draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00.txt   draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed.
Internet-Draft Nokia Solutions and Networks Internet-Draft Nokia Solutions and Networks
Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu
Expires: July 24, 2014 Avaya Expires: August 18, 2014 Avaya
J. Schoenwaelder J. Schoenwaelder
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
January 20, 2014 February 14, 2014
Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement and Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement and
Requirements Requirements
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01
Abstract Abstract
This document provides a problem statement, deployment and management This document provides a problem statement, deployment and management
topology options as well as the requirements for the management of topology options as well as the requirements for the management of
networks where constrained devices are involved. networks where constrained devices are involved.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
skipping to change at page 1, line 36 skipping to change at page 1, line 36
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on July 24, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 18, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3. Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus . . . . . . . 5 1.3. Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus . . . . . . . 5
1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5. Management Topology Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.5. Management Topology Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6. Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Network . . . 10 1.6. Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Network . . . 10
2. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.7. Configuration and Monitoring Functionality Levels . . . . 13
2. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3. Requirements on the Management of Networks with 3. Requirements on the Management of Networks with
Constrained Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Constrained Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.1. Management Architecture/System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.1. Management Architecture/System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2. Management protocols and data model . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.2. Management protocols and data model . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.3. Configuration management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.3. Configuration management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.4. Monitoring functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.4. Monitoring functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.5. Self-management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.5. Self-management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.6. Security and Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.6. Security and Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.7. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.7. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.8. SW Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.8. SW Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.9. Traffic management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.9. Traffic management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.10. Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.10. Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.11. Implementation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.11. Implementation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Appendix A. Related Development in other Bodies . . . . . . . . . 47 Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
A.1. ETSI TC M2M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 -
A.2. OASIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 . . . . . . . . 48
A.3. OMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 A.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 -
A.4. IPSO Alliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 . . . . . . . . 48
Appendix B. Related Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Appendix C. Open issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Appendix D. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
D.1. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 . . . . . . . . 53
D.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
D.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
D.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1.1. Overview 1.1. Overview
Small devices with limited CPU, memory, and power resources, so Constrained devices, aka. sensor, smart object, or smart device, with
called constrained devices (aka. sensor, smart object, or smart limited CPU, memory, and power resources, can constitute a network.
device) can constitute a network. Such a network of constrained Such a network of constrained devices itself may be constrained or
devices itself may be constrained or challenged, e.g. with unreliable challenged, e.g. with unreliable or lossy channels, wireless
or lossy channels, wireless technologies with limited bandwidth and a technologies with limited bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing
dynamic topology, needing the service of a gateway or proxy to the service of a gateway or proxy to connect to the Internet. In
connect to the Internet. In other scenarios, the constrained devices other scenarios, the constrained devices can be connected to a non-
can be connected to a non-constrained network using off-the-shelf constrained network using off-the-shelf protocol stacks.
protocol stacks.
Constrained devices might be in charge of gathering information in Constrained devices might be in charge of gathering information in
diverse settings including natural ecosystems, buildings, and diverse settings including natural ecosystems, buildings, and
factories and send the information to one or more server stations. factories and send the information to one or more server stations.
Constrained devices may work under severe resource constraints such Constrained devices may also work under severe resource constraints
as limited battery and computing power, little memory and such as limited battery and computing power, little memory and
insufficient wireless bandwidth, and communication capabilities. A insufficient wireless bandwidth, and communication capabilities. A
central entity, e.g., a base station or controlling server, might central entity, e.g., a base station or controlling server, might
have more computational and communication resources and can act as a have more computational and communication resources and can act as a
gateway between the constrained devices and the application logic in gateway between the constrained devices and the application logic in
the core network. the core network.
Today diverse size of small devices with different resources and Today diverse size of constrained devices with different resources
capabilities are being connected. Mobile personal gadgets, building- and capabilities are being connected. Mobile personal gadgets,
automation devices, cellular phones, Machine-to-machine (M2M) building-automation devices, cellular phones, Machine-to-machine
devices, etc. benefit from interacting with other "things" in the (M2M) devices, etc. benefit from interacting with other "things" in
near or somewhere in the Internet. With this the Internet of Things the near or somewhere in the Internet. With this the Internet of
(IoT) becomes a reality build up of uniquely identifiable objects Things (IoT) becomes a reality build up of uniquely identifiable
(things). And over the next decade, this could grow to trillions of objects (things). And over the next decade, this could grow to
constrained devices and will greatly increase the Internet's size and trillions of constrained devices and will greatly increase the
scope. Internet's size and scope.
Network management is characterized by monitoring network status, Network management is characterized by monitoring network status,
detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network
parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain
normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application
performance. The traditional network management application performance. The traditional network management application
periodically collects information from a set of elements that are periodically collects information from a set of elements that are
needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the
network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have
limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. They limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. They
might also need to work in hostile environments with advanced might also need to work in hostile environments with advanced
security requirements or need to be used in harsh environments for a security requirements or need to be used in harsh environments for a
long time without supervision. Due to such constraints, the long time without supervision. Due to such constraints, the
management of a network with constrained devices offers different management of a network with constrained devices offers different
type of challenges compared to the management of a traditional IP type of challenges compared to the management of a traditional IP
network. network.
The IETF has already done a lot of standardization work to enable the The IETF has already done substantial standardization work to enable
communication in IP networks and to manage such networks as well as the communication in IP networks and to manage such networks as well
the manifold type of nodes in these networks [RFC6632]. However, the as the manifold type of nodes in these networks [RFC6632]. However,
IETF so far has not developed any specific technologies for the the IETF so far has not developed any specific technologies for the
management of constrained devices and the networks comprised by management of constrained devices and the networks comprised by
constrained devices. IP-based sensors or constrained devices in such constrained devices. IP-based sensors or constrained devices in such
an environment, i.e., devices with very limited memory and CPU an environment, i.e., devices with very limited memory and CPU
resources, use today application-layer protocols in an ad-hoc manner resources, use today application-layer protocols in an ad-hoc manner
to do simple resource management and monitoring. to do simple resource management and monitoring.
This document provides a problem statement and lists the requirements This document provides a problem statement and lists the requirements
for the management of a network with constrained devices. for the management of a network with constrained devices.
Section 1.3 and Section 1.5 describe different topology options for Section 1.3 and Section 1.5 describe different topology options for
the networking and management of constrained devices. Section 2 the networking and management of constrained devices. Section 2
provides a problem statement on the issue of the management of provides a problem statement on the issue of the management of
networked constrained devices. Section 3 lists requirements on the networked constrained devices. Section 3 lists requirements on the
management of applications and networks with constrained devices. management of applications and networks with constrained devices.
Note that the requirements in Section 3 need to be seen as standalone Note that the requirements in Section 3 need to be seen as
requirements, where different implementer may decide to realize a standalone, where different implementer may decide to realize a
different set of them. different set of requirements.
The use cases in the context of networks with constrained devices can The use cases in the context of networks with constrained devices can
be found in the companion document [COM-US]. be found in the companion document [COM-USE].
1.2. Terminology 1.2. Terminology
Concerning constrained devices and networks this document generally Concerning constrained devices and networks this document generally
builds on the terminology defined in [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology], builds on the terminology defined in [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology],
where the terms Constrained Device, Constrained Network, etc. are where the terms Constrained Device, Constrained Network, etc. are
defined. defined.
The following terms are additionally used throughout this The following terms are additionally used throughout this
documentation: documentation:
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[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology]. [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology].
1.3. Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus 1.3. Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus
In this document we differentiate following type of networks In this document we differentiate following type of networks
concerning their transport and communication technologies: concerning their transport and communication technologies:
Note that a network in general can involve constrained and non- Note that a network in general can involve constrained and non-
constrained devices. constrained devices.
1. Wireline non-constrained networks, e.g. an Ethernet-LAN with non- 1. Wireline non-constrained networks, e.g. an Ethernet-LAN with
constrained and constrained devices involved. constrained and non-constrained devices involved.
2. A combination of wireline and wireless networks, which may or may 2. A combination of wireline and wireless networks, which may or may
not be mesh-based but have a multi-hop connectivity between not be mesh-based but have a multi-hop connectivity between
constrained devices, utilizing dynamic routing in both the constrained devices, utilizing dynamic routing in both the
wireless and wireline portions of the network. Such networks wireless and wireline portions of the network. Such networks
usually support highly distributed applications with many nodes usually support highly distributed applications with many nodes
(e.g. environmental monitoring) and tend to deal with large-scale (e.g. environmental monitoring) and tend to deal with large-scale
multipoint-to-point systems with massive data flows. Wireless multipoint-to-point systems with massive data flows. Wireless
Mesh Networks (WMN), as a specific variant, use off-the-shelf Mesh Networks (WMN), as a specific variant, use off-the-shelf
radio technology such as Wi-Fi, WiMax, and cellular 3G/4G. WMNs radio technology such as Wi-Fi, WiMax, and cellular 3G/4G. WMNs
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hop connectivity to constrained devices, utilizing static routing hop connectivity to constrained devices, utilizing static routing
over the wireless network. Such networks support short-range, over the wireless network. Such networks support short-range,
point-to-point, low-data-rate, source-to-sink type of point-to-point, low-data-rate, source-to-sink type of
applications such as RFID systems, light switches, fire and smoke applications such as RFID systems, light switches, fire and smoke
detectors, and home appliances. This type of networks also detectors, and home appliances. This type of networks also
support confined short-range spaces such as a home, a factory, a support confined short-range spaces such as a home, a factory, a
building, or the human body. IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) and IEEE building, or the human body. IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) and IEEE
802.15.4 are well-known examples of applicable standards for such 802.15.4 are well-known examples of applicable standards for such
networks. networks.
4. Mobile Adhoc networks (MANET) are self-configuring 4. Self-configuring infrastructureless networks of mobile devices
_infrastructureless_ networks of mobile devices connected by (e.g. Mobile Adhoc networks, MANET) are a particular type of
wireless technologies. MANETs are based on point-to-point network connected by wireless technologies. Infrastructureless
communications of devices moving independently in any direction networks are mostly based on point-to-point communications of
and changing the links to other devices frequently. MANET devices moving independently in any direction and changing the
devices do act as a router to forward traffic unrelated to their links to other devices frequently. Such devices do act as a
own use. router to forward traffic unrelated to their own use.
Wireline non-constrained networks are mainly used for specific Wireline non-constrained networks with constrained and non-
applications like Building Automation or Infrastructure Monitoring. constrained devices are mainly used for specific applications like
However, wireline and wireless networks with multi-hop or point-to- Building Automation or Infrastructure Monitoring. Wireline and
multipoint connectivity are especially in the interest of the wireless networks with multi-hop or point-to-multipoint connectivity
analysis on the management of constrained devices in this document. are used e.g. for environmental monitoring as well as transport and
mobile applications.
Furthermore different network characteristics are determined by Furthermore different network characteristics are determined by
multiple dimensions: dynamicity of the topology, bandwidth, and loss multiple dimensions: dynamicity of the topology, bandwidth, and loss
rate. In the following, each dimension is explained, and networks in rate. In the following, each dimension is explained, and networks in
scope for this document are outlined: scope for this document are outlined:
Network Topology: Network Topology:
The topology of a network can be represented as a graph, with edges The topology of a network can be represented as a graph, with edges
(i.e., links) and vertices (routers and hosts). Examples of (i.e., links) and vertices (routers and hosts). Examples of
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network), mesh topologies (fully distributed), etc. network), mesh topologies (fully distributed), etc.
Management protocols may take advantage of specific network Management protocols may take advantage of specific network
topologies, for example by distributing large-scale management tasks topologies, for example by distributing large-scale management tasks
amongst multiple distributed network management stations (e.g., in amongst multiple distributed network management stations (e.g., in
case of a mesh topology), or by using a hierarchical management case of a mesh topology), or by using a hierarchical management
approach (e.g., in case of a tree topology). These different approach (e.g., in case of a tree topology). These different
management topology options are described in Section 1.6. management topology options are described in Section 1.6.
Note that in certain network deployments, such as community ad hoc Note that in certain network deployments, such as community ad hoc
networks (see the use case "Community Network Applications" in networks (see the use case "Community Network Applications" in [COM-
[COM-US]), the topology is not pre-planned, and thus may be unknown USE]), the topology is not pre-planned, and thus may be unknown for
for management purposes. In other use cases, such as industrial management purposes. In other use cases, such as industrial
applications (see the use case "Industrial Applications" in applications (see the use case "Industrial Applications" in [COM-
[COM-US]), the topology may be designed in advance and therefore USE]), the topology may be designed in advance and therefore taken
taken advantage of when managing the network. advantage of when managing the network.
Dynamicity of the network topology: Dynamicity of the network topology:
The dynamicity of the network topology determines the rate of change The dynamicity of the network topology determines the rate of change
of the graph per time. Such changes can occur due to different of the graph per time. Such changes can occur due to different
factors, such as mobility of nodes (e.g., in MANETs or cellular factors, such as mobility of nodes (e.g., in MANETs or cellular
networks), duty cycles (for low-power devices enabling their network networks), duty cycles (for low-power devices enabling their network
interface only periodically to transmit or receive packets), or interface only periodically to transmit or receive packets), or
unstable links (in particular wireless links with strongly unstable links (in particular wireless links with strongly
fluctuating link quality). fluctuating link quality).
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The more the topology is dynamic, the more routing, transport and The more the topology is dynamic, the more routing, transport and
application layer protocols have to cope with interrupted application layer protocols have to cope with interrupted
connectivity and/or longer delays. For example, management protocols connectivity and/or longer delays. For example, management protocols
(with a given underlying transport protocol) that expect continuous (with a given underlying transport protocol) that expect continuous
session flows without changes of routes during a communication flow, session flows without changes of routes during a communication flow,
may fail to operate. may fail to operate.
Networks with a very low dynamicity (e.g. Ethernet) with no or Networks with a very low dynamicity (e.g. Ethernet) with no or
infrequent topology changes (e.g. less than once every 30 minutes), infrequent topology changes (e.g. less than once every 30 minutes),
are in-scope of this document if they are used with constrained are in-scope of this document if they are used with constrained
devices (see e.g. the use case "Building Automation" in [COM-US]). devices (see e.g. the use case "Building Automation" in [COM-USE]).
Traffic flows: Traffic flows:
The traffic flow in a network determines from which sources data The traffic flow in a network determines from which sources data
traffic is sent to which destinations in the network. Several traffic is sent to which destinations in the network. Several
different traffic flows are defined in [I-D.ietf-roll-terminology], different traffic flows are defined in [RFC7102], including "point-
including "point-to-point" (P2P), "multipoint-to-point" (MP2P), and to-point" (P2P), "multipoint-to-point" (MP2P), and "point-to-
"point-to-multipoint" (P2MP) flows as: multipoint" (P2MP) flows as:
o P2P: Point To Point. This refers to traffic exchanged between two o P2P: Point To Point. This refers to traffic exchanged between two
nodes (regardless of the number of hops between the two nodes). nodes (regardless of the number of hops between the two nodes).
o P2MP: Point-to-Multipoint traffic refers to traffic between one o P2MP: Point-to-Multipoint traffic refers to traffic between one
node and a set of nodes. This is similar to the P2MP concept in node and a set of nodes. This is similar to the P2MP concept in
Multicast or MPLS Traffic Engineering. Multicast or MPLS Traffic Engineering.
o MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point is used to describe a particular traffic o MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point is used to describe a particular traffic
pattern (e.g. MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes pattern (e.g. MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes
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For management purposes, the management protocol typically requires For management purposes, the management protocol typically requires
to send information between the network management station and the to send information between the network management station and the
clients, for monitoring or control purposes. If the available clients, for monitoring or control purposes. If the available
bandwidth is insufficient for the management protocol, packets will bandwidth is insufficient for the management protocol, packets will
be buffered and eventually dropped, and thus management is not be buffered and eventually dropped, and thus management is not
possible with such a protocol. possible with such a protocol.
Networks without bandwidth limitation (e.g. Ethernet) are in-scope Networks without bandwidth limitation (e.g. Ethernet) are in-scope
of this document if they are used with constrained devices (see the of this document if they are used with constrained devices (see the
use case "Building Automation" in [COM-US]). use case "Building Automation" in [COM-USE]).
Loss rate: Loss rate:
The loss rate (or bit error rate) is the number of bit errors divided The loss rate (or bit error rate) is the number of bit errors divided
by the total number of bits transmitted. For wired networks, loss by the total number of bits transmitted. For wired networks, loss
rates are typically extremely low, e.g. around 10^-12 or 10^-13 for rates are typically extremely low, e.g. around 10^-12 or 10^-13 for
the latest 10Gbit Ethernet. For wireless networks, such as 802.15.4, the latest 10Gbit Ethernet. For wireless networks, such as 802.15.4,
the bit error rate can be as high as 10^-1 to 10^-0 in case of the bit error rate can be as high as 10^-1 to 10^-0 in case of
interferences.Even when using a reliable transport protocol, interferences.Even when using a reliable transport protocol,
management operations can fail if the loss rate is too high, unless management operations can fail if the loss rate is too high, unless
they are specifically designed to cope with these situations. they are specifically designed to cope with these situations.
Note: The discussion on the management requirements of MANETs is
currently not in the focus of this document. [COM-US] provides a use
case to make it clear how a MANET-based application differs from
others.
1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options
We differentiate following Deployment options for the constrained We differentiate following deployment options for the constrained
devices: devices:
o a network of constrained devices, which communicate with each o a network of constrained devices, which communicate with each
other, other,
o Constrained devices, which are connected directly to the Internet o Constrained devices, which are connected directly to the Internet
or an IP network or an IP network
o A network of constrained devices which communicate with a gateway o A network of constrained devices which communicate with a gateway
or proxy with more communication capabilities acting possibly as a or proxy with more communication capabilities acting possibly as a
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We differentiate following options for the management of networks of We differentiate following options for the management of networks of
constrained devices: constrained devices:
o A network of constrained devices managed by one central manager. o A network of constrained devices managed by one central manager.
A logically centralized management might be implemented in a A logically centralized management might be implemented in a
hierarchical fashion for scalability and robustness reasons. The hierarchical fashion for scalability and robustness reasons. The
manager and the management application logic might have a gateway/ manager and the management application logic might have a gateway/
proxy in between or might be on different nodes in different proxy in between or might be on different nodes in different
networks, e.g., management application running on a cloud server. networks, e.g., management application running on a cloud server.
o Distributed management, where a constrained network is managed by o Distributed management, where a network of constrained devices is
more than one manager. Each manager controls a subnetwork and may managed by more than one manager. Each manager controls a
communicate directly with other manager stations in a cooperative subnetwork and may communicate directly with other manager
fashion. The distributed management may be weakly distributed, stations in a cooperative fashion. The distributed management may
where functions are broken down and assigned to many managers be weakly distributed, where functions are broken down and
dynamically, or strongly distributed, where almost all managed assigned to many managers dynamically, or strongly distributed,
things have embedded management functionality and explicit where almost all managed things have embedded management
management disappears, which usually comes with the price that the functionality and explicit management disappears, which usually
strongly distributed management logic now needs to be managed. comes with the price that the strongly distributed management
logic now needs to be managed.
o Hierarchical management, where a hierarchy of constrained networks o Hierarchical management, where a hierarchy of networks with
are managed by the managers at their corresponding hierarchy constrained devices are managed by the managers at their
level. I.e. each manager is responsible for managing the nodes in corresponding hierarchy level. I.e. each manager is responsible
its sub-network. It passes information from its sub-network to for managing the nodes in its sub-network. It passes information
its higher-level manager, and disseminates management functions from its sub-network to its higher-level manager, and disseminates
received from the higher-level manager to its sub-network. management functions received from the higher-level manager to its
Hierarchical management is essentially a scalability mechanism, sub-network. Hierarchical management is essentially a scalability
logically the decision-making may be still centralized. mechanism, logically the decision-making may be still centralized.
1.6. Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Network 1.6. Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Network
The capabilities of a constrained device or network and the The capabilities of a constrained device or network and the
constrainedness thereof influence and have an impact on the constrainedness thereof influence and have an impact on the
requirements for the management of such network or devices. requirements for the management of such network or devices.
A constrained device: A constrained device:
o might only support an unreliable radio with lossy links, i.e. the o might only support an unreliable radio with lossy links, i.e. the
client and server of a management protocol need to gracefully client and server of a management protocol need to gracefully
ignore incomplete commands or repeat commands as necessary. ignore incomplete commands or repeat commands as necessary.
o might only be able to go online from time-to-time, where it is o might only be able to go online from time-to-time, where it is
reachable, i.e. a command might be necessary to repeat after a reachable, i.e. a command might be necessary to repeat after a
longer timeout or the timeout value with which one endpoint waits longer timeout or the timeout value with which one endpoint waits
on a response needs to be sufficiently high. on a response needs to be sufficiently high.
o might only be able to support a limited operating time (e.g. based o might only be able to support a limited operating time (e.g. based
on the available battery), i.e. the devices need to economize on the available battery), or may behave as 'sleepy endpoints'
their energy usage with suitable mechanisms and the managing setting their network links to a disconnected state during long
entity needs to monitor and control the energy status of the periods of time i.e. the devices need to economize their energy
constrained devices it manages. usage with suitable mechanisms and the managing entity needs to
monitor and control the energy status of the constrained devices
it manages.
o might only be able to support one simple communication protocol, o might only be able to support one simple communication protocol,
i.e. the management protocol needs to be possible to downscale i.e. the management protocol needs to be possible to downscale
from constrained (C2) to very constrained (C0) devices with from constrained (C2) to very constrained (C0) devices with
modular implementation and a very basic version with just a few modular implementation and a very basic version with just a few
simple commands. simple commands.
o might only be able to support limited or no user and/or transport o might only be able to support limited or no user and/or transport
security, i.e. the management system needs to support a less- security, i.e. the management system needs to support a less-
costly and simple but sufficiently secure authentication costly and simple but sufficiently secure authentication
mechanism. mechanism.
o might not be able to support compression and decompression of o might not be able to support compression and decompression of
exchanged data based on limited CPU power, i.e. an intermediary exchanged data based on limited CPU power, i.e. an intermediary
entity which is capable of data compression should be able to entity which is capable of data compression should be able to
communicate with both, devices, which support data compression communicate with both, devices, which support data compression
(e.g. C2) and devices, which do not support data compression (e.g. C2) and devices, which do not support data compression
(e.g. C1 and C0). (e.g. C1 and C0).
o might only be able to support very simple encryption, i.e. it o might only be able to support a simple encryption, i.e. it would
would be efficient if the devices use cryptographic algorithms be beneficial if the devices use cryptographic algorithms that are
that are supported in hardware. supported in hardware and the encryption used is efficient in
terms of memeory and CPU usage.
o might only be able to communicate with one single managing entity o might only be able to communicate with one single managing entity
and cannot support the parallel access of many managing entities. and cannot support the parallel access of many managing entities.
o might depend on a self-configuration feature, i.e. the managing o might depend on a self-configuration feature, i.e. the managing
entity might not know all devices in a network and the device entity might not know all devices in a network and the device
needs to be able to initiate connection setup for the device needs to be able to initiate connection setup for the device
configuration. configuration.
o might depend on self- or neighbor-monitoring feature, i.e. the o might depend on self- or neighbor-monitoring feature, i.e. the
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o might only be able to support a limited set of notifications, o might only be able to support a limited set of notifications,
possible only an "I-am-alive" message. possible only an "I-am-alive" message.
o might only be able to support a soft-reset from failure recovery. o might only be able to support a soft-reset from failure recovery.
o might possibly generate a huge amount of redundant reporting data, o might possibly generate a huge amount of redundant reporting data,
i.e. the intermediary management entity (see [I-D.ietf-core-coap]) i.e. the intermediary management entity (see [I-D.ietf-core-coap])
should be able to filter and aggregate redundant data. should be able to filter and aggregate redundant data.
A constrained network: A network of constrained devices:
o might only support an unreliable radio with lossy links, i.e. the o might only support an unreliable radio with lossy links, i.e. the
client and server of a management protocol need to repeat commands client and server of a management protocol need to repeat commands
as necessary or gracefully ignore incomplete commands. as necessary or gracefully ignore incomplete commands.
o might be necessary to manage based on multicast communication, o might be necessary to manage based on multicast communication,
i.e. the managing entity needs to be prepared to configure many i.e. the managing entity needs to be prepared to configure many
devices at once based on the same data model. devices at once based on the same data model.
o might have a very large topology supporting 10.000 or more nodes o might have a very large topology supporting 10.000 or more nodes
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used to provide fault tolerance. used to provide fault tolerance.
o might require new management capabilities: for example, network o might require new management capabilities: for example, network
coverage information and a constrained device power-distribution- coverage information and a constrained device power-distribution-
map. map.
o might require a new management function for data management, since o might require a new management function for data management, since
the type and amount of data collected in constrained networks is the type and amount of data collected in constrained networks is
different from those of the traditional networks. different from those of the traditional networks.
o might also need energy-efficient key management algorithms for o might also need energy-efficient key management.
security.
1.7. Configuration and Monitoring Functionality Levels
Devices often differ significantly on the level of configuration
management support they provide. The configuration management
functionality levels can be broadly classified as follows:
CL0: Devices are pre-configured and allow no runtime configuration
changes. Configuration parameters are often hard coded and
compiled directly into the firmware image.
CL1: Devices have explicit configuration objects. However, changes
require a restart of the device to take effect.
CL2: Devices allow management systems to replace the entire
configuration (or pre-determined subsets) in bulk. Configuration
changes take effect by soft-restarts of the system (or
subsystems).
CL3: Devices allow management systems to modify configuration
objects without bulk replacements and changes take effect
immediately.
CL4: Devices support multiple configuration datastores and they
might distinguish between the currently running and the next
startup configuration.
CL5: Devices support configuration datastore locking and device-
local configuration change transactions, i.e., either all
configuration changes are applied or none of them.
CL6: Devices support configuration change transactions across
devices.
Devices often also provide different levels of monitoring support:
ML0: Devices push pre-defined monitoring data.
ML1: Devices allow management systems to pull pre-defined monitoring
data.
ML2: Devices allow management systems to pull user-defined filtered
subsets of monitoring data.
ML3: Devices are able to locally process monitoring data in order to
detect threshold crossings or to aggregate data.
Constrained devices often implement a combination of one of FL0-FL2
with one of ML0-ML1.
2. Problem Statement 2. Problem Statement
The terminology for the "Internet of Things" is still nascent, and The terminology for the "Internet of Things" is still nascent, and
depending on the network type or layer in focus diverse technologies depending on the network type or layer in focus diverse technologies
and terms are in use. Common to all these considerations is the and terms are in use. Common to all these considerations is the
"Things" or "Objects" are supposed to have physical or virtual "Things" or "Objects" are supposed to have physical or virtual
identities using interfaces to communicate. In this context, we need identities using interfaces to communicate. In this context, we need
to differentiate between the Constrained and Smart Devices identified to differentiate between the Constrained and Smart Devices identified
by an IP address compared to virtual entities such as Smart Objects, by an IP address compared to virtual entities such as Smart Objects,
which can be identified as a resource or a virtual object by using a which can be identified as a resource or a virtual object by using a
unique identifier. Furthermore, the smart devices usually have a unique identifier. Furthermore, the smart devices usually have a
limited memory and CPU power as well as aim to be self-configuring limited memory and CPU power as well as aim to be self-configuring
and easy to deploy. and easy to deploy.
However, the tininess of the network nodes requires a rethinking of However, the constraints of the network nodes requires a rethinking
the protocol characteristics concerning power consumption, of the protocol characteristics concerning power consumption,
performance, memory, and CPU usage. As such, there is a demand for performance, memory, and CPU usage. As such, there is a demand for
protocol simplification, energy-efficient communication, less CPU protocol simplification, energy-efficient communication, less CPU
usage and small memory footprint. usage and small memory footprint.
On the application layer the IETF is already developing protocols On the application layer the IETF is already developing protocols
like the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) [I-D.ietf-core-coap] like the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) [I-D.ietf-core-coap]
supporting constrained devices and networks e.g., for smart energy enabling the communication of constrained devices and networks e.g.,
applications or home automation environments. The deployment of such for smart energy applications or home automation environments. The
an environment involves in fact many, in some scenarios up to million deployment of such an environment involves in fact many, in some
small devices (e.g. smart meters), which produce a huge amount of scenarios up to million constrained devices (e.g. smart meters),
data. This data needs to be collected, filtered, and pre-processed which produce a huge amount of data. This data needs to be
for further use in diverse services. collected, filtered, and pre-processed for further use in diverse
services.
Considering the high number of nodes to deploy, one has to think on Considering the high number of nodes to deploy, one has to think on
the manageability aspects of the smart devices and plan for easy the manageability aspects of the smart devices and plan for easy
deployment, configuration, and management of the networks of deployment, configuration, and management of the networks of
constrained devices as well as the devices themselves. Consequently, constrained devices as well as the devices themselves. Consequently,
seamless monitoring and self-configuration of such network nodes seamless monitoring and self-configuration of such network nodes
becomes more and more imperative. Self-configuration and self- becomes more and more imperative. Self-configuration and self-
management is already a reality in the standards of some of the management is already a reality in the standards of some of the
bodies such as 3GPP. To introduce self-configuration of smart bodies such as 3GPP. To introduce self-configuration of smart
devices successfully a device-initiated connection establishment is devices successfully a device-initiated connection establishment is
required. required.
A simple application layer protocol, such as CoAP, is essential to A simple and efficient application layer protocol, such as CoAP, is
address the issue of efficient object-to-object communication and essential to address the issue of efficient object-to-object
information exchange. Such an information exchange should be done communication and information exchange. Such an information exchange
based on interoperable data models to enable the exchange and should be done based on interoperable data models to enable the
interpretation of diverse application and management related data. exchange and interpretation of diverse application and management
related data.
In an ideal world, we would have only one network management protocol In an ideal world, we would have only one network management protocol
for monitoring, configuration, and exchanging management data, for monitoring, configuration, and exchanging management data,
independently of the type of the network (e.g., Smart Grid, wireless independently of the type of the network (e.g., Smart Grid, wireless
access, or core network). Furthermore, it would be desirable to access, or core network). Furthermore, it would be desirable to
derive the basic data models for constrained devices from the core derive the basic data models for constrained devices from the core
models used today to enable reuse of functionality and end-to-end models used today to enable reuse of functionality and end-to-end
information exchange. However, the current management protocols seem information exchange. However, the current management protocols seem
to be too heavyweight compared to the capabilities the constrained to be too heavyweight compared to the capabilities the constrained
devices have and are not applicable directly for the use in a network devices have and are not applicable directly for the use in a network
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resource management and monitoring. This might be sufficient for resource management and monitoring. This might be sufficient for
some basic cases, however, there is a need to reconsider the network some basic cases, however, there is a need to reconsider the network
management mechanisms based on the new, changed, as well as reduced management mechanisms based on the new, changed, as well as reduced
requirements coming from smart devices and the network of such requirements coming from smart devices and the network of such
constrained devices. Albeit it is questionable whether we can take constrained devices. Albeit it is questionable whether we can take
the same comprehensive approach we use in an IP network also for the the same comprehensive approach we use in an IP network also for the
management of constrained devices. Hence, the management of a management of constrained devices. Hence, the management of a
network with constrained devices is necessary to design in a network with constrained devices is necessary to design in a
simplified and less complex manner. simplified and less complex manner.
As the Section 1.6 highlights, there are diverse characterists of As Section 1.6 highlights, there are diverse characterists of
constrained devices or networks, which stem from their constraindness constrained devices or networks, which stem from their
and therefor have an impact on the requirements for the management of constrainedness and therefore have an impact on the requirements for
such a network with constrained devices. The use cases discussed in the management of such a network with constrained devices. The use
[COM-US] show that the requirements on constrained networks are cases discussed in [COM-USE] show that the requirements on
manifold and need to be analyzed from different angles, e.g. constrained networks are manifold and need to be analyzed from
concerning the design of the management architecture, the selection different angles, e.g. concerning the design of the management
of the appropriate protocol features as well as the specific issues architecture, the selection of the appropriate protocol features as
which are new in the context of constrained devices. Examples of well as the specific issues which are new in the context of
such issues are e.g. the careful management of the scarce energy constrained devices. Examples of such issues are e.g. the careful
resources, the necessity for self-organization and self-management of management of the scarce energy resources, the necessity for self-
such devices but also the implementation considerations to enable the organization and self-management of such devices but also the
use of common communication technologies on a constrained hardware in implementation considerations to enable the use of common
an efficient manner. For an exhaustive list of issues and communication technologies on a constrained hardware in an efficient
requirements, which need to be addressed for the management of a manner. For an exhaustive list of issues and requirements, which
network with constrained devices please see Section 1.6 and need to be addressed for the management of a network with constrained
Section 3. devices please see Section 1.6 and Section 3.
3. Requirements on the Management of Networks with Constrained Devices 3. Requirements on the Management of Networks with Constrained Devices
This section describes the requirements categorized by management This section describes the requirements categorized by management
areas listed in subsections. areas listed in subsections.
Note that the requirements in this section need to be seen as Note that the requirements in this section need to be seen as
standalone requirements. A device might be able to provide only a standalone requirements. A device might be able to provide only a
particular profile of requirements (i.e. selected set of particular profile of requirements (i.e. selected set of
requirements) and might not be capable to provide all requirements in requirements) and might not be capable to provide all requirements in
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Following template is used for the definition of the requirements. Following template is used for the definition of the requirements.
Req-ID: An ID uniquely identified by a three-digit number Req-ID: An ID uniquely identified by a three-digit number
Title: The title of the requirement. Title: The title of the requirement.
Description: The rational and description of the requirement. Description: The rational and description of the requirement.
Source: The origin of the requirement and the matching use case or Source: The origin of the requirement and the matching use case or
application. For the discussion of referred use cases for application. For the discussion of referred use cases for
constrained management please see [COM-US]. constrained management please see [COM-USE].
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement, Non-Functional Requirement Type: Functional Requirement, Non-Functional
Requirement. A functional requirement is related to a proposed Requirement. A functional requirement is related to a proposed
function or component. As such functional requirements may be function or component. As such functional requirements may be
technical details, or specific functionality that define what a technical details, or specific functionality that define what a
system is supposed to accomplish. Non-functional requirements system is supposed to accomplish. Non-functional requirements
(also known as design constraints or quality requirements) impose (also known as design constraints or quality requirements) impose
implementation related considerations such as performance implementation related considerations such as performance
requirements, security, or reliability. requirements, security, or reliability.
Device type: The device types by which this requirement can be Device type: The device types by which this requirement can be
supported: C0, C1 and/or C2. supported: C0, C1 and/or C2.
Priority: The priority of the requirement showing it's importance Priority: The priority of the requirement showing it's importance
for a particular type of device: High, Medium, and Low. The for a particular type of device: High, Medium, and Low. The
priority of a requirement can be High e.g. for a C2 device but Low priority of a requirement can be High e.g. for a C2 device but Low
for a C1 or C0 device as the realization of complex features in a for a C1 or C0 device as the realization of complex features in a
C1 device is in many cases not possible. C1 device is in many cases not possible.
3.1. Management Architecture/System 3.1. Management Architecture/System
Req-ID: 4.1.001 Req-ID: 1.001
Title: Support multiple device classes within a single network. Title: Support multiple device classes within a single network.
Description: Larger networks usually are made up of devices Description: Larger networks usually are made up of devices
belonging to different device classes (e.g., constrained mesh belonging to different device classes (e.g., constrained mesh
endpoints and less constrained routers) that work together. endpoints and less constrained routers) that work together.
Hence, the management architecture must be applicable to networks Hence, the management architecture must be applicable to networks
that have a mix of different device classes. See Section 3. of that have a mix of different device classes. See Section 3. of
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] for the definition of Constrained [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] for the definition of Constrained
Device Classes. Device Classes.
Source: All use cases. Source: All use cases.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: Managing and intermediary entities. Device type: C1 and/or C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.1.002 Req-ID: 1.002
Title: Management scalability. Title: Management scalability.
Description: The management architecture must be able to scale with Description: The management architecture must be able to scale with
the number of devices involved and operate efficiently in any the number of devices involved and operate efficiently in any
network size and topology. This implies that e.g. the managing network size and topology. This implies that e.g. the managing
entity is able to handle huge amount of device monitoring data and entity is able to handle huge amount of device monitoring data and
the management protocol is not sensitive to the decrease of the the management protocol is not sensitive to the decrease of the
time between two client requests. To achieve good scalability, time between two client requests. To achieve good scalability,
caching techniques, in-network data aggregation techniques, caching techniques, in-network data aggregation techniques,
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Source: General requirement for all use cases to enable large scale Source: General requirement for all use cases to enable large scale
networks. networks.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.1.003 Req-ID: 1.003
Title: Hierarchical management Title: Hierarchical management
Description: Provide a means of hierarchical management, i.e. Description: Provide a means of hierarchical management, i.e.
provide intermediary management entities on different levels, provide intermediary management entities on different levels,
which can take over the responsibility for the management of a which can take over the responsibility for the management of a
sub-hierarchy of the network of constraint devices. The sub-hierarchy of the network of constraint devices. The
intermediary management entity can e.g. support management data intermediary management entity can e.g. support management data
aggregation to handle e.g. high-frequent monitoring data or aggregation to handle e.g. high-frequent monitoring data or
provide a caching mechanism for the uplink and downlink provide a caching mechanism for the uplink and downlink
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hierarchical topology. hierarchical topology.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: Managing and intermediary entities. Device type: Managing and intermediary entities.
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.1.004 Req-ID: 1.004
Title: Minimize state maintained on constrained devices. Title: Minimize state maintained on constrained devices.
Description: The amount of state that needs to be maintained on Description: The amount of state that needs to be maintained on
constrained devices should be minimized. This is important in constrained devices should be minimized. This is important in
order to save memory (especially relevant for C0 and C1 devices) order to save memory (especially relevant for C0 and C1 devices)
and in order to allow devices to restart for example to apply and in order to allow devices to restart for example to apply
configuration changes or to recover from extended periods of configuration changes or to recover from extended periods of
inactivity. One way to achieve this is to adopt a RESTful inactivity.
architecture that minimizes the amount of state maintained by
managed constrained devices and that makes resources of a device Note: One way to achieve this is to adopt a RESTful architecture
that minimizes the amount of state maintained by managed
constrained devices and that makes resources of a device
addressable via URIs. addressable via URIs.
Source: Basic requirement which concerns all use cases. Source: Basic requirement which concerns all use cases.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.1.005 Req-ID: 1.005
Title: Automatic re-synchronization with eventual consistency. Title: Automatic re-synchronization with eventual consistency.
Description: To support large scale networks, where some constrained Description: To support large scale networks, where some constrained
devices may be offline at any point in time, it is necessary to devices may be offline at any point in time, it is necessary to
distribute configuration parameters in a way that allows temporary distribute configuration parameters in a way that allows temporary
inconsistencies but eventually converges, after a sufficiently inconsistencies but eventually converges, after a sufficiently
long period of time without further changes, towards global long period of time without further changes, towards global
consistency. consistency.
Source: Use cases with large scale networks with many devices. Source: Use cases with large scale networks with many devices.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.1.006 Req-ID: 1.006
Title: Support for lossy links and unreachable devices. Title: Support for lossy links and unreachable devices.
Description: Some constrained devices will only be able to support Description: Some constrained devices will only be able to support
lossy and unreliable links characterized by a limited data rate, a lossy and unreliable links characterized by a limited data rate, a
high latency, and a high transmission error rate. Furthermore high latency, and a high transmission error rate. Furthermore
constrained devices often duty cycle their radio or the whole constrained devices often duty cycle their radio or the whole
device in order to save energy. In both cases the management device in order to save energy. Some classes of devices labelled
as 'sleepy endpoints' set their network links to a disconnected
state during long periods of time. In all cases the management
system must not assume that constrained devices are always system must not assume that constrained devices are always
reachable. The management protocol(s) must act gracefully if a reachable.
conctrained device is not reachable and provide a high degree of
resilience. Intermediaries may be used that provide information
for devices currently inactive or that take responsibility to re-
synchronize devices when they become reachable again after an
extended offline period.
Source: Basic requirement for constrained networks with unreliable Source: Basic requirement for networks of constrained devices with
links and constrained devices which sleep to save energy. unreliable links and constrained devices which sleep to save
energy.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.1.007 Req-ID: 1.007
Title: Network-wide configuration Title: Network-wide configuration
Description: Provide means by which the behavior of the network can Description: Provide means by which the behavior of the network can
be specified at a level of abstraction (network-wide be specified at a level of abstraction (network-wide
configuration) higher than a set of configuration information configuration) higher than a set of configuration information
specific to individual devices. It is useful to derive the device specific to individual devices. It is useful to derive the device
specific configuration from the network-wide configuration. The specific configuration from the network-wide configuration. Such
identification of the relevant subset of the policies to be a repository can be used to configure pre-defined device or
provisioned is according to the capabilities of each device and protocol parameters for the whole network. Furthermore, such a
can be obtained from a pre-configured data-repository. Such a network-wide view can be used to monitor and manage a group of
repository can be used to configure pre-defined device or protocol routers or a whole network. E.g. monitoring the performance of a
parameters for the whole network. Furthermore, such a network- network requires additional information other than what can be
wide view can be used to monitor and manage a group of routers or acquired from a single router using a management protocol.
a whole network. E.g. monitoring the performance of a network
requires additional information other than what can be acquired Note: The identification of the relevant subset of the policies to
from a single router using a management protocol. be provisioned is according to the capabilities of each device and
can be obtained from a pre-configured data-repository.
Source: In general all use cases, which want to configure the Source: In general all use cases, which want to configure the
network and its devices based on a network view in a top-down network and its devices based on a network view in a top-down
manner. manner.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.1.008 Req-ID: 1.008
Title: Distributed Management Title: Distributed Management
Description: Provide a means of simple distributed management, where Description: Provide a means of simple distributed management, where
a constrained network can be managed or monitored by more than one a network of constrained devices can be managed or monitored by
manager. Since the connectivity to a server cannot be guaranteed more than one manager. Since the connectivity to a server cannot
at all times, a distributed approach may provide a higher be guaranteed at all times, a distributed approach may provide a
reliability, at the cost of increased complexity. This higher reliability, at the cost of increased complexity. This
requirement implies the handling of data consistency in case of requirement implies the handling of data consistency in case of
concurrent read and write access to the device datastore. It concurrent read and write access to the device datastore. It
might also happen that no management (configuration) server is might also happen that no management (configuration) server is
accessible and the only reachable node is a peer device. In this accessible and the only reachable node is a peer device. In this
case the device should be able to obtain its configuration from case the device should be able to obtain its configuration from
peer devices. peer devices.
Source: Use cases where the count of devices to manage is high. Source: Use cases where the count of devices to manage is high.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.2. Management protocols and data model 3.2. Management protocols and data model
Req-ID: 4.2.001 Req-ID: 2.001
Title: Modular implementation of management protocols Title: Modular implementation of management protocols
Description: Management protocols should allow modular Description: Management protocols should be specified to allow for
implementations, i.e., it should be possible to implement only a modular implementations, i.e., it should be possible to implement
basic set of protocol primitives on highly constrained devices only a basic set of protocol primitives on highly constrained
while devices with additional resources may provide more support devices while devices with additional resources may provide more
for additional protocol primitives. It should be possible to support for additional protocol primitives. See Section 1.7 for a
discover the management protocol primitives by a device. discussion on the level of configuration management and monitoring
support constrained devices may provide.
Source: Basic requirement interesting for all use cases. Source: Basic requirement interesting for all use cases.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.2.002 Req-ID: 2.002
Title: Compact encoding of management data Title: Compact encoding of management data
Description: The encoding of management data should be compact and Description: The encoding of management data should be compact and
space efficient, enabling small message sizes. space efficient, enabling small message sizes.
Source: General requirement to save memory for the receiver buffer Source: General requirement to save memory for the receiver buffer
and on-air bandwith. and on-air bandwith.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.2.003 Req-ID: 2.003
Title: Compression of management data or complete messages Title: Compression of management data or complete messages
Description: Management data exchanges can be further optimized by Description: Management data exchanges can be further optimized by
applying data compression techniques or delta encoding techniques. applying data compression techniques or delta encoding techniques.
Compression typically requires additional code size and some Compression typically requires additional code size and some
additional buffers and/or the maintenance of some additional state additional buffers and/or the maintenance of some additional state
information. For C0 devices compression may not be feasible. As information. For C0 devices compression may not be feasible.
such, this requirement is marked as optional.
Source: Use cases where it is beneficial to reduce transmission time Source: Use cases where it is beneficial to reduce transmission time
and bandwith, e.g. mobile applications which require to save on- and bandwith, e.g. mobile applications which require to save on-
air bandwith. air bandwith.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.2.004 Req-ID: 2.004
Title: Mapping of management protocol interactions. Title: Mapping of management protocol interactions.
Description: It is desirable to have a loss-less automated mapping Description: It is desirable to have a loss-less automated mapping
between the management protocol used to manage constrained devices between the management protocol used to manage constrained devices
and the management protocols used to manage regular devices. In and the management protocols used to manage regular devices. In
the ideal case, the same core management protocol can be used with the ideal case, the same core management protocol can be used with
certain restrictions taking into account the resource limitations certain restrictions taking into account the resource limitations
of constrained devices. However, for very resource constrained of constrained devices. However, for very resource constrained
devices, this goal might not be achievable. Hence this devices, this goal might not be achievable.
requirement is marked optional for device class C2.
Source: Use cases where high-frequent interaction with the Source: Use cases where high-frequent interaction with the
management system of a non-constrained network is required. management system of a non-constrained network is required.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.2.005 Req-ID: 2.005
Title: Consistency of data models with the underlying information Title: Consistency of data models with the underlying information
model. model.
Description: The data models used by the management protocol must be Description: The data models used by the management protocol must be
consistent with the information model used to define data models consistent with the information model used to define data models
for non-constrained networks. This is essential to facilitate the for non-constrained networks. This is essential to facilitate the
integration of the management of constrained networks with the integration of the management of constrained networks with the
management of non-constrained networks. Using an underlying management of non-constrained networks. Using an underlying
information model for future data model design enables furthermore information model for future data model design enables furthermore
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consistency and model reuse. consistency and model reuse.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.2.006 Req-ID: 2.006
Title: Loss-less mapping of management data models. Title: Loss-less mapping of management data models.
Description: It is desirable to have a loss-less automated mapping Description: It is desirable to have a loss-less automated mapping
between the management data models used to manage regular devices between the management data models used to manage regular devices
and the management data models used for managing constrained and the management data models used for managing constrained
devices. In the ideal case, the same core data models can be used devices. In the ideal case, the same core data models can be used
with certain restrictions taking into account the resource with certain restrictions taking into account the resource
limitations of constrained devices. However, for very resource limitations of constrained devices. However, for very resource
constrained devices, this goal might not be achievable. Hence constrained devices, this goal might not be achievable.
this requirement is marked optional for device class C2.
Source: Use cases where consistent data exchange with the management Source: Use cases where consistent data exchange with the management
system of a non-constrained network is required. system of a non-constrained network is required.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C2 Device type: C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.2.007 Req-ID: 2.007
Title: Protocol extensibility Title: Protocol extensibility
Description: Provide means of extensibility for the management Description: Provide means of extensibility for the management
protocol, i.e. by adding new protocol messages or mechanisms that protocol, i.e. by adding new protocol messages or mechanisms that
can deal with the changing requirements on a supported message and can deal with the changing requirements on a supported message and
data types effectively, without causing inter-operability problems data types effectively, without causing inter-operability problems
or having to replace/update large amounts of deployed devices. or having to replace/update large amounts of deployed devices.
Source: Basic requirement useful for all use cases. Source: Basic requirement useful for all use cases.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
3.3. Configuration management 3.3. Configuration management
Req-ID: 4.3.001 Req-ID: 3.001
Title: Self-configuration capability Title: Self-configuration capability
Description: Automatic configuration and re-configuration of devices Description: Automatic configuration and re-configuration of devices
without manual intervention. Compared to the traditional without manual intervention. Compared to the traditional
management of devices where the management application is the management of devices where the management application is the
central entity configuring the devices, in the auto-configuration central entity configuring the devices, in the auto-configuration
scenario the device is the active part and initiates the scenario the device is the active part and initiates the
configuration process. Self-configuration can be initiated during configuration process. Self-configuration can be initiated during
the initial configuration or for subsequent configurations, where the initial configuration or for subsequent configurations, where
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devices. devices.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High for device categories C0 and C1, Medium for C2. Priority: High for device categories C0 and C1, Medium for C2.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.3.002 Req-ID: 3.002
Title: Capability Discovery Title: Capability Discovery
Description: Enable the discovery of supported optional management Description: Enable the discovery of supported optional management
capabilities of a device and their exposure via at least one capabilities of a device and their exposure via at least one
protocol and/or data model. protocol and/or data model.
Source: Use cases where the device interaction with other devices or Source: Use cases where the device interaction with other devices or
applications is a function of the level of support for its applications is a function of the level of support for its
capabilities. capabilities.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.3.003 Req-ID: 3.003
Title: Asynchronous Transaction Support Title: Asynchronous Transaction Support
Description: Provide configuration management with asynchronous Description: Provide configuration management with asynchronous
transaction support. Configuration operations must support a (event-driven) transaction support. Configuration operations must
transactional model, with asynchronous indications that the support a transactional model, with asynchronous indications that
transaction was completed. the transaction was completed.
Source: Use cases, which require transaction-oriented processing Source: Use cases, which require transaction-oriented processing
because of reliability or distributed architecture functional because of reliability or distributed architecture functional
requirements. requirements.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.3.004 Req-ID: 3.004
Title: Network reconfiguration Title: Network reconfiguration
Description: Provide a means of iterative network reconfiguration in Description: Provide a means of iterative network reconfiguration in
order to recover the network functionality from node and order to recover the network functionality from node and
communication faults. The network reconfiguration can be failure- communication faults. The network reconfiguration can be failure-
driven and self-initiated (automatic reconfiguration). The driven and self-initiated (automatic reconfiguration). The
network reconfiguration can be also performed on the whole network reconfiguration can be also performed on the whole
hierarchical structure of a network (network topology). hierarchical structure of a network (network topology).
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basic requirement. basic requirement.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.4. Monitoring functionality 3.4. Monitoring functionality
Req-ID: 4.4.001 Req-ID: 4.001
Title: Device status monitoring Title: Device status monitoring
Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose
information about device status and exposing it via at least one information about device status and exposing it via at least one
management interface. The device monitoring might make use of the management interface. The device monitoring might make use of the
hierarchical management through the intermediary entities and the hierarchical management through the intermediary entities and the
data caching mechanism. The device monitoring might also make use caching mechanism. The device monitoring might also make use of
of neighbor-monitoring (fault detection in local network) to neighbor-monitoring (fault detection in local network) to support
support fast fault detection and recovery, e.g. in a scenario fast fault detection and recovery, e.g. in a scenario where a
where a managing entity is unreachable and a neighbor can take managing entity is unreachable and a neighbor can take over the
over the monitoring responsibility. monitoring responsibility.
Source: All use cases Source: All use cases
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High, Medium for neighbor-monitoring. Priority: High, Medium for neighbor-monitoring.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.002 Req-ID: 4.002
Title: Energy status monitoring Title: Energy status monitoring
Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose
information about device energy parameters and usage (e.g. battery information about device energy parameters and usage (e.g. battery
level and communication power). level and communication power).
Source: Use case Energy Management Source: Use case Energy Management
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High for energy reporting devices, Low for others. Priority: High for energy reporting devices, Low for others.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.003 Req-ID: 4.003
Title: Monitoring of current and estimated device availability Title: Monitoring of current and estimated device availability
Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose
information about current device availability (energy, memory, information about current device availability (energy, memory,
computing power, forwarding plane utilization, queue buffers, computing power, forwarding plane utilization, queue buffers,
etc.) and estimation of remaining available resources. etc.) and estimation of remaining available resources.
Source: All use cases. Note that monitoring energy resources (like Source: All use cases. Note that monitoring energy resources (like
battery status) may be required on all kinds of devices. battery status) may be required on all kinds of devices.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.004 Req-ID: 4.004
Title: Network status monitoring Title: Network status monitoring
Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect, analyse and
information related to the status of a network or network segments expose information related to the status of a network or network
connected to the interfaces of the device. segments connected to the interface of the device.
Source: All use cases. Source: All use cases.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Low, based on the realization complexity. Priority: Low, based on the realization complexity.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.005 Req-ID: 4.005
Title: Self-monitoring Title: Self-monitoring
Description: Provide self-monitoring (local fault detection) feature Description: Provide self-monitoring (local fault detection) feature
for fast fault detection and recovery. for fast fault detection and recovery.
Source: Use cases where the devices cannot be monitored centrally in Source: Use cases where the devices cannot be monitored centrally in
appropriate manner, e.g. self-healing is required. appropriate manner, e.g. self-healing is required.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: High for C2, Medium for C1 Priority: High for C2, Medium for C1
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.006 Req-ID: 4.006
Title: Performance Monitoring Title: Performance Monitoring
Description: The device will provide a monitoring function to Description: The device will provide a monitoring function to
collect and expose information about the basic performance collect and expose information about the basic performance
parameter (TBD) of the device. The performance management parameter of the device. The performance management functionality
functionality might make use of the hierarchical management might make use of the hierarchical management through the
through the intermediary devices. intermediary devices.
Source: Use cases Building automation, and Transport applications Source: Use cases Building automation, and Transport applications
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Low Priority: Low
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.007 Req-ID: 4.007
Title: Fault detection monitoring Title: Fault detection monitoring
Description: The device will provide fault detection monitoring. Description: The device will provide fault detection monitoring.
The system collects information about network states in order to The system collects information about network states in order to
identify whether faults have occurred. In some cases the identify whether faults have occurred. In some cases the
detection of the faults might be based on the processing and detection of the faults might be based on the processing and
analysis of the parameters retrieved from the network or other analysis of the parameters retrieved from the network or other
devices. In case of C0 devices the monitoring might be limited to devices. In case of C0 devices the monitoring might be limited to
the check whether the device is alive or not. the check whether the device is alive or not.
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Energy Management, Infrastructure Monitoring Energy Management, Infrastructure Monitoring
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1 and C2 Device type: C0, C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.008 Req-ID: 4.008
Title: Passive and Reactive Monitoring Title: Passive and Reactive Monitoring
Description: The device will provide passive and reactive monitoring Description: The device will provide passive and reactive monitoring
capabilities. The system or manager collects information about capabilities. The system or manager collects information about
device components and network states (passive monitoring) and may device components and network states (passive monitoring) and may
perform postmortem analysis of collected data. In case events of perform postmortem analysis of collected data. In case events of
interest have occurred the system or manager can adaptively react interest have occurred the system or manager can adaptively react
(reactive monitoring), e.g. reconfigure the network. Typically (reactive monitoring), e.g. reconfigure the network. Typically
actions (re-actions) will be executed or sent as commands by the actions (re-actions) will be executed or sent as commands by the
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state monitoring state monitoring
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C2 Device type: C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.009 Req-ID: 4.009
Title: Recovery Title: Recovery
Description: Provide local, central and hierarchical recovery Description: Provide local, central and hierarchical recovery
mechanisms (recovery is in some cases achieved by recovering the mechanisms (recovery is in some cases achieved by recovering the
whole network of constrained devices). whole network of constrained devices).
Source: Use cases Industrial applications, Home and Building Source: Use cases Industrial applications, Home and Building
Automation, Mobile Applications that involve different forms of Automation, Mobile Applications that involve different forms of
clustering or area managers. clustering or area managers.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C2 Device type: C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.010 Req-ID: 4.010
Title: Network topology discovery Title: Network topology discovery
Description: Provide a network topology discovery capability (e.g. Description: Provide a network topology discovery capability (e.g.
use of topology extraction algorithms to retrieve the network use of topology extraction algorithms to retrieve the network
state) and a monitoring function to collect and expose information state) and a monitoring function to collect and expose information
about the network topology. about the network topology.
Source: Use cases Community Network Applications and Mobile Source: Use cases Community Network Applications and Mobile
Applications Applications
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Low, based on the realization complexity. Priority: Low, based on the realization complexity.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.011 Req-ID: 4.011
Title: Notifications Title: Notifications
Description: The device will provide the capability of sending Description: The device will provide the capability of sending
notifications on critical events and faults. notifications on critical events and faults.
Source: All use cases. Source: All use cases.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium for C2, Low for C1 Priority: Medium for C2, Low for C0 and C1
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.4.012 Req-ID: 4.012
Title: Logging Title: Logging
Description: The device will provide the capability of building, Description: The device will provide the capability of building,
keeping, and allowing retrieval of logs of events (including but keeping, and allowing retrieval of logs of events (including but
not limited to critical faults and alarms). not limited to critical faults and alarms).
Source: Use cases Industrial Applications, Building Automation, Source: Use cases Industrial Applications, Building Automation,
Infrastructure monitoring Infrastructure monitoring
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C2 Device type: C2
Priority: High for some medical or industrial applications, Medium Priority: High for some medical or industrial applications, Medium
otherwise otherwise
3.5. Self-management 3.5. Self-management
Req-ID: 4.5.001 Req-ID: 5.001
Title: Self-management - Self-healing Title: Self-management - Self-healing
Description: Enable event-driven and/or periodic self-management Description: Enable event-driven and/or periodic self-management
functionality in a device. The device should be able to react in functionality in a device. The device should be able to react in
case of a failure e.g. by initiating a fully or partly reset and case of a failure e.g. by initiating a fully or partly reset and
initiate a self-configuration or management data update as initiate a self-configuration or management data update as
necessary. A device might be further able to check for failures necessary. A device might be further able to check for failures
cyclically or schedule-controlled to trigger self-management as cyclically or schedule-controlled to trigger self-management as
necessary. It is a matter of device design and subject for necessary. It is a matter of device design and subject for
discussion how much self-management a C1 device can support. A discussion how much self-management a C1 device can support. A
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document. document.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: High for C2, Medium for C1 Priority: High for C2, Medium for C1
3.6. Security and Access Control 3.6. Security and Access Control
Req-ID: 4.6.001 Req-ID: 6.001
Title: Authentication of management system and devices. Title: Authentication of management system and devices.
Description: Systems having a management role must be properly Description: Systems having a management role must be properly
authenticated to the device such that the device can exercise authenticated to the device such that the device can exercise
proper access control and in particular distinguish rightful proper access control and in particular distinguish rightful
management systems from rogue systems. On the other hand managed management systems from rogue systems. On the other hand managed
devices must authenticate themselves to systems having a devices must authenticate themselves to systems having a
management role such that management systems can protect management role such that management systems can protect
themselves from rogue devices. In certain application scenarios, themselves from rogue devices. In certain application scenarios,
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Source: Basic security requirement for all use cases. Source: Basic security requirement for all use cases.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High, Medium for the (re)start of a large number of Priority: High, Medium for the (re)start of a large number of
devices devices
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.6.002 Req-ID: 6.002
Title: Support suitable security bootstrapping mechanisms Title: Support suitable security bootstrapping mechanisms
Description: Mechanisms should be supported that simplify the Description: Mechanisms should be supported that simplify the
bootstrapping of device that is the discovery of newly deployed bootstrapping of device that is the discovery of newly deployed
devices in order to add them to access control lists. devices in order to provide them with appropriate access control
permissions.
Source: Basic security requirement for all use cases. Source: Basic security requirement for all use cases.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.6.003 Req-ID: 6.003
Title: Access control on management system and devices Title: Access control on management system and devices
Description: Systems acting in a management role must provide an Description: Systems acting in a management role must provide an
access control mechanism that allows the security administrator to access control mechanism that allows the security administrator to
restrict which devices can access the managing system (e.g., using restrict which devices can access the managing system (e.g., using
an access control white list of known devices). On the other hand an access control white list of known devices). On the other hand
managed constrained devices must provide an access control managed constrained devices must provide an access control
mechanism that allows the security administrator to restrict how mechanism that allows the security administrator to restrict how
systems in a management role can access the device (e.g., no- systems in a management role can access the device (e.g., no-
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Source: Basic security requirement for use cases where access Source: Basic security requirement for use cases where access
control is essential. control is essential.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.6.004 Req-ID: 6.004
Title: Select cryptographic algorithms that are efficient in both Title: Select cryptographic algorithms that are efficient in both
code space and execution time. code space and execution time.
Description: Cryptographic algorithms have a major impact in terms Description: Cryptographic algorithms have a major impact in terms
of both code size and overall execution time. It is therefore of both code size and overall execution time. It is therefore
necessary to select mandatory to implement cryptographic necessary to select mandatory to implement cryptographic
algorithms (like some elliptic curve algorithm) that are algorithms that are reasonable to implement with the available
reasonable to implement with the available code space and that code space and that have a small impact at runtime. Furthermore
have a small impact at runtime. Furthermore some wireless some wireless technologies (e.g., IEEE 802.15.4) require the
technologies (e.g., IEEE 802.15.4) require the support of certain support of certain cryptographic algorithms. It might be useful
cryptographic algorithms. It might be useful to choose algorithms to choose algorithms that are likely to be supported in wireless
that are likely to be supported in wireless chipsets for certain chipsets for certain wireless technologies.
wireless technologies.
Source: Generic requirement to reduce the footprint and CPU usage of Source: Generic requirement to reduce the footprint and CPU usage of
a constrained device. a constrained device.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High, Medium for hardware-supported algorithms. Priority: High, Medium for hardware-supported algorithms.
3.7. Energy Management 3.7. Energy Management
Req-ID: 4.7.001 Req-ID: 7.001
Title: Management of Energy Resources Title: Management of Energy Resources
Description: Enable managing power resources in the network, e.g. Description: Enable managing power resources in the network, e.g.
reduce the sampling rate of nodes with critical battery and reduce reduce the sampling rate of nodes with critical battery and reduce
node transmission power, put nodes to sleep, put single interfaces node transmission power, put nodes to sleep, put single interfaces
to sleep, reject a management job based on available energy, to sleep, reject a management job based on available energy,
criteria e.g. importance levels pre-defined by the management criteria e.g. importance levels pre-defined by the management
application, etc. (e.g. a task marked as essential can be executed application, etc. (e.g. a task marked as essential can be executed
even if the energy level is low). The device may further even if the energy level is low). The device may further
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Source: Use case Energy Management Source: Use case Energy Management
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium for the use case Energy Management, Low otherwise. Priority: Medium for the use case Energy Management, Low otherwise.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.7.002 Req-ID: 7.002
Title: Support of energy-optimized communication protocols Title: Support of energy-optimized communication protocols
Description: Use of an optimized communication protocol to minimize Description: Use of an optimized communication protocol to minimize
energy usage for the device (radio) receiver/transmitter, on-air energy usage for the device (radio) receiver/transmitter, on-air
bandwidth (protocol efficiency), reduced amount of data bandwidth (protocol efficiency), reduced amount of data
communication between nodes (implies data aggregation and communication between nodes (implies data aggregation and
filtering but also a compact format for the transferred data). filtering but also a compact format for the transferred data).
Source: Use cases Energy Management and Mobile Applications. Source: Use cases Energy Management and Mobile Applications.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C2 Device type: C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.7.003 Req-ID: 7.003
Title: Support for layer 2 energy-aware protocols Title: Support for layer 2 energy-aware protocols
Description: The device will support layer 2 energy management Description: The device will support layer 2 energy management
protocols (e.g. energy-efficient Ethernet IEEE 802.3az) and be protocols (e.g. energy-efficient Ethernet IEEE 802.3az) and be
able to report on these. able to report on these.
Source: Use case Energy Management Source: Use case Energy Management
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.7.004 Req-ID: 7.004
Title: Dying gasp Title: Dying gasp
Description: When energy resources draw below the red line level, Description: When energy resources draw below the red line level,
the device will send a dying gasp notification and perform if the device will send a dying gasp notification and perform if
still possible a graceful shutdown including conservation of still possible a graceful shutdown including conservation of
critical device configuration and status information. critical device configuration and status information.
Source: Use case Energy Management Source: Use case Energy Management
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.8. SW Distribution 3.8. SW Distribution
Req-ID: 4.8.001 Req-ID: 8.001
Title: Group-based provisioning Title: Group-based provisioning
Description: Support group-based provisioning, i.e. firmware update Description: Support group-based provisioning, i.e. firmware update
and configuration management, of a large set of constrained and configuration management, of a large set of constrained
devices with eventual consistency and coordinated reload times. devices with eventual consistency and coordinated reload times.
The device should accept group-based configuration management The device should accept group-based configuration management
based on bulk commands, which aim similar configurations of a based on bulk commands, which aim similar configurations of a
large set of constrained devices of the same type in a given large set of constrained devices of the same type in a given
group. Activation of configuration may be based on pre-loaded group, and which may share a common data model. Activation of
sets of default values. configuration may be based on pre-loaded sets of default values.
Source: All use cases Source: All use cases
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.9. Traffic management 3.9. Traffic management
Req-ID: 4.9.001 Req-ID: 9.001
Title: Congestion avoidance Title: Congestion avoidance
Description: Provide the ability to avoid congestion by modifying Description: Support congestion control principles as defined in
the device's reporting rate for periodical data (which is usually [RFC2914], e.g. the ability to avoid congestion by modifying the
device's reporting rate for periodical data (which is usually
redundant) based on the importance and reliability level of the redundant) based on the importance and reliability level of the
management data. This functionality is usually controlled by the management data. This functionality is usually controlled by the
managing entity, where the managing entity marks the data as managing entity, where the managing entity marks the data as
important or relevant for reliability. However reducing a important or relevant for reliability. However reducing a
device's reporting rate can also be initiated by a device if it is device's reporting rate can also be initiated by a device if it is
able to detect congestion or has insufficient buffer memory. able to detect congestion or has insufficient buffer memory.
Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g. AMI or Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g. AMI or
M2M. M2M.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.9.002 Req-ID: 9.002
Title: Redirect traffic Title: Redirect traffic
Description: Provide the ability for network nodes to redirect Description: Provide the ability for network nodes to redirect
traffic from overloaded intermediary nodes in a network to another traffic from overloaded intermediary nodes in a network to another
path in order to prevent congestion on a central server and in the path in order to prevent congestion on a central server and in the
primary network. primary network.
Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g. AMI or Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g. AMI or
M2M. M2M.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: Intermediary entity in the network. Device type: Intermediary entity in the network.
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.9.003 Req-ID: 9.003
Title: Traffic delay schemes. Title: Traffic delay schemes.
Description: Provide the ability to apply delay schemes to incoming Description: Provide the ability to apply delay schemes to incoming
and outgoing links on an overloaded intermediary node as necessary and outgoing links on an overloaded intermediary node as necessary
in order to reduce the amount of traffic in the network. in order to reduce the amount of traffic in the network.
Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g. AMI or Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g. AMI or
M2M. M2M.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: Intermediary entity in the network. Device type: Intermediary entity in the network.
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.10. Transport Layer 3.10. Transport Layer
Req-ID: 4.10.001 Req-ID: 10.001
Title: Scalable transport layer Title: Scalable transport layer
Description: Enable the use of a scalable transport layer, i.e. not Description: Enable the use of a scalable transport layer, i.e. not
sensitive to the decrease of the time between two client requests, sensitive to a high rate of incoming client requests, which is
which is useful for applications requiring frequent access to useful for applications requiring frequent access to device data.
device data.
Source: Applications with high frequent access to the device data. Source: Applications with high frequent access to the device data.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1 and C2 Device type: C0, C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.10.002 Req-ID: 10.002
Title: Reliable unicast transport of messages Title: Reliable unicast transport of messages
Description: Diverse applications need a reliable transport of Description: Diverse applications need a reliable transport of
messages. The reliability might be achieved based on a transport messages. The reliability might be achieved based on a transport
protocol such as TCP or can be supported based message repetition protocol such as TCP or can be supported based on message
if an acknowledgement is missing. repetition if an acknowledgement is missing.
Source: Generally applications benefit from the reliability of the Source: Generally applications benefit from the reliability of the
message transport. message transport.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.10.003 Req-ID: 10.003
Title: Best-effort multicast Title: Best-effort multicast
Description: Provide best-effort multicast of messages, which is Description: Provide best-effort multicast of messages, which is
generally useful when devices need to discover a service provided generally useful when devices need to discover a service provided
by a server or many devices need to be configured by a managing by a server or many devices need to be configured by a managing
entity at once based on the same data model. entity at once based on the same data model.
Source: Use cases where a device needs to discover services as well Source: Use cases where a device needs to discover services as well
as use cases with high amount of devices to manage, which are as use cases with high amount of devices to manage, which are
hierarchically deployed, e.g. AMI or M2M. hierarchically deployed, e.g. AMI or M2M.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
Req-ID: 4.10.004 ---
Req-ID: 10.004
Title: Secure message transport. Title: Secure message transport.
Description: Enable secure message transport providing Description: Enable secure message transport providing
authentication, data integrity, confidentiality by using existing authentication, data integrity, confidentiality by using existing
transport layer technologies with small footprint such as TLS/ transport layer technologies with small footprint such as TLS/
DTLS. DTLS.
Source: All use cases. Source: All use cases.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirements Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirements
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
3.11. Implementation Requirements 3.11. Implementation Requirements
Req-ID: 4.11.001 Req-ID: 11.001
Title: Avoid complex application layer transactions requiring large Title: Avoid complex application layer transactions requiring large
application layer messages. application layer messages.
Description: Complex application layer transactions tend to require Description: Complex application layer transactions tend to require
large memory buffers that are typically not available on C0 or C1 large memory buffers that are typically not available on C0 or C1
devices and only by limiting functionality on C2 devices. devices and only by limiting functionality on C2 devices.
Furthermore, the failure of a single large transaction requires Furthermore, the failure of a single large transaction requires
repeating the whole transaction. On constrained devices, it is repeating the whole transaction. On constrained devices, it is
often more desirable to a large transaction down into a sequence often more desirable to a large transaction down into a sequence
skipping to change at page 40, line 23 skipping to change at page 41, line 30
Source: Basic requirement which concerns all use cases with memory Source: Basic requirement which concerns all use cases with memory
constrained devices. constrained devices.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
Req-ID: 4.11.002 ---
Req-ID: 11.002
Title: Avoid reassembly of messages at multiple layers in the Title: Avoid reassembly of messages at multiple layers in the
protocol stack. protocol stack.
Description: Reassembly of messages at multiple layers in the Description: Reassembly of messages at multiple layers in the
protocol stack requires buffers at multiple layers, which leads to protocol stack requires buffers at multiple layers, which leads to
inefficient use of memory resources. This can be avoided by inefficient use of memory resources. This can be avoided by
making sure the application layer, the security layer, the making sure the application layer, the security layer, the
transport layer, the IPv6 layer and any adaptation layers are transport layer, the IPv6 layer and any adaptation layers are
aware of the limitations of each other such that unnecessary aware of the limitations of each other such that unnecessary
skipping to change at page 42, line 7 skipping to change at page 44, line 7
4. IANA Considerations 4. IANA Considerations
This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces This document does not introduce any new code-points or namespaces
for registration with IANA. for registration with IANA.
Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
RFC. RFC.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
This document discusses the problem statement and requirements on the This document discusses the problem statement and requirements on
network of constrained devices. If specific requirements for networks of constrained devices. Section 1.6 mentions a number of
security will be identified, they will be described in future limitations that could prevent the implementation of strong
versions of this document. cryptographic algorithms. Requirements for security and access
control are listed in Section 3.6.
6. Contributors 6. Contributors
Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed to the Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed to the
Section 1.3 on Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus. Section 1.3 on Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus.
7. Acknowledgments 7. Acknowledgments
Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to
different versions of this document: different versions of this document:
Dominique Barthel, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Claise, Bert Dominique Barthel, Andy Bierman, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit
Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen, Anuj Sehgal, Zach Shelby, Claise, Hui Deng, Bert Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen,
and Peter van der Stok. Anuj Sehgal, Zach Shelby, Peter van der Stok and Bert Wijnen.
The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on
the Coman maillist for their valuable contributions and comments. the Coman and OPSAWG maillists for their valuable contributions and
comments.
8. References 8. References
8.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
8.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[RFC2914] Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41,
RFC 2914, September 2000.
[RFC6632] Ersue, M. and B. Claise, "An Overview of the IETF Network [RFC6632] Ersue, M. and B. Claise, "An Overview of the IETF Network
Management Standards", RFC 6632, June 2012. Management Standards", RFC 6632, June 2012.
[RFC7102] Vasseur, JP., "Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and
Lossy Networks", RFC 7102, January 2014.
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology]
Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
Constrained Node Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-terminology-06 Constrained Node Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-terminology-07
(work in progress), December 2013. (work in progress), February 2014.
[I-D.ietf-core-coap] [I-D.ietf-core-coap]
Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "Constrained Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "Constrained
Application Protocol (CoAP)", draft-ietf-core-coap-18 Application Protocol (CoAP)", draft-ietf-core-coap-18
(work in progress), June 2013. (work in progress), June 2013.
[I-D.ietf-roll-terminology] [COM-USE] Ersue, M., "Constrained Management: Use Cases",
Vasseur, J., "Terms used in Routing for Low power And
Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-terminology-13 (work in
progress), October 2013.
[M2MDEVCLASS]
Open Mobile Alliance, "OMA M2M Device Classification
v1.0", October 2012, <http://
technical.openmobilealliance.org/Technical/
release_program/m2m_Device_class_v1_0.aspx>.
[EU-IOT-A]
EU Commission Seventh Framework Programme, "EU FP7 Project
Internet-of-Things Architecture", <http://www.iot-a.eu/>.
[EU-SENSEI]
EU Commission Seventh Framework Programme, "EU Project
SENSEI", <http://www.sensei-project.eu/>.
[EU-FI-WARE]
EU Commission Future Internet Public Private Partnership
(FI-PPP), "EU Project Future Internet-Core Platform",
<http://www.iot-butler.eu/>.
[EU-IOT-BUTLER]
EU Commission Seventh Framework Programme, "EU FP7 Project
Butler Smartlife", <http://www.iot-butler.eu/>.
[COM-US] Ersue, M., "Constrained Management: Use Cases",
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases (work in progress), draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases (work in progress),
October 2013. October 2013.
Appendix A. Related Development in other Bodies Appendix A. Change Log
Note that over time the summary on the related work in other bodies
might become outdated.
A.1. ETSI TC M2M
ETSI Technical Committee Machine-to-Machine (ETSI TC M2M) aims to
provide an end-to-end view of M2M standardization, which enables the
integration of multiple vertical M2M applications. The main goal is
to overcome the current M2M market fragmentation and to reuse
existing mechanisms from telecom standards such as from OMA or 3GPP.
ETSI Release 1 is functionally frozen. The main focus is on use
cases for Smart Metering (Technical Report (TR) 102 691) but it also
includes eHealth use cases (TR 102 732) and some others. The Service
requirements (Technical Standard (TS) 102 689) derived from the use
cases, and the functional architecture specification (TS 102 690),
will together define the M2M platform. The architecture consists of
Service Capabilities (SC), which are basic functional building blocks
for building the M2M platform.
Smart Metering is seen as the important showcase for M2M. It is
believed that the Service Enablers that were defined based on the
work done for Smart Metering and eHealth segments will also allow the
building of other services like vending machines, alarm systems etc.
The functional architecture includes following management-related
definitions:
o Network Management Functions: consists of all functions required
to manage the Access, Transport and Core networks: these include
Provisioning, Supervision, Fault Management, etc.
o M2M Management Functions: consists of functions required to manage
generic functionalities of M2M Applications and M2M Service
Capabilities in the Network and Applications Domain. The
management of the M2M Devices and Gateways may use specific M2M
Service Capabilities.
The Release 2 work of ETSI TC M2M has started beginning of 2012.
Following is a list of networking- and management-related topics
under work:
o Interworking with 3GPP networks. This is a new work item, and no
discussion has been held on technical details. The intent is to
define which ETSI TC M2M functions are applicable when 3GPP NW is
used as transport. It is possible that this work would also cover
details on how to use 3GPP interfaces, e.g. those defined in the
SIMTC work, but also for charging and policy control.
o Creating a Semantic Model or Data Abstraction layer for vertical
industries and interworking. This would provide some high level
information description that would be usable for interworking with
local networks (e.g. ZigBee), and also for verticals, and it
would allow the ETSI Service Enablement layer to also understand
the data, instead of being just a bit storage and bit pipe. All
technical details are still under discussion, but it has been
agreed that a function for this exists in the architecture at
least for interworking.
A.2. OASIS
Developments in OASIS related to management of constrained networks
are following:
o The Energy Interoperation TC works to define interaction between
Smart Grids and their end nodes, including Smart Buildings,
Enterprises, Industry, Homes, and Vehicles. The TC develops data
and communication models that enable the interoperable and
standard exchange of signals for dynamic pricing, reliability, and
emergencies. The TC's agenda also extends to the communication of
market participation data (such as bids), load predictability, and
generation information. The first version of the Energy
Interoperation specification is in final review.
o OASIS Open Data Protocol (OData) aims to simplify the querying and
sharing of data across disparate applications and multiple
stakeholders for re-use in the enterprise, Cloud, and mobile
devices. As a REST-based protocol, OData builds on HTTP, AtomPub,
and JSON using URIs to address and access data feed resources. It
enables information to be accessed from a variety of sources
including (but not limited to) relational databases, file systems,
content management systems, and traditional Web sites.
o Open Building Information Exchange (oBIX) aims to enable the
mechanical and electrical control systems in buildings to
communicate with enterprise applications, and to provide a
platform for developing new classes of applications that integrate
control systems with other enterprise functions. Enterprise
functions include processes such as Human Resources, Finance,
Customer Relationship Management (CRM), and Manufacturing.
A.3. OMA
OMA is currently working on Lightweight M2M Enabler, OMA Device
Management (OMA DM) Next Generation, and a white paper on M2M Device
Classification.
The Lightweight M2M Enabler covers both M2M device management and
service management for constrained devices. In the case of less
constrained devices, OMA DM Next Generation Enabler may be more
appropriate. OMA DM is structured around Management Objects (MO),
each specified for a specific purpose. There is also ongoing work
with various other MOs such as the Gateway Management Object (GwMO).
A draft for the "Lightweight M2M Requirements" is available.
OMA Lightweight M2M and OMA DM Next Generation are important to M2M
device management, provisioning and service managements in both the
protocol and management objects. OMA Lightweight M2M work seems to
have grown from its original scope of being targeted for very simple
devices only, i.e. such that could not handle all those protocols
that ETSI M2M requires.
The white paper on the M2M Device Classification [M2MDEVCLASS]
provides an M2M device classification framework based on the
horizontal attributes (e.g., wide or local area communication
interface, IP stack, I/O capabilities) of interest to communication
service providers and M2M service providers, independent of vertical
markets, such as smart grid, connected cars, e-health, etc. The
white paper can be used as a tool to analyze the applicability of
existing requirements and specifications developed by OMA and other
cooperative standards development organizations.
A.4. IPSO Alliance
IPSO Alliance developed a profile for Device Functions supporting A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 -
devices such as sensors with a limited user interface, where the draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01
configuration of even basic parameters is impossible to do manually.
This is a challenge especially for consumer devices that are managed
by non-professional users. The configuration of a web service
application running on a constrained device goes beyond the
autoconfiguration of the IP stack and local information (e.g. proxy
address). Constrained devices need additionally service provider and
user account related configuration, such as an address/locator and
the username for a web server.
IPSO discusses the use cases and requirements for user friendly o General bug fixing.
configuration of such information on a constrained device, and
specifies how IPSO profile Device Function Set can be used in the
process. It furthermore defines a standard format for the basic
application configuration information.
Appendix B. Related Research Projects o Added Section 1.7. on Configuration and Monitoring Functionality
Levels.
o The EU project IoT-A (Internet-of-Things Architecture) develops an o Changed diverse occurences of "networks" to "networks with/of
architectural reference model together with the definition of an constrained devices".
initial set of key building blocks. These enable the integration
of IoT into the service layer of the Future Internet, and realize
a novel resolution infrastructure, as well as a network
infrastructure that allows the seamless communication flow between
IoT devices and services. The development includes a conceptual
model of a smart object as well as a basic Internet of Things
reference model defining the interaction and communication between
IoT devices and relevant entities. The requirements document
includes also network and information management requirements (see
[EU-IOT-A]).
o The EU project SENSEI specified the document on 'End to End o Introduced the term "Self-configuring infrastructureless networks"
Networking and Management' for Wireless Sensor and Actuator instead of MANET as it is a superset.
Networks. This report presents several research results carried
out in SENSEI's tasks related to End-to-End Networking and
Management. Particular analyses have been addressed related to
naming and addressing of resources, management of resources,
resource plug and play, resource level mobility and traffic
modelling. The detailed analysis on each of these topics is
intended to identify possible gaps between their specific
mechanisms and the functional requirements in the SENSEI reference
architecture (see [EU-SENSEI]).
o The EU project FI-WARE is developing the Things Management GE o Introduced the term 'sleepy endpoints'.
(generic enabler), which uses a data model derived from the OMA DM
NGSI data model. Using the abstraction level of things which
include non-technical things like rooms, places and people, Things
Management GE aims to discover and look up IoT resources that can
provide information about things or actuate on these things. The
system aimes to manage the dynamic associations between IoT
resources and things in order to allow internal components as well
as external applications to interact with the system using the
thing abstraction as the core concept (see [EU-FI-WARE]).
o EU project BUTLER Smart Life discusses different IoT management o Changed requirement IDs to be independent of section number.
aspects and collects requirements for smart life use cases (e.g.
smart home or smart city) mainly from service management pov. (see
[EU-IOT-BUTLER]).
Appendix C. Open issues o Introduced notes for parts of the requirements text if it is
focusing on implementation or solution.
o Section 4 on the management requirements, as the core section in o Extended Security Considerations section.
the document, needs further consolidation.
Appendix D. Change Log o Deleted Appendix A and B on other SDO's work and related projects
as they provided dynamic information and couldn't be kept up-to-
date.
D.1. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - A.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 -
draft-ersue-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00
o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the
LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft. LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.
o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology
draft. draft.
o Moved section 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options and o Moved section 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options and
section 3. Use Cases to the companion document [COM-US]. section 3. Use Cases to the companion document [COM-USE].
o Renamed Section 1.3. Class of Networks in Focus to "Network Types o Renamed Section 1.3. Class of Networks in Focus to "Network Types
in Focus" and removed abbreviations C0, C1 and C2 for network in Focus" and removed abbreviations C0, C1 and C2 for network
classes as they have not been used. classes as they have not been used.
o Changed requirement priority classes to be High, Medium and Low. o Changed requirement priority classes to be High, Medium and Low.
o Changed requirement types to be Functional and Non-Functional and o Changed requirement types to be Functional and Non-Functional and
added text to explain the requirement types. added text to explain the requirement types.
o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity. o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity.
D.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03
o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the
terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft. terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft.
Referenced the LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.
o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG
terminology draft. terminology draft.
o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and
communication technologies in use and dimensions extended. communication technologies in use and dimensions extended.
skipping to change at page 54, line 28 skipping to change at page 50, line 9
* Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group- * Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group-
based provisioning. based provisioning.
o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management
standards, as it will be written in a separate draft. standards, as it will be written in a separate draft.
o Added links to mentioned external pages. o Added links to mentioned external pages.
o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix. o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix.
D.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02
o Extended the terminology section. o Extended the terminology section.
o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment
type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities, type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities,
radio technology, etc. radio technology, etc.
o Added examples for device classes in a use case. o Added examples for device classes in a use case.
o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for
skipping to change at page 55, line 16 skipping to change at page 50, line 44
management matched to management tasks like fault, monitoring, management matched to management tasks like fault, monitoring,
configuration management, Security and Access Control, Energy configuration management, Security and Access Control, Energy
Management, etc. Management, etc.
o Solved nits and added references. o Solved nits and added references.
o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies. o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies.
o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects. o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects.
D.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01
o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the
sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology
Options'. Options'.
o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile
Applications'. Applications'.
o Provided a Contributors section. o Provided a Contributors section.
 End of changes. 131 change blocks. 
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