draft-ietf-nntpext-base-09.txt   draft-ietf-nntpext-base-10.txt 
INTERNET DRAFT S. Barber INTERNET DRAFT S. Barber
Expires: May 14, 2000 Academ Consulting Services Expires: January 15, 2001 Academ Consulting Services
November 1999 July 2000
Network News Transport Protocol Network News Transport Protocol
draft-ietf-nntpext-base-09.txt draft-ietf-nntpext-base-10.txt
1. Status of this Document 1. Status of this Document
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
with Section 10 of RFC 2026. Internet-Drafts are working with Section 10 of RFC 2026. Internet-Drafts are working
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its
areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may
also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
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3. Introduction 3. Introduction
This document specifies the Network News Transport Protocol This document specifies the Network News Transport Protocol
(NNTP), which is used for the distribution, inquiry, (NNTP), which is used for the distribution, inquiry,
retrieval, and posting of net news articles using a reliable retrieval, and posting of net news articles using a reliable
stream-based mechanism. For news reading clients, NNTP enables stream-based mechanism. For news reading clients, NNTP enables
retrieval of news articles that are stored in a central retrieval of news articles that are stored in a central
database, giving subscribers the ability to select only those database, giving subscribers the ability to select only those
articles they wish to read. articles they wish to read.
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The netnews model provides for indexing, cross-referencing, The netnews model provides for indexing, cross-referencing,
and expiration of aged messages. For server-to-server and expiration of aged messages. For server-to-server
interaction, NNTP is designed for efficient transmission of interaction, NNTP is designed for efficient transmission of
net news articles over a reliable full duplex communication net news articles over a reliable full duplex communication
method. method.
Every attempt is made to insure that the protocol Every attempt is made to insure that the protocol
specification in this document is compatible with the version specification in this document is compatible with the version
specified in RFC 977[1]. However, this version does not specified in RFC 977[1]. However, this version does not
support the ill-defined SLAVE command and permits four digit support the ill-defined SLAVE command and permits four digit
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host and a server host are provided a "[C]" will be used to host and a server host are provided a "[C]" will be used to
represent the client host and a "[S]" will be used to represent the client host and a "[S]" will be used to
represent the server host. represent the server host.
4. Basic Operation. 4. Basic Operation.
Every NNTP session MUST involve the following in this order: Every NNTP session MUST involve the following in this order:
CONNECTION CONNECTION
GREETING GREETING
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DISCONNECTION DISCONNECTION
Other steps may occur between the GREETING and DISCONNECTION Other steps may occur between the GREETING and DISCONNECTION
step. They are: step. They are:
CAPABILITIES DISCOVERY CAPABILITIES DISCOVERY
NEWS EXCHANGE NEWS EXCHANGE
CONCLUSION CONCLUSION
NNTP operates over any reliable data stream 8-bit-wide NNTP operates over any reliable data stream 8-bit-wide
channel. When running over TCP/IP, the official port for the channel. When running over TCP/IP, the official port for the
NNTP service is 119. Initially, the server host starts the NNTP service is 119. Initially, the server host starts the
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the same port on which the server is listening. This is the the same port on which the server is listening. This is the
CONNECTION step. When the connection is established, the NNTP CONNECTION step. When the connection is established, the NNTP
server host MUST send a greeting. This is the GREETING step. server host MUST send a greeting. This is the GREETING step.
The client host and server host SHOULD then exchange commands The client host and server host SHOULD then exchange commands
and responses (respectively) until the connection is closed or and responses (respectively) until the connection is closed or
aborted. This final step is called the DISCONNECTION step. aborted. This final step is called the DISCONNECTION step.
If there is a CONCLUSION step, it MUST immediately precede the If there is a CONCLUSION step, it MUST immediately precede the
DISCONNECTION step. There MUST be only one CONNECTION, DISCONNECTION step. There MUST be only one CONNECTION,
CONCLUSION and DISCONNECTION step for each NNTP session. All CONCLUSION and DISCONNECTION step for each NNTP session. All
other steps MAY be repeated as needed. other steps MAY be repeated as needed. For example, the
GREETING step may be repeated if the client makes use of the
MODE READER command (See Section 7.1.2 for more on the MODE
READER command).
The character set for all NNTP commands is UTF-8. Commands in The character set for all NNTP commands is UTF-8. Commands in
the NNTP MUST consist of an US-ASCII case-insensitive keyword, the NNTP MUST consist of an US-ASCII case-insensitive keyword,
which MAY be followed by one or more arguments. An US-ASCII which MAY be followed by one or more arguments. An US-ASCII
CRLF pair MUST terminate all commands. Multiple commands MUST CRLF pair MUST terminate all commands. Multiple commands MUST
NOT be on the same line. Keywords MUST consist of printable NOT be on the same line. Keywords MUST consist of printable
US-ASCII characters. Unless otherwise noted elsewhere in this US-ASCII characters. Unless otherwise noted elsewhere in this
document, arguments SHOULD consist of printable US-ASCII document, arguments SHOULD consist of printable US-ASCII
characters. Keywords and arguments MUST be each separated by characters. Keywords and arguments MUST be each separated by
one or more US-ASCII SPACE or US-ASCII TAB characters. one or more US-ASCII SPACE or US-ASCII TAB characters.
Keywords MUST be at least three US-ASCII characters and MUST Keywords MUST be at least three US-ASCII characters and MUST
NOT exceed 12 US-ASCII characters. Command lines MUST NOT NOT exceed 12 US-ASCII characters. Command lines MUST NOT
exceed 512 octets, which includes the terminating US-ASCII exceed 512 octets, which includes the terminating US-ASCII
CRLF pair. Arguments MUST NOT exceed 497 octets. CRLF pair. Arguments MUST NOT exceed 497 octets.
Each response MUST start with a three-digit response code that Each response MUST start with a three-digit response code that
is sufficient to distinguish all responses. Unless is sufficient to distinguish all responses. Unless
specifically specified as one of the valid responses for a specifically specified as one of the valid responses for a
command (such as those described later in this document), each command (such as those described later in this document), each
response is contained in a single line. However, certain response is contained in a single line. However, certain
commands MAY permit multi-line responses. All multi-line responses from commands may be multi-line. All multi-line
responses MUST adhere to the following format: After sending responses MUST adhere to the following format: After sending
the first line of the response and an US-ASCII CRLF, any the first line of the response and an US-ASCII CRLF, any
additional lines are sent, each terminated by an US-ASCII CRLF additional lines are sent, each terminated by an US-ASCII CRLF
pair. When all lines of the response have been sent, a final pair. When all lines of the response have been sent, a final
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line MUST be sent, consisting of a termination octet (US-ASCII line MUST be sent, consisting of a termination octet (US-ASCII
decimal code 046, ".") and an US-ASCII CRLF pair. If any line decimal code 046, ".") and an US-ASCII CRLF pair. If any line
of the multi-line response begins with the termination octet, of the multi-line response begins with the termination octet,
the line MUST be "byte-stuffed" by pre-pending the termination the line MUST be "byte-stuffed" by pre-pending the termination
octet to that line of the response. Hence, a multi-line octet to that line of the response. Hence, a multi-line
response is terminated with the five octets "CRLF.CRLF" (in response is terminated with the five octets "CRLF.CRLF" (in
US-ASCII). When examining a multi-line response, the client US-ASCII). When examining a multi-line response, the client
MUST check to see if the line begins with the termination MUST check to see if the line begins with the termination
octet. If so and if octets other than US-ASCII CRLF follow, octet. If so and if octets other than US-ASCII CRLF follow,
the first octet of the line (the termination octet) MUST be the first octet of the line (the termination octet) MUST be
stripped away. If so and if US-ASCII CRLF immediately follows stripped away. If so and if US-ASCII CRLF immediately follows
the termination character, then the response from the NNTP the termination character, then the response from the NNTP
server is ended and the line containing ".CRLF" (in US-ASCII) server is ended and the line containing ".CRLF" (in US-ASCII)
MUST NOT considered part of the multi-line response. The MUST NOT considered part of the multi-line response. The
keywords that support multi-line responses have the format of keywords that support multi-line responses have the format of
those responses described in the responses section. those responses described in the responses section.
A NNTP server MAY have an inactivity autologout timer. Such a A NNTP server MAY have an inactivity autologout timer. Such a
timer MUST be of at least three minutes duration. The receipt timer MUST be of at least three minutes duration. The receipt
of any command from the client during that interval should of any command from the client during that interval SHOULD
suffice to reset the autologout timer. When the timer suffice to reset the autologout timer. When the timer
expires, the server should close the TCP connection without expires, the server should close the TCP connection without
sending any response to the client. sending any response to the client.
4.1 Response Codes 4.1 Response Codes
Each response MUST begin with a three-digit status indicator. Each response MUST begin with a three-digit status indicator.
These are status reports from the server and indicate the These are status reports from the server and indicate the
response to the last command received from the client. response to the last command received from the client.
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category. category.
x0x - Connection, setup, and miscellaneous messages x0x - Connection, setup, and miscellaneous messages
x1x - Newsgroup selection x1x - Newsgroup selection
x2x - Article selection x2x - Article selection
x3x - Distribution functions x3x - Distribution functions
x4x - Posting x4x - Posting
x8x - Nonstandard (private implementation) extensions x8x - Nonstandard (private implementation) extensions
x9x - Debugging output x9x - Debugging output
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The exact response codes that can be returned in response to a The exact response codes that can be returned in response to a
given command are detailed in the description of the keyword given command are detailed in the description of the keyword
that is the first part of the command. In addition, below is that is the first part of the command. In addition, there is a
listed a general set of response codes that MAY be received at debugging set of response codes that MAY be received at any
any time. time. These are described later in this section.
Certain response codes contain parameters such as numbers and Certain response codes contain parameters such as numbers and
names in addition to the status indicator. In those cases, the names in addition to the status indicator. In those cases, the
number and type of such parameters MUST be fixed for each number and type of such parameters MUST be fixed for each
response code to simplify interpretation of the response. In response code to simplify interpretation of the response. In
all other cases, the client MUST only use the status indicator all other cases, the client MUST only use the status indicator
itself to determine the nature of the response. itself to determine the nature of the response.
Parameters MUST be separated from the numeric status indicator Parameters MUST be separated from the numeric status indicator
and from each other by a single US-ASCII space. All numeric and from each other by a single US-ASCII space. All numeric
parameters MUST be in base 10 (decimal) format, and may have parameters MUST be in base 10 (decimal) format, and MAY have
leading zeros. All string parameters MUST begin after the leading zeros. All string parameters MUST begin after the
separating space, and MUST end before the following separating separating space, and MUST end before the following separating
space or the US-ASCII CRLF pair at the end of the line. space or the US-ASCII CRLF pair at the end of the line.
(Therefore, string parameters MUST NOT contain US-ASCII (Therefore, string parameters MUST NOT contain US-ASCII
spaces.) All text, if any, in the response which is not a spaces.) All text, if any, in the response which is not a
parameter of the response must follow and be separated from parameter of the response must follow and be separated from
the last parameter by an US-ASCII space. Also, note that the the last parameter by an US-ASCII space. Also, note that the
text following a response number may vary in different text following a response number may vary in different
implementations of the server. The 3-digit numeric status implementations of the server. The 3-digit numeric status
indicator should be used to determine what response was sent. indicator should be used to determine what response was sent.
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The status indicator pattern x9x is provided for debugging. The status indicator pattern x9x is provided for debugging.
Since much debugging output may be classed as "informative Since much debugging output may be classed as "informative
messages", it MUST be the case that responses 190 through 199 messages", it MUST be the case that responses 190 through 199
WILL be used for various debugging outputs. There is no WILL be used for various debugging outputs. There is no
requirement in this specification for debugging output. requirement in this specification for debugging output.
However, if such is provided over the connected stream, it However, if such is provided over the connected stream, it
MUST use these response codes. If appropriate to a specific MUST use these response codes. If appropriate to a specific
implementation, other x9x codes MAY be used for debugging. implementation, other x9x codes MAY be used for debugging.
(For example, response code 290 could be used to acknowledge a (For example, response code 290 could be used to acknowledge a
remote debugging request.) remote debugging request.) By default, a server implementation
MUST NOT send debugging responses. Such behavior MUST only
occur when specifically activated. See section XX for
information on the DEBUG command.
A server MUST respond to an unrecognized, unimplemented, or A server MUST respond to an unrecognized, unimplemented, or
syntactically invalid command with a negative response syntactically invalid command with a negative response code
code(status indicators of the form 5XX). A server MUST (status indicators of the form 5XX). For unrecognized
respond to a command issued when the session is in an commands, the 500 response code MUST be returned. This
incorrect state by responding with a negative status
indicator. This may be from either the 4XX or 5XX group as Barber [Page 5]
appropriate. includes servers that have not implemented the optional
extensions outlined later in this memo. For recognized
commands where the syntax is wrong, the 501 response code MUST
be returned. A server MUST respond to a command issued when
the session is in an incorrect state by responding with a
negative status indicator. This may be from either the 4XX or
5XX group as appropriate.
5. The WILDMAT format 5. The WILDMAT format
The WILDMAT format[5] described here is based on the version The WILDMAT format[5] described here is based on the version
first developed by Rich Salz which was derived from the format first developed by Rich Salz which was derived from the format
used in the UNIX "find" command to articulate file names. It used in the UNIX "find" command to articulate file names. It
was developed to provide a uniform mechanism for matching was developed to provide a uniform mechanism for matching
patterns in the same manner that the UNIX shell matches patterns in the same manner that the UNIX shell matches
filenames. Patterns are implicitly anchored at the beginning filenames. Patterns are implicitly anchored at the beginning
and end of each string when testing for a match. There are and end of each string when testing for a match. There are
five pattern-matching operations other than a strict one-to- five pattern-matching operations other than a strict one-to-
one match between the pattern and the source to be checked for one match between the pattern and the source to be checked for
a match. The first is an asterisk (*) to match any sequence of a match. The first is an asterisk (*) to match any sequence of
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can also be included in the set as a character it if is the can also be included in the set as a character it if is the
beginning or end of the set. This set is enclosed in square beginning or end of the set. This set is enclosed in square
brackets. The close square bracket (]) may be used in a set if brackets. The close square bracket (]) may be used in a set if
it is the first character in the set. The fourth operation is it is the first character in the set. The fourth operation is
the same as the logical not of the third operation and is the same as the logical not of the third operation and is
specified the same way as the third with the addition of a specified the same way as the third with the addition of a
caret character (^) at the beginning of the test string just caret character (^) at the beginning of the test string just
inside the open square bracket. The final operation uses the inside the open square bracket. The final operation uses the
backslash character to invalidate the special meaning of the backslash character to invalidate the special meaning of the
open square bracket ([), the asterisk, backslash, or the open square bracket ([), the asterisk, backslash, or the
question mark. The meaning of the backslash operator cannot be question mark. Two backslashes in sequence will result in the
negated by the exclamation point. Two backslashes in sequence evaluation of the backslash as a character with no special
will result in the evaluation of the backslash as a character meaning.
with no special meaning.
5.1 Negating the expression Implementers must be careful to apply the pattern-matching
The exclamation point can be used at the beginning of a operators to whole characters encoded in UTF-8, and not two
wildmat to negate it. If it appears as any other character individual octets.
other than the first one, it has no special meaning.
5.1 Negating the wildmat pattern
The exclamation point can be used at the beginning of a wildmat
to negate it. That is, if the remainder of the pattern would
match the string then the negated pattern does not, and vice
versa. If it appears as any other character other than the first
one, it has no special meaning.
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5.2 Examples 5.2 Examples
a) [^]-] -- matches any single character other than a a) [^]-] -- matches any single character other than a
close square bracket or a minus sign/dash. close square bracket or a minus sign/dash.
b) *bdc -- matches any string that ends with the string b) *bdc -- matches any string that ends with the string
"bdc" including the string "bdc" (without quotes). "bdc" including the string "bdc" (without quotes).
c) [0-9a-zA-Z] -- matches any single printable c) [0-9a-zA-Z] -- matches any single printable
alphanumeric ASCII character. alphanumeric ASCII character.
d) a??d -- matches any four character string which d) a??d -- matches any four character string which
begins with a and ends with d. begins with a and ends with d.
e)!bc*d -- matches any string that does not start with e)!bc*d -- matches any string that does not start with
"bc" and end with "d" (without quotes) "bc" and end with "d" (without quotes)
f)!\\x -- matches any string that does not start with
"\x" (without quotes)
6. Format for Keyword Descriptions 6. Format for Keyword Descriptions
On the following pages are descriptions of each keyword On the following pages are descriptions of each keyword
recognized by the NNTP server and the responses that will be recognized by the NNTP server and the responses that will be
returned by those commands. These keywords are grouped by the returned by those commands. These keywords are grouped by the
functional step in which they are used. functional step in which they are used.
Each keyword is shown in upper case for clarity, although the Each keyword is shown in upper case for clarity, although the
NNTP server ignores case in the interpretation of commands. NNTP server ignores case in the interpretation of commands.
Any parameters are shown in lower case. A parameter shown in Any parameters are shown in lower case. A parameter shown in
[square brackets] is optional. For example, [GMT] indicates [square brackets] is optional. For example,[wildmat] indicates
that the triglyph GMT may be present or omitted. A parameter that a wildmat may be present or omitted. A parameter that may
that may be repeated is followed by an ellipsis. Mutually be repeated is followed by an ellipsis. Mutually exclusive
exclusive parameters are separated by a vertical bar (|) parameters are separated by a vertical bar (|) character. For
character. For example, ggg|<message-id> indicates that a example, ggg|<message-id> indicates that a group name or a
group name or a <message-id> may be specified, but not both. <message-id> may be specified, but not both. Unless stated
Some parameters may be case or language specific. See RFC otherwise, a parameter name in lowercase represents a token
1036[6] for these details. described elsewhere, while one in uppercase is a literal
string that is included as written. Some parameters may be
case or language specific. See RFC 1036[6] for these details.
In addition, certain commands make use of a pattern for In addition, certain commands make use of a pattern for
selection of multiple news groups. The pattern in all cases is selection of multiple news groups. The pattern in all cases is
based on the WILDMAT format. Arguments expected to be in based on the WILDMAT format. Arguments expected to be in
wildmat format will be represented by the string wildmat. This wildmat format will be represented by the string wildmat. This
format is discussed in detail in section 5 of this memo. format is discussed in detail in section 5 of this memo.
7. The GREETING Step 7. The GREETING Step
7.1 Initial Connection 7.1 Initial Connection
There is no keyword presented by the client upon initial There is no keyword presented by the client upon initial
connection to the server. The server MUST present an connection to the server. The server MUST present an
appropriate response code as a greeting to the client. This appropriate response code as a greeting to the client. This
response informs the client about what steps the client should response informs the client about what steps the client should
take to reach the news exchange step. take to reach the news exchange step.
The server MUST present a 200 greeting code if the client is Barber [Page 7]
authorized to post articles though the use of the POST keyword If the server will accept further commands from the client
on this server. including POST, the server MUST present a 200 greeting code.
The server MUST present a 201 greeting code if the client is
not authorized to post articles using the POST keyword.
The server MUST present a 502 greeting code if the client is If the server will accept further commands from the client,
not permitted under any circumstances to interact with the but it is not authorized to post articles using the POST
server. The server should immediately close the connection command, the server MUST present a 201 greeting code.
with the client after presenting this code.
In all other cases, the server MUST present a 400 greeting Otherwise the server MUST present a 400 or 504 greeting code
code. and then immediately close the connection. 504 MUST be used if
the client is not permitted under any circumstances to
interact with the server and 400 otherwise.
7.1.1 Initial Connection Example 7.1.1 Initial Connection Example
Example of a normal connection from an authorized client Example of a normal connection from an authorized client
[C] Initial TCP connection completed [C] Initial TCP connection completed
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready, posting permitted [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready, posting permitted
Client can send commands at this point. In this example, the Client can send commands at this point. In this example, the
client jumps directly to the conclusion step (See section client jumps directly to the conclusion step (See section
10.1). 10.1).
[C] QUIT [C] QUIT
[S] 205 NNTP Service exits normally [S] 205 NNTP Service exits normally
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10.1). 10.1).
[C] QUIT [C] QUIT
[S] 205 NNTP Service exits normally [S] 205 NNTP Service exits normally
Example of a normal connection from an unauthorized client Example of a normal connection from an unauthorized client
[C] Initial TCP connection completed [C] Initial TCP connection completed
[S] 502 NNTP Service Unavailable [S] 504 NNTP Service Unavailable
At this point, the server closes the TCP connection. At this point, the server closes the TCP connection.
Example of a normal connection from an authorized client that Example of a normal connection from an authorized client that
is not permitted to post is not permitted to post
[C] Initial TCP connection completed [C] Initial TCP connection completed
[S] 201 NNTP Service Ready, posting prohibited [S] 201 NNTP Service Ready, posting prohibited
Client can send commands at this point. In this example, the Client can send commands at this point. In this example, the
client jumps directly to the conclusion step (See section client jumps directly to the conclusion step (See section
10.1). 10.1).
[C] QUIT [C] QUIT
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[S] 205 NNTP Service exits normally [S] 205 NNTP Service exits normally
Example of a connection from any client where the server is Example of a connection from any client where the server is
unable to provide service unable to provide service
[C] Initial TCP connection completed [C] Initial TCP connection completed
[S] 400 NNTP Service temporarily unavailable [S] 400 NNTP Service temporarily unavailable
At this point, the server closes the TCP connection. At this point, the server closes the TCP connection.
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[C] Initial TCP connection completed [C] Initial TCP connection completed
[S] 400 NNTP Service temporarily unavailable [S] 400 NNTP Service temporarily unavailable
At this point, the server closes the TCP connection. At this point, the server closes the TCP connection.
7.1.2 MODE READER 7.1.2 MODE READER
MODE READER MODE READER
MODE READER MAY be used by the client to indicate to the MODE READER MAY be used by the client to indicate to the
server that it is a news reading client. This command may be server that it is a news reading client. This command may be
entered at any time. The server must present a greeting code entered at any time. The server MUST present a greeting code
(as described in section 7.1.2.1) appropriate to the server's (as described in section 7.1.2.1) appropriate to the server's
ability to provide service to this client in this mode. ability to provide service to this client in this mode.
7.1.2.1 Responses 7.1.2.1 Responses
200 Hello, you can post 200 Hello, you can post
201 Hello, you can't post 201 Hello, you can't post
400 Service temporarily unavailable 400 Service temporarily unavailable
502 Service unavailable 502 Service unavailable
7.1.2.2 MODE READER Examples 7.1.2.2 MODE READER Examples
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client jumps directly to the conclusion step (See section client jumps directly to the conclusion step (See section
10.1). 10.1).
[C] QUIT [C] QUIT
[S] 205 NNTP Service exits normally [S] 205 NNTP Service exits normally
Example of use of MODE READER by a client not authorized to Example of use of MODE READER by a client not authorized to
receive service from the server as a news reader receive service from the server as a news reader
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[C] MODE READER [C] MODE READER
[S] 502 NNTP Service Unavailable [S] 502 Service Unavailable
At this point, the server closes the TCP connection. At this point, the server closes the TCP connection.
Example of a normal connection from an authorized client that Example of a normal connection from an authorized client that
is not permitted to post is not permitted to post
[C] MODE READER [C] MODE READER
[S] 201 NNTP Service Ready, posting prohibited [S] 201 NNTP Service Ready, posting prohibited
Client can send commands at this point. In this example, the Client can send commands at this point. In this example, the
client jumps directly to the conclusion step (See section client jumps directly to the conclusion step (See section
10.1). 10.1).
[C] QUIT [C] QUIT
[S] 205 NNTP Service exits normally [S] 205 NNTP Service exits normally
Example of a connection from any client where the server is Example of a connection from any client where the server is
unable to provide news reader service unable to provide news reader service
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supports the NNTP service extensions it MUST give a successful supports the NNTP service extensions it MUST give a successful
response (see section 8.1.1), a failure response (see section response (see section 8.1.1), a failure response (see section
8.1.2), or an error response (see section 8.1.3). If the NNTP 8.1.2), or an error response (see section 8.1.3). If the NNTP
server does not support any NNTP service extensions, it MUST server does not support any NNTP service extensions, it MUST
generate an error response (see section 8.1.4). generate an error response (see section 8.1.4).
8.1 LIST EXTENSIONS 8.1 LIST EXTENSIONS
If successful, the server NNTP MUST respond with code 202. On If successful, the server NNTP MUST respond with code 202. On
failure, the server NNTP MUST respond with code 503. On error, failure, the server NNTP MUST respond with code 503. On error,
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the server NNTP MUST respond with one of codes 400, 402, 500, the server NNTP MUST respond with one of codes 400, 402, 500,
501 and 502. 501 and 502.
This command MAY be issued at anytime during a session. It is This command MAY be issued at anytime during a session. It is
not required that the client issues this command before not required that the client issues this command before
attempting to make use of any extension. The response attempting to make use of any extension. The response
generated by this command MAY change during a session because generated by this command MAY change during a session because
of other state information. However, a client NNTP MUST NOT of other state information. However, a client NNTP MUST NOT
cache (for use in another session) any information returned if cache (for use in another session) any information returned if
the LIST EXTENSIONS command succeeds. That is, a client NNTP the LIST EXTENSIONS command succeeds. That is, a client NNTP
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will be the name of a new command added; however this IS NOT will be the name of a new command added; however this IS NOT
required. In fact, it IS NOT required that a new feature required. In fact, it IS NOT required that a new feature
actually adds a new command or keyword. Any parameters actually adds a new command or keyword. Any parameters
included are to be specified with the definition of the included are to be specified with the definition of the
command concerned. command concerned.
That specification SHALL also specify how any parameters That specification SHALL also specify how any parameters
present are to be interpreted and how each parameter is present are to be interpreted and how each parameter is
separated from other parameters. separated from other parameters.
The extension-label is nominally case sensitive, however the The extension-label is nominally case insensitive, however the
definitions of specific labels and parameters specify the definitions of specific labels and parameters specify the
precise interpretation, and it is to be expected that those precise interpretation, and it is to be expected that those
definitions will usually specify the label in a case definitions will usually specify the label in a case
Barber [Page 11]
independent manner. Where this is done, implementations are independent manner. Where this is done, implementations are
recommended to use US-ASCII upper case letters when recommended to use US-ASCII upper case letters when
transmitting the extension response. transmitting the extension response.
The LIST EXTENSIONS command itself is not included in the list Except where stated otherwise, the commands in this document
of features supported, support for the LIST EXTENSIONS command are understood (even if not supported) by all servers and are
is indicated by return of a reply other than a 500 or 502 not described in the list of features returned by the LIST
reply. EXTENSIONS command.
The end of the list is defined by the usual period on a line The end of the list is defined by the usual period on a line
by itself. by itself.
A typical example reply to the LIST EXTENSIONS command might A typical example reply to the LIST EXTENSIONS command might
be a multiline reply of the form: be a multiline reply of the form:
[C] LIST EXTENSIONS [C] LIST EXTENSIONS
[S] 202 Extensions supported: [S] 202 Extensions supported:
skipping to change at page 12, line 38 skipping to change at line 625
8.1.2 Failure response 8.1.2 Failure response
If for some reason the server NNTP is unable to list the If for some reason the server NNTP is unable to list the
service extensions it supports, it MUST return code 503. No service extensions it supports, it MUST return code 503. No
list (not even an empty one) will be returned. list (not even an empty one) will be returned.
In the case of a failure response, the client NNTP may try the In the case of a failure response, the client NNTP may try the
extensions either as the need arises or configure itself for extensions either as the need arises or configure itself for
the basic NNTP functionality defined in this document. the basic NNTP functionality defined in this document.
Barber [Page 12]
8.1.3 Error responses from extended servers 8.1.3 Error responses from extended servers
If the server NNTP recognizes the LIST EXTENSIONS command, but If the server NNTP recognizes the LIST EXTENSIONS command, but
due to various conditions cannot make any extensions available due to various conditions cannot make any extensions available
to the client at the time the client issued the LIST to the client at the time the client issued the LIST
EXTENSIONS command, it MUST return code 402. No list (not even EXTENSIONS command, it MUST return code 402. No list (not even
an empty one) will be returned. an empty one) will be returned.
The client NNTP should configure itself for the basic NNTP The client NNTP should configure itself for the basic NNTP
functionality defined in this document, or issue commands that functionality defined in this document, or issue commands that
might change the state of the server, or issue the QUIT might change the state of the server, or issue the QUIT
command (see section 10.1) if a particular extension is command (see section 10.1) if a particular extension is
required for the client to properly operate. required for the client to properly operate.
If the server NNTP determines that the NNTP service is no If the server NNTP determines that the NNTP service is no
longer available (e.g., due to imminent system shutdown), it longer available (e.g., due to imminent system shutdown), it
must return code 400. Note that this is response code should must return code 400. Note that this response code should not
not be generated due to an inactivity timeout as described in be generated due to an inactivity timeout as described in
section 4. section 4.
In the case of any error response outlined in this section, In the case of any error response outlined in this section,
the client NNTP should issue the QUIT command (see section the client NNTP should issue the QUIT command (see section
10.1). 10.1). This will facilitate an orderly shutdown of the
session.
8.1.4 Responses from servers without extensions 8.1.4 Responses from servers without extensions
A server NNTP that conforms to this memo but does not support A server NNTP that conforms to this memo but does not support
the extensions specified here will not recognize the LIST the extensions specified here will not recognize the LIST
EXTENSIONS command and MUST consequently return code 500 or EXTENSIONS command and MUST consequently return code 500 or
code 501. The server NNTP SHALL stay in the same state after code 501. The server NNTP SHALL stay in the same state after
returning this code. The client NNTP may try the extensions returning this code. The client NNTP may try the extensions
either as the need arises or configure itself for the basic either as the need arises or configure itself for the basic
NNTP functionality defined in this document. NNTP functionality defined in this document.
8.1.5 Responses from improperly implemented servers 8.1.5 Responses from improperly implemented servers
A server NNTP that improperly implements the LIST EXTENSIONS A server NNTP that improperly implements the LIST EXTENSIONS
command may return an empty list. Clients SHALL accommodate command may return an empty list. Clients SHOULD accommodate
this protocol violation and interpret it as a response code this protocol violation and interpret it as a response code
402. 402.
The client NNTP should configure itself for the basic NNTP The client NNTP should configure itself for the basic NNTP
functionality defined in this document, or issue commands that functionality defined in this document, or issue commands that
might change the state of the server, or issue the QUIT might change the state of the server, or issue the QUIT
command (see section 10.1) if a particular extension is command (see section 10.1) if a particular extension is
required for the client to properly operate. required for the client to properly operate.
Barber [Page 13]
9. The NEWS EXCHANGE Step 9. The NEWS EXCHANGE Step
During this step, two basic types of transactions occur: During this step, two basic types of transactions occur:
. article retrieval from the server . article retrieval from the server
. article posting to the server . article posting to the server
9.1 Article Retrieval 9.1 Article Retrieval
News reading clients have available a variety of mechanisms to News reading clients have available a variety of mechanisms to
skipping to change at page 14, line 21 skipping to change at line 708
The server MUST ensure that article numbers are issued in The server MUST ensure that article numbers are issued in
order of arrival timestamp; that is, articles arriving later order of arrival timestamp; that is, articles arriving later
MUST have higher numbers than those that arrive earlier. The MUST have higher numbers than those that arrive earlier. The
server SHOULD allocate the next sequential unused number to server SHOULD allocate the next sequential unused number to
each new article. each new article.
Article numbers MUST lie between 1 and 4,294,967,295 Article numbers MUST lie between 1 and 4,294,967,295
inclusive. The client and server SHOULD NOT use leading zeroes inclusive. The client and server SHOULD NOT use leading zeroes
in specifying article numbers, and MUST NOT use more than 16 in specifying article numbers, and MUST NOT use more than 16
digits. In some situations, the value zero replaces an article digits. In some situations, the value zero replaces an article
number to show some special situation. One case involves number to show some special situation.
responses to the ARTICLE, STAT, BODY and HEAD commands where a
<message-id> is specified as the argument. In those cases, the
"current article pointer" is not changed.
9.1.1 Article Retrieval by News Group Name and Article Number 9.1.1 Article Retrieval by News Group Name and Article Number
The following commands are used to set the current news group The following commands are used to set the current news group
name and the "current article pointer" which is used by other name and the "current article pointer" which is used by other
commands for article retrieval. commands for article retrieval. At the start of a NNTP
session, both of these values are undefined.
9.1.1.1 GROUP 9.1.1.1 GROUP
GROUP ggg GROUP ggg
The required parameter ggg is the name of the news group to be The required parameter ggg is the name of the news group to be
selected (e.g. "news.software.b"). A list of valid news groups selected (e.g. "news.software.b"). A list of valid news groups
may be obtained by using the LIST keyword. See section 9.4 may be obtained by using the LIST keyword. See section 9.4
for more information on the LIST keyword. for more information on the LIST keyword.
Barber [Page 14]
The successful selection response will return the article The successful selection response will return the article
numbers of the first and last articles in the group at the numbers of the first and last articles in the group at the
moment of selection (these numbers are referred to as the moment of selection (these numbers are referred to as the
"reported low water mark" and the "reported high water mark"), "reported low water mark" and the "reported high water mark"),
and an estimate of the number of articles on file in the and an estimate of the number of articles on file in the
group. group.
If the group is not empty, the estimate MUST be at least the If the group is not empty, the estimate MUST be at least the
actual number of articles available, and MUST be no greater actual number of articles available, and MUST be no greater
than one more than the difference between the reported low and than one more than the difference between the reported low and
skipping to change at page 15, line 43 skipping to change at line 781
whenever a subsequent GROUP command for the same news group is whenever a subsequent GROUP command for the same news group is
issued, either by the same client or a different client, the issued, either by the same client or a different client, the
reported low water mark in the response MUST be no less than reported low water mark in the response MUST be no less than
that in any previous response for that news group sent to any that in any previous response for that news group sent to any
client. The client may make use of the low water mark to client. The client may make use of the low water mark to
remove all remembered information about articles with lower remove all remembered information about articles with lower
numbers, as these will never recur. This includes the numbers, as these will never recur. This includes the
situation when the high water mark is one less than the low situation when the high water mark is one less than the low
water mark. water mark.
Barber [Page 15]
No similar assumption can be made about the high water mark, No similar assumption can be made about the high water mark,
as this can decrease if an article is removed, and then as this can decrease if an article is removed, and then
increase again if it is reinstated or if new articles arrive. increase again if it is reinstated or if new articles arrive.
When a valid group is selected by means of this command, the When a valid group is selected by means of this command, the
internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST be set to internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST be set to
the first article in the group and the name of the current the first article in the group and the name of the current
news group MUST be set to the selected news group name. If an news group MUST be set to the selected news group name. If an
invalid group is specified, the previously selected group and invalid group is specified, the previously selected group, if
article MUST remain selected. If an empty news group is any, and article MUST remain selected. If an empty news group
selected, the "current article pointer" is in an indeterminate is selected, the "current article pointer" is in an
state and MUST NOT be used. indeterminate state and MUST NOT be used.
The GROUP keyword MUST be used by a client and a successful The GROUP keyword (or the LISTGROUP keyword, if implemented)
response received before the any other command is used that MUST be used by a client and a successful response received
depends on having the "current article pointer" be valid. before the any other command is used that depends on having
the "current article pointer" be valid.
9.1.1.1.1 Responses 9.1.1.1.1 Responses
211 n f l s group selected 211 n f l s group selected
(n = estimated number of articles in group, f = first (n = estimated number of articles in group, f = first
article number in the group, l = last article number in article number in the group, l = last article number in
the group, s = name of the group.) the group, s = name of the group.)
411 no such news group 411 no such news group
9.1.1.1.2 GROUP Examples 9.1.1.1.2 GROUP Examples
skipping to change at page 16, line 34 skipping to change at line 826
Example for a group unknown to the server Example for a group unknown to the server
[C] GROUP example.is.sob.bradner.or.barber [C] GROUP example.is.sob.bradner.or.barber
[S] 411 example.is.sob.bradner.or.barber is unknown [S] 411 example.is.sob.bradner.or.barber is unknown
9.1.1.2 LAST 9.1.1.2 LAST
LAST LAST
The internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST be If the current news group is valid, the internally maintained
set to the previous article in the current news group. If "current article pointer" MUST be set to the previous article
already positioned at the first article of the news group, an in the current news group. If already positioned at the first
error message MUST be returned and the current article MUST article of the news group, an error message MUST be returned
remain selected. and the current article MUST remain selected.
Barber [Page 16]
There MAY be no previous article in the group, although the There MAY be no previous article in the group, although the
current article number is not the reported low water mark. current article number is not the reported low water mark.
There MUST NOT be a previous article when the current article There MUST NOT be a previous article when the current article
number is the reported low water mark. number is the reported low water mark.
Because articles can be removed and added, the results of Because articles can be removed and added, the results of
multiple LAST and NEXT commands MAY not be consistent over the multiple LAST and NEXT commands MAY not be consistent over the
life of a particular NNTP session. life of a particular NNTP session.
The internally-maintained "current article pointer" MUST be If successful, a response indicating the current article
set by this command. number and a message-id string MUST be returned. No article
text is sent in response to this command.
A response indicating the current article number and a
message-id string MUST be returned. No article text is sent in
response to this command.
9.1.1.2.1 Responses 9.1.1.2.1 Responses
223 n a article retrieved - request text separately (n = 223 n a article retrieved - request text separately (n =
article number, a = unique article id) article number, a = unique article id)
412 no news group selected 412 no news group selected
420 no current article has been selected 420 no current article has been selected
422 no previous article in this group 422 no previous article in this group
9.1.1.2.2 LAST Examples 9.1.1.2.2 LAST Examples
skipping to change at page 17, line 39 skipping to change at line 880
Example of an attempt to retrieve an article without having Example of an attempt to retrieve an article without having
selected a group (via the GROUP command) first selected a group (via the GROUP command) first
[S] 200 NNTP Service ready [S] 200 NNTP Service ready
[C] LAST [C] LAST
[S] 412 no newsgroup selected [S] 412 no newsgroup selected
Barber [Page 17]
Example of an attempt to retrieve an article using the LAST Example of an attempt to retrieve an article using the LAST
command when the current article pointer is pointing at the command when the current article pointer is pointing at the
first article in the group first article in the group
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
skipping to change at page 18, line 21 skipping to change at line 912
[S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup [S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup
[C] LAST [C] LAST
[S] 420 No current article selected [S] 420 No current article selected
9.1.1.3 NEXT 9.1.1.3 NEXT
NEXT NEXT
The internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST be If the current news group is valid, the internally maintained
advanced to the next article in the current news group. If no "current article pointer" MUST be advanced to the next article
more articles remain in the current group, an error message in the current news group. If no more articles remain in the
MUST be returned and the current article MUST remain selected. current group, an error message MUST be returned and the
current article MUST remain selected.
The internally-maintained "current article pointer" MUST be
set by this command.
A response indicating the current article number and the If successful, a response indicating the current article
message-id string MUST be returned. No text is sent in number and the message-id string MUST be returned. No article
response to this command. text is sent in response to this command.
9.1.1.3.1 Responses 9.1.1.3.1 Responses
223 n a article retrieved - request text separately (n = 223 n a article retrieved - request text separately (n =
article number, a = unique article id) article number, a = unique article id)
412 no news group selected 412 no news group selected
420 no current article has been selected 420 no current article has been selected
421 no next article in this group 421 no next article in this group
Barber [Page 18]
9.1.1.3.2 NEXT Examples 9.1.1.3.2 NEXT Examples
Example of a successful article retrieval using NEXT Example of a successful article retrieval using NEXT
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] NEXT [C] NEXT
skipping to change at page 19, line 15 skipping to change at line 955
selected a group (via the GROUP command) first selected a group (via the GROUP command) first
[S] 200 NNTP Service ready [S] 200 NNTP Service ready
[C] NEXT [C] NEXT
[S] 412 no newsgroup selected [S] 412 no newsgroup selected
Example of an attempt to retrieve an article using the NEXT Example of an attempt to retrieve an article using the NEXT
command when the current article pointer is pointing at the command when the current article pointer is pointing at the
first article in the group last article in the group
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] ARTICLE 3002322 [C] ARTICLE 3002322
[S] 220 3002322 <411@whitehouse.gov> retrieved [S] 220 3002322 <411@whitehouse.gov> retrieved
Path: pathost!demo!whitehouse!not-for-mail [S] Path: pathost!demo!whitehouse!not-for-mail
From: nobody@whitehouse.gov(Demo User) [S] From: nobody@whitehouse.gov(Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [S] Newsgroups: misc.test
Subject: I am just a test article [S] Subject: I am just a test article
Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500 [S] Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500
Organization: The White House, Washington, DC [S] Organization: The White House, Washington, DC
Message-ID: <411@whitehouse.gov> [S] Message-ID: <411@whitehouse.gov>
This is just a test article. Barber [Page 19]
[S]
. [S] This is just a test article.
[S] .
[C] NEXT [C] NEXT
[S] 422 No next article to retrieve [S] 422 No next article to retrieve
Example of an attempt to retrieve an article using the NEXT Example of an attempt to retrieve an article using the NEXT
command when the current group selected is empty command when the current group selected is empty
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP example.empty.newsgroup [C] GROUP example.empty.newsgroup
[S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup [S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup
[C] NEXT [C] NEXT
[S] 420 No current article selected [S] 420 No current article selected
skipping to change at page 20, line 18 skipping to change at line 1009
[S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup [S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup
[C] NEXT [C] NEXT
[S] 420 No current article selected [S] 420 No current article selected
9.2 Retrieval of Articles and Article Sections 9.2 Retrieval of Articles and Article Sections
There are two forms to the ARTICLE command (and the related There are two forms to the ARTICLE command (and the related
BODY, HEAD, and STAT commands), each using a different method BODY, HEAD, and STAT commands), each using a different method
of specifying which article is to be retrieved. When the of specifying the article to be retrieved. The first form
ARTICLE keyword is followed by a message-id in angle brackets specifies the article by using an argument which consists of a
("<" and ">"), the first form of the command MUST be used; message-id in angle brackets ("<" and ">"). The article number
when a numeric parameter or no parameter is supplied, the specified in the response to this form of the command must be
second form MUST be invoked. In the cases where the argument zero. The second form requires that the current news group be
is a message-id, the article number specified in the response valid and specifies the message by using a numeric parameter
must be zero. This is one of the special cases described in or no parameter at all.
section 9.1.
An article, as defined by RFC 1036, consists of two parts: the An article, as defined by RFC 1036, consists of two parts: the
article headers and the article body. When responding to an article headers and the article body. When responding to an
article command, the server returns the entire article article command, the server returns the entire article
contents and does not attempt to alter or translate them in contents and does not attempt to alter or translate them in
any way. any way.
9.2.1 ARTICLE 9.2.1 ARTICLE
ARTICLE [<message-id>|nnn] ARTICLE [<message-id>|nnn]
This response displays the header, a blank line, then the body This response displays the header, a blank line, then the body
(text) of the specified article. The optional parameter nnn is (text) of the specified article. The optional parameter nnn is
the numeric id of an article in the current news group and the numeric id of an article in the current news group and
SHOULD be chosen from the range of articles provided when the
Barber [Page 20]
should be chosen from the range of articles provided when the
news group was selected. If it is omitted, the current news group was selected. If it is omitted, the current
article is assumed. Message-id is the message id of an article article is assumed. Message-id is the message id of an article
as shown in that article's header. as shown in that article's header.
The internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST NOT The internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST NOT
be altered when the message-id argument is used. This is both be altered when the message-id argument is used. This is both
to facilitate the presentation of articles that may be to facilitate the presentation of articles that may be
referenced within an article being read, and because of the referenced within an article being read, and because of the
semantic difficulties of determining the proper sequence and semantic difficulties of determining the proper sequence and
membership of an article which may have been posted to more membership of an article which may have been posted to more
than one news group. than one news group.
The internally-maintained "current article pointer" MUST be When a valid article number is specified as the argument, the
set when a valid article number is specified as the argument. internally-maintained "current article pointer" MUST be set to
This includes the case when an article number is implied by point to retrieve article. This includes the case when an
the use of no argument. article number is implied by the use of no argument.
A previously valid article number MAY become invalid if the A previously valid article number MAY become invalid if the
article has been removed. A previously invalid article number article has been removed. A previously invalid article number
MAY become valid if the article has been reinstated, but such MAY become valid if the article has been reinstated, but such
an article number MUST be no less than the reported low water an article number MUST be no less than the reported low water
mark for that group. mark for that group.
If there is a valid article to present in a reply to this If there is a valid article to present in a reply to this
command, a response indicating the current article number (or command, a response indicating the current article number (or
zero when the message-id argument is used), a message-id zero when the message-id argument is used), a message-id
skipping to change at page 21, line 43 skipping to change at line 1083
9.2.1.1 Responses 9.2.1.1 Responses
220 n <a> article retrieved - head and body follow (n = 220 n <a> article retrieved - head and body follow (n =
article number, <a> = message-id) article number, <a> = message-id)
412 no news group has been selected 412 no news group has been selected
420 no current article has been selected 420 no current article has been selected
423 no such article number in this group 423 no such article number in this group
430 no such article found 430 no such article found
502 Service unavailable 502 Service unavailable
Barber [Page 21]
9.2.1.2 Examples 9.2.1.2 Examples
Example of a successful retrieval of an article (using no Example of a successful retrieval of an article (using no
article number) article number)
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] ARTICLE [C] ARTICLE
[S] 220 3000234 <45223423@to.to> [S] 220 3000234 <45223423@to.to>
Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail [S] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail
From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [S] From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User)
Subject: I am just a test article [S] Newsgroups: misc.test
Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500 [S] Subject: I am just a test article
Organization: Nowhere, To [S] Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500
Message-ID: <45223423@to.to> [S] Organization: Nowhere, To
This is just a test article. [S] Message-ID: <45223423@to.to>
. [S]
[S] This is just a test article.
[S] .
Example of a successful retrieval of an article by message-id Example of a successful retrieval of an article by message-id
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] ARTICLE <45223423@to.to> [C] ARTICLE <45223423@to.to>
[S] 220 0 <45223423@to.to> [S] 220 0 <45223423@to.to>
Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail [S] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail
From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User) [S] From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [S] Newsgroups: misc.test
Subject: I am just a test article [S] Subject: I am just a test article
Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500 [S] Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500
Organization: Nowhere, To [S] Organization: Nowhere, To
Message-ID: <45223423@to.to> Barber [Page 22]
[S] Message-ID: <45223423@to.to>
This is just a test article. [S]
. [S] This is just a test article.
[S] .
Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of an article by message- Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of an article by message-
id id
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] ARTICLE <i.am.not.there@nowhere.to> [C] ARTICLE <i.am.not.there@nowhere.to>
[S] 430 No Such Article Found [S] 430 No Such Article Found
Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of an article by number Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of an article by number
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 news.groups [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 news.groups
[C] ARTICLE 300256 [C] ARTICLE 300256
skipping to change at page 23, line 42 skipping to change at line 1194
[S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup [S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup
[C] ARTICLE [C] ARTICLE
[S] 420 No current article selected [S] 420 No current article selected
Example of a failure due to the service being unavailable Example of a failure due to the service being unavailable
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
Barber [Page 23]
[C] ARTICLE <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to> [C] ARTICLE <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to>
[S] 500 Service unavailable [S] 502 Service unavailable
9.2.2 HEAD 9.2.2 HEAD
HEAD [<message-id>|nnn] HEAD [<message-id>|nnn]
This response displays the header of the specified article. This response displays the header of the specified article.
The optional parameter nnn is the numeric id of an article in The optional parameter nnn is the numeric id of an article in
the current news group and SHOULD be chosen from the range of the current news group and should be chosen from the range of
articles provided when the news group was selected. If it is articles provided when the news group was selected. If it is
omitted, the current article is assumed. Message-id is the omitted, the current article is assumed. Message-id is the
message id of an article as shown in that article's header. message id of an article as shown in that article's header.
The internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST NOT The internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST NOT
be altered when the message-id argument is used. This is both be altered when the message-id argument is used. This is both
to facilitate the presentation of articles that may be to facilitate the presentation of articles that may be
referenced within an article being read, and because of the referenced within an article being read, and because of the
semantic difficulties of determining the proper sequence and semantic difficulties of determining the proper sequence and
membership of an article which may have been posted to more membership of an article which may have been posted to more
than one news group. than one news group.
The internally-maintained "current article pointer" MUST be When a valid article number is specified as the argument, the
set when a valid article number is specified as the argument. internally-maintained "current article pointer" MUST be set to
This includes the case when an article number is implied by point to the retrieved article. This includes the case when an
the use of no argument. article number is implied by the use of no argument.
A previously valid article number MAY become invalid if the A previously valid article number MAY become invalid if the
article has been removed. A previously invalid article number article has been removed. A previously invalid article number
MAY become valid if the article has been reinstated, but such MAY become valid if the article has been reinstated, but such
an article number MUST be no less than the reported low water an article number MUST be no less than the reported low water
mark for that group. mark for that group.
If there is a valid article to present in a reply to this If there is a valid article to present in a reply to this
command, a response indicating the current article number (or command, a response indicating the current article number (or
zero when the message-id argument is used), a message-id zero when the message-id argument is used), a message-id
skipping to change at page 24, line 42 skipping to change at line 1246
header line (required by RFC 1036) from the article must be header line (required by RFC 1036) from the article must be
used to supply this information. If the message-id header line used to supply this information. If the message-id header line
is missing from the article, a single digit "0" (zero) should is missing from the article, a single digit "0" (zero) should
be supplied within the angle brackets. be supplied within the angle brackets.
Since the message-id field is unique for each article, it may Since the message-id field is unique for each article, it may
be used by a news reading program to skip duplicate displays be used by a news reading program to skip duplicate displays
of articles that have been posted more than once, or to more of articles that have been posted more than once, or to more
than one news group. than one news group.
Barber [Page 24]
9.2.2.1 Responses 9.2.2.1 Responses
221 n <a> article retrieved - head follows 221 n <a> article retrieved - head follows
412 no news group has been selected 412 no news group has been selected
420 no current article has been selected 420 no current article has been selected
423 no such article number in this group 423 no such article number in this group
430 no such article found 430 no such article found
502 Service unavailable 502 Service unavailable
9.2.2.2 Examples 9.2.2.2 Examples
Example of a successful retrieval of the headers in an article Example of a successful retrieval of the headers in an article
skipping to change at page 25, line 4 skipping to change at line 1262
430 no such article found 430 no such article found
502 Service unavailable 502 Service unavailable
9.2.2.2 Examples 9.2.2.2 Examples
Example of a successful retrieval of the headers in an article Example of a successful retrieval of the headers in an article
(using no article number) (using no article number)
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] HEAD [C] HEAD
[S] 220 3000234 <45223423@to.to> [S] 220 3000234 <45223423@to.to>
Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail [S] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail
From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User) [S] From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [S] Newsgroups: misc.test
Subject: I am just a test article [S] Subject: I am just a test article
Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500 [S] Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500
Organization: Nowhere, To [S] Organization: Nowhere, To
Message-ID: <45223423@to.to> [S] Message-ID: <45223423@to.to>
. [S] .
Example of a successful retrieval of the headers in an article Example of a successful retrieval of the headers in an article
by message-id by message-id
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] HEAD <45223423@to.to> [C] HEAD <45223423@to.to>
[S] 220 0 <45223423@to.to> [S] 220 0 <45223423@to.to>
Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail [S] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail
From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User) [S] From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [S] Newsgroups: misc.test
Subject: I am just a test article [S] Subject: I am just a test article
Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500 Barber [Page 25]
[S] Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500
Organization: Nowhere, To [S] Organization: Nowhere, To
Message-ID: <45223423@to.to> [S] Message-ID: <45223423@to.to>
. [S] .
Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of the header of an Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of the header of an
article by message-id article by message-id
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] HEAD <i.am.not.there@nowhere.to> [C] HEAD <i.am.not.there@nowhere.to>
[S] 430 No Such Article Found [S] 430 No Such Article Found
Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of the header of an Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of the header of an
article by number article by number
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
skipping to change at page 26, line 45 skipping to change at line 1357
[C] GROUP example.empty.newsgroup [C] GROUP example.empty.newsgroup
[S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup [S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup
[C] HEAD [C] HEAD
[S] 420 No current article selected [S] 420 No current article selected
Example of a failure due to the service being unavailable Example of a failure due to the service being unavailable
Barber [Page 26]
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] HEAD <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to> [C] HEAD <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to>
[S] 500 Service unavailable [S] 502 Service unavailable
9.2.3 BODY 9.2.3 BODY
BODY [<message-id>|nnn] BODY [<message-id>|nnn]
This response displays the body (text) of the specified This response displays the body (text) of the specified
article. The optional parameter nnn is the numeric id of an article. The optional parameter nnn is the numeric id of an
article in the current news group and SHOULD be chosen from article in the current news group and should be chosen from
the range of articles provided when the news group was the range of articles provided when the news group was
selected. If it is omitted, the current article is assumed. selected. If it is omitted, the current article is assumed.
Message-id is the message id of an article as shown in that Message-id is the message id of an article as shown in that
article's header. article's header.
The internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST NOT The internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST NOT
be altered when the message-id argument is used. This is both be altered when the message-id argument is used. This is both
to facilitate the presentation of articles that may be to facilitate the presentation of articles that may be
referenced within an article being read, and because of the referenced within an article being read, and because of the
semantic difficulties of determining the proper sequence and semantic difficulties of determining the proper sequence and
membership of an article which may have been posted to more membership of an article which may have been posted to more
than one news group. than one news group.
The internally-maintained "current article pointer" MUST be When a valid article number is specified, the internally-
set when a valid article number is specified as the argument. maintained "current article pointer" MUST be set point to the
This includes the case when an article number is implied by retrieve article. This includes the case when an article
the use of no argument. number is implied by the use of no argument.
A previously valid article number MAY become invalid if the A previously valid article number MAY become invalid if the
article has been removed. A previously invalid article number article has been removed. A previously invalid article number
MAY become valid if the article has been reinstated, but such MAY become valid if the article has been reinstated, but such
an article number MUST be no less than the reported low water an article number MUST be no less than the reported low water
mark for that group. mark for that group.
If there is a valid article to present in a reply to this If there is a valid article to present in a reply to this
command, a response indicating the current article number (or command, a response indicating the current article number (or
zero when the message-id argument is used), a message-id zero when the message-id argument is used), a message-id
skipping to change at page 27, line 46 skipping to change at line 1412
header line (required by RFC 1036) from the article must be header line (required by RFC 1036) from the article must be
used to supply this information. If the message-id header line used to supply this information. If the message-id header line
is missing from the article, a single digit "0" (zero) should is missing from the article, a single digit "0" (zero) should
be supplied within the angle brackets. be supplied within the angle brackets.
Since the message-id field is unique for each article, it may Since the message-id field is unique for each article, it may
be used by a news reading program to skip duplicate displays be used by a news reading program to skip duplicate displays
of articles that have been posted more than once, or to more of articles that have been posted more than once, or to more
than one news group. than one news group.
Barber [Page 27]
9.2.3.1 Responses 9.2.3.1 Responses
222 n <a> article retrieved - body follows 222 n <a> article retrieved - body follows
412 no news group has been selected 412 no news group has been selected
420 no current article has been selected 420 no current article has been selected
423 no such article number in this group 423 no such article number in this group
430 no such article found 430 no such article found
502 Service unavailable 502 Service unavailable
9.2.3.2 Examples 9.2.3.2 Examples
Example of a successful retrieval of the body of an article Example of a successful retrieval of the body of an article
skipping to change at page 28, line 14 skipping to change at line 1435
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] BODY [C] BODY
[S] 222 3000234 <45223423@to.to> [S] 222 3000234 <45223423@to.to>
This is just a test article. [S] This is just a test article.
. [S] .
Example of a successful retrieval of the body of an article by Example of a successful retrieval of the body of an article by
message-id message-id
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] BODY <45223423@to.to> [C] BODY <45223423@to.to>
[S] 222 0 <45223423@to.to> [S] 222 0 <45223423@to.to>
This is just a test article. [S] This is just a test article.
. [S] .
Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of the body of an article Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of the body of an article
by message-id by message-id
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] BODY <i.am.not.there@nowhere.to> [C] BODY <i.am.not.there@nowhere.to>
[S] 430 No Such Article Found [S] 430 No Such Article Found
Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of the body of an article Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of the body of an article
by number by number
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
Barber [Page 28]
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] BODY 300256 [C] BODY 300256
[S] 423 No such article number in this group [S] 423 No such article number in this group
Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of the body of an article Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of the body of an article
by number because no news group was selected first by number because no news group was selected first
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
skipping to change at page 29, line 27 skipping to change at line 1503
[C] BODY [C] BODY
[S] 420 No current article selected [S] 420 No current article selected
Example of a failure due to the service being unavailable Example of a failure due to the service being unavailable
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] BODY <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to> [C] BODY <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to>
[S] 500 Service unavailable [S] 502 Service unavailable
9.2.4 STAT 9.2.4 STAT
STAT [<message-id>|nnn] STAT [<message-id>|nnn]
This response returns only status information; no article This response returns only status information; no article
contents are returned. The optional parameter nnn is the contents are returned. The optional parameter nnn is the
numeric id of an article in the current news group and SHOULD numeric id of an article in the current news group and should
be chosen from the range of articles provided when the news be chosen from the range of articles provided when the news
group was selected. If it is omitted, the current article is group was selected. If it is omitted, the current article is
assumed. Message-id is the message id of an article as shown assumed. Message-id is the message id of an article as shown
in that article's header. in that article's header.
The internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST NOT The internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST NOT
be altered when the message-id argument is used. This is both be altered when the message-id argument is used. This is both
to facilitate the presentation of articles that may be to facilitate the presentation of articles that may be
referenced within an article being read, and because of the referenced within an article being read, and because of the
semantic difficulties of determining the proper sequence and semantic difficulties of determining the proper sequence and
membership of an article which may have been posted to more membership of an article which may have been posted to more
than one news group. than one news group.
The internally-maintained "current article pointer" MUST be Barber [Page 29]
set when a valid article number is specified as the argument. When a valid article number is specified, the internally-
This includes the case when an article number is implied by maintained "current article pointer" MUST be set point to the
the use of no argument. retrieved article. This includes the case when an article
number is implied by the use of no argument.
A previously valid article number MAY become invalid if the A previously valid article number MAY become invalid if the
article has been removed. A previously invalid article number article has been removed. A previously invalid article number
MAY become valid if the article has been reinstated, but such MAY become valid if the article has been reinstated, but such
an article number MUST be no less than the reported low water an article number MUST be no less than the reported low water
mark for that group. mark for that group.
If there is a valid article to present in a reply to this If there is a valid article to present in a reply to this
command, a response indicating the current article number (or command, a response indicating the current article number (or
zero when the message-id argument is used) and a message-id zero when the message-id argument is used) and a message-id
skipping to change at page 30, line 45 skipping to change at line 1576
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] STAT [C] STAT
[S] 223 3000234 <45223423@to.to> [S] 223 3000234 <45223423@to.to>
Barber [Page 30]
Example of a STAT of an existing article by message-id Example of a STAT of an existing article by message-id
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] STAT <45223423@to.to> [C] STAT <45223423@to.to>
[S] 223 0 <45223423@to.to> [S] 223 0 <45223423@to.to>
Example of an STAT of an article not on the server by message- Example of an STAT of an article not on the server by message-
id id
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] STAT <i.am.not.there@nowhere.to> [C] STAT <i.am.not.there@nowhere.to>
[S] 430 No Such Article Found [S] 430 No Such Article Found
Example of STAT of an article not in the server by number Example of STAT of an article not in the server by number
skipping to change at page 31, line 49 skipping to change at line 1630
[C] GROUP example.empty.newsgroup [C] GROUP example.empty.newsgroup
[S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup [S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup
[C] STAT [C] STAT
[S] 420 No current article selected [S] 420 No current article selected
Example of a failure due to the service being unavailable Example of a failure due to the service being unavailable
Barber [Page 31]
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] STAT <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to> [C] STAT <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to>
[S] 500 Service unavailable [S] 502 Service unavailable
9.3 Article Posting 9.3 Article Posting
Article posting is done in one of two modes: individual Article posting is done in one of two modes: individual
article posting from news reading clients and article transfer article posting from news reading clients and article transfer
from other news servers. from other news servers.
9.3.1 POST 9.3.1 POST
POST POST
If posting is allowed, response code 340 MUST be returned to If posting is allowed, response code 340 MUST be returned to
indicate that the article to be posted should be sent. indicate that the article to be posted should be sent.
skipping to change at page 32, line 28 skipping to change at line 1663
server by the client in the format specified by RFC 1036. The server by the client in the format specified by RFC 1036. The
text forming the header and body of the message to be posted text forming the header and body of the message to be posted
MUST be sent by the client using the conventions for text MUST be sent by the client using the conventions for text
received from the news server: A single period (".") on a line received from the news server: A single period (".") on a line
indicates the end of the text, with lines starting with a indicates the end of the text, with lines starting with a
period in the original text having that period doubled during period in the original text having that period doubled during
transmission. transmission.
Following the presentation of the termination sequence by the Following the presentation of the termination sequence by the
client, the server MUST return a response code indicating client, the server MUST return a response code indicating
success or failure of the article transfer. success or failure of the article transfer. Note that response
codes 340 and 440 are used in direct response to the POST
command. Others are returned following the sending of the
article.
No attempt shall be made by the server to filter characters, No attempt shall be made by the server to filter characters,
fold or limit lines, or otherwise process incoming text. The fold or limit lines, or otherwise process incoming text. The
intent is that the server just passes the incoming message to intent is that the server just passes the incoming message to
be posted to the server installation's news posting software, be posted to the server installation's news posting software,
which is not part of this specification. which is not part of this specification.
9.3.1.1 Responses 9.3.1.1 Responses
240 article received ok 240 article received ok
340 send article to be posted. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF> 340 send article to be posted. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF>
440 posting not allowed 440 posting not allowed
441 posting failed 441 posting failed
Barber [Page 32]
9.3.1.2 Examples 9.3.1.2 Examples
Example of a successful posting Example of a successful posting
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] POST [C] POST
[S] 340 Input article. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF> [S] 340 Input article. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF>
[C] From: demo@testdomain.com(Demo User) [C] From: demo@testdomain.com(Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [C] Newsgroups: misc.test
Subject: I am just a test article
Organization: Testdomain, USA [C] Subject: I am just a test article
This is just a test article. [C] Organization: Testdomain, USA
. [C]
[C] This is just a test article.
[C] .
[S] 240 Article received ok [S] 240 Article received ok
Example of an unsuccessful posting Example of an unsuccessful posting
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] POST [C] POST
[S] 340 Input article. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF> [S] 340 Input article. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF>
[C] From: demo@testdomain.com(Demo User) [C] From: demo@testdomain.com(Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [C] Newsgroups: misc.test
Subject: I am just a test article [C] Subject: I am just a test article
Organization: Testdomain, USA [C] Organization: Testdomain, USA
This is just a test article. [C]
. [C] This is just a test article.
[C] .
[S] 441 Posting failed [S] 441 Posting failed
Example of an attempt to posting when posting is not allowed Example of an attempt to posting when posting is not allowed
[S] 201 NNTP Service Ready, read-only [S] 201 NNTP Service Ready, read-only
[C] POST [C] POST
Barber [Page 33]
[S] 440 Posting not permitted [S] 440 Posting not permitted
9.3.2 IHAVE 9.3.2 IHAVE
IHAVE <message-id> IHAVE <message-id>
The IHAVE command informs the server that the client has an The IHAVE command informs the server that the client has an
article whose id is <message-id>. If the server desires a copy article whose id is <message-id>. If the server desires a copy
of that article, it MUST return a response instructing the of that article, it MUST return a response instructing the
client to send the entire article. If the server does not want client to send the entire article. If the server does not want
skipping to change at page 34, line 44 skipping to change at line 1788
335 send article to be transferred. End with <CR- 335 send article to be transferred. End with <CR-
LF>.<CR-LF> LF>.<CR-LF>
435 article not wanted - do not send it 435 article not wanted - do not send it
436 transfer failed - try again later 436 transfer failed - try again later
437 article rejected - do not try again 437 article rejected - do not try again
Because some host news posting software may not be able to Because some host news posting software may not be able to
immediately render status on the whether an article is immediately render status on the whether an article is
inappropriate for posting or forwarding, an NNTP server MAY inappropriate for posting or forwarding, an NNTP server MAY
acknowledge the successful transfer of the article and later acknowledge the successful transfer of the article and later
Barber [Page 34]
silently discard it. Thus, an NNTP server MAY return the 235 silently discard it. Thus, an NNTP server MAY return the 235
acknowledgment code and later discard the received article. acknowledgment code and later discard the received article.
9.3.2.2 Examples 9.3.2.2 Examples
Example of successfully sending an article to another site Example of successfully sending an article to another site
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] IHAVE <i.am.an.article.you.will.want@nowhere.to> [C] IHAVE <i.am.an.article.you.will.want@nowhere.to>
[S] 335 Send it. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF> [S] 335 Send it. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF>
[C] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail [C] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail
From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User) [C] From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [C] Newsgroups: misc.test
Subject: I am just a test article [C] Subject: I am just a test article
Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500 [C] Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500
Organization: Nowhere, To [C] Organization: Nowhere, To
Message-ID: <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to> [C] Message-ID: <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to>
This is just a test article. [C]
. [C] This is just a test article.
[C] .
[S] 235 Article transferred ok [S] 235 Article transferred ok
Example of sending an article to another site that rejects it Example of sending an article to another site that rejects it
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] IHAVE <i.am.an.article.you.will.want@nowhere.to> [C] IHAVE <i.am.an.article.you.will.want@nowhere.to>
[S] 335 Send it. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF> [S] 335 Send it. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF>
[C] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail [C] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail
From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User) [C] From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [C] Newsgroups: misc.test
Subject: I am just a test article [C] Subject: I am just a test article
Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500 Barber [Page 35]
[C] Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500
Organization: Nowhere, To [C] Organization: Nowhere, To
Message-ID: <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to> [C] Message-ID: <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to>
This is just a test article. [C]
. [C] This is just a test article.
[C] .
[S] 437 Article rejected. Don't send again [S] 437 Article rejected. Don't send again
Example of sending an article to another site where the Example of sending an article to another site where the
transfer fails transfer fails
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] IHAVE <i.am.an.article.you.will.want@nowhere.to> [C] IHAVE <i.am.an.article.you.will.want@nowhere.to>
[S] 335 Send it. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF> [S] 335 Send it. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF>
[C] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail [C] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail
From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User) [C] From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [C] Newsgroups: misc.test
Subject: I am just a test article [C] Subject: I am just a test article
Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500 [C] Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500
Organization: Nowhere, To [C] Organization: Nowhere, To
Message-ID: <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to> [C] Message-ID: <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to>
This is just a test article. [C]
. [C] This is just a test article.
[C] .
[S] 436 Transfer failed [S] 436 Transfer failed
Example of sending an article to another site that rejects it Example of sending an article to another site that rejects it
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] IHAVE <i.am.an.article.you.will.want@nowhere.to> [C] IHAVE <i.am.an.article.you.will.want@nowhere.to>
Barber [Page 36]
[S] 335 Send it. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF> [S] 335 Send it. End with <CR-LF>.<CR-LF>
[C] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail [C] Path: pathost!demo!somewhere!not-for-mail
From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User) [C] From: nobody@nowhere.to (Demo User)
Newsgroups: misc.test [C] Newsgroups: misc.test
Subject: I am just a test article [C] Subject: I am just a test article
Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500 [C] Date: 6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500
Organization: Nowhere, To [C] Organization: Nowhere, To
Message-ID: <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to> [C] Message-ID: <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to>
This is just a test article. [C]
. [C] This is just a test article.
[C] .
[S] 435 Don't send it again [S] 435 Don't send it again
9.4 The LIST Keyword 9.4 The LIST Keyword
9.4.1 LIST 9.4.1 LIST
LIST [ACTIVE [wildmat]] LIST [ACTIVE [wildmat]]
The response to the LIST keyword with no parameters returns a The response to the LIST keyword with no parameters returns a
skipping to change at page 37, line 30 skipping to change at line 1939
where <group> is the name of the news group, <last> is the where <group> is the name of the news group, <last> is the
number of the last known article currently in that news group, number of the last known article currently in that news group,
<first> is the number of the first article currently in the <first> is the number of the first article currently in the
news group, and <status> indicates the current status of the news group, and <status> indicates the current status of the
group on this server. Typically, the <status> will be consist group on this server. Typically, the <status> will be consist
of the US-ASCII character `y' where posting is permitted, `n' of the US-ASCII character `y' where posting is permitted, `n'
where posting is not permitted and `m' where postings will be where posting is not permitted and `m' where postings will be
forwarded to the news group moderator by the news server. forwarded to the news group moderator by the news server.
Other status strings may exist. The definition of these other Other status strings may exist. The definition of these other
values is covered in other specifications. values and the circumstances under which they are returned is
covered in other specifications.
The <first> and <last> fields will always be numeric. They The <first> and <last> fields will always be numeric. They
may have leading zeros. The <first> field corresponds to the may have leading zeros. The <first> field corresponds to the
"reported low water mark" and the <last> field corresponds to "reported low water mark" and the <last> field corresponds to
the "reported high water mark" described in the GROUP command the "reported high water mark" described in the GROUP command
(see Section 9.1.1.1). (see Section 9.1.1.1).
Note that posting may still be prohibited to a client although Barber [Page 37]
the LIST command indicates that posting is permitted to a The status of a news group only indicates how posts to that
particular news group. See the POST command for an explanation news group are processed. It does not if the current client is
of client prohibitions. The posting flag exists for each news permitted to post. That is indicated by the status code
group because some news groups are moderated or are digests, returned as part of the greeting.
and therefore cannot be posted to; that is, articles posted to
them must be mailed to a moderator who will post them for the
original poster. This is independent of the posting
permission granted to a client by the NNTP server.
Please note that an empty list (i.e., the text body returned Please note that an empty list (i.e., the text body returned
by this command consists only of the terminating period) is a by this command consists only of the terminating period) is a
possible valid response, and indicates that there are possible valid response, and indicates that there are
currently no valid news groups. currently no valid news groups.
If the optional matching parameter is specified, the list is If the optional wildmat parameter is specified, the list is
limited to only the groups that match the pattern. limited to only the groups that match the pattern.
Specifying a single group is usually very efficient for the Specifying a single group is usually very efficient for the
server. Multiple groups may be specified by using wildmat server. Multiple groups may be specified by using wildmat
patterns (described in section 5), not regular expressions. patterns (described in section 5).
9.4.1.1 Responses 9.4.1.1 Responses
215 list of news groups follows 215 list of news groups follows
9.4.1.2 Examples 9.4.1.2 Examples
Example of LIST returning a list of news groups Example of LIST returning a list of news groups
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST [C] LIST
[S] 215 list of news groups follows [S] 215 list of news groups follows
misc.test 3000234 3002322 y [S] misc.test 3000234 3002322 y
alt.fc-writers.recovery 1 4 y [S] alt.fc-writers.recovery 1 4 y
tx.natives.recovery 56 89 y [S] tx.natives.recovery 56 89 y
. [S] .
Example of LIST returning no news groups Example of LIST returning no news groups
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST [C] LIST
[S] 215 list of news groups follows [S] 215 list of news groups follows
. [S] .
9.4.2 LIST ACTIVE.TIMES 9.4.2 LIST ACTIVE.TIMES
LIST ACTIVE.TIMES [wildmat] LIST ACTIVE.TIMES [wildmat]
Barber [Page 38]
The active.times file is maintained by some news transport The active.times file is maintained by some news transport
systems to contain information about when and who created a systems to contain information about who created a particular
particular news group. The format of this file generally news group and when. The format of this file includes three
includes three fields. The first field is the name of the news fields. The first field is the name of the news group. The
group. The second is the time when this group was created on second is the time when this group was created on this news
this news server measured in seconds since the start of server measured in seconds since the start of January 1, 1970.
January 1, 1970. The third is the email address of the entity The third is the email address of the entity that created the
that created the news group. When executed, the information is news group. When executed, the information is displayed
displayed following the 215 response. When display is following the 215 response. When display is completed, the
completed, the server will send a period on a line by itself. server will send a period on a line by itself. If the
If the information is not available, the server will return information is not available, the server will return the 503
the 503 error response. error response. If the server does not recognize the command,
it SHOULD return the 501 error response.
If the optional matching parameter is specified, the list is If the optional wildmat parameter is specified, the list is
limited to only the groups that match the pattern. limited to only the groups that match the pattern.
Specifying a single group is usually very efficient for the Specifying a single group is usually very efficient for the
server. Multiple groups may be specified by using wildmat server. Multiple groups may be specified by using wildmat
patterns (described in section 5), not regular expression patterns (described in section 5).
9.4.2.1 Responses 9.4.2.1 Responses
215 information follows 215 information follows
501 Syntax error
503 program error, function not performed 503 program error, function not performed
9.4.2.2 Examples 9.4.2.2 Examples
Example of LIST ACTIVE.TIMES returning a list of news groups Example of LIST ACTIVE.TIMES returning a list of news groups
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST ACTIVE.TIMES [C] LIST ACTIVE.TIMES
[S] 215 information follows [S] 215 information follows
misc.test 930445408 <creatme@isc.org> [S] misc.test 930445408 <creatme@isc.org>
alt.rfc-writers.recovery 930562309 <m@nowhere.to> [S] alt.rfc-writers.recovery 930562309 <m@nowhere.to>
tx.natives.recovery 930678923 <sob@academ.com> [S] tx.natives.recovery 930678923 <sob@academ.com>
. [S] .
Example of LIST ACTIVE.TIMES returning an error Example of LIST ACTIVE.TIMES returning an error (The server
software is not configured to maintain this information, but
does recognize the command as valid.)
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST ACTIVE.TIMES [C] LIST ACTIVE.TIMES
Barber [Page 39]
[S] 503 program error, function not performed [S] 503 program error, function not performed
Example of LIST ACTIVE.TIMES sent to a server that does not
recognize this argument (e.g. The software does not maintain
this information.)
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST ACTIVE.TIMES
[S] 501 Syntax Error
9.4.3 LIST DISTRIBUTIONS 9.4.3 LIST DISTRIBUTIONS
LIST DISTRIBUTIONS LIST DISTRIBUTIONS
The distributions file is maintained by some news transport The distributions file is maintained by some news transport
systems to contain information about valid values for the systems to contain information about valid values for the
Distribution: line in a news article header and about what the Distribution: line in a news article header and about what the
values mean. Each line contains two fields, the value and a values mean. Each line contains two fields, the value and a
short explanation on the meaning of the value. When executed, short explanation on the meaning of the value. When executed,
the information is displayed following the 215 response. When the information is displayed following the 215 response. When
display is completed, the server will send a period on a line display is completed, the server will send a period on a line
by itself. If the information is not available, the server by itself. If the information is not available, the server
will return the 503 error response. will return the 503 error response. If the server does not
recognize this command, it SHOULD return the 501 error
response.
9.4.3.1 Responses 9.4.3.1 Responses
215 information follows 215 information follows
501 Syntax error
503 program error, function not performed 503 program error, function not performed
9.4.3.2 Examples 9.4.3.2 Examples
Example of LIST DISTRIBUTIONS returning a list of news groups Example of LIST DISTRIBUTIONS returning a list of news groups
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST DISTRIBUTIONS [C] LIST DISTRIBUTIONS
[S] 215 information follows [S] 215 information follows
usa United States of America [S] usa United States of America
na North America [S] na North America
world All over the World [S] world All over the World
. [S] .
Example of LIST DISTRIBUTIONS returning an error Barber [Page 40]
Example of LIST DISTRIBUTIONS returning an error (e.g. The
server software is not configured to maintain this
information, but does recognize the command as valid.)
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST DISTRIBUTIONS [C] LIST DISTRIBUTIONS
[S] 503 program error, function not performed [S] 503 program error, function not performed
Example of LIST DISTRIBUTIONS sent to a server that does not
recognize the command (e.g. The server does not maintain this
information regardless of configuration.)
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST DISTRIBUTIONS
[S] 501 Syntax Error
9.4.4 LIST DISTRIB.PATS 9.4.4 LIST DISTRIB.PATS
LIST DISTRIB.PATS LIST DISTRIB.PATS
The distrib.pats file is maintained by some news transport The distrib.pats file is maintained by some news transport
systems to contain default values for the Distribution: line systems to allow clients to choose a value for the
in a news article header when posting to particular news Distribution: line in the header of a news article being
groups. This information could be used to provide a default posted. The information returned consists of lines, in no
value for the Distribution: line in the header when posting an particular order, each of which contains three fields
article. The information returned contains three fields separated by colons. These fields are a weight, a group name
separated by colons. The first column is a weight. The second or wildmat pattern, and a Distribution: value, in that order.
is a group name or a wildmat pattern that can be used to match
a group name. The third is the value of the Distribution: The client MAY use this information to select a Distribution:
line that should be used when the group name matches and the value based on the name of a newsgroup. To do so, it should
weight value is the highest. All this processing is done by determine the lines whose second field matches the newsgroup
the news posting client and not by the server itself. The name, select that line with the highest weight (with 0 being
server provides this information to the client for it to use the lowest), and use the Distribution: field from that line.
or ignore as it chooses. When executed, the information is
displayed following the 215 response. When display is When executed, the information is displayed following the 215
completed, the server will send a period on a line by itself. response. When display is completed, the server will send a
If the information is not available, the server will return period on a line by itself. If the information is not
the 503 error response. available, the server will return the 503 error response. If
this command is not recognized, the server SHOULD return the
501 error response.
9.4.4.1 Responses 9.4.4.1 Responses
215 information follows 215 information follows
501 Syntax error
503 program error, function not performed 503 program error, function not performed
Barber [Page 41]
9.4.4.2 Examples 9.4.4.2 Examples
Example of LIST DISTRIB.PATS returning a list of news groups Example of LIST DISTRIB.PATS returning a list of news groups
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST DISTRIB.PATS [C] LIST DISTRIB.PATS
[S] 215 information follows [S] 215 information follows
10:local.*:local [S] 10:local.*:local
. [S] .
Example of LIST DISTRIB.PATS returning an error Example of LIST DISTRIB.PATS returning an error (e.g. The
server software is not configured to maintain this
information, but does recognize the command as valid.)
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST DISTRIB.PATS [C] LIST DISTRIB.PATS
[S] 503 program error, function not performed [S] 503 program error, function not performed
Example of LIST DISTRIB.PATS sent to a server that does not
recognize the command (e.g. The software does not maintain
this information regardless of configuration.)
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST DISTRIB.PATS
[S] 501 Syntax Error
9.4.5 LIST NEWSGROUPS 9.4.5 LIST NEWSGROUPS
LIST NEWSGROUPS [wildmat] LIST NEWSGROUPS [wildmat]
The newsgroups file is maintained by some news transport The newsgroups file is maintained by some news transport
systems to contain the name of each news group that is systems to contain the name of each news group that is
active on the server and a short description about the active on the server and a short description about the
purpose of each news group. Each line in the file contains purpose of each news group. Each line in the file contains
two fields, the news group name and a short explanation of two fields, the news group name and a short explanation of
the purpose of that news group. When executed, the the purpose of that news group. When executed, the
information is displayed following the 215 response. When information is displayed following the 215 response. When
display is completed, the server will send a period on a display is completed, the server will send a period on a
line by itself. If the information is not available, the line by itself. If the information is not available, the
server will return the 503 response. If the optional server will return the 503 response. If the server does not
matching parameter is specified, the list is limited to only recognize the command it should return a 501 response. If
the groups that match the pattern (no matching is done on the optional matching parameter is specified, the list is
the group descriptions). Specifying a single group is limited to only the groups that match the pattern (no
usually very efficient for the server, and multiple groups matching is done on the group descriptions). Specifying a
may be specified by using wildmat patterns (see section 5), single group is usually very efficient for the server, and
not regular expressions. If nothing is matched an empty list multiple groups may be specified by using wildmat patterns
is returned, not an error.
Barber [Page 42]
(see section 5), not regular expressions. If nothing is
matched an empty list is returned, not an error.
9.4.5.1 Responses 9.4.5.1 Responses
215 information follows 215 information follows
501 Syntax error
503 program error, function not performed 503 program error, function not performed
9.4.5.2 Examples 9.4.5.2 Examples
Example of LIST NEWSGROUPS returning a list of news groups Example of LIST NEWSGROUPS returning a list of news groups
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST NEWSGROUPS [C] LIST NEWSGROUPS
[S] 215 information follows [S] 215 information follows
misc.test General Usenet testing [S] misc.test General Usenet testing
alt.rfc-writers.recovery RFC Writers Recovery [S] alt.rfc-writers.recovery RFC Writers Recovery
tx.natives.recovery Texas Natives Recovery [S] tx.natives.recovery Texas Natives Recovery
. [S] .
Example of LIST NEWSGROUPS returning an error Example of LIST NEWSGROUPS returning an error (e.g. The server
software recognizes the command as valid, but the information
is not available.)
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST NEWSGROUPS [C] LIST NEWSGROUPS
[S] 503 program error, function not performed [S] 503 program error, function not performed
9.4.6 LIST OVERVIEW.FMT 9.5 Standard extensions
LIST OVERVIEW.FMT
The overview.fmt file is maintained by some news transport
systems to contain the order in which header information is
stored in the overview databases for each news group. When
executed, news article header fields are displayed one line at
a time in the order in which they are stored in the overview
database[7] following the 215 response. When display is
completed, the server will send a period on a line by itself.
If the information is not available, the server will return
the 503 response.
If the header has the word "full" (without quotes) after the
colon, the header's name is prepended to its field in the
output returned by the server.
This is command is part of the optional OVER extension which
includes the OVER command defined in section 9.4.8. If the
OVER extension is not implemented, then this command MUST NOT
be implemented.
9.4.6.1 Responses
215 information follows
503 program error, function not performed
9.4.6.2 Examples
Example of LIST OVERVIEW.FMT returning a list of news groups
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST OVERVIEW.FMT
[S] 215 Order of fields in overview database.
Subject:
From:
Date:
Message-ID:
.
Example of LIST OVERVIEW.FMT returning an error
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready Each of the following sections describes an extension that a
server MAY provide. If the server provides the extension, it
MUST include the appropriate extension label in the response
to LIST EXTENSIONS. If it does not provide it, it MUST NOT
include the appropriate extension label. The descriptions of
facilities in each section are written as if the extension is
provided. If it is not provided, the entire section should be
ignored.
[C] LIST OVERVIEW.FMT 9.5.1 LISTGROUP extension
[S] 503 program error, function not performed Barber [Page 43]
This extension provides one command and has the extension
label LISTGROUP.
9.4.7 LISTGROUP 9.5.1.1 The LISTGROUP Command
LISTGROUP [ggg] LISTGROUP [ggg]
The LISTGROUP command is used to get a listing of all the The LISTGROUP command is used to get a listing of all the
article numbers in a particular news group. article numbers in a particular news group.
The optional parameter ggg is the name of the news group to The optional parameter ggg is the name of the news group to
be selected (e.g. "news.software.b"). A list of valid news be selected (e.g. "news.software.b"). A list of valid news
groups may be obtained from the LIST command. If no group is groups may be obtained from the LIST command. If no group is
specified, the current group is used as the default specified, the current group is used as the default
argument. argument.
The successful selection response will be a list of the The successful selection response will be a list of the
article numbers in the group followed by a period on a line article numbers in the group followed by a period on a line
by itself. The list starts on the next line following the by itself. The list starts on the next line following the
211 response code. 211 response code.
When a valid group is selected by means of this command, the When a valid group is selected by means of this command, the
internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST be set internally maintained "current article pointer" MUST be set
to the first article in the group. If an invalid group is to the first article in the group and the name of the
specified, the previously selected group and article remain current news group MUST be set to the selected news group
selected. If an empty news group is selected, the "current name. If an invalid group is specified, the previously
article pointer" may be in an indeterminate state and should selected group and article remain selected. If an empty
not be used. news group is selected, the "current article pointer" may be
in an indeterminate state and should not be used.
The LISTGROUP keyword MAY be used by a client as a
replacement for the GROUP command in establishing a valid
"current article pointer." After a successful response is
received, any other command may be used that depends on
having the "current article pointer" be valid.
The group name MUST match a news group obtained from the The group name MUST match a news group obtained from the
LIST command or an error will result, else the server will LIST command or an error will result, else the server will
respond with the 411 error code. respond with the 411 error code.
The LISTGROUP command is an optional extension. It MAY be A server that does not implement this command SHOULD return
implemented. If it is not implemented, then the LISTGROUP a 500 error response.
label MUST NOT be included in the response to the LIST
EXTENSIONS command.
9.4.7.1 Responses 9.5.1.1.1 Responses
211 list of article numbers follow 211 list of article numbers follow
411 No such group 411 No such group
412 Not currently in news group 412 Not currently in news group
500 Command not recognized
9.4.7.2 Examples 9.5.1.1.2 Examples
Barber [Page 44]
Example of a successful execution with a group that exists on Example of a successful execution with a group that exists on
the server the server
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LISTGROUP misc.test [C] LISTGROUP misc.test
[S] 211 list of article numbers follow [S] 211 list of article numbers follow
3000234 [S] 3000234
3000237 [S] 3000237
3000238 [S] 3000238
3000239 [S] 3000239
3002322 [S] 3002322
. [S] .
Example of an unsuccessful execution with a group that does Example of an unsuccessful execution with a group that does
not exist on the server not exist on the server
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LISTGROUP this.group.is.not.here [C] LISTGROUP this.group.is.not.here
[S] 411 no such group [S] 411 no such group
skipping to change at page 45, line 4 skipping to change at line 2347
not exist on the server not exist on the server
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LISTGROUP this.group.is.not.here [C] LISTGROUP this.group.is.not.here
[S] 411 no such group [S] 411 no such group
Example of an attempt to retrieve an article when the current Example of an attempt to retrieve an article when the current
group selected is empty group selected is empty
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LISTGROUP example.empty.newsgroup [C] LISTGROUP example.empty.newsgroup
[S] 412 No current article selected [S] 412 No current article selected
9.4.8 OVER 9.5.2 The OVER Extension
This extension provides two commands, OVER and LIST
OVERVIEW.FMT. The label for this extension is OVER.
9.5.2.1 LIST OVERVIEW.FMT
LIST OVERVIEW.FMT
The overview.fmt file is maintained by some news transport
systems to contain the order in which header information is
stored in the overview databases for each news group. When
Barber [Page 45]
executed, news article header fields are displayed one line at
a time in the order in which they are stored in the overview
database[7] following the 215 response. When display is
completed, the server will send a period on a line by itself.
If the information is not available, the server will return
the 503 response.
If the header has the word "full" (without quotes) after the
colon, the header's name is prepended to its field in the
output returned by the server.
This is command is part of the optional OVER extension which
includes the OVER command defined in section 9.5.2.2. If the
OVER extension is not implemented, then this command MUST NOT
be implemented. If that case, the server MUST return a 501
error response when this command is presented by the client.
9.5.2.1.1 Responses
215 information follows
501 Syntax Error
503 program error, function not performed
9.5.2.1.2 Examples
Example of LIST OVERVIEW.FMT returning a list of news groups
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST OVERVIEW.FMT
[S] 215 Order of fields in overview database.
[S] Subject:
[S] From:
[S] Date:
[S] Message-ID:
[S] .
Example of LIST OVERVIEW.FMT returning an error
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] LIST OVERVIEW.FMT
[S] 503 program error, function not performed
Barber [Page 46]
9.5.2.2 OVER
OVER [range] OVER [range]
The OVER command returns information from the overview The OVER command returns specific header information for the
database for the article(s) specified. The information article(s) specified from the current selected group. The
returned in the response to this command can be used by information returned in the response to this command can be
clients to follow discussion threads. used by clients to follow discussion threads.
The optional range argument may be any of the following: The optional range argument may be any of the following:
. an article number . an article number
. an article number followed by a dash to indicate all following . an article number followed by a dash to indicate all following
. an article number followed by a dash followed by another . an article number followed by a dash followed by another
article number article number
If no argument is specified, then information from the current If no argument is specified, then information from the current
article is displayed. Successful responses start with a 224 article is displayed. Successful responses start with a 224
response followed by the overview information for all matched response followed by the overview information for all matched
messages. Once the output is complete, a period is sent on a messages. Once the output is complete, a period is sent on a
line by itself. If no argument is specified, the information line by itself. If no argument is specified, the information
for the current article is returned. A news group must have for the current article is returned. A news group must have
been selected earlier, else a 412 error response is returned. been selected earlier, else a 412 error response is returned.
If no articles are in the range specified, the server returns If no articles are in the range specified, the server returns
a 420 error response. A 502 response will be returned if the a 420 error response. A 502 response will be returned if the
client only has permission to transfer articles. client only has permission to transfer articles. A 500
response SHOULD be returned by servers do not implement this
command.
Each line of output MUST be formatted with the article number, The output consists of one line per article, sorted in
followed by each of the headers in the overview database or numerical order of article number. Each line consists of a
the article itself (when the data is not available in the number of fields separated by an US-ASCII TAB character. The
overview database) for that article separated by a US-ASCII first 8 fields MUST be the following, in order:
tab character. The sequence of fields must be in this order: article number, subject, author, date, message-ID, references,
subject, author, date, message-id, references, byte count, and byte count, line count
line count. Other optional fields may follow line count. These
fields are specified by examining the response to the LIST
OVERVIEW.FMT command. Where no data exists, a null field must
be provided (i.e. the output will have two tab characters
adjacent to each other). Servers should not output fields for
articles that have been removed since the overview database
was created.
Note that all US-ASCII tab characters in any header data that The content of any subsequent field is given by the response
is returned will be converted to a single US-ASCII space to the LIST OVERVIEW.FMT command. A field may be empty (in
character. A contiguous sequence of US-ASCII non-printing which case there will be two adjacent US-ASCII tabs, and a
characters will be compressed to a single US-ASCII space sequence of trailing US-ASCII tabs may be omitted). Any
character in any output response. sequence of US-ASCII space or non-printing characters in a
field MUST be replaced by a single US-ASCII space.
The OVER command is part of the OVER extension, which includes The server SHOULD not produce output for articles that no
the LIST OVERVIEW.FMT command. The OVER extension is optional. longer exist.
If it is not implemented, the response to the LIST EXTENSIONS
command must not include the OVER label.
9.4.8.1 Responses 9.5.2.2.1 Responses
224 Overview information follows 224 Overview information follows
412 No news group current selected 412 No news group current selected
Barber [Page 47]
420 No article(s) selected 420 No article(s) selected
500 Command not recognized
502 Service Unavailable 502 Service Unavailable
9.4.8.2 Examples 9.5.2.2.2 Examples
Example of a successful retrieval of overview information for Example of a successful retrieval of overview information for
an article (using no article number) an article (using no article number)
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] OVER [C] OVER
[S] 224 Overview information follows [S] 224 Overview information follows
300234|I am just a test article|nobody@nowhere.to 300234|I am just a test article|nobody@nowhere.to
(Demo User)|6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500| (Demo User)|6 Oct 1998 04:38:40 -0500|
<45223423@to.to> <45223423@to.to>
. [S] .
[Please note that the line that begins with 200234 is all one [Please note that the line that begins with 300234 is all one
line that has been wrapped for readability. A vertical bar has line that has been wrapped for readability. A vertical bar has
been inserted to show where the US-ASCII TAB should actually been inserted to show where the US-ASCII TAB should actually
be.] be.]
Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of overview information Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of overview information
on an article by number on an article by number
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
skipping to change at page 47, line 15 skipping to change at line 2524
Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of overview information Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of overview information
by number because no news group was selected first by number because no news group was selected first
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] OVER [C] OVER
[S] 412 No news group selected [S] 412 No news group selected
Barber [Page 48]
Example of an attempt to retrieve an article when the current Example of an attempt to retrieve an article when the current
group selected is empty group selected is empty
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP example.empty.newsgroup [C] GROUP example.empty.newsgroup
[S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup [S] 211 0 0 0 example.empty.newsgroup
[C] OVER [C] OVER
[S] 420 No current article selected [S] 420 No current article selected
9.4.9 PAT 9.5.3 The PAT Extension
This extension provides one new command, PAT. The label for
this extension is PAT.
PAT header range|<message-id> [wildmat[ wildmat"]] 9.5.3.1 PAT
PAT header range|<message-id> [wildmat[ wildmat...]]
The PAT command is used to retrieve specific headers from The PAT command is used to retrieve specific headers from
specific articles, based on pattern matching on the contents specific articles in the currently selected group, based on
of the header. pattern matching on the contents of the header.
The required header parameter is the name of a header line The required header parameter is the name of a header line
(e.g. "subject") in a news group article. See RFC-1036 for a (e.g. "subject") in a news group article. See RFC-1036 for a
list of valid header lines. The required range argument may be list of valid header lines. The required range argument may be
any of the following: any of the following:
. an article number . an article number
. an article number followed by a dash to indicate all following . an article number followed by a dash to indicate all following
. an article number followed by a dash followed by another . an article number followed by a dash followed by another
article number. article number.
skipping to change at page 47, line 45 skipping to change at line 2559
The required header parameter is the name of a header line The required header parameter is the name of a header line
(e.g. "subject") in a news group article. See RFC-1036 for a (e.g. "subject") in a news group article. See RFC-1036 for a
list of valid header lines. The required range argument may be list of valid header lines. The required range argument may be
any of the following: any of the following:
. an article number . an article number
. an article number followed by a dash to indicate all following . an article number followed by a dash to indicate all following
. an article number followed by a dash followed by another . an article number followed by a dash followed by another
article number. article number.
The required message-id argument indicates a specific article. The required message-id argument indicates a specific article.
The range and message-id arguments are mutually exclusive. An The range and message-id arguments are mutually exclusive.
additional argument consisting of one wildmat or two or more Additional arguments consisting of one or more wildmats,
wildmats separated by a space may be specified. If there are separated by an US-ASCII space, may be specified. The default
no additional argument, a wildmat "*" is the default. is the single wildmat "*".
Successful responses start with a 221 response followed by
article number, an US-ASCII space, and the header from that A successful response consists of a 221 code followed by the
message in which the argument pattern matches the contents of output from the command. The output consists of one line for
the specified header line. A valid response includes an empty each article where the relevant header line matches one or
list (indicating that there were no matches). Once the output more of the wildmats. The line consists of the article number,
is complete, a period is sent on a line by itself. If the a US-ASCII space, and then the contents of the header (without
the header name). A valid response includes an empty list
(indicating that there were no matches). Once the output is
complete, a period is sent on a line by itself. If the
optional argument is a message-id and no such article exists, optional argument is a message-id and no such article exists,
a 430 error response shall be returned. A 502 response shall a 430 error response shall be returned. A 502 response shall
be returned if the client only has permission to transfer
articles.
The PAT command is optional. If it is not implemented, the Barber [Page 49]
response to the LIST EXTENSIONS command must not include the be returned if the client only has permission to transfer
PAT label. articles. A 500 response SHOULD be issued by all servers that
do not recognize this command.
9.4.9.1 Responses 9.5.3.1.1 Responses
221 Header follows 221 Header follows
412 no newsgroup selected 412 no newsgroup selected
430 no such article 430 no such article
500 Command not recognized
502 Service Unavailable 502 Service Unavailable
9.4.9.2 Examples 9.5.3.1.2 Examples
Example of a successful retrieval of subject lines from a Example of a successful retrieval of subject lines from a
range of articles range of articles
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] PAT Subject 3000234-300238 [C] PAT Subject 3000234-300238
[S] 221 Header Follows [S] 221 Header Follows
3000234 I am just a test article [S] 3000234 I am just a test article
3000237 Re: I am just a test article [S] 3000237 Re: I am just a test article
3000238 Ditto [S] 3000238 Ditto
. [S] .
Example of a successful retrieval of subject lines from a Example of a successful retrieval of subject lines from a
range of articles with header pattern matching range of articles with header pattern matching
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP misc.test [C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] PAT Subject 3000234-300238 j* ? *est [C] PAT Subject 3000234-300238 j* ? *est
[S] 221 Header Follows [S] 221 Header Follows
3000234 I am just a test article [S] 3000234 I am just a test article
3000237 Re: I am just a test article [S] 3000237 Re: I am just a test article
.
[S] .
Barber [Page 50]
Example of a successful retrieval of header from an article by Example of a successful retrieval of header from an article by
message-id message-id
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] PAT subject <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to> [C] PAT subject <i.am.a.test.article@nowhere.to>
[S] 221 Header information follows [S] 221 Header information follows
3000345 I am just a test article [S] 3000345 I am just a test article
. [S] .
Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of a header from an Example of an unsuccessful retrieval of a header from an
article by message-id article by message-id
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] PAT subject <i.am.not.there@nowhere.to> [C] PAT subject <i.am.not.there@nowhere.to>
[S] 430 No Such Article Found [S] 430 No Such Article Found
skipping to change at page 50, line 4 skipping to change at line 2685
[S] 221 Headers follow [S] 221 Headers follow
. .
Example of a failure due to restrictions configured into the Example of a failure due to restrictions configured into the
server server
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] GROUP news.group [C] GROUP news.group
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test [S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
Barber [Page 51]
[C] PAT Subject 3000234-300238 [C] PAT Subject 3000234-300238
[S] 502 Service Unavailable [S] 502 Service Unavailable
10. The CONCLUSION Step 10. The CONCLUSION Step
10.1 QUIT 10.1 QUIT
QUIT QUIT
The server process MUST acknowledge the QUIT command and then The server process MUST acknowledge the QUIT command and then
closes the connection to the client. This is the preferred close the connection to the client. This is the preferred
method for a client to indicate that it has finished all its method for a client to indicate that it has finished all its
transactions with the NNTP server. transactions with the NNTP server.
If a client simply disconnects (or the connection times out or If a client simply disconnects (or the connection times out or
some other fault occurs), the server SHALL gracefully cease some other fault occurs), the server SHALL gracefully cease
its attempts to service the client. its attempts to service the client.
10.1.1 Responses 10.1.1 Responses
205 closing connection - goodbye! 205 closing connection - goodbye!
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[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] QUIT [C] QUIT
[S] 205 closing connection [S] 205 closing connection
11. Other Keywords 11. Other Keywords
There are other keywords that may be used at any time between There are other keywords that may be used at any time between
the beginning of a session and its termination. Using these the beginning of a session and its termination. Using these
keywords do not alter any state information, but the response keywords does not alter any state information, but the
generated from the use of these keywords may provide useful response generated from the use of these keywords may provide
information to clients that use them. useful information to clients that use them.
11.1 DATE 11.1 DATE
DATE DATE
This command exists to help clients find out the current time This command exists to help clients find out the current time
from the server's perspective. This command SHOULD NOT be from the server's perspective. This command SHOULD NOT be
used as a substitute for NTP[8], but to provide information used as a substitute for NTP[8], but to provide information
that might be useful when using the NEWNEWS command (see that might be useful when using the NEWNEWS command (see
section 0). section 11.5).
Barber [Page 52]
This command returns a one-line response code of 111 followed This command returns a one-line response code of 111 followed
by the UTC (or GMT) date and time on the server in the form by the UTC (or GMT) date and time on the server in the form
YYYYMMDDhhmmss. YYYYMMDDhhmmss.
11.1.1 Responses 11.1.1 Responses
111 YYYYMMDDhhmmss 111 YYYYMMDDhhmmss
11.1.2 Example 11.1.2 Example
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] DATE [C] DATE
[S] 19990623135624 [S] 111 19990623135624
11.2 The HELP Command 11.2 The DEBUG Command
DEBUG ON|OFF|ACK
The DEBUG command is available for implementers and system
administrators to use in debugging problems with a server.
A client sends the command DEBUG ON to activate the use of
debugging responses. The client sends the command DEBUG OFF
to deactivate the use of debugging responses. A client sends
the command DEBUG ACK acknowledge the presentation of a
DEBUG response code. Once a DEBUG ACK has been sent the
client should expect the server to respond with another
debugging result code or a response code appropriate to the
command sent that started the most recent protocol
transaction. Servers that recognize but are not configured
to permit the use of DEBUG commands will return a 502
command when the DEBUG command is used. Servers that do not
recognize the DEBUG command will return a 500 error code.
11.2.1 Responses
291 DEBUG ON Acknowledged
292 DEBUG OFF Acknowledged
500 Command not recognized
502 Service unavailable
11.2.2 Examples
An example of activating, running a command and then
deactivating the DEBUG responses [Different servers may have
different debug response codes in use for different commands.
This is just an example using code 191.]
Barber [Page 53]
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] DEBUG ON
[S] 291 DEBUG ON Acknowledged
[C] GROUP misc.test
[S] 191 Searching active file to see if group exists
[C] DEBUG ACK
[S] 211 1234 3000234 3002322 misc.test
[C] DEBUG OFF
[S] 292 DEBUG OFF Acknowledged
An example of a negative response to DEBUG ON [The server does
not disconnect after presenting the negative response.]
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] DEBUG ON
[S] 502 Service unavailable
11.3 The HELP Command
HELP HELP
This command provides a short summary of commands that are This command provides a short summary of commands that are
understood by this implementation of the server. The help text understood by this implementation of the server. The help text
will be presented as a textual response terminated by a single will be presented as a textual response terminated by a single
period on a line by itself. period on a line by itself.
This text is not guaranteed to be in any particular format and This text is not guaranteed to be in any particular format and
SHALL NOT be used by clients as a replacement for the LIST SHALL NOT be used by clients as a replacement for the LIST
EXTENSIONS command described in section 8.1. EXTENSIONS command described in section 8.1.
11.2.1 Responses 11.3.1 Responses
100 help text follows 100 help text follows
11.2.2 Example 11.3.2 Example
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] HELP [C] HELP
Barber [Page 54]
[S] 100 Help text follows [S] 100 Help text follows
This is some help text. There is no specific [S] This is some help text. There is no specific
formatting requirement for this test, though [S] formatting requirement for this test, though
it is customary for it to list the valid commands [S] it is customary for it to list the valid commands
and give a brief definition of what they do [S] and give a brief definition of what they do
. [S] .
11.3 NEWGROUPS 11.4 NEWGROUPS
NEWGROUPS date time [GMT|UTC] NEWGROUPS date time [GMT|UTC]
A list of newsgroups created since <date and time> MUST be A list of newsgroups created since <date and time> MUST be
listed in the same format as the LIST command. listed in the same format as the LIST command.
The date is sent as 6 or 8 digits in the format [XX]YYMMDD, The date is sent as 6 or 8 digits in the format [XX]YYMMDD,
where XX is the first two digits of the year, YY is the last where XX is the first two digits of the year, YY is the last
two digits of the year, MM is the two digits of the month two digits of the year, MM is the two digits of the month
(with leading zero, if appropriate), and DD is the day of the (with leading zero, if appropriate), and DD is the day of the
skipping to change at page 52, line 38 skipping to change at line 2883
of NNTP to establish the server's local timezone. of NNTP to establish the server's local timezone.
Note that an empty list (i.e., the text body returned by this Note that an empty list (i.e., the text body returned by this
command consists only of the terminating period) is a possible command consists only of the terminating period) is a possible
valid response, and indicates that there are currently no new valid response, and indicates that there are currently no new
newsgroups. newsgroups.
Clients SHOULD make all queries using GMT/UTC time when Clients SHOULD make all queries using GMT/UTC time when
possible. possible.
11.3.1 Responses 11.4.1 Responses
231 list of new newsgroups follows 231 list of new newsgroups follows
11.3.2 Examples 11.4.2 Examples
Example where there are new groups Example where there are new groups
Barber [Page 55]
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] NEWGROUPS 19990624 000000 UTC [C] NEWGROUPS 19990624 000000 UTC
[S] 230 list of new newsgroups follows [S] 230 list of new newsgroups follows
alt.rfc-writers.recovery [S] alt.rfc-writers.recovery
tx.natives.recovery [S] tx.natives.recovery
. [S] .
Example where there are no new groups Example where there are no new groups
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] NEWGROUPS 19990624 000000 UTC [C] NEWGROUPS 19990624 000000 UTC
[S] 230 list of new newsgroups follows [S] 230 list of new newsgroups follows
. [S] .
11.4 NEWNEWS 11.5 NEWNEWS
NEWNEWS newsgroups date time [GMT] NEWNEWS newsgroups date time [GMT]
A list of message-ids of articles posted or received to the A list of message-ids of articles posted or received to the
specified news group since "date" will be listed. The format specified news group or groups since "date" will be listed.
of the listing will be one message-id per line, as though text The format of the listing will be one message-id per line, as
were being sent. A single line consisting solely of one though text were being sent. Each message-id SHALL appear only
period followed by CR-LF will terminate the list. once in a response. The order of the response has no specific
significance and may vary from response to response in the
same session. A single line consisting solely of one period
followed by CR-LF will terminate the list.
Date and time are in the same format as the NEWGROUPS command. Date and time are in the same format as the NEWGROUPS command.
The newsgroups parameter MUST be in wildmat format and MAY The newsgroups parameter MUST be in wildmat format and MAY
consist of multiple wildmat constructs separated by an US- consist of multiple wildmat constructs separated by an US-
ASCII comma character. ASCII comma character.
Note that an empty list (i.e., the text body returned by this Note that an empty list (i.e., the text body returned by this
command consists only of the terminating period) is a possible command consists only of the terminating period) is a possible
valid response, and indicates that there is currently no new valid response, and indicates that there is currently no new
news. news.
Clients SHOULD make all queries in GMT/UTC time when possible. Clients SHOULD make all queries in GMT/UTC time when possible.
11.4.1 Responses 11.5.1 Responses
230 list of new articles by message-id follows 230 list of new articles by message-id follows
11.4.2 Examples Barber [Page 56]
11.5.2 Examples
Example where there are new articles Example where there are new articles
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] NEWNEWS news.*,sci.* 19990624 000000 [C] NEWNEWS news.*,sci.* 19990624 000000
[S] 230 list of new articles by message-id follows [S] 230 list of new articles by message-id follows
<i.am.a.new.article@nowhere.to> [S] <i.am.a.new.article@nowhere.to>
<i.am.another.new.article@nowhere.to>
. [S] <i.am.another.new.article@nowhere.to>
Example where there are no new articles Example where there are no new articles
[S] 200 NNTP Service Ready [S] 200 NNTP Service Ready
[C] NEWNEWS alt.* 19990624 000000 [C] NEWNEWS alt.* 19990624 000000
[S] 230 list of new articles by message-id follows [S] 230 list of new articles by message-id follows
. [S] .
12. Framework for NNTP Extensions 12. Framework for NNTP Extensions
Although NNTP is widely and robustly deployed, some parts of Although NNTP is widely and robustly deployed, some parts of
the Internet community might wish to extend the NNTP service. the Internet community might wish to extend the NNTP service.
This memo defines a means whereby an extended NNTP client may This memo defines a means whereby an extended NNTP client may
query the server to determine the service extensions that it query the server to determine the service extensions that it
supports. supports.
It must be emphasized that any extension to the NNTP service It must be emphasized that any extension to the NNTP service
skipping to change at page 54, line 41 skipping to change at line 2995
many cases, the cost of extending the NNTP service will likely many cases, the cost of extending the NNTP service will likely
outweigh the benefit. outweigh the benefit.
Given this environment, the framework for the extensions Given this environment, the framework for the extensions
described in this memo consists of: described in this memo consists of:
a) a mechanism for clients to determine a server's available a) a mechanism for clients to determine a server's available
extensions extensions
b) a registry of NNTP service extensions b) a registry of NNTP service extensions
Barber [Page 57]
The LIST EXTENSIONS command is described in section 8.1 of The LIST EXTENSIONS command is described in section 8.1 of
this memo and is the mechanism for clients to use to determine this memo and is the mechanism for clients to use to determine
what extensions are available for client use. what extensions are available for client use.
The IANA shall maintain a registry of NNTP service extensions. The IANA shall maintain a registry of NNTP service extensions.
Associated with each such extension is a corresponding NNTP Associated with each such extension is a corresponding NNTP
keyword value. Each service extension registered with the IANA keyword value. Each service extension registered with the IANA
MUST be defined in an RFC. Such RFCs either must be on the MUST be defined in an RFC. Such RFCs either must be on the
standards-track or must define an IESG-approved experimental standards-track or must define an IESG-approved experimental
protocol. The definition must include: protocol. The definition must include:
. the textual name of the NNTP service extension . the textual name of the NNTP service extension
. the label that is returned by LIST EXTENSIONS that would . the label that is returned by LIST EXTENSIONS that would
indicate to the client that the server supports this indicate to the client that the server supports this
particular extension particular extension
. any new NNTP keywords associated with the extension . any new NNTP keywords associated with the extension
. the syntax and possible values of parameters associated with . the syntax and possible values of parameters associated with
the new NNTP keywords the new NNTP keywords
. any new parameters the extension associates with any other . any new parameters the extension associates with any other
pre-existing NNTP verbs pre-existing NNTP keywords
. how support for the extension affects the behavior of a server . how support for the extension affects the behavior of a server
and client NNTP and client NNTP
. the increment by which the extension is increasing the maximum . any increase in the maximum length of commands over the value
length of the any commands over that specified in this specified in this memo
document.
In addition, any NNTP keyword value that starts with an upper In addition, any NNTP keyword value that starts with an upper
or lower case "X" refers to a local NNTP service extension, or lower case "X" refers to a local NNTP service extension,
which is used through bilateral, rather than standardized, which is used through bilateral, rather than standardized,
agreement. Keywords beginning with "X" MUST NOT be used in a agreement. Keywords beginning with "X" MUST NOT be used in a
registered service extension. registered service extension.
Any keyword values presented in the NNTP response that do not Any keyword values presented in the NNTP response that do not
begin with "X" must correspond to a standard, standards-track, begin with "X" must correspond to a standard, standards-track,
or IESG-approved experimental NNTP service extension or IESG-approved experimental NNTP service extension
registered with IANA. A conforming server MUST NOT offer non registered with IANA. A conforming server MUST NOT offer non
"X" prefixed keyword values that are not described in a "X" prefixed keyword values that are not described in a
registered extension. registered extension.
Additional verbs are bound by the same rules as NNTP keywords; Additional keywords are bound by the same rules as NNTP
specifically, verbs beginning with "X" are local extensions keywords; specifically, keywords beginning with "X" are local
that MUST NOT be registered or standardized and verbs not extensions that MUST NOT be registered or standardized and
beginning with "X" must always be registered. keywords not beginning with "X" must always be registered.
12.1 Initial IANA Registry 12.1 Initial IANA Registry
The IANA's initial registry of NNTP service extensions The IANA's initial registry of NNTP service extensions
consists of these entries: consists of these entries:
Barber [Page 58]
Service Extension NNTP Extension Label Added Behavior Service Extension NNTP Extension Label Added Behavior
Overview Support OVER Defined in this Overview Support OVER Defined in this
document document
Specific Article LISTGROUP Defined in this Specific Article LISTGROUP Defined in this
Numbers document Numbers document
Header Pattern PAT Defined in this Header Pattern PAT Defined in this
Matching document Matching document
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that ABNF strings are case insensitive. that ABNF strings are case insensitive.
article-command = "ARTICLE" [1*WSP (msg-id / article-number)] article-command = "ARTICLE" [1*WSP (msg-id / article-number)]
*WSP CRLF *WSP CRLF
article-number = 1*16DIGIT article-number = 1*16DIGIT
augument = parameter ; excluding sequence ".." augument = parameter ; excluding sequence ".."
body-command = "BODY" [1*WSP (msg-id / article-number)] *WSP body-command = "BODY" [1*WSP (msg-id / article-number)] *WSP
CRLF CRLF
command = article-command / command = article-command /
body-command / body-command /
debug-command /
date-command / date-command /
group-command / group-command /
head-command / head-command /
help-command / help-command /
ihave-command / ihave-command /
last-command / last-command /
list-active-times-command / list-active-times-command /
list-distrib-pats-command / list-distrib-pats-command /
list-distributions-command / list-distributions-command /
list-extensions-command / list-extensions-command /
skipping to change at page 56, line 41 skipping to change at line 3097
mode-reader-command / mode-reader-command /
newgroups-command / newgroups-command /
newnews-command / newnews-command /
next-command / next-command /
over-command / over-command /
pat-command / pat-command /
post-command / post-command /
quit-command / quit-command /
stat-command stat-command
CR = %x0D CR = %x0D
Barber [Page 59]
CRLF = CR LF CRLF = CR LF
date-command = "DATE" *WSP CRLF date-command = "DATE" *WSP CRLF
date = 6*8DIGIT date = 6*8DIGIT
DIGIT = %x30-39 DIGIT = %x30-39
debug-command = "DEBUG" 1*WSP ("ON"/"OFF"/"ACK") *WSP CRLF
group-command = "GROUP" 1*WSP newsgroup *WSP CRLF group-command = "GROUP" 1*WSP newsgroup *WSP CRLF
head-command = "HEAD" [1*WSP (msg-id / article-number)] *WSP head-command = "HEAD" [1*WSP (msg-id / article-number)] *WSP
CRLF CRLF
header = parameter header = parameter
help-command = "HELP" *WSP CRLF help-command = "HELP" *WSP CRLF
HT = %x09 HT = %x09
ihave-command = "IHAVE" 1*WSP msg-id *WSP CRLF ihave-command = "IHAVE" 1*WSP msg-id *WSP CRLF
last-command = "LAST" *WSP CRLF last-command = "LAST" *WSP CRLF
LF = %x0A LF = %x0A
list-active-times-command = "LIST" 1*WSP "ACTIVE.TIMES" list-active-times-command = "LIST" 1*WSP "ACTIVE.TIMES"
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range = article-number ["-" [article-number]] range = article-number ["-" [article-number]]
SP = %x20 SP = %x20
stat-command = "STAT" [1*WSP (msg-id / article-number)] *WSP stat-command = "STAT" [1*WSP (msg-id / article-number)] *WSP
CRLF CRLF
time = 6DIGIT time = 6DIGIT
UTF-8-non-ascii = UTF8-2 / UTF8-3 / UTF8-4 / UTF8-5 / UTF8-6 UTF-8-non-ascii = UTF8-2 / UTF8-3 / UTF8-4 / UTF8-5 / UTF8-6
UTF8-1 = %x80-BF UTF8-1 = %x80-BF
UTF8-2 = %xC0-DF UTF8-1 UTF8-2 = %xC0-DF UTF8-1
UTF8-3 = %xE0-EF 2UTF8-1 UTF8-3 = %xE0-EF 2UTF8-1
UTF8-4 = %xF0-F7 3UTF8-1 UTF8-4 = %xF0-F7 3UTF8-1
Barber [Page 60]
UTF8-5 = %xF8-FB 4UTF8-1 UTF8-5 = %xF8-FB 4UTF8-1
UTF8-6 = %xFC-FD 5UTF8-1 UTF8-6 = %xFC-FD 5UTF8-1
wildmat = ["!"]1*("*" / "?" / wildmat-exact / wildmat-set / wildmat = ["!"]1*("*" / "?" / wildmat-exact / wildmat-set /
"\" (%x22-7F / UTF-8-non-ascii)) "\" (%x22-7F / UTF-8-non-ascii))
wildmat-exact = %x22-29 / %x2B-3E / %x40-5A / %x5D-7F / UTF-8- wildmat-exact = %x22-29 / %x2B-3E / %x40-5A / %x5D-7F / UTF-8-
non-ascii ; exclude space ! * ? [ \ non-ascii ; exclude space ! * ? [ \
wildmat-non-hyphen = %x21-2C / %x2E-7F / UTF-8-non-ascii ; wildmat-non-hyphen = %x21-2C / %x2E-7F / UTF-8-non-ascii ;
exclude space - exclude space -
wildmat-set = "[" ["^"] ["]" / "-"] *(wildmat-non-hyphen"["-" wildmat-set = "[" ["^"] ["]" / "-"] *(wildmat-non-hyphen"["-"
wildmat-non-hyphen]) ["-"] wildmat-non-hyphen]) ["-"]
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include definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though include definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though
it does make some suggestions for reducing security risks. it does make some suggestions for reducing security risks.
14.1 Personal and Proprietary Information 14.1 Personal and Proprietary Information
NNTP, because it was created to distribute network news NNTP, because it was created to distribute network news
articles, will forward whatever information is stored in those articles, will forward whatever information is stored in those
articles. Specification of that information is outside this articles. Specification of that information is outside this
scope of this document, but it is likely that some personal scope of this document, but it is likely that some personal
and/or proprietary information is available in some of those and/or proprietary information is available in some of those
articles. It is very important that designers and implementors articles. It is very important that designers and implementers
provide informative warnings to users so personal and/or provide informative warnings to users so personal and/or
proprietary information is not disclosed inadvertently. proprietary information is not disclosed inadvertently.
Additionally, effective and easily understood mechanisms to Additionally, effective and easily understood mechanisms to
manage the distribution of news articles must be provided to manage the distribution of news articles must be provided to
NNTP Server administrators, so that they are able to report NNTP Server administrators, so that they are able to report
with confidence what information is and is not being forwarded with confidence what information is and is not being forwarded
in news articles passing though their servers. in news articles passing though their servers.
14.2 Abuse of Server Log Information 14.2 Abuse of Server Log Information
A server is in the position to save session data about a A server is in the position to save session data about a
user's requests which might identify their reading patterns or user's requests that might identify their reading patterns or
subjects of interest. This information is clearly confidential subjects of interest. This information is clearly confidential
in nature and its handling can be constrained by law in in nature and its handling can be constrained by law in
certain countries. People using the NNTP protocol to provide certain countries. People using the NNTP protocol to provide
data are responsible for ensuring that such material is not data are responsible for ensuring that such material is not
distributed without the permission of any individuals that are distributed without the permission of any individuals that are
identifiable by the published results. identifiable by the published results.
14.3 DNS Spoofing 14.3 DNS Spoofing
Clients and Servers using NNTP rely heavily on the Domain Name Clients and Servers using NNTP rely heavily on the Domain Name
Service, and are thus generally prone to security attacks Service, and are thus generally prone to security attacks
based on the deliberate mis-association of IP addresses and based on the deliberate mis-association of IP addresses and
DNS names. Clients and Servers need to be cautious in assuming DNS names. Clients and Servers need to be cautious in assuming
the continuing validity of an IP number/DNS name association. the continuing validity of an IP number/DNS name association.
Barber [Page 61]
In particular, NNTP clients and servers SHOULD rely on their In particular, NNTP clients and servers SHOULD rely on their
name resolver for confirmation of an IP number/DNS name name resolver for confirmation of an IP number/DNS name
association, rather than caching the result of previous host association, rather than caching the result of previous host
name lookups. Many platforms already can cache host name name lookups. Many platforms already can cache host name
lookups locally when appropriate, and they SHOULD be lookups locally when appropriate, and they SHOULD be
configured to do so. It is proper for these lookups to be configured to do so. It is proper for these lookups to be
cached, however, only when the TTL (Time To Live) information cached, however, only when the TTL (Time To Live) information
reported by the name server makes it likely that the cached reported by the name server makes it likely that the cached
information will remain useful. information will remain useful.
skipping to change at page 59, line 19 skipping to change at line 3242
This requirement also improves the load-balancing behavior of This requirement also improves the load-balancing behavior of
clients for replicated servers using the same DNS name and clients for replicated servers using the same DNS name and
reduces the likelihood of a user's experiencing failure in reduces the likelihood of a user's experiencing failure in
accessing sites which use that strategy. accessing sites which use that strategy.
14.4 Weak Authentication and Access Control 14.4 Weak Authentication and Access Control
There is no user-based or token-based authentication in the There is no user-based or token-based authentication in the
basic NNTP specification. Access is normally controlled by basic NNTP specification. Access is normally controlled by
server configuration files. Those files specify access by server configuration files. Those files specify access by
using domain names or ip addresses. However, this using domain names or IP addresses. However, this
specification does permit the creation of extensions to the specification does permit the creation of extensions to the
NNTP protocol itself for such purposes. While including such NNTP protocol itself for such purposes. While including such
mechanisms is optional, doing so is strongly encouraged. mechanisms is optional, doing so is strongly encouraged.
Other mechanisms are also available. For example, a proxy Other mechanisms are also available. For example, a proxy
server could be put in place that requires authentication server could be put in place that requires authentication
before connecting via the proxy to the NNTP server. before connecting via the proxy to the NNTP server.
15. Notes 15. References
UNIX is a registered trademark of the X/Open Consortium.
16. References
1 Kantor, B and P. Lapsley, "Network News Transfer Protocol", [1] Kantor, B and P. Lapsley, "Network News Transfer Protocol",
RFC-977, U.C. San Diego and U.C. Berkeley. RFC-977, U.C. San Diego and U.C. Berkeley.
2 Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646", Barber [Page 62]
RFC 2278, Alis Technologies. [2] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646",
RFC 2279, Alis Technologies.
3 Coded Character Set-7-bit American Standard Code for [3] Coded Character Set-7-bit American Standard Code for
Information Interchange, ANSI x3.4-1986. Information Interchange, ANSI x3.4-1986.
4 Bradner, Scott, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [4] Bradner, Scott, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", RFC-2119, Harvard University. Requirement Levels", RFC-2119, Harvard University.
5 Salz, Rich, Manual Page for wildmat(3) from the INN 1.4 [5] Salz, Rich, Manual Page for wildmat(3) from the INN 1.4
distribution, UUNET Technologies, Revision 1.10, April, 1992. distribution, UUNET Technologies, Revision 1.10, April, 1992.
6 Horton, M.R. and R. Adams, "Standard for interchange of [6] Horton, M.R. and R. Adams, "Standard for interchange of
USENET messages", RFC-1036, AT&T Bell Laboratories and Center USENET messages", RFC-1036, AT&T Bell Laboratories and Center
for Seismic Studies, December, 1987. for Seismic Studies, December, 1987.
7 Robertson, Rob, "FAQ: Overview database / NOV General [7] Robertson, Rob, "FAQ: Overview database / NOV General
Information", ftp://ftp.uu.net/networking/news/nntp/inn/faq- Information", ftp://ftp.uu.net/networking/news/nntp/inn/faq-
nov.Z, January, 1995. nov.Z, January, 1995.
8 Mills, David L., "Network Time Protocol (Version 3), [8] Mills, David L., "Network Time Protocol (Version 3),
Specification, Implementation and Analysis", RFC-1305, Specification, Implementation and Analysis", RFC-1305,
University of Delaware, March 1992. University of Delaware, March 1992.
9 Crocker, D. and Overell, P., "Augmented BNF for Syntax [9] Crocker, D. and Overell, P., "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", RFC-2234, Internet Mail Consortium and Specifications: ABNF", RFC-2234, Internet Mail Consortium and
Demon Internet, Ltd. Demon Internet, Ltd.
16. Notes
UNIX is a registered trademark of the X/Open Consortium.
17. Acknowledgments 17. Acknowledgments
The author acknowledges the original authors of NNTP as The author acknowledges the original authors of NNTP as
documented in RFC 977: Brian Kantor and Phil Lapsey. documented in RFC 977: Brian Kantor and Phil Lapsey.
The author gratefully acknowledges the work of the NNTP The author gratefully acknowledges the work of the NNTP
committee chaired by Eliot Lear. The organization of this committee chaired by Eliot Lear. The organization of this
document was influenced by the last available draft from this document was influenced by the last available draft from this
working group. A special thanks to Eliot for generously working group. A special thanks to Eliot for generously
providing the original machine readable sources for that providing the original machine readable sources for that
document. document.
The author gratefully acknowledges the work of the Marshall The author gratefully acknowledges the work of the Marshall
Rose & John G. Meyers in RFC 1939 and the work of the DRUMS Rose & John G. Meyers in RFC 1939 and the work of the DRUMS
working group, specifically RFC 1869, which is the basis of working group, specifically RFC 1869, which is the basis of
the NNTP extensions mechanism detailed in this document. the NNTP extensions mechanism detailed in this document.
Barber [Page 63]
The author gratefully acknowledges the authors of RFC 2616 for The author gratefully acknowledges the authors of RFC 2616 for
providing specific and relevant examples of security issues providing specific and relevant examples of security issues
that should be considered for HTTP. Since many of the same that should be considered for HTTP. Since many of the same
considerations exist for NNTP, those examples that are considerations exist for NNTP, those examples that are
relevant have been included here with some minor rewrites. relevant have been included here with some minor rewrites.
The author gratefully acknowledges the comments and additional The author gratefully acknowledges the comments and additional
information provided by the following individuals in preparing information provided by the following individuals in preparing
one of the progenitors of this document: one of the progenitors of this document:
. Wayne Davison <davison@armory.com> . Wayne Davison <davison@armory.com>
. Clive D.W. Feather <clive@demon.net> . Clive D.W. Feather <clive@demon.net>
. Chris Lewis <clewis@bnr.ca> . Chris Lewis <clewis@bnr.ca>
. Tom Limoncelli <tal@mars.superlink.net> . Tom Limoncelli <tal@mars.superlink.net>
. Eric Schnoebelen <eric@egsner.cirr.com> . Eric Schnoebelen <eric@egsner.cirr.com>
. Rich Salz <rsalz@osf.org> . Rich Salz <rsalz@osf.org>
This work was precipitated by the work of various newsreader This work was motivated by the work of various newsreader
authors and newsserver authors, which includes those listed authors and newsserver authors, which includes those listed
below: below:
. Rick Adams -- Original author of the NNTP extensions to the RN . Rick Adams -- Original author of the NNTP extensions to the RN
newsreader and last maintainer of Bnews newsreader and last maintainer of Bnews
. Stan Barber -- Original author of the NNTP extensions to the . Stan Barber -- Original author of the NNTP extensions to the
newsreaders that are part of Bnews. newsreaders that are part of Bnews.
. Geoff Collyer -- Original author of the OVERVIEW database . Geoff Collyer -- Original author of the OVERVIEW database
proposal and one of the original authors of CNEWS proposal and one of the original authors of CNEWS
. Dan Curry -- Original author of the xvnews newsreader . Dan Curry -- Original author of the xvnews newsreader
. Wayne Davision -- Author of the first threading extensions to . Wayne Davision -- Author of the first threading extensions to the
the
RN newsreader (commonly called TRN). RN newsreader (commonly called TRN).
. Geoff Huston -- Original author of ANU NEWS . Geoff Huston -- Original author of ANU NEWS
. Phil Lapsey -- Original author of the UNIX reference . Phil Lapsey -- Original author of the UNIX reference
implementation implementation
. Ian Lea -- Long time maintainer of the TIN newsreader . Ian Lea -- Maintainer of the TIN newsreader
. Chris Lewis -- First known implementor of the AUTHINFO GENERIC . Chris Lewis -- First known implementor of the AUTHINFO GENERIC
extension extension
. Rich Salz -- Original author of INN . Rich Salz -- Original author of INN
. Henry Spencer -- One of the original authors of CNEWS . Henry Spencer -- One of the original authors of CNEWS
. Kim Storm -- Original author of the NN newsreader . Kim Storm -- Original author of the NN newsreader
18. Author's Address 18. Author's Address
Stan Barber Stan Barber
P.O. Box 300481 P.O. Box 300481
Houston, Texas 77230 Houston, Texas 77230
Email: <sob@academ.com> Email: <sob@academ.com>
This document expires May 15, 2000. Barber [Page 64]
This document expires January 15, 2001.
Barber [Page 65]
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