draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01.txt   draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-02.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed.
Internet-Draft Nokia Solutions and Networks Internet-Draft Nokia Networks
Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu
Expires: August 18, 2014 Avaya Expires: January 5, 2015 Avaya
J. Schoenwaelder J. Schoenwaelder
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
February 14, 2014 July 4, 2014
Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement and Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement and
Requirements Requirements
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-02
Abstract Abstract
This document provides a problem statement, deployment and management This document provides a problem statement, deployment and management
topology options as well as the requirements for the management of topology options as well as the requirements for the management of
networks where constrained devices are involved. networks where constrained devices are involved.
Status of this Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
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This Internet-Draft will expire on August 18, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3. Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus . . . . . . . 5 1.3. Network Types and Characteristics in Focus . . . . . . . 5
1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5. Management Topology Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.5. Management Topology Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6. Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Network . . . 10 1.6. Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Network . . . 10
1.7. Configuration and Monitoring Functionality Levels . . . . 13 1.7. Configuration and Monitoring Functionality Levels . . . . 13
2. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3. Requirements on the Management of Networks with 3. Requirements on the Management of Networks with Constrained
Constrained Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.1. Management Architecture/System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.1. Management Architecture/System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2. Management protocols and data model . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.2. Management protocols and data model . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.3. Configuration management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.3. Configuration management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.4. Monitoring functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.4. Monitoring functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.5. Self-management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.5. Self-management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.6. Security and Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.6. Security and Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.7. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.7. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.8. SW Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.8. SW Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.9. Traffic management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.9. Traffic management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.10. Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.10. Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.11. Implementation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.11. Implementation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 - draft-ietf-
Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 - A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 - draft-ietf-
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 . . . . . . . . 48 opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 . . . . . . . . 48 coman-probstate-reqs-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 43
A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . 44
A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1.1. Overview 1.1. Overview
Constrained devices, aka. sensor, smart object, or smart device, with Constrained devices, aka. sensor, smart object, or smart device, with
limited CPU, memory, and power resources, can constitute a network. limited CPU, memory, and power resources, can constitute a network.
Such a network of constrained devices itself may be constrained or Such a network of constrained devices itself may be constrained or
challenged, e.g. with unreliable or lossy channels, wireless challenged, e.g., with unreliable or lossy channels, wireless
technologies with limited bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing technologies with limited bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing
the service of a gateway or proxy to connect to the Internet. In the service of a gateway or proxy to connect to the Internet. In
other scenarios, the constrained devices can be connected to a non- other scenarios, the constrained devices can be connected to a non-
constrained network using off-the-shelf protocol stacks. constrained network using off-the-shelf protocol stacks.
Constrained devices might be in charge of gathering information in Constrained devices might be in charge of gathering information in
diverse settings including natural ecosystems, buildings, and diverse settings including natural ecosystems, buildings, and
factories and send the information to one or more server stations. factories and send the information to one or more server stations.
Constrained devices may also work under severe resource constraints Constrained devices may also work under severe resource constraints
such as limited battery and computing power, little memory and such as limited battery and computing power, little memory and
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the near or somewhere in the Internet. With this the Internet of the near or somewhere in the Internet. With this the Internet of
Things (IoT) becomes a reality build up of uniquely identifiable Things (IoT) becomes a reality build up of uniquely identifiable
objects (things). And over the next decade, this could grow to objects (things). And over the next decade, this could grow to
trillions of constrained devices and will greatly increase the trillions of constrained devices and will greatly increase the
Internet's size and scope. Internet's size and scope.
Network management is characterized by monitoring network status, Network management is characterized by monitoring network status,
detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network
parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain
normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application
performance. The traditional network management application performance. The traditional network monitoring application
periodically collects information from a set of elements that are periodically collects information from a set of elements that are
needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the needed to manage, processes the data, and presents them to the
network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have network management users. Constrained devices, however, often have
limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. They limited power, low transmission range, and might be unreliable. They
might also need to work in hostile environments with advanced might also need to work in hostile environments with advanced
security requirements or need to be used in harsh environments for a security requirements or need to be used in harsh environments for a
long time without supervision. Due to such constraints, the long time without supervision. Due to such constraints, the
management of a network with constrained devices offers different management of a network with constrained devices faces different type
type of challenges compared to the management of a traditional IP of challenges compared to the management of a traditional IP network.
network.
The IETF has already done substantial standardization work to enable The IETF has already done substantial standardization work to enable
the communication in IP networks and to manage such networks as well the communication in IP networks and to manage such networks as well
as the manifold type of nodes in these networks [RFC6632]. However, as the manifold type of nodes in these networks [RFC6632]. However,
the IETF so far has not developed any specific technologies for the the IETF so far has not developed any specific technologies for the
management of constrained devices and the networks comprised by management of constrained devices and the networks comprised by
constrained devices. IP-based sensors or constrained devices in such constrained devices. IP-based sensors or constrained devices in such
an environment, i.e., devices with very limited memory and CPU an environment, i.e., devices with very limited memory and CPU
resources, use today application-layer protocols in an ad-hoc manner resources, use today application-layer protocols in an ad-hoc manner
to do simple resource management and monitoring. to do simple resource management and monitoring.
This document provides a problem statement and lists the requirements This document provides a problem statement and lists the requirements
for the management of a network with constrained devices. for the management of a network with constrained devices.
Section 1.3 and Section 1.5 describe different topology options for Section 1.3 and Section 1.5 describe different topology options for
the networking and management of constrained devices. Section 2 the networking and management of constrained devices. Section 2
provides a problem statement on the issue of the management of provides a problem statement on the issue of the management of
networked constrained devices. Section 3 lists requirements on the networked constrained devices. Section 3 lists requirements on the
management of applications and networks with constrained devices. management of applications and networks with constrained devices.
Note that the requirements in Section 3 need to be seen as Note that the requirements listed in Section 3 have been separated
standalone, where different implementer may decide to realize a from the context in which they may appear. Depending on the concrete
different set of requirements. circumstances, an implementer may decide to address a certain
relevant subset of the requirements.
The use cases in the context of networks with constrained devices can The use cases in the context of networks with constrained devices can
be found in the companion document [COM-USE]. be found in the companion document [COM-USE].
1.2. Terminology 1.2. Terminology
Concerning constrained devices and networks this document generally Concerning constrained devices and networks this document generally
builds on the terminology defined in [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology], builds on the terminology defined in [RFC7228], where the terms
where the terms Constrained Device, Constrained Network, etc. are Constrained Device, Constrained Network, etc. are defined.
defined.
The following terms are additionally used throughout this The following terms are additionally used throughout this
documentation: documentation:
AMI: (Advanced Metering Infrastructure) A system including hardware, AMI: (Advanced Metering Infrastructure) A system including hardware,
software, and networking technologies that measures, collects, and software, and networking technologies that measures, collects, and
analyzes energy usage, and communicates with a hierarchically analyzes energy usage, and communicates with a hierarchically
deployed network of metering devices, either on request or on a deployed network of metering devices, either on request or on a
schedule. schedule.
C0: Class 0 constrained device as defined in Section 3. of C0: Class 0 constrained device as defined in Section 3. of
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology]. [RFC7228].
C1: Class 1 constrained device as defined in Section 3. of C1: Class 1 constrained device as defined in Section 3. of
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology]. [RFC7228].
C2: Class 2 constrained device as defined in Section 3. of C2: Class 2 constrained device as defined in Section 3. of
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology]. [RFC7228].
Network of Constrained Devices: A network to which constrained Network of Constrained Devices: A network to which constrained
devices are connected that may or may not be a Constrained Network devices are connected that may or may not be a Constrained Network
(see [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] for the definition of the term (see [RFC7228] for the definition of the term Constrained
Constrained Network). Network).
M2M: (Machine to Machine) stands for the automatic data transfer M2M: (Machine to Machine) stands for the automatic data transfer
between devices of different kind. In M2M scenarios a device between devices of different kind. In M2M scenarios a device
(such as a sensor or meter) captures an event, which is relayed (such as a sensor or meter) captures an event, which is relayed
through a network (wireless, wired or hybrid) to an application. through a network (wireless, wired or hybrid) to an application.
MANET: Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, a self-configuring and MANET: Mobile Ad-hoc Networks [RFC2501], a self-configuring and
infrastructureless network of mobile devices connected by wireless infrastructureless network of mobile devices connected by wireless
technologies. technologies.
Smart Grid: An electrical grid that uses communication technologies Smart Grid: An electrical grid that uses communication technologies
to gather and act on information in an automated fashion to to gather and act on information in an automated fashion to
improve the efficiency, reliability and sustainability of the improve the efficiency, reliability and sustainability of the
production and distribution of electricity. production and distribution of electricity.
Smart Meter: An electrical meter in the context of a Smart Grid. Smart Meter: An electrical meter in the context of a Smart Grid.
For a detailed discussion on the constrained networks as well as For a detailed discussion on the constrained networks as well as
classes of constrained devices and their capabilities please see classes of constrained devices and their capabilities please see
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology]. [RFC7228].
1.3. Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus 1.3. Network Types and Characteristics in Focus
In this document we differentiate following type of networks In this document we differentiate following types of networks
concerning their transport and communication technologies: concerning their transport and communication technologies:
Note that a network in general can involve constrained and non- (Note that a network in general can involve constrained and non-
constrained devices. constrained devices.)
1. Wireline non-constrained networks, e.g. an Ethernet-LAN with 1. Wireline non-constrained networks, e.g., an Ethernet-LAN with
constrained and non-constrained devices involved. constrained and non-constrained devices involved.
2. A combination of wireline and wireless networks, which may or may 2. A combination of wireline and wireless networks, possibly with a
not be mesh-based but have a multi-hop connectivity between multi-hop connectivity between constrained devices, utilizing
constrained devices, utilizing dynamic routing in both the dynamic routing in both the wireless and wireline portions of the
wireless and wireline portions of the network. Such networks network. Such networks usually support highly distributed
usually support highly distributed applications with many nodes applications with many nodes (e.g., environmental monitoring) and
(e.g. environmental monitoring) and tend to deal with large-scale tend to deal with large-scale multipoint-to-point systems.
multipoint-to-point systems with massive data flows. Wireless Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN), as a specific variant, use off-the-
Mesh Networks (WMN), as a specific variant, use off-the-shelf shelf radio technology such as Wi-Fi, WiMax, and cellular 3G/4G.
radio technology such as Wi-Fi, WiMax, and cellular 3G/4G. WMNs WMNs are reliable based on the redundancy they offer and have
are reliable based on the redundancy they offer and have often a often a more planned deployment to provide dynamic and cost
more planned deployment to provide dynamic and cost effective effective connectivity over a certain geographic area.
connectivity over a certain geographic area.
3. A combination of wireline and wireless networks with point-to- 3. A combination of wireline and wireless networks with point-to-
point or point-to-multipoint communication generally with single- point or point-to-multipoint communication generally with single-
hop connectivity to constrained devices, utilizing static routing hop connectivity to constrained devices, utilizing static routing
over the wireless network. Such networks support short-range, over the wireless network. Such networks support short-range,
point-to-point, low-data-rate, source-to-sink type of point-to-point, low-data-rate, source-to-sink type of
applications such as RFID systems, light switches, fire and smoke applications such as RFID systems, light switches, fire and smoke
detectors, and home appliances. This type of networks also detectors, and home appliances. This type of networks also
support confined short-range spaces such as a home, a factory, a support confined short-range spaces such as a home, a factory, a
building, or the human body. IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) and IEEE building, or the human body. IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) and IEEE
802.15.4 are well-known examples of applicable standards for such 802.15.4 are well-known examples of applicable standards for such
networks. networks.
4. Self-configuring infrastructureless networks of mobile devices 4. Self-configuring infrastructureless networks of mobile devices
(e.g. Mobile Adhoc networks, MANET) are a particular type of (e.g., Mobile Adhoc networks, MANET) are a particular type of
network connected by wireless technologies. Infrastructureless network connected by wireless technologies. Infrastructureless
networks are mostly based on point-to-point communications of networks are mostly based on point-to-point communications of
devices moving independently in any direction and changing the devices moving independently in any direction and changing the
links to other devices frequently. Such devices do act as a links to other devices frequently. Such devices do act as a
router to forward traffic unrelated to their own use. router to forward traffic unrelated to their own use.
Wireline non-constrained networks with constrained and non- Wireline non-constrained networks with constrained and non-
constrained devices are mainly used for specific applications like constrained devices are mainly used for specific applications like
Building Automation or Infrastructure Monitoring. Wireline and Building Automation or Infrastructure Monitoring. Wireline and
wireless networks with multi-hop or point-to-multipoint connectivity wireless networks with multi-hop or point-to-multipoint connectivity
are used e.g. for environmental monitoring as well as transport and are used e.g., for environmental monitoring as well as transport and
mobile applications. mobile applications.
Furthermore different network characteristics are determined by Furthermore different network characteristics are determined by
multiple dimensions: dynamicity of the topology, bandwidth, and loss multiple dimensions: dynamicity of the topology, bandwidth, and loss
rate. In the following, each dimension is explained, and networks in rate. In the following, each dimension is explained, and networks in
scope for this document are outlined: scope for this document are outlined:
Network Topology: Network Topology:
The topology of a network can be represented as a graph, with edges The topology of a network can be represented as a graph, with edges
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factors, such as mobility of nodes (e.g., in MANETs or cellular factors, such as mobility of nodes (e.g., in MANETs or cellular
networks), duty cycles (for low-power devices enabling their network networks), duty cycles (for low-power devices enabling their network
interface only periodically to transmit or receive packets), or interface only periodically to transmit or receive packets), or
unstable links (in particular wireless links with strongly unstable links (in particular wireless links with strongly
fluctuating link quality). fluctuating link quality).
Examples of different levels of dynamicity of the topology are Examples of different levels of dynamicity of the topology are
Ethernets (with typically a very static topology) on the one side, Ethernets (with typically a very static topology) on the one side,
and low-power and lossy networks (LLNs) on the other side. LLNs and low-power and lossy networks (LLNs) on the other side. LLNs
nodes often using duty cycles, operate on unreliable wireless links nodes often using duty cycles, operate on unreliable wireless links
and are potentially mobile (e.g. for sensor networks). and are potentially mobile (e.g., for sensor networks).
The more the topology is dynamic, the more routing, transport and The more the topology is dynamic, the more routing, transport and
application layer protocols have to cope with interrupted application layer protocols have to cope with interrupted
connectivity and/or longer delays. For example, management protocols connectivity and/or longer delays. For example, management protocols
(with a given underlying transport protocol) that expect continuous (with a given underlying transport protocol) that expect continuous
session flows without changes of routes during a communication flow, session flows without changes of routes during a communication flow,
may fail to operate. may fail to operate.
Networks with a very low dynamicity (e.g. Ethernet) with no or Networks with a very low dynamicity (e.g., Ethernet) with no or
infrequent topology changes (e.g. less than once every 30 minutes), infrequent topology changes (e.g., less than once every 30 minutes),
are in-scope of this document if they are used with constrained are in-scope of this document if they are used with constrained
devices (see e.g. the use case "Building Automation" in [COM-USE]). devices (see e.g., the use case "Building Automation" in [COM-USE]).
Traffic flows: Traffic flows:
The traffic flow in a network determines from which sources data The traffic flow in a network determines from which sources data
traffic is sent to which destinations in the network. Several traffic is sent to which destinations in the network. Several
different traffic flows are defined in [RFC7102], including "point- different traffic flows are defined in [RFC7102], including "point-
to-point" (P2P), "multipoint-to-point" (MP2P), and "point-to- to-point" (P2P), "multipoint-to-point" (MP2P), and "point-to-
multipoint" (P2MP) flows as: multipoint" (P2MP) flows as:
o P2P: Point To Point. This refers to traffic exchanged between two o P2P: Point To Point. This refers to traffic exchanged between two
nodes (regardless of the number of hops between the two nodes). nodes (regardless of the number of hops between the two nodes).
o P2MP: Point-to-Multipoint traffic refers to traffic between one o P2MP: Point-to-Multipoint traffic refers to traffic between one
node and a set of nodes. This is similar to the P2MP concept in node and a set of nodes. This is similar to the P2MP concept in
Multicast or MPLS Traffic Engineering. Multicast or MPLS Traffic Engineering.
o MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point is used to describe a particular traffic o MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point is used to describe a particular traffic
pattern (e.g. MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes pattern (e.g., MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes
flowing inwards towards a collecting sink). flowing inwards towards a collecting sink).
If one of these traffic patterns is predominant in a network, If one of these traffic patterns is predominant in a network,
protocols (routing, transport, application) may be optimized for the protocols (routing, transport, application) may be optimized for the
specific traffic flow. For example, in a network with a tree specific traffic flow. For example, in a network with a tree
topology and MP2P traffic, collection tree protocols are efficient to topology and MP2P traffic, collection tree protocols are efficient to
send data from the leaves of the tree to the root of the tree, via send data from the leaves of the tree to the root of the tree, via
each node's parent. each node's parent.
Bandwidth: Bandwidth:
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802.15.4 link layers) to many Gigabytes per second (e.g., on fiber 802.15.4 link layers) to many Gigabytes per second (e.g., on fiber
optics). optics).
For management purposes, the management protocol typically requires For management purposes, the management protocol typically requires
to send information between the network management station and the to send information between the network management station and the
clients, for monitoring or control purposes. If the available clients, for monitoring or control purposes. If the available
bandwidth is insufficient for the management protocol, packets will bandwidth is insufficient for the management protocol, packets will
be buffered and eventually dropped, and thus management is not be buffered and eventually dropped, and thus management is not
possible with such a protocol. possible with such a protocol.
Networks without bandwidth limitation (e.g. Ethernet) are in-scope Networks without bandwidth limitation (e.g., Ethernet) are in-scope
of this document if they are used with constrained devices (see the of this document if they are used with constrained devices (see the
use case "Building Automation" in [COM-USE]). use case "Building Automation" in [COM-USE]).
Loss rate: Loss rate:
The loss rate (or bit error rate) is the number of bit errors divided The loss rate (or bit error rate) is the number of bit errors divided
by the total number of bits transmitted. For wired networks, loss by the total number of bits transmitted. For wired networks, loss
rates are typically extremely low, e.g. around 10^-12 or 10^-13 for rates are typically extremely low, e.g., around 10^-12 or 10^-13 for
the latest 10Gbit Ethernet. For wireless networks, such as 802.15.4, the latest 10Gbit Ethernet. For wireless networks, such as 802.15.4,
the bit error rate can be as high as 10^-1 to 10^-0 in case of the bit error rate can be as high as 10^-1 to 10^-0 in case of
interferences.Even when using a reliable transport protocol, interferences.Even when using a reliable transport protocol,
management operations can fail if the loss rate is too high, unless management operations can fail if the loss rate is too high, unless
they are specifically designed to cope with these situations. they are specifically designed to cope with these situations.
1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options
We differentiate following deployment options for the constrained We differentiate following deployment options for the constrained
devices: devices:
o a network of constrained devices, which communicate with each o A network of constrained devices that communicate with each other,
other,
o Constrained devices, which are connected directly to the Internet o Constrained devices, which are connected directly to an IP
or an IP network network,
o A network of constrained devices which communicate with a gateway o A network of constrained devices which communicate with a gateway
or proxy with more communication capabilities acting possibly as a or proxy with more communication capabilities acting possibly as a
representative of the device to entities in the non-constrained representative of the device to entities in the non-constrained
network network
o Constrained devices, which are connected to the Internet or an IP o Constrained devices, which are connected to the Internet or an IP
network via a gateway/proxy network via a gateway/proxy
o A hierarchy of constrained devices, e.g., a network of C0 devices o A hierarchy of constrained devices, e.g., a network of C0 devices
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stations in a cooperative fashion. The distributed management may stations in a cooperative fashion. The distributed management may
be weakly distributed, where functions are broken down and be weakly distributed, where functions are broken down and
assigned to many managers dynamically, or strongly distributed, assigned to many managers dynamically, or strongly distributed,
where almost all managed things have embedded management where almost all managed things have embedded management
functionality and explicit management disappears, which usually functionality and explicit management disappears, which usually
comes with the price that the strongly distributed management comes with the price that the strongly distributed management
logic now needs to be managed. logic now needs to be managed.
o Hierarchical management, where a hierarchy of networks with o Hierarchical management, where a hierarchy of networks with
constrained devices are managed by the managers at their constrained devices are managed by the managers at their
corresponding hierarchy level. I.e. each manager is responsible corresponding hierarchy level. I.e., each manager is responsible
for managing the nodes in its sub-network. It passes information for managing the nodes in its sub-network. It passes information
from its sub-network to its higher-level manager, and disseminates from its sub-network to its higher-level manager, and disseminates
management functions received from the higher-level manager to its management functions received from the higher-level manager to its
sub-network. Hierarchical management is essentially a scalability sub-network. Hierarchical management is essentially a scalability
mechanism, logically the decision-making may be still centralized. mechanism, logically the decision-making may be still centralized.
1.6. Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Network 1.6. Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Network
The capabilities of a constrained device or network and the The capabilities of a constrained device or network and the
constrainedness thereof influence and have an impact on the constrainedness thereof influence and have an impact on the
requirements for the management of such network or devices. requirements for the management of such network or devices.
Note that the list below gives examples and does not claim
completeness.
A constrained device: A constrained device:
o might only support an unreliable radio with lossy links, i.e. the o might only support an unreliable radio with lossy links, i.e., the
client and server of a management protocol need to gracefully client and server of a management protocol need to gracefully
ignore incomplete commands or repeat commands as necessary. ignore incomplete commands or repeat commands as necessary.
o might only be able to go online from time-to-time, where it is o might only be able to go online from time-to-time, where it is
reachable, i.e. a command might be necessary to repeat after a reachable, i.e., a command might be necessary to repeat after a
longer timeout or the timeout value with which one endpoint waits longer timeout or the timeout value with which one endpoint waits
on a response needs to be sufficiently high. on a response needs to be sufficiently high.
o might only be able to support a limited operating time (e.g. based o might only be able to support a limited operating time (e.g.,
on the available battery), or may behave as 'sleepy endpoints' based on the available battery), or may behave as 'sleepy
setting their network links to a disconnected state during long endpoints' setting their network links to a disconnected state
periods of time i.e. the devices need to economize their energy during long periods of time i.e., the devices need to economize
usage with suitable mechanisms and the managing entity needs to their energy usage with suitable mechanisms and the managing
monitor and control the energy status of the constrained devices entity needs to monitor and control the energy status of the
it manages. constrained devices it manages.
o might only be able to support one simple communication protocol, o might only be able to support one simple communication protocol,
i.e. the management protocol needs to be possible to downscale i.e., the management protocol needs to be possible to downscale
from constrained (C2) to very constrained (C0) devices with from constrained (C2) to very constrained (C0) devices with
modular implementation and a very basic version with just a few modular implementation and a very basic version with just a few
simple commands. simple commands.
o might only be able to support limited or no user and/or transport o might only be able to support limited or no user and/or transport
security, i.e. the management system needs to support a less- security, i.e., the management system needs to support a less-
costly and simple but sufficiently secure authentication costly and simple but sufficiently secure authentication
mechanism. mechanism.
o might not be able to support compression and decompression of o might not be able to support compression and decompression of
exchanged data based on limited CPU power, i.e. an intermediary exchanged data based on limited CPU power, i.e., an intermediary
entity which is capable of data compression should be able to entity which is capable of data compression should be able to
communicate with both, devices, which support data compression communicate with both, devices that support data compression
(e.g. C2) and devices, which do not support data compression (e.g., C2) and devices that do not support data compression (e.g.,
(e.g. C1 and C0). C1 and C0).
o might only be able to support a simple encryption, i.e. it would o might only be able to support a simple encryption, i.e., it would
be beneficial if the devices use cryptographic algorithms that are be beneficial if the devices use cryptographic algorithms that are
supported in hardware and the encryption used is efficient in supported in hardware and the encryption used is efficient in
terms of memeory and CPU usage. terms of memeory and CPU usage.
o might only be able to communicate with one single managing entity o might only be able to communicate with one single managing entity
and cannot support the parallel access of many managing entities. and cannot support the parallel access of many managing entities.
o might depend on a self-configuration feature, i.e. the managing o might depend on a self-configuration feature, i.e., the managing
entity might not know all devices in a network and the device entity might not know all devices in a network and the device
needs to be able to initiate connection setup for the device needs to be able to initiate connection setup for the device
configuration. configuration.
o might depend on self- or neighbor-monitoring feature, i.e. the o might depend on self- or neighbor-monitoring feature, i.e., the
managing entity might not be able to monitor all devices in a managing entity might not be able to monitor all devices in a
network continuously. network continuously.
o might only be able to communicate with its neighbors, i.e. the o might only be able to communicate with its neighbors, i.e., the
device should be able to get its configuration from a neighbor. device should be able to get its configuration from a neighbor.
o might only be able to support parsing of data models with limited o might only be able to support parsing of data models with limited
size, i.e. the device data models need to be compact containing size, i.e., the device data models need to be compact containing
the most necessary data and if possible parsable as a stream. the most necessary data and if possible parsable as a stream.
o might only be able to support a limited or no failure detection, o might only be able to support a limited or no failure detection,
i.e. the managing entity needs to handle the situation, where a i.e., the managing entity needs to handle the situation, where a
failure does not get detected or gets detected late gracefully failure does not get detected or gets detected late gracefully
e.g. with asking repeatedly. e.g., with asking repeatedly.
o might only be able to support the reporting of just one or a o might only be able to support the reporting of just one or a
limited set failure types. limited set failure types.
o might only be able to support a limited set of notifications, o might only be able to support a limited set of notifications,
possible only an "I-am-alive" message. possible only an "I-am-alive" message.
o might only be able to support a soft-reset from failure recovery. o might only be able to support a soft-reset from failure recovery.
o might possibly generate a huge amount of redundant reporting data, o might possibly generate a large amount of redundant reporting
i.e. the intermediary management entity (see [I-D.ietf-core-coap]) data, i.e., the intermediary management entity (see [RFC7252])
should be able to filter and aggregate redundant data. should be able to filter and aggregate redundant data.
A network of constrained devices: A network of constrained devices:
o might only support an unreliable radio with lossy links, i.e. the o might only support an unreliable radio with lossy links, i.e., the
client and server of a management protocol need to repeat commands client and server of a management protocol need to repeat commands
as necessary or gracefully ignore incomplete commands. as necessary or gracefully ignore incomplete commands.
o might be necessary to manage based on multicast communication, o might be necessary to manage based on multicast communication,
i.e. the managing entity needs to be prepared to configure many i.e., the managing entity needs to be prepared to configure many
devices at once based on the same data model. devices at once based on the same data model.
o might have a very large topology supporting 10.000 or more nodes o might have a very large topology supporting 10,000 or more nodes
for some applications and as such node naming is a specific issue for some applications and as such node naming is a specific issue
for constrained networks. for constrained networks.
o must be able to self-organize, i.e. given the large number of o must be able to self-organize, i.e., given the large number of
nodes and their potential placement in hostile locations and nodes and their potential placement in hostile locations and
frequently changing topology, manual configuration is typically frequently changing topology, manual configuration of nodes is
not feasible. As such the network must be able to reconfigure typically not feasible. As such the network must be able to
itself so that it can continue to operate properly and support reconfigure itself so that it can continue to operate properly and
reliable connectivity. support reliable connectivity.
o needs a management solution, which is energy-efficient, using as o needs a management solution that is energy-efficient, using as
little wireless bandwidth as possible since communication is little wireless bandwidth as possible since communication is
highly energy demanding. highly energy demanding.
o needs to support localization schemes to determine the location of o needs to support localization schemes to determine the location of
devices since the devices might be moving and location information devices since the devices might be moving and location information
is important for some applications. is important for some applications.
o needs a management solution, which is scalable as the network may o needs a management solution that is scalable as the network may
consist of thousands of nodes and may need to be extended consist of thousands of nodes and may need to be extended
continuously. continuously.
o needs to provide fault tolerance. Faults in network operation o needs to provide fault tolerance. Faults in network operation
including hardware and software errors or failures detected by the including hardware and software errors or failures detected by the
transport protocol should be handled smoothly enabling. In such a transport protocol should be handled smoothly enabling. In such a
case it should be possible to run the protocol possibly at a case it should be possible to run the protocol possibly at a
reduced level but avoiding to fail completely. E.g. self- reduced level but avoiding to fail completely. E.g., self-
monitoring mechanisms or graceful degradation of features can be monitoring mechanisms or graceful degradation of features can be
used to provide fault tolerance. used to provide fault tolerance.
o might require new management capabilities: for example, network o might require new management capabilities: for example, network
coverage information and a constrained device power-distribution- coverage information and a constrained device power-distribution-
map. map.
o might require a new management function for data management, since o might require a new management function for data management, since
the type and amount of data collected in constrained networks is the type and amount of data collected in constrained networks is
different from those of the traditional networks. different from those of the traditional networks.
o might also need energy-efficient key management. o might also need energy-efficient key management.
1.7. Configuration and Monitoring Functionality Levels 1.7. Configuration and Monitoring Functionality Levels
Devices often differ significantly on the level of configuration Devices often differ significantly on the level of configuration
management support they provide. The configuration management management support they provide. This document classifies the
functionality levels can be broadly classified as follows: configuration management functionality as follows:
CL0: Devices are pre-configured and allow no runtime configuration CL0: Devices are pre-configured and allow no runtime configuration
changes. Configuration parameters are often hard coded and changes. Configuration parameters are often hard coded and
compiled directly into the firmware image. compiled directly into the firmware image.
CL1: Devices have explicit configuration objects. However, changes CL1: Devices have explicit configuration objects. However, changes
require a restart of the device to take effect. require a restart of the device to take effect.
CL2: Devices allow management systems to replace the entire CL2: Devices allow management systems to replace the entire
configuration (or pre-determined subsets) in bulk. Configuration configuration (or pre-determined subsets) in bulk. Configuration
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might distinguish between the currently running and the next might distinguish between the currently running and the next
startup configuration. startup configuration.
CL5: Devices support configuration datastore locking and device- CL5: Devices support configuration datastore locking and device-
local configuration change transactions, i.e., either all local configuration change transactions, i.e., either all
configuration changes are applied or none of them. configuration changes are applied or none of them.
CL6: Devices support configuration change transactions across CL6: Devices support configuration change transactions across
devices. devices.
Devices often also provide different levels of monitoring support: This document defines a classification of devices with regards to
different levels of monitoring support. In general a device may be
in several of the levels listed below:
ML0: Devices push pre-defined monitoring data. ML0: Devices push pre-defined monitoring data.
ML1: Devices allow management systems to pull pre-defined monitoring ML1: Devices allow management systems to pull pre-defined monitoring
data. data.
ML2: Devices allow management systems to pull user-defined filtered ML2: Devices allow management systems to pull user-defined filtered
subsets of monitoring data. subsets of monitoring data.
ML3: Devices are able to locally process monitoring data in order to ML3: Devices are able to locally process monitoring data in order to
detect threshold crossings or to aggregate data. detect threshold crossings or to aggregate data.
Constrained devices often implement a combination of one of FL0-FL2 At the time of this writing, constrained devices often implement a
with one of ML0-ML1. combination of one of CL0-CL2 with one of ML0-ML1.
2. Problem Statement 2. Problem Statement
The terminology for the "Internet of Things" is still nascent, and The terminology for the "Internet of Things" is still nascent, and
depending on the network type or layer in focus diverse technologies depending on the network type or layer in focus diverse technologies
and terms are in use. Common to all these considerations is the and terms are in use. Common to all these considerations is the
"Things" or "Objects" are supposed to have physical or virtual "Things" or "Objects" are supposed to have physical or virtual
identities using interfaces to communicate. In this context, we need identities using interfaces to communicate. In this context, we need
to differentiate between the Constrained and Smart Devices identified to differentiate between the Constrained and Smart Devices identified
by an IP address compared to virtual entities such as Smart Objects, by an IP address compared to virtual entities such as Smart Objects,
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limited memory and CPU power as well as aim to be self-configuring limited memory and CPU power as well as aim to be self-configuring
and easy to deploy. and easy to deploy.
However, the constraints of the network nodes requires a rethinking However, the constraints of the network nodes requires a rethinking
of the protocol characteristics concerning power consumption, of the protocol characteristics concerning power consumption,
performance, memory, and CPU usage. As such, there is a demand for performance, memory, and CPU usage. As such, there is a demand for
protocol simplification, energy-efficient communication, less CPU protocol simplification, energy-efficient communication, less CPU
usage and small memory footprint. usage and small memory footprint.
On the application layer the IETF is already developing protocols On the application layer the IETF is already developing protocols
like the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) [I-D.ietf-core-coap] like the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) [RFC7252] enabling
enabling the communication of constrained devices and networks e.g., the communication of constrained devices and networks e.g., for smart
for smart energy applications or home automation environments. The energy applications or home automation environments. The deployment
deployment of such an environment involves in fact many, in some of such an environment involves in fact many, in some scenarios up to
scenarios up to million constrained devices (e.g. smart meters), million constrained devices (e.g., smart meters), which produce a
which produce a huge amount of data. This data needs to be large amount of data. This data needs to be collected, filtered, and
collected, filtered, and pre-processed for further use in diverse pre-processed for further use in diverse services.
services.
Considering the high number of nodes to deploy, one has to think on Considering the high number of nodes to deploy, one has to think on
the manageability aspects of the smart devices and plan for easy the manageability aspects of the smart devices and plan for easy
deployment, configuration, and management of the networks of deployment, configuration, and management of the networks of
constrained devices as well as the devices themselves. Consequently, constrained devices as well as the devices themselves. Consequently,
seamless monitoring and self-configuration of such network nodes seamless monitoring and self-configuration of such network nodes
becomes more and more imperative. Self-configuration and self- becomes more and more imperative. Self-configuration and self-
management is already a reality in the standards of some of the management is already a reality in the standards of some of the
bodies such as 3GPP. To introduce self-configuration of smart bodies such as 3GPP. To introduce self-configuration of smart
devices successfully a device-initiated connection establishment is devices successfully a device-initiated connection establishment is
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management of constrained devices. Hence, the management of a management of constrained devices. Hence, the management of a
network with constrained devices is necessary to design in a network with constrained devices is necessary to design in a
simplified and less complex manner. simplified and less complex manner.
As Section 1.6 highlights, there are diverse characterists of As Section 1.6 highlights, there are diverse characterists of
constrained devices or networks, which stem from their constrained devices or networks, which stem from their
constrainedness and therefore have an impact on the requirements for constrainedness and therefore have an impact on the requirements for
the management of such a network with constrained devices. The use the management of such a network with constrained devices. The use
cases discussed in [COM-USE] show that the requirements on cases discussed in [COM-USE] show that the requirements on
constrained networks are manifold and need to be analyzed from constrained networks are manifold and need to be analyzed from
different angles, e.g. concerning the design of the management different angles, e.g., concerning the design of the management
architecture, the selection of the appropriate protocol features as architecture, the selection of the appropriate protocol features as
well as the specific issues which are new in the context of well as the specific issues which are new in the context of
constrained devices. Examples of such issues are e.g. the careful constrained devices. Examples of such issues are e.g., the careful
management of the scarce energy resources, the necessity for self- management of the scarce energy resources, the necessity for self-
organization and self-management of such devices but also the organization and self-management of such devices but also the
implementation considerations to enable the use of common implementation considerations to enable the use of common
communication technologies on a constrained hardware in an efficient communication technologies on a constrained hardware in an efficient
manner. For an exhaustive list of issues and requirements, which manner. For an exhaustive list of issues and requirements that need
need to be addressed for the management of a network with constrained to be addressed for the management of a network with constrained
devices please see Section 1.6 and Section 3. devices please see Section 1.6 and Section 3.
3. Requirements on the Management of Networks with Constrained Devices 3. Requirements on the Management of Networks with Constrained Devices
This section describes the requirements categorized by management This section describes the requirements categorized by management
areas listed in subsections. areas listed in subsections.
Note that the requirements in this section need to be seen as Note that the requirements listed in this section have been separated
standalone requirements. A device might be able to provide only a from the context in which they may appear. This document in general
particular profile of requirements (i.e. selected set of does not recommend the realization of any subset of the described
requirements) and might not be capable to provide all requirements in requirements. As such this document avoids selecting any of the
this document. On the other hand a device vendor might select a requirements as mandatory to implement. A device might be able to
subset of the requirements to implement. As of today this document provide only a particular selected set of requirements and might not
does not recommend the realization of a profile of requirements. be capable to provide all requirements in this document. On the
other hand a device vendor might select a specific relevant subset of
the requirements to implement.
Following template is used for the definition of the requirements. Following template is used for the definition of the requirements.
Req-ID: An ID uniquely identified by a three-digit number Req-ID: An ID uniquely identified by a three-digit number
Title: The title of the requirement. Title: The title of the requirement.
Description: The rational and description of the requirement. Description: The rational and description of the requirement.
Source: The origin of the requirement and the matching use case or Source: The origin of the requirement and the matching use case or
application. For the discussion of referred use cases for application. For the discussion of referred use cases for
constrained management please see [COM-USE]. constrained management please see [COM-USE].
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement, Non-Functional Requirement Type: Functional Requirement, Non-Functional
Requirement. A functional requirement is related to a proposed Requirement. A functional requirement is related to a function or
function or component. As such functional requirements may be component. As such functional requirements may be technical
technical details, or specific functionality that define what a details, or specific functionality that define what a system is
system is supposed to accomplish. Non-functional requirements supposed to accomplish. Non-functional requirements (also known
(also known as design constraints or quality requirements) impose as design constraints or quality requirements) impose
implementation related considerations such as performance implementation related considerations such as performance
requirements, security, or reliability. requirements, security, or reliability.
Device type: The device types by which this requirement can be Device type: The device types by which this requirement can be
supported: C0, C1 and/or C2. supported: C0, C1 and/or C2.
Priority: The priority of the requirement showing it's importance Priority: The priority of the requirement showing its importance for
for a particular type of device: High, Medium, and Low. The a particular type of device: High, Medium, and Low. The priority
priority of a requirement can be High e.g. for a C2 device but Low of a requirement can be High e.g., for a C2 device but Low for a
for a C1 or C0 device as the realization of complex features in a C1 or C0 device as the realization of complex features in a C1
C1 device is in many cases not possible. device is in many cases not possible.
3.1. Management Architecture/System 3.1. Management Architecture/System
Req-ID: 1.001 Req-ID: 1.001
Title: Support multiple device classes within a single network. Title: Support multiple device classes within a single network.
Description: Larger networks usually are made up of devices Description: Larger networks usually consist of devices belonging to
belonging to different device classes (e.g., constrained mesh different device classes (e.g., constrained mesh endpoints and
endpoints and less constrained routers) that work together. less constrained routers) communicating with each other. Hence,
Hence, the management architecture must be applicable to networks the management architecture must be applicable to networks that
that have a mix of different device classes. See Section 3. of have a mix of different device classes. See Section 3. of
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] for the definition of Constrained [RFC7228] for the definition of Constrained Device Classes.
Device Classes.
Source: All use cases. Source: All use cases.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and/or C2 Device type: C1 and/or C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 1.002 Req-ID: 1.002
Title: Management scalability. Title: Management scalability.
Description: The management architecture must be able to scale with Description: The management architecture must be able to scale with
the number of devices involved and operate efficiently in any the number of devices involved and operate efficiently in any
network size and topology. This implies that e.g. the managing network size and topology. This implies that e.g., the managing
entity is able to handle huge amount of device monitoring data and entity is able to handle large amounts of device monitoring data
the management protocol is not sensitive to the decrease of the and the management protocol is not sensitive to the decrease of
time between two client requests. To achieve good scalability, the time between two client requests. To achieve good
caching techniques, in-network data aggregation techniques, scalability, caching techniques, in-network data aggregation
hierarchical management models may be used. techniques, hierarchical management models may be used.
Source: General requirement for all use cases to enable large scale Source: General requirement for all use cases to enable large scale
networks. networks.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 1.003
Req-ID: 1.003
Title: Hierarchical management Title: Hierarchical management
Description: Provide a means of hierarchical management, i.e. Description: Provide a means of hierarchical management, i.e.,
provide intermediary management entities on different levels, provide intermediary management entities on different levels,
which can take over the responsibility for the management of a which can take over the responsibility for the management of a
sub-hierarchy of the network of constraint devices. The sub-hierarchy of the network of constraint devices. The
intermediary management entity can e.g. support management data intermediary management entity can e.g., support management data
aggregation to handle e.g. high-frequent monitoring data or aggregation to handle e.g., high-frequent monitoring data or
provide a caching mechanism for the uplink and downlink provide a caching mechanism for the uplink and downlink
communication. Hierarchical management contributes to management communication. Hierarchical management contributes to management
scalability. scalability.
Source: Use cases where a huge amount of devices are deployed with a Source: Use cases where a large amount of devices are deployed with
hierarchical topology. a hierarchical topology.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: Managing and intermediary entities. Device type: Managing and intermediary entities.
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 1.004 Req-ID: 1.004
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lossy and unreliable links characterized by a limited data rate, a lossy and unreliable links characterized by a limited data rate, a
high latency, and a high transmission error rate. Furthermore high latency, and a high transmission error rate. Furthermore
constrained devices often duty cycle their radio or the whole constrained devices often duty cycle their radio or the whole
device in order to save energy. Some classes of devices labelled device in order to save energy. Some classes of devices labelled
as 'sleepy endpoints' set their network links to a disconnected as 'sleepy endpoints' set their network links to a disconnected
state during long periods of time. In all cases the management state during long periods of time. In all cases the management
system must not assume that constrained devices are always system must not assume that constrained devices are always
reachable. reachable.
Source: Basic requirement for networks of constrained devices with Source: Basic requirement for networks of constrained devices with
unreliable links and constrained devices which sleep to save unreliable links and constrained devices that sleep to save
energy. energy.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
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Title: Network-wide configuration Title: Network-wide configuration
Description: Provide means by which the behavior of the network can Description: Provide means by which the behavior of the network can
be specified at a level of abstraction (network-wide be specified at a level of abstraction (network-wide
configuration) higher than a set of configuration information configuration) higher than a set of configuration information
specific to individual devices. It is useful to derive the device specific to individual devices. It is useful to derive the device
specific configuration from the network-wide configuration. Such specific configuration from the network-wide configuration. Such
a repository can be used to configure pre-defined device or a repository can be used to configure pre-defined device or
protocol parameters for the whole network. Furthermore, such a protocol parameters for the whole network. Furthermore, such a
network-wide view can be used to monitor and manage a group of network-wide view can be used to monitor and manage a group of
routers or a whole network. E.g. monitoring the performance of a routers or a whole network. E.g., monitoring the performance of a
network requires additional information other than what can be network requires additional information other than what can be
acquired from a single router using a management protocol. acquired from a single router using a management protocol.
Note: The identification of the relevant subset of the policies to Note: The identification of the relevant subset of the policies to
be provisioned is according to the capabilities of each device and be provisioned is according to the capabilities of each device and
can be obtained from a pre-configured data-repository. can be obtained from a pre-configured data-repository.
Source: In general all use cases, which want to configure the Source: In general all use cases of network and device configuration
network and its devices based on a network view in a top-down based on a network view in a top-down manner.
manner.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 1.008 Req-ID: 1.008
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--- ---
Req-ID: 2.002 Req-ID: 2.002
Title: Compact encoding of management data Title: Compact encoding of management data
Description: The encoding of management data should be compact and Description: The encoding of management data should be compact and
space efficient, enabling small message sizes. space efficient, enabling small message sizes.
Source: General requirement to save memory for the receiver buffer Source: General requirement to save memory for the receiver buffer
and on-air bandwith. and on-air bandwidth.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 2.003 Req-ID: 2.003
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Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 2.003 Req-ID: 2.003
Title: Compression of management data or complete messages Title: Compression of management data or complete messages
Description: Management data exchanges can be further optimized by Description: Management data exchanges can be further optimized by
applying data compression techniques or delta encoding techniques. applying data compression techniques or delta encoding techniques.
Compression typically requires additional code size and some Compression typically requires additional code size and some
additional buffers and/or the maintenance of some additional state additional buffers and/or the maintenance of some additional state
information. For C0 devices compression may not be feasible. information. For C0 devices compression may not be feasible.
Source: Use cases where it is beneficial to reduce transmission time Source: Use cases where it is beneficial to reduce transmission time
and bandwith, e.g. mobile applications which require to save on- and bandwidth, e.g., mobile applications which require to save on-
air bandwith. air bandwidth.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 2.004 Req-ID: 2.004
skipping to change at page 24, line 28 skipping to change at page 23, line 12
Title: Consistency of data models with the underlying information Title: Consistency of data models with the underlying information
model. model.
Description: The data models used by the management protocol must be Description: The data models used by the management protocol must be
consistent with the information model used to define data models consistent with the information model used to define data models
for non-constrained networks. This is essential to facilitate the for non-constrained networks. This is essential to facilitate the
integration of the management of constrained networks with the integration of the management of constrained networks with the
management of non-constrained networks. Using an underlying management of non-constrained networks. Using an underlying
information model for future data model design enables furthermore information model for future data model design enables furthermore
top-down model design and model reuse as well as data top-down model design and model reuse as well as data
interoperability (i.e. exchange of management information between interoperability (i.e., exchange of management information between
the constrained and non-constrained networks). This is a strong the constrained and non-constrained networks). This is a strong
requirement, even despite the fact that the underlying information requirement, even despite the fact that the underlying information
models are often not explicitly documented in the IETF. models are often not explicitly documented in the IETF.
Source: General requirement to support data interoperability, Source: General requirement to support data interoperability,
consistency and model reuse. consistency and model reuse.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
skipping to change at page 25, line 19 skipping to change at page 24, line 4
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C2 Device type: C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 2.007 Req-ID: 2.007
Title: Protocol extensibility Title: Protocol extensibility
Description: Provide means of extensibility for the management Description: Provide means of extensibility for the management
protocol, i.e. by adding new protocol messages or mechanisms that protocol, i.e., by adding new protocol messages or mechanisms that
can deal with the changing requirements on a supported message and can deal with the changing requirements on a supported message and
data types effectively, without causing inter-operability problems data types effectively, without causing inter-operability problems
or having to replace/update large amounts of deployed devices. or having to replace/update large amount of deployed devices.
Source: Basic requirement useful for all use cases. Source: Basic requirement useful for all use cases.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
3.3. Configuration management 3.3. Configuration management
skipping to change at page 26, line 6 skipping to change at page 24, line 38
management of devices where the management application is the management of devices where the management application is the
central entity configuring the devices, in the auto-configuration central entity configuring the devices, in the auto-configuration
scenario the device is the active part and initiates the scenario the device is the active part and initiates the
configuration process. Self-configuration can be initiated during configuration process. Self-configuration can be initiated during
the initial configuration or for subsequent configurations, where the initial configuration or for subsequent configurations, where
the configuration data needs to be refreshed. Self-configuration the configuration data needs to be refreshed. Self-configuration
should be also supported during the initialization phase or in the should be also supported during the initialization phase or in the
event of failures, where prior knowledge of the network topology event of failures, where prior knowledge of the network topology
is not available or the topology of the network is uncertain. is not available or the topology of the network is uncertain.
Source: In general all use cases requiring easy deployment and plug& Source: In general all use cases requiring easy deployment and
play behavior as well as easy maintenance of many constrained plug&play behavior as well as easy maintenance of many constrained
devices. devices.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High for device categories C0 and C1, Medium for C2. Priority: High for device categories C0 and C1, Medium for C2.
--- ---
skipping to change at page 26, line 47 skipping to change at page 25, line 31
Req-ID: 3.003 Req-ID: 3.003
Title: Asynchronous Transaction Support Title: Asynchronous Transaction Support
Description: Provide configuration management with asynchronous Description: Provide configuration management with asynchronous
(event-driven) transaction support. Configuration operations must (event-driven) transaction support. Configuration operations must
support a transactional model, with asynchronous indications that support a transactional model, with asynchronous indications that
the transaction was completed. the transaction was completed.
Source: Use cases, which require transaction-oriented processing Source: Use cases that require transaction-oriented processing
because of reliability or distributed architecture functional because of reliability or distributed architecture functional
requirements. requirements.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 3.004 Req-ID: 3.004
Title: Network reconfiguration Title: Network reconfiguration
Description: Provide a means of iterative network reconfiguration in Description: Provide a means of iterative network reconfiguration in
order to recover the network functionality from node and order to recover the network from node and communication faults.
communication faults. The network reconfiguration can be failure- The network reconfiguration can be failure-driven and self-
driven and self-initiated (automatic reconfiguration). The initiated (automatic reconfiguration). The network
network reconfiguration can be also performed on the whole reconfiguration can be also performed on the whole hierarchical
hierarchical structure of a network (network topology). structure of a network (network topology).
Source: Practically all use cases, as network connectivity is a Source: Practically all use cases, as network connectivity is a
basic requirement. basic requirement.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
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Req-ID: 4.001 Req-ID: 4.001
Title: Device status monitoring Title: Device status monitoring
Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose
information about device status and exposing it via at least one information about device status and exposing it via at least one
management interface. The device monitoring might make use of the management interface. The device monitoring might make use of the
hierarchical management through the intermediary entities and the hierarchical management through the intermediary entities and the
caching mechanism. The device monitoring might also make use of caching mechanism. The device monitoring might also make use of
neighbor-monitoring (fault detection in local network) to support neighbor-monitoring (fault detection in local network) to support
fast fault detection and recovery, e.g. in a scenario where a fast fault detection and recovery, e.g., in a scenario where a
managing entity is unreachable and a neighbor can take over the managing entity is unreachable and a neighbor can take over the
monitoring responsibility. monitoring responsibility.
Source: All use cases Source: All use cases
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High, Medium for neighbor-monitoring. Priority: High, Medium for neighbor-monitoring.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.002 Req-ID: 4.002
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Priority: High, Medium for neighbor-monitoring. Priority: High, Medium for neighbor-monitoring.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.002 Req-ID: 4.002
Title: Energy status monitoring Title: Energy status monitoring
Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose
information about device energy parameters and usage (e.g. battery information about device energy parameters and usage (e.g.,
level and communication power). battery level and communication power).
Source: Use case Energy Management Source: Use case Energy Management
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High for energy reporting devices, Low for others. Priority: High for energy reporting devices, Low for others.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.003 Req-ID: 4.003
skipping to change at page 29, line 23 skipping to change at page 28, line 4
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Low, based on the realization complexity. Priority: Low, based on the realization complexity.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.005 Req-ID: 4.005
Title: Self-monitoring Title: Self-monitoring
Description: Provide self-monitoring (local fault detection) feature Description: Provide self-monitoring (local fault detection) feature
for fast fault detection and recovery. for fast fault detection and recovery.
Source: Use cases where the devices cannot be monitored centrally in Source: Use cases where the devices cannot be monitored centrally in
appropriate manner, e.g. self-healing is required. appropriate manner, e.g., self-healing is required.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: High for C2, Medium for C1 Priority: High for C2, Medium for C1
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.006 Req-ID: 4.006
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Req-ID: 4.008 Req-ID: 4.008
Title: Passive and Reactive Monitoring Title: Passive and Reactive Monitoring
Description: The device will provide passive and reactive monitoring Description: The device will provide passive and reactive monitoring
capabilities. The system or manager collects information about capabilities. The system or manager collects information about
device components and network states (passive monitoring) and may device components and network states (passive monitoring) and may
perform postmortem analysis of collected data. In case events of perform postmortem analysis of collected data. In case events of
interest have occurred the system or manager can adaptively react interest have occurred the system or manager can adaptively react
(reactive monitoring), e.g. reconfigure the network. Typically (reactive monitoring), e.g., reconfigure the network. Typically
actions (re-actions) will be executed or sent as commands by the actions (re-actions) will be executed or sent as commands by the
management applications. management applications.
Source: Diverse use cases relevant for device status and network Source: Diverse use cases relevant for device status and network
state monitoring state monitoring
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C2 Device type: C2
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Device type: C2 Device type: C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.010 Req-ID: 4.010
Title: Network topology discovery Title: Network topology discovery
Description: Provide a network topology discovery capability (e.g. Description: Provide a network topology discovery capability (e.g.,
use of topology extraction algorithms to retrieve the network use of topology extraction algorithms to retrieve the network
state) and a monitoring function to collect and expose information state) and a monitoring function to collect and expose information
about the network topology. about the network topology.
Source: Use cases Community Network Applications and Mobile Source: Use cases Community Network Applications and Mobile
Applications Applications
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Low, based on the realization complexity. Priority: Low, based on the realization complexity.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.011 Req-ID: 4.011
Title: Notifications Title: Notifications
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Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C2 Device type: C2
Priority: High for some medical or industrial applications, Medium Priority: High for some medical or industrial applications, Medium
otherwise otherwise
3.5. Self-management 3.5. Self-management
Req-ID: 5.001 Req-ID: 5.001
Title: Self-management - Self-healing Title: Self-management - Self-healing
Description: Enable event-driven and/or periodic self-management Description: Enable event-driven and/or periodic self-management
functionality in a device. The device should be able to react in functionality in a device. The device should be able to react in
case of a failure e.g. by initiating a fully or partly reset and case of a failure e.g., by initiating a fully or partly reset and
initiate a self-configuration or management data update as initiate a self-configuration or management data update as
necessary. A device might be further able to check for failures necessary. A device might be further able to check for failures
cyclically or schedule-controlled to trigger self-management as cyclically or schedule-controlled to trigger self-management as
necessary. It is a matter of device design and subject for necessary. It is a matter of device design and subject for
discussion how much self-management a C1 device can support. A discussion how much self-management a C1 device can support. A
minimal failure detection and self-management logic is assumed to minimal failure detection and self-management logic is assumed to
be generally useful for the self-healing of a device. be generally useful for the self-healing of a device.
Source: The requirement generally relates to all use cases in this Source: The requirement generally relates to all use cases in this
document. document.
skipping to change at page 35, line 37 skipping to change at page 34, line 4
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High, Medium for hardware-supported algorithms. Priority: High, Medium for hardware-supported algorithms.
3.7. Energy Management 3.7. Energy Management
Req-ID: 7.001 Req-ID: 7.001
Title: Management of Energy Resources Title: Management of Energy Resources
Description: Enable managing power resources in the network, e.g.,
Description: Enable managing power resources in the network, e.g.
reduce the sampling rate of nodes with critical battery and reduce reduce the sampling rate of nodes with critical battery and reduce
node transmission power, put nodes to sleep, put single interfaces node transmission power, put nodes to sleep, put single interfaces
to sleep, reject a management job based on available energy, to sleep, reject a management job based on available energy,
criteria e.g. importance levels pre-defined by the management criteria e.g., importance levels pre-defined by the management
application, etc. (e.g. a task marked as essential can be executed application, etc. (e.g., a task marked as essential can be
even if the energy level is low). The device may further executed even if the energy level is low). The device may further
implement standard data models for energy management and expose it implement standard data models for energy management and expose it
through a management protocol interface, e.g. EMAN MIB modules through a management protocol interface, e.g., EMAN MIB modules
and extensions. It might be necessary to downscale EMAN MIBs for and extensions (work ongoing). It might be necessary to use a
the use in C1 and C2 devices. subset of EMAN MIBs for C1 and C2 devices.
Source: Use case Energy Management Source: Use case Energy Management
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium for the use case Energy Management, Low otherwise. Priority: Medium for the use case Energy Management, Low otherwise.
--- ---
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Device type: C2 Device type: C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 7.003 Req-ID: 7.003
Title: Support for layer 2 energy-aware protocols Title: Support for layer 2 energy-aware protocols
Description: The device will support layer 2 energy management Description: The device will support layer 2 energy management
protocols (e.g. energy-efficient Ethernet IEEE 802.3az) and be protocols (e.g., energy-efficient Ethernet IEEE 802.3az) and be
able to report on these. able to report on these.
Source: Use case Energy Management Source: Use case Energy Management
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
skipping to change at page 37, line 27 skipping to change at page 35, line 41
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.8. SW Distribution 3.8. SW Distribution
Req-ID: 8.001 Req-ID: 8.001
Title: Group-based provisioning Title: Group-based provisioning
Description: Support group-based provisioning, i.e. firmware update Description: Support group-based provisioning, i.e., firmware update
and configuration management, of a large set of constrained and configuration management, of a large set of constrained
devices with eventual consistency and coordinated reload times. devices with eventual consistency and coordinated reload times.
The device should accept group-based configuration management The device should accept group-based configuration management
based on bulk commands, which aim similar configurations of a based on bulk commands, which aim similar configurations of a
large set of constrained devices of the same type in a given large set of constrained devices of the same type in a given
group, and which may share a common data model. Activation of group, and which may share a common data model. Activation of
configuration may be based on pre-loaded sets of default values. configuration may be based on pre-loaded sets of default values.
Source: All use cases Source: All use cases
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.9. Traffic management 3.9. Traffic management
Req-ID: 9.001 Req-ID: 9.001
skipping to change at page 38, line 4 skipping to change at page 36, line 15
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.9. Traffic management 3.9. Traffic management
Req-ID: 9.001 Req-ID: 9.001
Title: Congestion avoidance Title: Congestion avoidance
Description: Support congestion control principles as defined in Description: Support congestion control principles as defined in
[RFC2914], e.g. the ability to avoid congestion by modifying the [RFC2914], e.g., the ability to avoid congestion by modifying the
device's reporting rate for periodical data (which is usually device's reporting rate for periodical data (which is usually
redundant) based on the importance and reliability level of the redundant) based on the importance and reliability level of the
management data. This functionality is usually controlled by the management data. This functionality is usually controlled by the
managing entity, where the managing entity marks the data as managing entity, where the managing entity marks the data as
important or relevant for reliability. However reducing a important or relevant for reliability. However reducing a
device's reporting rate can also be initiated by a device if it is device's reporting rate can also be initiated by a device if it is
able to detect congestion or has insufficient buffer memory. able to detect congestion or has insufficient buffer memory.
Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g. AMI or Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g., AMI or
M2M. M2M.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 9.002 Req-ID: 9.002
Title: Redirect traffic Title: Reroute traffic
Description: Provide the ability for network nodes to redirect Description: Provide the ability for network nodes to redirect
traffic from overloaded intermediary nodes in a network to another traffic from overloaded intermediary nodes in a network to another
path in order to prevent congestion on a central server and in the path in order to prevent congestion on a central server and in the
primary network. primary network.
Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g. AMI or Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g., AMI or
M2M. M2M.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: Intermediary entity in the network. Device type: Intermediary entity in the network.
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 9.003 Req-ID: 9.003
Title: Traffic delay schemes. Title: Traffic Shaping.
Description: Provide the ability to apply delay schemes to incoming Description: Provide the ability to apply traffic shaping policies
and outgoing links on an overloaded intermediary node as necessary to incoming and outgoing links on an overloaded intermediary node
in order to reduce the amount of traffic in the network. as necessary in order to reduce the amount of traffic in the
network.
Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g. AMI or Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g., AMI or
M2M. M2M.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: Intermediary entity in the network. Device type: Intermediary entity in the network.
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.10. Transport Layer 3.10. Transport Layer
Req-ID: 10.001 Req-ID: 10.001
Title: Scalable transport layer Title: Scalable transport layer
Description: Enable the use of a scalable transport layer, i.e. not Description: Enable the use of a scalable transport layer, i.e., not
sensitive to a high rate of incoming client requests, which is sensitive to a high rate of incoming client requests, which is
useful for applications requiring frequent access to device data. useful for applications requiring frequent access to device data.
Source: Applications with high frequent access to the device data. Source: Applications with high frequent access to the device data.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1 and C2 Device type: C0, C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
skipping to change at page 40, line 24 skipping to change at page 38, line 29
Title: Best-effort multicast Title: Best-effort multicast
Description: Provide best-effort multicast of messages, which is Description: Provide best-effort multicast of messages, which is
generally useful when devices need to discover a service provided generally useful when devices need to discover a service provided
by a server or many devices need to be configured by a managing by a server or many devices need to be configured by a managing
entity at once based on the same data model. entity at once based on the same data model.
Source: Use cases where a device needs to discover services as well Source: Use cases where a device needs to discover services as well
as use cases with high amount of devices to manage, which are as use cases with high amount of devices to manage, which are
hierarchically deployed, e.g. AMI or M2M. hierarchically deployed, e.g., AMI or M2M.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 10.004 Req-ID: 10.004
skipping to change at page 41, line 18 skipping to change at page 39, line 21
Title: Avoid complex application layer transactions requiring large Title: Avoid complex application layer transactions requiring large
application layer messages. application layer messages.
Description: Complex application layer transactions tend to require Description: Complex application layer transactions tend to require
large memory buffers that are typically not available on C0 or C1 large memory buffers that are typically not available on C0 or C1
devices and only by limiting functionality on C2 devices. devices and only by limiting functionality on C2 devices.
Furthermore, the failure of a single large transaction requires Furthermore, the failure of a single large transaction requires
repeating the whole transaction. On constrained devices, it is repeating the whole transaction. On constrained devices, it is
often more desirable to a large transaction down into a sequence often more desirable to a large transaction down into a sequence
of smaller transactions, which require less resources and allow to of smaller transactions that require less resources and allow to
make progress using a sequence of smaller steps. make progress using a sequence of smaller steps.
Source: Basic requirement which concerns all use cases with memory Source: Basic requirement which concerns all use cases with memory
constrained devices. constrained devices.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
skipping to change at page 45, line 5 skipping to change at page 40, line 30
RFC. RFC.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
This document discusses the problem statement and requirements on This document discusses the problem statement and requirements on
networks of constrained devices. Section 1.6 mentions a number of networks of constrained devices. Section 1.6 mentions a number of
limitations that could prevent the implementation of strong limitations that could prevent the implementation of strong
cryptographic algorithms. Requirements for security and access cryptographic algorithms. Requirements for security and access
control are listed in Section 3.6. control are listed in Section 3.6.
Constrained devices might be deployed often in unsafe environments,
where attackers can gain physical access to the devices. As a
consequence, it is crucial to properly protect any security
credentials that may be stored on the device (e.g., by using hardware
protection mechanisms). Furthermore, it is important that any
credentials leeking from a single device do not simplify the attack
on other (similar) devices. In particular, security credentials
should never be shared.
Since constrained devices often have limited computational resources,
care should be taken in choosing efficient but cryptographically
strong crytographic algorithms. Designers of constrained devices
that have a long expected lifetime need to ensure that cryptographic
algorithms can be updated once devices have been deployed. The
ability to perform secure firmware and software updates is an
important management requirement.
Constrained devices might also generate sensitive data or require the
processing of sensitive data. It is therefore an important
requirement to properly protect access to the data in order to
protect the privacy of humans using Internet-enabled devices. For
certain types of data, protection during the transmission over the
network may not be sufficient and methods should be investigated that
provide protection of data while it is cached or stored (e.g., when
using a store-and-forward transport mechanism).
6. Contributors 6. Contributors
Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed to the Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed to the
Section 1.3 on Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus. Section 1.3 on Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus.
7. Acknowledgments 7. Acknowledgments
Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to
different versions of this document: different versions of this document:
Dominique Barthel, Andy Bierman, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Dominique Barthel, Andy Bierman, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit
Claise, Hui Deng, Bert Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen, Claise, Hui Deng, Bert Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen,
Anuj Sehgal, Zach Shelby, Peter van der Stok and Bert Wijnen. Anuj Sehgal, Zach Shelby, Peter van der Stok and Bert Wijnen.
The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on
the Coman and OPSAWG maillists for their valuable contributions and the Coman and OPSAWG mailing lists for their valuable contributions
comments. and comments.
8. References
8.1. Normative References 8. Informative References
8.2. Informative References [RFC2914] Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41, RFC
2914, September 2000.
[RFC2914] Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41, [RFC2501] Corson, M. and J. Macker, "Mobile Ad hoc Networking
RFC 2914, September 2000. (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and
Evaluation Considerations", RFC 2501, January 1999.
[RFC6632] Ersue, M. and B. Claise, "An Overview of the IETF Network [RFC6632] Ersue, M. and B. Claise, "An Overview of the IETF Network
Management Standards", RFC 6632, June 2012. Management Standards", RFC 6632, June 2012.
[RFC7102] Vasseur, JP., "Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and [RFC7102] Vasseur, JP., "Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and
Lossy Networks", RFC 7102, January 2014. Lossy Networks", RFC 7102, January 2014.
[I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology] [RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, May 2014.
Constrained Node Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-terminology-07
(work in progress), February 2014.
[I-D.ietf-core-coap] [RFC7252] Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252, June 2014.
Application Protocol (CoAP)", draft-ietf-core-coap-18
(work in progress), June 2013.
[COM-USE] Ersue, M., "Constrained Management: Use Cases", [COM-USE] Ersue, M., "Constrained Management: Use Cases", draft-
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases (work in progress), ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases (work in progress), October
October 2013. 2013.
Appendix A. Change Log Appendix A. Change Log
A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 - A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 coman-probstate-reqs-02
o General bug fixing.
o Resolved the use of the term profile of requirements.
o Changed requirement title from Redirect traffic to Reroute traffic
and the description accordingly.
o Changed requirement title from Traffic delay schemes to Traffic
Shaping and the description accordingly.
o Extended Security Considerations section.
o Deleted empty section on Normative References.
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-probstate-reqs-01
o General bug fixing. o General bug fixing.
o Added Section 1.7. on Configuration and Monitoring Functionality o Added Section 1.7. on Configuration and Monitoring Functionality
Levels. Levels.
o Changed diverse occurences of "networks" to "networks with/of o Changed diverse occurences of "networks" to "networks with/of
constrained devices". constrained devices".
o Introduced the term "Self-configuring infrastructureless networks" o Introduced the term "Self-configuring infrastructureless networks"
skipping to change at page 48, line 34 skipping to change at page 43, line 5
o Introduced notes for parts of the requirements text if it is o Introduced notes for parts of the requirements text if it is
focusing on implementation or solution. focusing on implementation or solution.
o Extended Security Considerations section. o Extended Security Considerations section.
o Deleted Appendix A and B on other SDO's work and related projects o Deleted Appendix A and B on other SDO's work and related projects
as they provided dynamic information and couldn't be kept up-to- as they provided dynamic information and couldn't be kept up-to-
date. date.
A.2. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 probstate-reqs-00
o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the
LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft. LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.
o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology
draft. draft.
o Moved section 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options and o Moved section 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options and
section 3. Use Cases to the companion document [COM-USE]. section 3. Use Cases to the companion document [COM-USE].
skipping to change at page 49, line 10 skipping to change at page 43, line 28
in Focus" and removed abbreviations C0, C1 and C2 for network in Focus" and removed abbreviations C0, C1 and C2 for network
classes as they have not been used. classes as they have not been used.
o Changed requirement priority classes to be High, Medium and Low. o Changed requirement priority classes to be High, Medium and Low.
o Changed requirement types to be Functional and Non-Functional and o Changed requirement types to be Functional and Non-Functional and
added text to explain the requirement types. added text to explain the requirement types.
o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity. o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity.
A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03
o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the
terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft. terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft.
Referenced the LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.
o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG
terminology draft. terminology draft.
o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and
communication technologies in use and dimensions extended. communication technologies in use and dimensions extended.
skipping to change at page 50, line 9 skipping to change at page 44, line 26
* Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group- * Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group-
based provisioning. based provisioning.
o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management
standards, as it will be written in a separate draft. standards, as it will be written in a separate draft.
o Added links to mentioned external pages. o Added links to mentioned external pages.
o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix. o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix.
A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02
o Extended the terminology section. o Extended the terminology section.
o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment
type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities, type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities,
radio technology, etc. radio technology, etc.
o Added examples for device classes in a use case. o Added examples for device classes in a use case.
o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for
skipping to change at page 50, line 44 skipping to change at page 45, line 13
management matched to management tasks like fault, monitoring, management matched to management tasks like fault, monitoring,
configuration management, Security and Access Control, Energy configuration management, Security and Access Control, Energy
Management, etc. Management, etc.
o Solved nits and added references. o Solved nits and added references.
o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies. o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies.
o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects. o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects.
A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01
o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the
sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology
Options'. Options'.
o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile
Applications'. Applications'.
o Provided a Contributors section. o Provided a Contributors section.
o Extended the section on 'Medical Applications'. o Extended the section on 'Medical Applications'.
o Solved nits and added references. o Solved nits and added references.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Mehmet Ersue (editor) Mehmet Ersue (editor)
Nokia Solutions and Networks Nokia Networks
Email: mehmet.ersue@nsn.com Email: mehmet.ersue@nsn.com
Dan Romascanu Dan Romascanu
Avaya Avaya
Email: dromasca@avaya.com Email: dromasca@avaya.com
Juergen Schoenwaelder Juergen Schoenwaelder
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
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