draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-02.txt   draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-03.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force M. Ersue, Ed.
Internet-Draft Nokia Networks Internet-Draft Nokia Networks
Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu Intended status: Informational D. Romascanu
Expires: January 5, 2015 Avaya Expires: April 30, 2015 Avaya
J. Schoenwaelder J. Schoenwaelder
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
July 4, 2014 U. Herberg
October 27, 2014
Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement and Management of Networks with Constrained Devices: Problem Statement and
Requirements Requirements
draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-02 draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-03
Abstract Abstract
This document provides a problem statement, deployment and management This document provides a problem statement, deployment and management
topology options as well as the requirements for the management of topology options as well as potential requirements for the management
networks where constrained devices are involved. of networks where constrained devices are involved.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 30, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 21 skipping to change at page 2, line 23
1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3. Network Types and Characteristics in Focus . . . . . . . 5 1.3. Network Types and Characteristics in Focus . . . . . . . 5
1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5. Management Topology Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.5. Management Topology Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.6. Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Network . . . 10 1.6. Managing the Constrainedness of a Device or Network . . . 10
1.7. Configuration and Monitoring Functionality Levels . . . . 13 1.7. Configuration and Monitoring Functionality Levels . . . . 13
2. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3. Requirements on the Management of Networks with Constrained 3. Requirements on the Management of Networks with Constrained
Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.1. Management Architecture/System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.1. Management Architecture/System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2. Management protocols and data model . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.2. Management Protocols and Data Models . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.3. Configuration management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.3. Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.4. Monitoring functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.4. Monitoring Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.5. Self-management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.5. Self-management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.6. Security and Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.6. Security and Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.7. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.7. Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.8. SW Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.8. Software Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.9. Traffic management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.9. Traffic Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.10. Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.10. Transport Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.11. Implementation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.11. Implementation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 6. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Appendix A. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 - draft-ietf- A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-02 - draft-ietf-
opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 - draft-ietf-
opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 - draft-ietf- A.3. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 - draft-ietf-
opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ietf-opsawg- A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-probstate-reqs-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 coman-probstate-reqs-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 43 A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 44
A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . 44 A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 . . . . . . . . . . . 45
A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 45 A.7. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1.1. Overview 1.1. Overview
Constrained devices, aka. sensor, smart object, or smart device, with Constrained devices, aka. sensor, smart object, or smart device, with
limited CPU, memory, and power resources, can constitute a network. limited CPU, memory, and power resources, can constitute a network.
Such a network of constrained devices itself may be constrained or Such a network of constrained devices itself may be constrained or
challenged, e.g., with unreliable or lossy channels, wireless challenged, e.g., with unreliable or lossy channels, wireless
technologies with limited bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing technologies with limited bandwidth and a dynamic topology, needing
the service of a gateway or proxy to connect to the Internet. In the service of a gateway or proxy to connect to the Internet. In
other scenarios, the constrained devices can be connected to a non- other scenarios, the constrained devices can be connected to a non-
constrained network using off-the-shelf protocol stacks. constrained network using off-the-shelf protocol stacks.
Constrained devices might be in charge of gathering information in Constrained devices might be in charge of gathering information in
diverse settings including natural ecosystems, buildings, and diverse settings including natural ecosystems, buildings, and
factories and send the information to one or more server stations. factories, and send the information to one or more server stations.
Constrained devices may also work under severe resource constraints Constrained devices may also work under severe resource constraints
such as limited battery and computing power, little memory and such as limited battery and computing power, little memory and
insufficient wireless bandwidth, and communication capabilities. A insufficient wireless bandwidth, and communication capabilities. A
central entity, e.g., a base station or controlling server, might central entity, e.g., a base station or controlling server, might
have more computational and communication resources and can act as a have more computational and communication resources and can act as a
gateway between the constrained devices and the application logic in gateway between the constrained devices and the application logic in
the core network. the core network.
Today diverse size of constrained devices with different resources Today diverse size of constrained devices with different resources
and capabilities are being connected. Mobile personal gadgets, and capabilities are being connected. Mobile personal gadgets,
building-automation devices, cellular phones, Machine-to-machine building-automation devices, cellular phones, Machine-to-machine
(M2M) devices, etc. benefit from interacting with other "things" in (M2M) devices, etc. benefit from interacting with other "things" in
the near or somewhere in the Internet. With this the Internet of the near or somewhere in the Internet. With this the Internet of
Things (IoT) becomes a reality build up of uniquely identifiable Things (IoT) becomes a reality, build up of uniquely identifiable
objects (things). And over the next decade, this could grow to objects (things). And over the next decade, this could grow to
trillions of constrained devices and will greatly increase the trillions of constrained devices and will greatly increase the
Internet's size and scope. Internet's size and scope.
Network management is characterized by monitoring network status, Network management is characterized by monitoring network status,
detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network detecting faults, and inferring their causes, setting network
parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain parameters, and carrying out actions to remove faults, maintain
normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application normal operation, and improve network efficiency and application
performance. The traditional network monitoring application performance. The traditional network monitoring application
periodically collects information from a set of elements that are periodically collects information from a set of elements that are
skipping to change at page 4, line 11 skipping to change at page 4, line 11
long time without supervision. Due to such constraints, the long time without supervision. Due to such constraints, the
management of a network with constrained devices faces different type management of a network with constrained devices faces different type
of challenges compared to the management of a traditional IP network. of challenges compared to the management of a traditional IP network.
The IETF has already done substantial standardization work to enable The IETF has already done substantial standardization work to enable
the communication in IP networks and to manage such networks as well the communication in IP networks and to manage such networks as well
as the manifold type of nodes in these networks [RFC6632]. However, as the manifold type of nodes in these networks [RFC6632]. However,
the IETF so far has not developed any specific technologies for the the IETF so far has not developed any specific technologies for the
management of constrained devices and the networks comprised by management of constrained devices and the networks comprised by
constrained devices. IP-based sensors or constrained devices in such constrained devices. IP-based sensors or constrained devices in such
an environment, i.e., devices with very limited memory and CPU an environment, i.e., devices with very limited memory, CPU, and
resources, use today application-layer protocols in an ad-hoc manner energy resources, use nowadays application-layer protocols in an ad-
to do simple resource management and monitoring. hoc manner to do simple resource management and monitoring.
This document provides a problem statement and lists the requirements This document provides a problem statement and lists potential
for the management of a network with constrained devices. requirements for the management of a network with constrained
Section 1.3 and Section 1.5 describe different topology options for devices. Section 1.3 and Section 1.5 describe different topology
the networking and management of constrained devices. Section 2 options for the networking and management of constrained devices.
provides a problem statement on the issue of the management of Section 2 provides a problem statement on the issue of the management
networked constrained devices. Section 3 lists requirements on the of networked constrained devices. Section 3 lists requirements on
management of applications and networks with constrained devices. the management of applications and networks with constrained devices.
Note that the requirements listed in Section 3 have been separated Note that the requirements listed in Section 3 have been separated
from the context in which they may appear. Depending on the concrete from the context in which they may appear. Depending on the concrete
circumstances, an implementer may decide to address a certain circumstances, an implementer may decide to address a certain
relevant subset of the requirements. relevant subset of the requirements.
The use cases in the context of networks with constrained devices can The use cases in the context of networks with constrained devices can
be found in the companion document [COM-USE]. be found in the companion document [COM-USE].
1.2. Terminology 1.2. Terminology
skipping to change at page 6, line 15 skipping to change at page 6, line 15
3. A combination of wireline and wireless networks with point-to- 3. A combination of wireline and wireless networks with point-to-
point or point-to-multipoint communication generally with single- point or point-to-multipoint communication generally with single-
hop connectivity to constrained devices, utilizing static routing hop connectivity to constrained devices, utilizing static routing
over the wireless network. Such networks support short-range, over the wireless network. Such networks support short-range,
point-to-point, low-data-rate, source-to-sink type of point-to-point, low-data-rate, source-to-sink type of
applications such as RFID systems, light switches, fire and smoke applications such as RFID systems, light switches, fire and smoke
detectors, and home appliances. This type of networks also detectors, and home appliances. This type of networks also
support confined short-range spaces such as a home, a factory, a support confined short-range spaces such as a home, a factory, a
building, or the human body. IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) and IEEE building, or the human body. IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) and IEEE
802.15.4 are well-known examples of applicable standards for such 802.15.4 are well-known examples of applicable standards for such
networks. networks. By using 6LowPAN (IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
Personal Area Networks) [RFC4919] and RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol
for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) [RFC6550] on top of IEEE
802.15.4, multi-hop connectivity and dynamic routing can be
achieved. With RPL the IETF has specified a proactive route-over
architecture where routing and forwarding is implemented at the
network layer. The protocol provides a mechanism whereby
multipoint-to-point, point-to-multipoint and point-to-point
traffic are supported.
4. Self-configuring infrastructureless networks of mobile devices 4. Self-configuring infrastructureless networks of mobile devices
(e.g., Mobile Adhoc networks, MANET) are a particular type of (e.g., Mobile Adhoc networks, MANET) are a particular type of
network connected by wireless technologies. Infrastructureless network connected by wireless technologies. Infrastructureless
networks are mostly based on point-to-point communications of networks are mostly based on point-to-point communications of
devices moving independently in any direction and changing the devices moving independently in any direction and changing the
links to other devices frequently. Such devices do act as a links to other devices frequently. Such devices do act as a
router to forward traffic unrelated to their own use. router to forward traffic unrelated to their own use.
Wireline non-constrained networks with constrained and non- Wireline non-constrained networks with constrained and non-
skipping to change at page 7, line 4 skipping to change at page 7, line 11
and multiple nodes in one hop distance), tree structures (with each and multiple nodes in one hop distance), tree structures (with each
node having exactly one parent), directed acyclic graphs (with each node having exactly one parent), directed acyclic graphs (with each
node having one or more parents), clustered topologies (where one or node having one or more parents), clustered topologies (where one or
more "cluster heads" are responsible for a certain area of the more "cluster heads" are responsible for a certain area of the
network), mesh topologies (fully distributed), etc. network), mesh topologies (fully distributed), etc.
Management protocols may take advantage of specific network Management protocols may take advantage of specific network
topologies, for example by distributing large-scale management tasks topologies, for example by distributing large-scale management tasks
amongst multiple distributed network management stations (e.g., in amongst multiple distributed network management stations (e.g., in
case of a mesh topology), or by using a hierarchical management case of a mesh topology), or by using a hierarchical management
approach (e.g., in case of a tree topology). These different approach (e.g., in case of a tree or clustered topology). These
management topology options are described in Section 1.6. different management topology options are described in Section 1.6.
Note that in certain network deployments, such as community ad hoc Note that in certain network deployments, such as community ad hoc
networks (see the use case "Community Network Applications" in [COM- networks (see the use case "Community Network Applications" in [COM-
USE]), the topology is not pre-planned, and thus may be unknown for USE]), the topology is not pre-planned, and thus may be unknown for
management purposes. In other use cases, such as industrial management purposes. In other use cases, such as industrial
applications (see the use case "Industrial Applications" in [COM- applications (see the use case "Industrial Applications" in [COM-
USE]), the topology may be designed in advance and therefore taken USE]), the topology may be designed in advance and therefore taken
advantage of when managing the network. advantage of when managing the network.
Dynamicity of the network topology: Dynamicity of the network topology:
The dynamicity of the network topology determines the rate of change The dynamicity of the network topology determines the rate of change
of the graph per time. Such changes can occur due to different of the graph as a function of time. Such changes can occur due to
factors, such as mobility of nodes (e.g., in MANETs or cellular different factors, such as mobility of nodes (e.g., in MANETs or
networks), duty cycles (for low-power devices enabling their network cellular networks), duty cycles (for low-power devices enabling their
interface only periodically to transmit or receive packets), or network interface only periodically to transmit or receive packets),
unstable links (in particular wireless links with strongly or unstable links (in particular wireless links with strongly
fluctuating link quality). fluctuating link quality).
Examples of different levels of dynamicity of the topology are Examples of different levels of dynamicity of the topology are
Ethernets (with typically a very static topology) on the one side, Ethernets (with typically a very static topology) on the one side,
and low-power and lossy networks (LLNs) on the other side. LLNs and low-power and lossy networks (LLNs) on the other side. LLNs
nodes often using duty cycles, operate on unreliable wireless links nodes are often duty-cycled and operate on unreliable wireless links
and are potentially mobile (e.g., for sensor networks). and are potentially mobile (e.g., for sensor networks).
The more the topology is dynamic, the more routing, transport and The more dynamic the topology is, the more have routing, transport
application layer protocols have to cope with interrupted and application layer protocols to cope with interrupted connectivity
connectivity and/or longer delays. For example, management protocols and/or longer delays. For example, management protocols (with a
(with a given underlying transport protocol) that expect continuous given underlying transport protocol) that expect continuous session
session flows without changes of routes during a communication flow, flows without changes of routes during a communication flow, may fail
may fail to operate. to operate.
Networks with a very low dynamicity (e.g., Ethernet) with no or Networks with a very low dynamicity (e.g., Ethernet) with no or
infrequent topology changes (e.g., less than once every 30 minutes), infrequent topology changes (e.g., less than once every 30 minutes),
are in-scope of this document if they are used with constrained are in-scope of this document if they are used with constrained
devices (see e.g., the use case "Building Automation" in [COM-USE]). devices (see e.g., the use case "Building Automation" in [COM-USE]).
Traffic flows: Traffic flows:
The traffic flow in a network determines from which sources data The traffic flow in a network determines from which sources data
traffic is sent to which destinations in the network. Several traffic is sent to which destinations in the network. Several
different traffic flows are defined in [RFC7102], including "point- different traffic flows are defined in [RFC7102], including "point-
to-point" (P2P), "multipoint-to-point" (MP2P), and "point-to- to-point" (P2P), "multipoint-to-point" (MP2P), and "point-to-
multipoint" (P2MP) flows as: multipoint" (P2MP) flows as:
o P2P: Point To Point. This refers to traffic exchanged between two o P2P: Point-To-Point. This refers to traffic exchanged between two
nodes (regardless of the number of hops between the two nodes). nodes (regardless of the number of hops between the two nodes).
o P2MP: Point-to-Multipoint traffic refers to traffic between one o P2MP: Point-to-Multipoint traffic refers to traffic between one
node and a set of nodes. This is similar to the P2MP concept in node and a set of nodes. This is similar to the P2MP concept in
Multicast or MPLS Traffic Engineering. Multicast or MPLS Traffic Engineering.
o MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point is used to describe a particular traffic o MP2P: Multipoint-to-Point is used to describe a particular traffic
pattern (e.g., MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes pattern (e.g., MP2P flows collecting information from many nodes
flowing inwards towards a collecting sink). flowing inwards towards a collecting sink).
If one of these traffic patterns is predominant in a network, If one of these traffic patterns is predominant in a network,
protocols (routing, transport, application) may be optimized for the protocols (routing, transport, application) may be optimized for the
specific traffic flow. For example, in a network with a tree specific traffic flow. For example, in a network with a tree
topology and MP2P traffic, collection tree protocols are efficient to topology and MP2P traffic, collection tree protocols are efficient to
send data from the leaves of the tree to the root of the tree, via send data from the leaves of the tree to the root of the tree, via
each node's parent. each node's parent.
Bandwidth: Bandwidth:
The bandwidth of the network is the amount of data that can be sent The bandwidth of the network is the amount of data that can be sent
per time between two communication end-points. It is usually per unit of time between two communication end-points. It is usually
determined by the link with the minimum bandwidth on the path from determined by the link with the minimum bandwidth on the path from
the source to the destination of data packets. The bandwidth in the source to the destination of data packets. The bandwidth in
networks can range from a few Kilobytes per second (such as on some networks can range from a few Kilobytes per second (such as on some
802.15.4 link layers) to many Gigabytes per second (e.g., on fiber 802.15.4 link layers) to many Gigabytes per second (e.g., on fiber
optics). optics).
For management purposes, the management protocol typically requires For management purposes, the management protocol typically requires
to send information between the network management station and the to send information between the network management station and the
clients, for monitoring or control purposes. If the available clients, for monitoring or control purposes. If the available
bandwidth is insufficient for the management protocol, packets will bandwidth is insufficient for the management protocol, packets will
skipping to change at page 8, line 51 skipping to change at page 9, line 10
of this document if they are used with constrained devices (see the of this document if they are used with constrained devices (see the
use case "Building Automation" in [COM-USE]). use case "Building Automation" in [COM-USE]).
Loss rate: Loss rate:
The loss rate (or bit error rate) is the number of bit errors divided The loss rate (or bit error rate) is the number of bit errors divided
by the total number of bits transmitted. For wired networks, loss by the total number of bits transmitted. For wired networks, loss
rates are typically extremely low, e.g., around 10^-12 or 10^-13 for rates are typically extremely low, e.g., around 10^-12 or 10^-13 for
the latest 10Gbit Ethernet. For wireless networks, such as 802.15.4, the latest 10Gbit Ethernet. For wireless networks, such as 802.15.4,
the bit error rate can be as high as 10^-1 to 10^-0 in case of the bit error rate can be as high as 10^-1 to 10^-0 in case of
interferences.Even when using a reliable transport protocol, interferences. Even when using a reliable transport protocol,
management operations can fail if the loss rate is too high, unless management operations can fail if the loss rate is too high, unless
they are specifically designed to cope with these situations. they are specifically designed to cope with these situations.
1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options
We differentiate following deployment options for the constrained We differentiate following deployment options for the constrained
devices: devices:
o A network of constrained devices that communicate with each other, o A network of constrained devices that communicate with each other,
skipping to change at page 10, line 30 skipping to change at page 10, line 36
The capabilities of a constrained device or network and the The capabilities of a constrained device or network and the
constrainedness thereof influence and have an impact on the constrainedness thereof influence and have an impact on the
requirements for the management of such network or devices. requirements for the management of such network or devices.
Note that the list below gives examples and does not claim Note that the list below gives examples and does not claim
completeness. completeness.
A constrained device: A constrained device:
o might only support an unreliable radio with lossy links, i.e., the o might only support an unreliable (e.g. lossy) radio link, i.e.,
client and server of a management protocol need to gracefully the client and server of a management protocol need to gracefully
ignore incomplete commands or repeat commands as necessary. handle incomplete command exchanges or missing commands.
o might only be able to go online from time-to-time, where it is o might only be able to go online from time-to-time, where it is
reachable, i.e., a command might be necessary to repeat after a reachable, i.e., a command might be necessary to repeat after a
longer timeout or the timeout value with which one endpoint waits longer timeout or the timeout value with which one endpoint waits
on a response needs to be sufficiently high. on a response needs to be sufficiently high.
o might only be able to support a limited operating time (e.g., o might only be able to support a limited operating time (e.g.,
based on the available battery), or may behave as 'sleepy based on the available battery), or may behave as 'sleepy
endpoints' setting their network links to a disconnected state endpoints' setting their network links to a disconnected state
during long periods of time i.e., the devices need to economize during long periods of time i.e., the devices need to economize
their energy usage with suitable mechanisms and the managing their energy usage with suitable mechanisms and the managing
entity needs to monitor and control the energy status of the entity needs to monitor and control the energy status of the
constrained devices it manages. constrained devices it manages.
o might only be able to support one simple communication protocol, o might only be able to support one simple communication protocol,
i.e., the management protocol needs to be possible to downscale i.e., the management protocol needs to be possible to downscale
from constrained (C2) to very constrained (C0) devices with from constrained (C2) to very constrained (C0) devices with
modular implementation and a very basic version with just a few modular implementation and a very basic version with just a few
simple commands. simple commands.
o might only be able to support a communication protocol, which is
not IP-based.
o might only be able to support limited or no user and/or transport o might only be able to support limited or no user and/or transport
security, i.e., the management system needs to support a less- security, i.e., the management system needs to support a less-
costly and simple but sufficiently secure authentication costly and simple but sufficiently secure authentication
mechanism. mechanism.
o might not be able to support compression and decompression of o might not be able to support compression and decompression of
exchanged data based on limited CPU power, i.e., an intermediary exchanged data based on limited CPU power, i.e., an intermediary
entity which is capable of data compression should be able to entity which is capable of data compression should be able to
communicate with both, devices that support data compression communicate with both, devices that support data compression
(e.g., C2) and devices that do not support data compression (e.g., (e.g., C2) and devices that do not support data compression (e.g.,
C1 and C0). C1 and C0).
o might only be able to support a simple encryption, i.e., it would o might only be able to support a simple encryption, i.e., it would
be beneficial if the devices use cryptographic algorithms that are be beneficial if the devices use cryptographic algorithms that are
supported in hardware and the encryption used is efficient in supported in hardware and the encryption used is efficient in
terms of memeory and CPU usage. terms of memory and CPU usage.
o might only be able to communicate with one single managing entity o might only be able to communicate with one single managing entity
and cannot support the parallel access of many managing entities. and cannot support the parallel access of many managing entities.
o might depend on a self-configuration feature, i.e., the managing o might depend on a self-configuration feature, i.e., the managing
entity might not know all devices in a network and the device entity might not know all devices in a network and the device
needs to be able to initiate connection setup for the device needs to be able to initiate connection setup for the device
configuration. configuration.
o might depend on self- or neighbor-monitoring feature, i.e., the o might depend on self- or neighbor-monitoring feature, i.e., the
skipping to change at page 12, line 11 skipping to change at page 12, line 21
possible only an "I-am-alive" message. possible only an "I-am-alive" message.
o might only be able to support a soft-reset from failure recovery. o might only be able to support a soft-reset from failure recovery.
o might possibly generate a large amount of redundant reporting o might possibly generate a large amount of redundant reporting
data, i.e., the intermediary management entity (see [RFC7252]) data, i.e., the intermediary management entity (see [RFC7252])
should be able to filter and aggregate redundant data. should be able to filter and aggregate redundant data.
A network of constrained devices: A network of constrained devices:
o might only support an unreliable radio with lossy links, i.e., the o might only support an unreliable (e.g. lossy) radio link, i.e.,
client and server of a management protocol need to repeat commands the client and server of a management protocol need to repeat
as necessary or gracefully ignore incomplete commands. commands as necessary or gracefully ignore incomplete commands.
o might be necessary to manage based on multicast communication, o might be necessary to manage based on multicast communication,
i.e., the managing entity needs to be prepared to configure many i.e., the managing entity needs to be prepared to configure many
devices at once based on the same data model. devices at once based on the same data model.
o might have a very large topology supporting 10,000 or more nodes o might have a very large topology supporting 10,000 or more nodes
for some applications and as such node naming is a specific issue for some applications and as such node naming is a specific issue
for constrained networks. for constrained networks.
o must be able to self-organize, i.e., given the large number of o needs to support self-organization, i.e., given the large number
nodes and their potential placement in hostile locations and of nodes and their potential placement in hostile locations and
frequently changing topology, manual configuration of nodes is frequently changing topology, manual configuration of nodes is
typically not feasible. As such the network must be able to typically not feasible. As such, the network would benefit from
reconfigure itself so that it can continue to operate properly and the ability to reconfigure itself so that it can continue to
support reliable connectivity. operate properly and support reliable connectivity.
o needs a management solution that is energy-efficient, using as o might need a management solution that is energy-efficient, using
little wireless bandwidth as possible since communication is as little wireless bandwidth as possible since communication is
highly energy demanding. highly energy demanding.
o needs to support localization schemes to determine the location of o needs to support localization schemes to determine the location of
devices since the devices might be moving and location information devices since the devices might be moving and location information
is important for some applications. is important for some applications.
o needs a management solution that is scalable as the network may o needs a management solution that is scalable as the network may
consist of thousands of nodes and may need to be extended consist of thousands of nodes and may need to be extended
continuously. continuously.
o needs to provide fault tolerance. Faults in network operation o needs to provide fault tolerance. Faults in network operation
including hardware and software errors or failures detected by the including hardware and software errors or failures detected by the
transport protocol should be handled smoothly enabling. In such a transport protocol should be handled smoothly. In such a case it
case it should be possible to run the protocol possibly at a should be possible to run the protocol possibly at a reduced level
reduced level but avoiding to fail completely. E.g., self- but avoiding to fail completely. E.g., self-monitoring mechanisms
monitoring mechanisms or graceful degradation of features can be or graceful degradation of features can be used to provide fault
used to provide fault tolerance. tolerance.
o might require new management capabilities: for example, network o might require new management capabilities: for example, network
coverage information and a constrained device power-distribution- coverage information and a constrained device power-distribution-
map. map.
o might require a new management function for data management, since o might require a new management function for data management, since
the type and amount of data collected in constrained networks is the type and amount of data collected in constrained networks is
different from those of the traditional networks. different from those of the traditional networks.
o might also need energy-efficient key management. o might also need energy-efficient key management.
skipping to change at page 14, line 28 skipping to change at page 14, line 40
and terms are in use. Common to all these considerations is the and terms are in use. Common to all these considerations is the
"Things" or "Objects" are supposed to have physical or virtual "Things" or "Objects" are supposed to have physical or virtual
identities using interfaces to communicate. In this context, we need identities using interfaces to communicate. In this context, we need
to differentiate between the Constrained and Smart Devices identified to differentiate between the Constrained and Smart Devices identified
by an IP address compared to virtual entities such as Smart Objects, by an IP address compared to virtual entities such as Smart Objects,
which can be identified as a resource or a virtual object by using a which can be identified as a resource or a virtual object by using a
unique identifier. Furthermore, the smart devices usually have a unique identifier. Furthermore, the smart devices usually have a
limited memory and CPU power as well as aim to be self-configuring limited memory and CPU power as well as aim to be self-configuring
and easy to deploy. and easy to deploy.
However, the constraints of the network nodes requires a rethinking However, the constraints of the network nodes require a rethinking of
of the protocol characteristics concerning power consumption, the protocol characteristics concerning power consumption,
performance, memory, and CPU usage. As such, there is a demand for performance, bandwidth consumption, memory, and CPU usage. As such,
protocol simplification, energy-efficient communication, less CPU there is a demand for protocol simplification, energy-efficient
usage and small memory footprint. communication, less CPU usage and smaller memory footprint.
On the application layer the IETF is already developing protocols On the application layer the IETF is already developing protocols
like the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) [RFC7252] enabling like the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) [RFC7252] enabling
the communication of constrained devices and networks e.g., for smart the communication of constrained devices and networks e.g., for smart
energy applications or home automation environments. The deployment energy applications or home automation environments. The deployment
of such an environment involves in fact many, in some scenarios up to of such an environment involves in fact many, in some scenarios up to
million constrained devices (e.g., smart meters), which produce a million constrained devices (e.g., smart meters), which produce a
large amount of data. This data needs to be collected, filtered, and large amount of data. This data needs to be collected, filtered, and
pre-processed for further use in diverse services. pre-processed for further use in diverse services.
Considering the high number of nodes to deploy, one has to think on Considering the high number of nodes to deploy, one has to think
the manageability aspects of the smart devices and plan for easy about the manageability aspects of the smart devices and plan for
deployment, configuration, and management of the networks of easy deployment, configuration, and management of the networks of
constrained devices as well as the devices themselves. Consequently, constrained devices as well as the devices themselves. Consequently,
seamless monitoring and self-configuration of such network nodes seamless monitoring and self-configuration of such network nodes
becomes more and more imperative. Self-configuration and self- becomes more and more imperative. Self-configuration and self-
management is already a reality in the standards of some of the management is already a reality in the standards of some of the
bodies such as 3GPP. To introduce self-configuration of smart bodies such as 3GPP. To introduce self-configuration of smart
devices successfully a device-initiated connection establishment is devices successfully a device-initiated connection establishment is
required. often required.
A simple and efficient application layer protocol, such as CoAP, is A simple and efficient application layer protocol, such as CoAP, is
essential to address the issue of efficient object-to-object essential to address the issue of efficient object-to-object
communication and information exchange. Such an information exchange communication and information exchange. Such an information exchange
should be done based on interoperable data models to enable the should be done based on interoperable data models to enable the
exchange and interpretation of diverse application and management exchange and interpretation of diverse application and management
related data. related data.
In an ideal world, we would have only one network management protocol In an ideal world, we would have only one network management protocol
for monitoring, configuration, and exchanging management data, for monitoring, configuration, and exchanging management data,
skipping to change at page 15, line 39 skipping to change at page 16, line 5
resource management and monitoring. This might be sufficient for resource management and monitoring. This might be sufficient for
some basic cases, however, there is a need to reconsider the network some basic cases, however, there is a need to reconsider the network
management mechanisms based on the new, changed, as well as reduced management mechanisms based on the new, changed, as well as reduced
requirements coming from smart devices and the network of such requirements coming from smart devices and the network of such
constrained devices. Albeit it is questionable whether we can take constrained devices. Albeit it is questionable whether we can take
the same comprehensive approach we use in an IP network also for the the same comprehensive approach we use in an IP network also for the
management of constrained devices. Hence, the management of a management of constrained devices. Hence, the management of a
network with constrained devices is necessary to design in a network with constrained devices is necessary to design in a
simplified and less complex manner. simplified and less complex manner.
As Section 1.6 highlights, there are diverse characterists of As Section 1.6 highlights, there are diverse characteristics of
constrained devices or networks, which stem from their constrained devices or networks, which stem from their
constrainedness and therefore have an impact on the requirements for constrainedness and therefore have an impact on the requirements for
the management of such a network with constrained devices. The use the management of such a network with constrained devices. The use
cases discussed in [COM-USE] show that the requirements on cases discussed in [COM-USE] show that the requirements on
constrained networks are manifold and need to be analyzed from constrained networks are manifold and need to be analyzed from
different angles, e.g., concerning the design of the management different angles, e.g., concerning the design of the management
architecture, the selection of the appropriate protocol features as architecture, the selection of the appropriate protocol features as
well as the specific issues which are new in the context of well as the specific issues which are new in the context of
constrained devices. Examples of such issues are e.g., the careful constrained devices. Examples of such issues are e.g., the careful
management of the scarce energy resources, the necessity for self- management of the scarce energy resources, the necessity for self-
skipping to change at page 16, line 23 skipping to change at page 16, line 38
Note that the requirements listed in this section have been separated Note that the requirements listed in this section have been separated
from the context in which they may appear. This document in general from the context in which they may appear. This document in general
does not recommend the realization of any subset of the described does not recommend the realization of any subset of the described
requirements. As such this document avoids selecting any of the requirements. As such this document avoids selecting any of the
requirements as mandatory to implement. A device might be able to requirements as mandatory to implement. A device might be able to
provide only a particular selected set of requirements and might not provide only a particular selected set of requirements and might not
be capable to provide all requirements in this document. On the be capable to provide all requirements in this document. On the
other hand a device vendor might select a specific relevant subset of other hand a device vendor might select a specific relevant subset of
the requirements to implement. the requirements to implement.
Following template is used for the definition of the requirements. The following template is used for the definition of the
requirements.
Req-ID: An ID uniquely identified by a three-digit number Req-ID: An ID uniquely identified by a three-digit number
Title: The title of the requirement. Title: The title of the requirement.
Description: The rational and description of the requirement. Description: The rational and description of the requirement.
Source: The origin of the requirement and the matching use case or Source: The origin of the requirement and the matching use case or
application. For the discussion of referred use cases for application. For the discussion of referred use cases for
constrained management please see [COM-USE]. constrained management please see [COM-USE].
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement, Non-Functional Requirement Type: Functional Requirement, Non-Functional
Requirement. A functional requirement is related to a function or Requirement. A functional requirement is related to a function or
component. As such functional requirements may be technical component. As such functional requirements may be technical
details, or specific functionality that define what a system is details, or specific functionality that define what a system is
supposed to accomplish. Non-functional requirements (also known supposed to accomplish. Non-functional requirements (also known
as design constraints or quality requirements) impose as design constraints or quality requirements) impose
implementation related considerations such as performance implementation-related considerations such as performance
requirements, security, or reliability. requirements, security, or reliability.
Device type: The device types by which this requirement can be Device type: The device types by which this requirement can be
supported: C0, C1 and/or C2. supported: C0, C1 and/or C2.
Priority: The priority of the requirement showing its importance for Priority: The priority of the requirement showing its importance for
a particular type of device: High, Medium, and Low. The priority a particular type of device: High, Medium, and Low. The priority
of a requirement can be High e.g., for a C2 device but Low for a of a requirement can be High e.g., for a C2 device but Low for a
C1 or C0 device as the realization of complex features in a C1 C1 or C0 device as the realization of complex features in a C1
device is in many cases not possible. device is in many cases not possible.
skipping to change at page 19, line 27 skipping to change at page 19, line 45
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 1.006 Req-ID: 1.006
Title: Support for lossy links and unreachable devices. Title: Support for lossy links and unreachable devices
Description: Some constrained devices will only be able to support Description: Some constrained devices will only be able to support
lossy and unreliable links characterized by a limited data rate, a lossy and unreliable links characterized by a limited data rate, a
high latency, and a high transmission error rate. Furthermore high latency, and a high transmission error rate. Furthermore,
constrained devices often duty cycle their radio or the whole constrained devices often duty cycle their radio or the whole
device in order to save energy. Some classes of devices labelled device in order to save energy. Some classes of devices labeled
as 'sleepy endpoints' set their network links to a disconnected as 'sleepy endpoints' set their network links to a disconnected
state during long periods of time. In all cases the management state during long periods of time. In all cases the management
system must not assume that constrained devices are always system must not assume that constrained devices are always
reachable. reachable.
Source: Basic requirement for networks of constrained devices with Source: Basic requirement for networks of constrained devices with
unreliable links and constrained devices that sleep to save unreliable links and constrained devices that sleep to save
energy. energy.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
skipping to change at page 20, line 32 skipping to change at page 21, line 4
Source: In general all use cases of network and device configuration Source: In general all use cases of network and device configuration
based on a network view in a top-down manner. based on a network view in a top-down manner.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 1.008 Req-ID: 1.008
Title: Distributed Management Title: Distributed management
Description: Provide a means of simple distributed management, where Description: Provide a means of simple distributed management, where
a network of constrained devices can be managed or monitored by a network of constrained devices can be managed or monitored by
more than one manager. Since the connectivity to a server cannot more than one manager. Since the connectivity to a server cannot
be guaranteed at all times, a distributed approach may provide a be guaranteed at all times, a distributed approach may provide a
higher reliability, at the cost of increased complexity. This higher reliability, at the cost of increased complexity. This
requirement implies the handling of data consistency in case of requirement implies the handling of data consistency in case of
concurrent read and write access to the device datastore. It concurrent read and write access to the device datastore. It
might also happen that no management (configuration) server is might also happen that no management (configuration) server is
accessible and the only reachable node is a peer device. In this accessible and the only reachable node is a peer device. In this
skipping to change at page 21, line 4 skipping to change at page 21, line 23
requirement implies the handling of data consistency in case of requirement implies the handling of data consistency in case of
concurrent read and write access to the device datastore. It concurrent read and write access to the device datastore. It
might also happen that no management (configuration) server is might also happen that no management (configuration) server is
accessible and the only reachable node is a peer device. In this accessible and the only reachable node is a peer device. In this
case the device should be able to obtain its configuration from case the device should be able to obtain its configuration from
peer devices. peer devices.
Source: Use cases where the count of devices to manage is high. Source: Use cases where the count of devices to manage is high.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.2. Management protocols and data model 3.2. Management Protocols and Data Models
Req-ID: 2.001 Req-ID: 2.001
Title: Modular implementation of management protocols Title: Modular implementation of management protocols
Description: Management protocols should be specified to allow for Description: Management protocols should be specified to allow for
modular implementations, i.e., it should be possible to implement modular implementations, i.e., it should be possible to implement
only a basic set of protocol primitives on highly constrained only a basic set of protocol primitives on highly constrained
devices while devices with additional resources may provide more devices while devices with additional resources may provide more
support for additional protocol primitives. See Section 1.7 for a support for additional protocol primitives. See Section 1.7 for a
skipping to change at page 22, line 26 skipping to change at page 22, line 46
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 2.004 Req-ID: 2.004
Title: Mapping of management protocol interactions. Title: Mapping of management protocol interactions
Description: It is desirable to have a loss-less automated mapping Description: It is desirable to have a lossless automated mapping
between the management protocol used to manage constrained devices between the management protocol used to manage constrained devices
and the management protocols used to manage regular devices. In and the management protocols used to manage regular devices. In
the ideal case, the same core management protocol can be used with the ideal case, the same core management protocol can be used with
certain restrictions taking into account the resource limitations certain restrictions taking into account the resource limitations
of constrained devices. However, for very resource constrained of constrained devices. However, for very resource constrained
devices, this goal might not be achievable. devices, this goal might not be achievable.
Source: Use cases where high-frequent interaction with the Source: Use cases where high-frequent interaction with the
management system of a non-constrained network is required. management system of a non-constrained network is required.
skipping to change at page 22, line 50 skipping to change at page 23, line 22
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 2.005 Req-ID: 2.005
Title: Consistency of data models with the underlying information Title: Consistency of data models with the underlying information
model. model
Description: The data models used by the management protocol must be Description: The data models used by the management protocol must be
consistent with the information model used to define data models consistent with the information model used to define data models
for non-constrained networks. This is essential to facilitate the for non-constrained networks. This is essential to facilitate the
integration of the management of constrained networks with the integration of the management of constrained networks with the
management of non-constrained networks. Using an underlying management of non-constrained networks. Using an underlying
information model for future data model design enables furthermore information model for future data model design enables furthermore
top-down model design and model reuse as well as data top-down model design and model reuse as well as data
interoperability (i.e., exchange of management information between interoperability (i.e., exchange of management information between
the constrained and non-constrained networks). This is a strong the constrained and non-constrained networks). This is a strong
skipping to change at page 23, line 30 skipping to change at page 23, line 49
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
--- ---
Req-ID: 2.006 Req-ID: 2.006
Title: Loss-less mapping of management data models. Title: Lossless mapping of management data models.
Description: It is desirable to have a loss-less automated mapping Description: It is desirable to have a lossless automated mapping
between the management data models used to manage regular devices between the management data models used to manage regular devices
and the management data models used for managing constrained and the management data models used for managing constrained
devices. In the ideal case, the same core data models can be used devices. In the ideal case, the same core data models can be used
with certain restrictions taking into account the resource with certain restrictions taking into account the resource
limitations of constrained devices. However, for very resource limitations of constrained devices. However, for very resource
constrained devices, this goal might not be achievable. constrained devices, this goal might not be achievable.
Source: Use cases where consistent data exchange with the management Source: Use cases where consistent data exchange with the management
system of a non-constrained network is required. system of a non-constrained network is required.
skipping to change at page 24, line 4 skipping to change at page 24, line 25
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C2 Device type: C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 2.007 Req-ID: 2.007
Title: Protocol extensibility Title: Protocol extensibility
Description: Provide means of extensibility for the management Description: Provide means of extensibility for the management
protocol, i.e., by adding new protocol messages or mechanisms that protocol, i.e., by adding new protocol messages or mechanisms that
can deal with the changing requirements on a supported message and can deal with changing requirements on a supported message and
data types effectively, without causing inter-operability problems data types effectively, without causing interoperability problems
or having to replace/update large amount of deployed devices. or having to replace/update large amount of deployed devices.
Source: Basic requirement useful for all use cases. Source: Basic requirement useful for all use cases.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
3.3. Configuration management 3.3. Configuration Management
Req-ID: 3.001 Req-ID: 3.001
Title: Self-configuration capability Title: Self-configuration capability
Description: Automatic configuration and re-configuration of devices Description: Automatic configuration and re-configuration of devices
without manual intervention. Compared to the traditional without manual intervention. Compared to the traditional
management of devices where the management application is the management of devices where the management application is the
central entity configuring the devices, in the auto-configuration central entity configuring the devices, in the auto-configuration
scenario the device is the active part and initiates the scenario the device is the active part and initiates the
skipping to change at page 25, line 4 skipping to change at page 25, line 24
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High for device categories C0 and C1, Medium for C2. Priority: High for device categories C0 and C1, Medium for C2.
--- ---
Req-ID: 3.002 Req-ID: 3.002
Title: Capability Discovery
Title: Capability discovery
Description: Enable the discovery of supported optional management Description: Enable the discovery of supported optional management
capabilities of a device and their exposure via at least one capabilities of a device and their exposure via at least one
protocol and/or data model. protocol and/or data model.
Source: Use cases where the device interaction with other devices or Source: Use cases where the device interaction with other devices or
applications is a function of the level of support for its applications is a function of the level of support for its
capabilities. capabilities.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 3.003 Req-ID: 3.003
Title: Asynchronous Transaction Support Title: Asynchronous transaction support
Description: Provide configuration management with asynchronous Description: Provide configuration management with asynchronous
(event-driven) transaction support. Configuration operations must (event-driven) transaction support. Configuration operations must
support a transactional model, with asynchronous indications that support a transactional model, with asynchronous indications that
the transaction was completed. the transaction was completed.
Source: Use cases that require transaction-oriented processing Source: Use cases that require transaction-oriented processing
because of reliability or distributed architecture functional because of reliability or distributed architecture functional
requirements. requirements.
skipping to change at page 25, line 48 skipping to change at page 26, line 22
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 3.004 Req-ID: 3.004
Title: Network reconfiguration Title: Network reconfiguration
Description: Provide a means of iterative network reconfiguration in Description: Provide a means of iterative network reconfiguration in
order to recover the network from node and communication faults. order to recover the network from node and communication failures.
The network reconfiguration can be failure-driven and self- The network reconfiguration can be failure-driven and self-
initiated (automatic reconfiguration). The network initiated (automatic reconfiguration). The network
reconfiguration can be also performed on the whole hierarchical reconfiguration can be also performed on the whole hierarchical
structure of a network (network topology). structure of a network (network topology).
Source: Practically all use cases, as network connectivity is a Source: Practically all use cases, as network connectivity is a
basic requirement. basic requirement.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.4. Monitoring functionality 3.4. Monitoring Functionality
Req-ID: 4.001 Req-ID: 4.001
Title: Device status monitoring Title: Device status monitoring
Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose
information about device status and exposing it via at least one information about device status and exposing it via at least one
management interface. The device monitoring might make use of the management interface. The device monitoring might make use of the
hierarchical management through the intermediary entities and the hierarchical management through the intermediary entities and the
caching mechanism. The device monitoring might also make use of caching mechanism. The device monitoring might also make use of
skipping to change at page 26, line 48 skipping to change at page 27, line 21
Priority: High, Medium for neighbor-monitoring. Priority: High, Medium for neighbor-monitoring.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.002 Req-ID: 4.002
Title: Energy status monitoring Title: Energy status monitoring
Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect and expose
information about device energy parameters and usage (e.g., information about device energy parameters and usage (e.g.,
battery level and communication power). battery level and average power consumption).
Source: Use case Energy Management Source: Use case Energy Management
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High for energy reporting devices, Low for others. Priority: High for energy reporting devices, Low for others.
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.003 Req-ID: 4.003
skipping to change at page 27, line 31 skipping to change at page 28, line 4
Source: All use cases. Note that monitoring energy resources (like Source: All use cases. Note that monitoring energy resources (like
battery status) may be required on all kinds of devices. battery status) may be required on all kinds of devices.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.004 Req-ID: 4.004
Title: Network status monitoring Title: Network status monitoring
Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect, analyse and Description: Provide a monitoring function to collect, analyze and
expose information related to the status of a network or network expose information related to the status of a network or network
segments connected to the interface of the device. segments connected to the interface of the device.
Source: All use cases. Source: All use cases.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Low, based on the realization complexity. Priority: Low, based on the realization complexity.
skipping to change at page 28, line 22 skipping to change at page 28, line 42
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: High for C2, Medium for C1 Priority: High for C2, Medium for C1
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.006 Req-ID: 4.006
Title: Performance Monitoring Title: Performance monitoring
Description: The device will provide a monitoring function to Description: The device will provide a monitoring function to
collect and expose information about the basic performance collect and expose information about the basic performance
parameter of the device. The performance management functionality parameter of the device. The performance management functionality
might make use of the hierarchical management through the might make use of the hierarchical management through the
intermediary devices. intermediary devices.
Source: Use cases Building automation, and Transport applications Source: Use cases Building automation, and Transport applications
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: Low Priority: Low
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.007 Req-ID: 4.007
skipping to change at page 29, line 18 skipping to change at page 29, line 37
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1 and C2 Device type: C0, C1 and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 4.008 Req-ID: 4.008
Title: Passive and Reactive Monitoring Title: Passive and reactive monitoring
Description: The device will provide passive and reactive monitoring Description: The device will provide passive and reactive monitoring
capabilities. The system or manager collects information about capabilities. The system or manager collects information about
device components and network states (passive monitoring) and may device components and network states (passive monitoring) and may
perform postmortem analysis of collected data. In case events of perform postmortem analysis of collected data. In case events of
interest have occurred the system or manager can adaptively react interest have occurred the system or manager can adaptively react
(reactive monitoring), e.g., reconfigure the network. Typically (reactive monitoring), e.g., reconfigure the network. Typically
actions (re-actions) will be executed or sent as commands by the actions (re-actions) will be executed or sent as commands by the
management applications. management applications.
skipping to change at page 33, line 49 skipping to change at page 34, line 21
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High, Medium for hardware-supported algorithms. Priority: High, Medium for hardware-supported algorithms.
3.7. Energy Management 3.7. Energy Management
Req-ID: 7.001 Req-ID: 7.001
Title: Management of Energy Resources Title: Management of energy resources
Description: Enable managing power resources in the network, e.g., Description: Enable managing power resources in the network, e.g.,
reduce the sampling rate of nodes with critical battery and reduce reduce the sampling rate of nodes with critical battery and reduce
node transmission power, put nodes to sleep, put single interfaces node transmission power, put nodes to sleep, put single interfaces
to sleep, reject a management job based on available energy, to sleep, reject a management job based on available energy,
criteria e.g., importance levels pre-defined by the management criteria e.g., importance levels pre-defined by the management
application, etc. (e.g., a task marked as essential can be application, etc. (e.g., a task marked as essential can be
executed even if the energy level is low). The device may further executed even if the energy level is low). The device may further
implement standard data models for energy management and expose it implement standard data models for energy management and expose it
through a management protocol interface, e.g., EMAN MIB modules through a management protocol interface, e.g., EMAN MIB modules
and extensions (work ongoing). It might be necessary to use a and extensions (work ongoing). It might be necessary to use a
skipping to change at page 35, line 35 skipping to change at page 36, line 5
critical device configuration and status information. critical device configuration and status information.
Source: Use case Energy Management Source: Use case Energy Management
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.8. SW Distribution 3.8. Software Distribution
Req-ID: 8.001 Req-ID: 8.001
Title: Group-based provisioning Title: Group-based provisioning
Description: Support group-based provisioning, i.e., firmware update Description: Support group-based provisioning, i.e., firmware update
and configuration management, of a large set of constrained and configuration management, of a large set of constrained
devices with eventual consistency and coordinated reload times. devices with eventual consistency and coordinated reload times.
The device should accept group-based configuration management The device should accept group-based configuration management
based on bulk commands, which aim similar configurations of a based on bulk commands, which aim similar configurations of a
skipping to change at page 36, line 4 skipping to change at page 36, line 21
Description: Support group-based provisioning, i.e., firmware update Description: Support group-based provisioning, i.e., firmware update
and configuration management, of a large set of constrained and configuration management, of a large set of constrained
devices with eventual consistency and coordinated reload times. devices with eventual consistency and coordinated reload times.
The device should accept group-based configuration management The device should accept group-based configuration management
based on bulk commands, which aim similar configurations of a based on bulk commands, which aim similar configurations of a
large set of constrained devices of the same type in a given large set of constrained devices of the same type in a given
group, and which may share a common data model. Activation of group, and which may share a common data model. Activation of
configuration may be based on pre-loaded sets of default values. configuration may be based on pre-loaded sets of default values.
Source: All use cases Source: All use cases
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
3.9. Traffic management 3.9. Traffic Management
Req-ID: 9.001 Req-ID: 9.001
Title: Congestion avoidance Title: Congestion avoidance
Description: Support congestion control principles as defined in Description: Support congestion control principles as defined in
[RFC2914], e.g., the ability to avoid congestion by modifying the [RFC2914], e.g., the ability to avoid congestion by modifying the
device's reporting rate for periodical data (which is usually device's reporting rate for periodical data (which is usually
redundant) based on the importance and reliability level of the redundant) based on the importance and reliability level of the
management data. This functionality is usually controlled by the management data. This functionality is usually controlled by the
managing entity, where the managing entity marks the data as managing entity, where the managing entity marks the data as
important or relevant for reliability. However reducing a important or relevant for reliability. However, reducing a
device's reporting rate can also be initiated by a device if it is device's reporting rate can also be initiated by a device if it is
able to detect congestion or has insufficient buffer memory. able to detect congestion or has insufficient buffer memory.
Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g., AMI or Source: Use cases with high reporting rate and traffic e.g., AMI or
M2M. M2M.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
skipping to change at page 38, line 5 skipping to change at page 38, line 25
--- ---
Req-ID: 10.002 Req-ID: 10.002
Title: Reliable unicast transport of messages Title: Reliable unicast transport of messages
Description: Diverse applications need a reliable transport of Description: Diverse applications need a reliable transport of
messages. The reliability might be achieved based on a transport messages. The reliability might be achieved based on a transport
protocol such as TCP or can be supported based on message protocol such as TCP or can be supported based on message
repetition if an acknowledgement is missing. repetition if an acknowledgment is missing.
Source: Generally applications benefit from the reliability of the Source: Generally applications benefit from the reliability of the
message transport. message transport.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
skipping to change at page 38, line 32 skipping to change at page 39, line 4
Description: Provide best-effort multicast of messages, which is Description: Provide best-effort multicast of messages, which is
generally useful when devices need to discover a service provided generally useful when devices need to discover a service provided
by a server or many devices need to be configured by a managing by a server or many devices need to be configured by a managing
entity at once based on the same data model. entity at once based on the same data model.
Source: Use cases where a device needs to discover services as well Source: Use cases where a device needs to discover services as well
as use cases with high amount of devices to manage, which are as use cases with high amount of devices to manage, which are
hierarchically deployed, e.g., AMI or M2M. hierarchically deployed, e.g., AMI or M2M.
Requirement Type: Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
Priority: Medium Priority: Medium
--- ---
Req-ID: 10.004 Req-ID: 10.004
Title: Secure message transport. Title: Secure message transport
Description: Enable secure message transport providing Description: Enable secure message transport providing
authentication, data integrity, confidentiality by using existing authentication, data integrity, confidentiality by using existing
transport layer technologies with small footprint such as TLS/ transport layer technologies with small footprint such as TLS/
DTLS. DTLS.
Source: All use cases. Source: All use cases.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirements Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirements
Device type: C1 and C2 Device type: C1 and C2
Priority: High Priority: High
3.11. Implementation Requirements 3.11. Implementation Requirements
Req-ID: 11.001 Req-ID: 11.001
Title: Avoid complex application layer transactions requiring large Title: Avoid complex application layer transactions requiring large
application layer messages. application layer messages.
skipping to change at page 39, line 20 skipping to change at page 39, line 39
Req-ID: 11.001 Req-ID: 11.001
Title: Avoid complex application layer transactions requiring large Title: Avoid complex application layer transactions requiring large
application layer messages. application layer messages.
Description: Complex application layer transactions tend to require Description: Complex application layer transactions tend to require
large memory buffers that are typically not available on C0 or C1 large memory buffers that are typically not available on C0 or C1
devices and only by limiting functionality on C2 devices. devices and only by limiting functionality on C2 devices.
Furthermore, the failure of a single large transaction requires Furthermore, the failure of a single large transaction requires
repeating the whole transaction. On constrained devices, it is repeating the whole transaction. On constrained devices, it is
often more desirable to a large transaction down into a sequence often more desirable to split a large transaction into a sequence
of smaller transactions that require less resources and allow to of smaller transactions that require less resources and allow to
make progress using a sequence of smaller steps. make progress using a sequence of smaller steps.
Source: Basic requirement which concerns all use cases with memory Source: Basic requirement which concerns all use cases with memory
constrained devices. constrained devices.
Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement Requirement Type: Non-Functional Requirement
Device type: C0, C1, and C2 Device type: C0, C1, and C2
skipping to change at page 40, line 35 skipping to change at page 41, line 4
networks of constrained devices. Section 1.6 mentions a number of networks of constrained devices. Section 1.6 mentions a number of
limitations that could prevent the implementation of strong limitations that could prevent the implementation of strong
cryptographic algorithms. Requirements for security and access cryptographic algorithms. Requirements for security and access
control are listed in Section 3.6. control are listed in Section 3.6.
Constrained devices might be deployed often in unsafe environments, Constrained devices might be deployed often in unsafe environments,
where attackers can gain physical access to the devices. As a where attackers can gain physical access to the devices. As a
consequence, it is crucial to properly protect any security consequence, it is crucial to properly protect any security
credentials that may be stored on the device (e.g., by using hardware credentials that may be stored on the device (e.g., by using hardware
protection mechanisms). Furthermore, it is important that any protection mechanisms). Furthermore, it is important that any
credentials leeking from a single device do not simplify the attack credentials leaking from a single device do not simplify the attack
on other (similar) devices. In particular, security credentials on other (similar) devices. In particular, security credentials
should never be shared. should never be shared.
Since constrained devices often have limited computational resources, Since constrained devices often have limited computational resources,
care should be taken in choosing efficient but cryptographically care should be taken in choosing efficient but cryptographically
strong crytographic algorithms. Designers of constrained devices strong cryptographic algorithms. Designers of constrained devices
that have a long expected lifetime need to ensure that cryptographic that have a long expected lifetime need to ensure that cryptographic
algorithms can be updated once devices have been deployed. The algorithms can be updated once devices have been deployed. The
ability to perform secure firmware and software updates is an ability to perform secure firmware and software updates is an
important management requirement. important management requirement.
Constrained devices might also generate sensitive data or require the Constrained devices might also generate sensitive data or require the
processing of sensitive data. It is therefore an important processing of sensitive data. It is therefore an important
requirement to properly protect access to the data in order to requirement to properly protect access to the data in order to
protect the privacy of humans using Internet-enabled devices. For protect the privacy of humans using Internet-enabled devices. For
certain types of data, protection during the transmission over the certain types of data, protection during the transmission over the
network may not be sufficient and methods should be investigated that network may not be sufficient and methods should be investigated that
provide protection of data while it is cached or stored (e.g., when provide protection of data while it is cached or stored (e.g., when
using a store-and-forward transport mechanism). using a store-and-forward transport mechanism).
6. Contributors 6. Acknowledgments
Ulrich Herberg (Fujitsu Laboratories of America) contributed to the
Section 1.3 on Networks Types and Characteristics in Focus.
7. Acknowledgments
Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to Following persons reviewed and provided valuable comments to
different versions of this document: different versions of this document:
Dominique Barthel, Andy Bierman, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit Dominique Barthel, Andy Bierman, Carsten Bormann, Zhen Cao, Benoit
Claise, Hui Deng, Bert Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen, Claise, Hui Deng, Bert Greevenbosch, Ulrich Herberg, James Nguyen,
Anuj Sehgal, Zach Shelby, Peter van der Stok and Bert Wijnen. Anuj Sehgal, Zach Shelby, Peter van der Stok, Thomas Watteyne, and
Bert Wijnen.
The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on The editors would like to thank the reviewers and the participants on
the Coman and OPSAWG mailing lists for their valuable contributions the Coman and OPSAWG mailing lists for their valuable contributions
and comments. and comments.
8. Informative References 7. Informative References
[RFC2914] Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41, RFC [RFC2914] Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41, RFC
2914, September 2000. 2914, September 2000.
[RFC2501] Corson, M. and J. Macker, "Mobile Ad hoc Networking [RFC2501] Corson, M. and J. Macker, "Mobile Ad hoc Networking
(MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and
Evaluation Considerations", RFC 2501, January 1999. Evaluation Considerations", RFC 2501, January 1999.
[RFC6632] Ersue, M. and B. Claise, "An Overview of the IETF Network [RFC6632] Ersue, M. and B. Claise, "An Overview of the IETF Network
Management Standards", RFC 6632, June 2012. Management Standards", RFC 6632, June 2012.
[RFC7102] Vasseur, JP., "Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and [RFC7102] Vasseur, JP., "Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and
Lossy Networks", RFC 7102, January 2014. Lossy Networks", RFC 7102, January 2014.
[RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for [RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, May 2014. Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, May 2014.
[RFC7252] Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained [RFC7252] Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252, June 2014. Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252, June 2014.
[COM-USE] Ersue, M., "Constrained Management: Use Cases", draft- [RFC4919] Kushalnagar, N., Montenegro, G., and C. Schumacher, "IPv6
ietf-opsawg-coman-use-cases (work in progress), October over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs):
2013. Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement, and Goals", RFC
4919, August 2007.
[RFC6550] Winter, T., Thubert, P., Brandt, A., Hui, J., Kelsey, R.,
Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur, JP., and R.
Alexander, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and
Lossy Networks", RFC 6550, March 2012.
[COM-USE] Ersue, M., Romascanu, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
"Constrained Management: Use Cases", draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-use-cases (work in progress), July 2014.
Appendix A. Change Log Appendix A. Change Log
A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg- A.1. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-02 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-probstate-reqs-03
o General bug fixing.
o Stated in the abstract and introduction section that the
requirements listed in the document are potential requirements.
o Added text in section 1.3 to highlight that with the usage of
6LowPAN and RPL multi-hop connectivity and dynamic routing can be
achieved.
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-01 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-probstate-reqs-02 coman-probstate-reqs-02
o General bug fixing. o General bug fixing.
o Resolved the use of the term profile of requirements. o Resolved the use of the term profile of requirements.
o Changed requirement title from Redirect traffic to Reroute traffic o Changed requirement title from Redirect traffic to Reroute traffic
and the description accordingly. and the description accordingly.
o Changed requirement title from Traffic delay schemes to Traffic o Changed requirement title from Traffic delay schemes to Traffic
Shaping and the description accordingly. Shaping and the description accordingly.
o Extended Security Considerations section. o Extended Security Considerations section.
o Deleted empty section on Normative References. o Deleted empty section on Normative References.
A.2. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg- A.3. draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-probstate-reqs-00 - draft-ietf-opsawg-
coman-probstate-reqs-01 coman-probstate-reqs-01
o General bug fixing. o General bug fixing.
o Added Section 1.7. on Configuration and Monitoring Functionality o Added Section 1.7. on Configuration and Monitoring Functionality
Levels. Levels.
o Changed diverse occurences of "networks" to "networks with/of o Changed diverse occurences of "networks" to "networks with/of
constrained devices". constrained devices".
skipping to change at page 43, line 5 skipping to change at page 43, line 39
o Introduced notes for parts of the requirements text if it is o Introduced notes for parts of the requirements text if it is
focusing on implementation or solution. focusing on implementation or solution.
o Extended Security Considerations section. o Extended Security Considerations section.
o Deleted Appendix A and B on other SDO's work and related projects o Deleted Appendix A and B on other SDO's work and related projects
as they provided dynamic information and couldn't be kept up-to- as they provided dynamic information and couldn't be kept up-to-
date. date.
A.3. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman- A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-03 - draft-ietf-opsawg-coman-
probstate-reqs-00 probstate-reqs-00
o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the o Reduced the terminology section for terminology addressed in the
LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft. LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.
o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology o Checked and aligned all terminology against the LWIG terminology
draft. draft.
o Moved section 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options and o Moved section 1.4. Constrained Device Deployment Options and
section 3. Use Cases to the companion document [COM-USE]. section 3. Use Cases to the companion document [COM-USE].
skipping to change at page 43, line 28 skipping to change at page 44, line 16
in Focus" and removed abbreviations C0, C1 and C2 for network in Focus" and removed abbreviations C0, C1 and C2 for network
classes as they have not been used. classes as they have not been used.
o Changed requirement priority classes to be High, Medium and Low. o Changed requirement priority classes to be High, Medium and Low.
o Changed requirement types to be Functional and Non-Functional and o Changed requirement types to be Functional and Non-Functional and
added text to explain the requirement types. added text to explain the requirement types.
o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity. o Reformulation of some text parts for more clarity.
A.4. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03 A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-02-03
o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the o Extended the terminology section and removed some of the
terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft. terminology addressed in the new LWIG terminology draft.
Referenced the LWIG terminology draft. Referenced the LWIG terminology draft.
o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG o Moved Section 1.3. on Constrained Device Classes to the new LWIG
terminology draft. terminology draft.
o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and o Class of networks considering the different type of radio and
communication technologies in use and dimensions extended. communication technologies in use and dimensions extended.
skipping to change at page 44, line 26 skipping to change at page 45, line 15
* Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group- * Software distribution (group-based firmware update) and Group-
based provisioning. based provisioning.
o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management o Deleted the empty section on the gaps in network management
standards, as it will be written in a separate draft. standards, as it will be written in a separate draft.
o Added links to mentioned external pages. o Added links to mentioned external pages.
o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix. o Added text on OMA M2M Device Classification in appendix.
A.5. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02 A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-01-02
o Extended the terminology section. o Extended the terminology section.
o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment o Added additional text for the use cases concerning deployment
type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities, type, network topology in use, network size, network capabilities,
radio technology, etc. radio technology, etc.
o Added examples for device classes in a use case. o Added examples for device classes in a use case.
o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for o Added additional text provided by Cao Zhen (China Mobile) for
skipping to change at page 45, line 13 skipping to change at page 46, line 5
management matched to management tasks like fault, monitoring, management matched to management tasks like fault, monitoring,
configuration management, Security and Access Control, Energy configuration management, Security and Access Control, Energy
Management, etc. Management, etc.
o Solved nits and added references. o Solved nits and added references.
o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies. o Added Appendix A on the related development in other bodies.
o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects. o Added Appendix B on the work in related research projects.
A.6. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01 A.7. draft-ersue-constrained-mgmt-00-01
o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the o Splitted the section on 'Networks of Constrained Devices' into the
sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology sections 'Network Topology Options' and 'Management Topology
Options'. Options'.
o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile o Added the use case 'Community Network Applications' and 'Mobile
Applications'. Applications'.
o Provided a Contributors section. o Provided a Contributors section.
skipping to change at line 2132 skipping to change at page 46, line 36
Dan Romascanu Dan Romascanu
Avaya Avaya
Email: dromasca@avaya.com Email: dromasca@avaya.com
Juergen Schoenwaelder Juergen Schoenwaelder
Jacobs University Bremen Jacobs University Bremen
Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de
Ulrich Herberg
Email: ulrich@herberg.name
 End of changes. 86 change blocks. 
136 lines changed or deleted 172 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.41. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/