value changes
or if there was no previously stored value, the new value is stored or if there was no previously stored value, the new value is stored
by the receiving PMIPv6 node. by the receiving PMIPv6 node.
If a PMIPv6 node restarts and looses PMIPv6 session state, it SHOULD If a PMIPv6 node restarts and looses PMIPv6 session state, it SHOULD
send an unsolicited Heartbeat Response message with an incremented send an unsolicited Heartbeat Response message with an incremented
Restart Counter to all the PMIPv6 nodes that had previously Restart Counter to all the PMIPv6 nodes that had previously
established PMIPv6 sessions. This allows the peer PMIPv6 nodes to established PMIPv6 sessions. Note that this is possible only when
quickly discover the restart. The sequence number field in the the PMIPv6 node stores information about the peers in non-volatile
unsolicited Heartbeat Response is ignored and no response to memory. The unsolicited Heartbeat Response message allows the peer
necessary; the nodes will synchronize during the next Request and PMIPv6 nodes to quickly discover the restart. The sequence number
Response exchange. field in the unsolicited Heartbeat Response is ignored and no
response to necessary; the nodes will synchronize during the next
Request and Response exchange.
3.3. Heartbeat Message 3.3. Heartbeat Message
The following illustrates the message format for the Heartbeat The following illustrates the message format for the Heartbeat
Mobility Header message. The 'MH Type' field in the Mobility Header Mobility Header message. The 'MH Type' field in the Mobility Header
indicates that it is a Heartbeat message. indicates that it is a Heartbeat message.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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4. Exchanging Heartbeat Messages over an IPv4 Transport Network 4. Exchanging Heartbeat Messages over an IPv4 Transport Network
In some deployments, the network between the MAG and the LMA may not In some deployments, the network between the MAG and the LMA may not
be capable of transporting IPv6 packets. In this case, the Heartbeat be capable of transporting IPv6 packets. In this case, the Heartbeat
messages are tunneled over IPv4. If the Proxy Binding Update and messages are tunneled over IPv4. If the Proxy Binding Update and
Proxy Binding Acknowledgment messages are sent using UDP Proxy Binding Acknowledgment messages are sent using UDP
encapsulation to traverse NATs, then the Heartbeat messages are also encapsulation to traverse NATs, then the Heartbeat messages are also
sent with UDP encapsulation. The UDP port used would be the same as sent with UDP encapsulation. The UDP port used would be the same as
the port used for the Proxy Binding Update and Proxy Binding the port used for the Proxy Binding Update and Proxy Binding
Acknowledgement messages. For more details on tunneling Proxy Mobile Acknowledgement messages. For more details on tunneling Proxy Mobile
IPv6 signaling messages over IPv4, see [3]. IPv6 signaling messages over IPv4, see
[I-D.ietf-netlmm-pmip6-ipv4-support].
5. Configuration Variables 5. Configuration Variables
The LMA and the MAG must allow the following variables to be The LMA and the MAG must allow the following variables to be
configurable. configurable.
HEARTBEAT_INTERVAL HEARTBEAT_INTERVAL
This variable is used to set the time interval in seconds between This variable is used to set the time interval in seconds between
two consecutive Heartbeat Request messages. The default value is two consecutive Heartbeat Request messages. The default value is
60 seconds. It SHOULD not be set to less than 30 seconds. 60 seconds. It SHOULD NOT be set to less than 30 seconds.
MISSING_HEARTBEATS_ALLOWED MISSING_HEARTBEATS_ALLOWED
This variable indicates the maximum number of consecutive This variable indicates the maximum number of consecutive
Heartbeat Request messages that a PMIPv6 node can miss before Heartbeat Request messages that a PMIPv6 node can miss before
concluding that the peer PMIPv6 node is not reachable. The concluding that the peer PMIPv6 node is not reachable. The
default value for this variable is 3. default value for this variable is 3.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
The heartbeat messages are just used for checking reachability The heartbeat messages are just used for checking reachability
between the MAG and the LMA. They do not carry information that is between the MAG and the LMA. They do not carry information that is
useful for eavesdroppers on the path. Therefore, confidentiality useful for eavesdroppers on the path. Therefore, confidentiality
protection is not required. Integrity protection using IPsec [4] for protection is not required. Integrity protection using IPsec
the heartbeat messages MUST be supported on the MAG and the LMA. [RFC4301] for the heartbeat messages MUST be supported on the MAG and
the LMA.
If dynamic key negotiation between the MAG and the LMA is required, If dynamic key negotiation between the MAG and the LMA is required,
IKEv2 [5] should be used. IKEv2 [RFC4306] should be used.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
The Heartbeat message defined in Section 3.3 must have the type value The Heartbeat message defined in Section 3.3 must have the type value
allocated from the same space as the 'MH Type' field in the Mobility allocated from the same space as the 'MH Type' field in the Mobility
Header defined in RFC 3775 [6]. Header defined in RFC 3775 [RFC3775].
The Restart Counter mobility option defined in Section 3.4 must have The Restart Counter mobility option defined in Section 3.4 must have
the type value allocated from the same space as the Mobility Options the type value allocated from the same space as the Mobility Options
defined in RFC 3775 [6]. defined in RFC 3775 [RFC3775].
8. Acknowledgments 8. Acknowledgments
A heartbeat mechanism for a network-based mobility management A heartbeat mechanism for a network-based mobility management
protocol was first described in [7]. The authors would like to thank protocol was first described in [I-D.giaretta-netlmm-dt-protocol].
the members of a NETLMM design team that produced that document. The The authors would like to thank the members of a NETLMM design team
mechanism described in this document also derives from the path that produced that document. The mechanism described in this
management mechanism described in [8]. document also derives from the path management mechanism described in
[GTP].
We would like to thank Alessio Casati for first suggesting a fault We would like to thank Alessio Casati for first suggesting a fault
handling mechanism for Proxy Mobile IPv6. handling mechanism for Proxy Mobile IPv6.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[2] Gundavelli, S., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V., Chowdhury, K., and [RFC5213] Gundavelli, S., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V., Chowdhury, K.,
B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6", RFC 5213, August 2008. and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6", RFC 5213, August 2008.
[3] Wakikawa, R. and S. Gundavelli, "IPv4 Support for Proxy Mobile [I-D.ietf-netlmm-pmip6-ipv4-support]
IPv6", draft-ietf-netlmm-pmip6-ipv4-support-04 (work in Wakikawa, R. and S. Gundavelli, "IPv4 Support for Proxy
progress), July 2008. Mobile IPv6", draft-ietf-netlmm-pmip6-ipv4-support-06
(work in progress), November 2008.
[4] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the Internet [RFC4301] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005. Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.
[5] Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol", RFC 4306, [RFC4306] Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol",
December 2005. RFC 4306, December 2005.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[6] Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in [RFC3775] Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004. in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.
[7] Giaretta, G., "The NetLMM Protocol", [I-D.giaretta-netlmm-dt-protocol]
Giaretta, G., "The NetLMM Protocol",
draft-giaretta-netlmm-dt-protocol-02 (work in progress), draft-giaretta-netlmm-dt-protocol-02 (work in progress),
October 2006. October 2006.
[8] 3rd Generation Partnership Project, "3GPP Technical [GTP] 3rd Generation Partnership Project, "3GPP Technical
Specification 29.060 V7.6.0: "Technical Specification Group Core Specification 29.060 V7.6.0: "Technical Specification
Network and Terminals; General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); GPRS Group Core Network and Terminals; General Packet Radio
Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp interface Service (GPRS); GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the
(Release 7)"", July 2007. Gn and Gp interface (Release 7)"", July 2007.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Vijay Devarapalli Vijay Devarapalli
WiChorus WiChorus
3950 North First Street 3950 North First Street
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
USA USA
Email: vijay@wichorus.com Email: vijay@wichorus.com
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