draft-ietf-opsawg-mpls-tp-oam-def-09.txt   draft-ietf-opsawg-mpls-tp-oam-def-10.txt 
Network Working Group L. Andersson Network Working Group L. Andersson
Internet-Draft Ericsson Internet-Draft Ericsson
Intended status: BCP H. van Helvoort Intended status: BCP H. van Helvoort
Expires: October 8, 2011 Huawei Technologies Expires: November 13, 2011 Huawei Technologies
R. Bonica R. Bonica
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
D. Romascanu D. Romascanu
Avaya Avaya
S. Mansfield S. Mansfield
Ericsson Ericsson
April 6, 2011 May 12, 2011
"Guidelines for the use of the OAM acronym in the IETF" "Guidelines for the use of the OAM acronym in the IETF"
draft-ietf-opsawg-mpls-tp-oam-def-09.txt draft-ietf-opsawg-mpls-tp-oam-def-10.txt
Abstract Abstract
At first glance the acronym "OAM" seems to be well known and well At first glance the acronym "OAM" seems to be well known and well
understood. Looking at the acronym a bit more closely reveals a set understood. Looking at the acronym a bit more closely reveals a set
of recurring problems that are revisited time and again. of recurring problems that are revisited time and again.
This document provides a definition of the acronym OAM (Operations, This document provides a definition of the acronym OAM (Operations,
Administration, and Maintenance) for use in all future IETF documents Administration, and Maintenance) for use in all future IETF documents
that refer to OAM. There are other definitions and acronyms that that refer to OAM. There are other definitions and acronyms that
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This Internet-Draft will expire on October 8, 2011. This Internet-Draft will expire on November 13, 2011.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. OAM and O, A and M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. OAM as a Functional Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Pre-existing uses of OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2. The Acronym Broken Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Uses of OAM in other SDOs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2.1. O in OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.1. O in OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2.2. A in OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.2. A in OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2.3. M in OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.3. M in OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Recommendations on the use of the OAM Acronym . . . . . . . . 7 2.2. Uses of OAM in the IETF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Recommended Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. Recommendations on the use of the OAM Acronym . . . . . . . . . 5
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The main purpose of this document is to provide a definition of the The main purpose of this document is to provide a definition of the
acronym OAM (Operations, Administration, and Maintenance) for use in acronym OAM (Operations, Administration, and Maintenance) for use in
all future IETF documents that refer to OAM. all future IETF documents that refer to OAM.
The acronym OAM is frequently used in the data and telecommunication The acronym OAM is frequently used in the data and telecommunication
industry. One would assume that something that is so widely used is industry. One would assume that something that is so widely used is
very clearly defined. However a closer look reveals some points that very clearly defined. However a closer look reveals some points that
need to be clarified. need to be clarified.
The examples below show a number of different ways that the OAM
acronym has been expanded in previous documents.
o OAM = Operation, Administration, Maintenance
o OAM = Operations, Administration, Maintenance
o OAM = Operations, Administration, and Maintenance
o OAM = Operations, Administration, Management
o OAM = Operations and Maintenance
o OAM = Operations and Management
o O&M = Operations and Maintenance
o O&M = Operations and Management
o O&M = OAM and Management
Sometimes there is a fourth letter added to the acronym:
o OAM and P = Operations, Administration, Maintenance and
Provisioning
If such an important piece of our technology is so poorly defined, or If such an important piece of our technology is so poorly defined, or
if there are dialects of the technology with different understandings if there are dialects of the technology with different understandings
of such a key concept, this will eventually cause problems. of such a key concept, this will eventually cause problems.
Trying to understand the use of an acronym that is as "content-rich" Trying to understand the use of an acronym that is as "content-rich"
as OAM reveals two levels of complexity. First, each letter in the as OAM reveals two levels of complexity. First, each letter in the
acronym represents an integrated piece of functionality; secondly the acronym represents an integrated piece of functionality; secondly the
acronym as such represents something that is more than just the sum acronym as such represents something that is more than just the sum
of its parts. of its parts.
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if there are dialects of the technology with different understandings if there are dialects of the technology with different understandings
of such a key concept, this will eventually cause problems. of such a key concept, this will eventually cause problems.
Trying to understand the use of an acronym that is as "content-rich" Trying to understand the use of an acronym that is as "content-rich"
as OAM reveals two levels of complexity. First, each letter in the as OAM reveals two levels of complexity. First, each letter in the
acronym represents an integrated piece of functionality; secondly the acronym represents an integrated piece of functionality; secondly the
acronym as such represents something that is more than just the sum acronym as such represents something that is more than just the sum
of its parts. of its parts.
There is also the issue of how each piece of the acronym is defined. There is also the issue of how each piece of the acronym is defined.
This document provides an analysis of how each piece of the acronym This document provides an analysis of how each piece of the acronym
is defined and provides possible interpretations of the acronym. is defined and provides possible interpretations of the acronym.
Finally a recommendation for the interpretation of the OAM acronym is Finally a recommendation for the interpretation of the OAM acronym is
provided. provided.
Another useful document to make the OAM term understandable in a Another useful document to make the OAM term understandable in a
wider scope is found in An Overview of Operations, Administration, wider scope is found in An Overview of Operations, Administration,
and Maintenance (OAM) Mechanisms [I-D.ietf-opsawg-oam-overview]. and Maintenance (OAM) Mechanisms [I-D.ietf-opsawg-oam-overview].
2. OAM and O, A and M 1.1. Terminology
2.1. OAM as a Functional Unit o "Mgmt" - Management
o O&M - OAM and Management
o OAM - Operations, Administration, and Maintenance
o SDO - Standards Development Organization
2. Pre-existing uses of OAM
This section provides information on how OAM is used in other SDOs
(Standards Development Organization) and provides the background
necessary to understand the how the term is used in the IETF.
2.1. Uses of OAM in other SDOs
Operations And Maintenance (OAM): A group of network management Operations And Maintenance (OAM): A group of network management
functions that provide network fault indication, performance functions that provide network fault indication, performance
information, and data and diagnosis functions. ATM OAM ITU-T I.610 information, and data and diagnosis functions. ATM OAM ITU-T I.610
[ITU-T-I.610] is an example specification that uses this expansion of [ITU-T-I.610] is an example specification that uses this expansion of
the OAM acronym. the OAM acronym.
Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM): A group of network Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM): A group of network
management functions that provide network fault indication, fault management functions that provide network fault indication, fault
localization, performance information, and data and diagnosis localization, performance information, and data and diagnosis
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systems function as a function block that processes information systems function as a function block that processes information
related to the telecommunications management for the purpose of related to the telecommunications management for the purpose of
monitoring/coordinating and/or controlling telecommunication monitoring/coordinating and/or controlling telecommunication
functions including management functions (i.e., the TMN functions including management functions (i.e., the TMN
(Telecommunications Management Network) itself). (Telecommunications Management Network) itself).
The Metro Ethernet Forum refers to OAM as the tools and utilities to The Metro Ethernet Forum refers to OAM as the tools and utilities to
install, monitor and troubleshoot a network, helping carriers run install, monitor and troubleshoot a network, helping carriers run
their networks more effectively MEF 17 [MEF-17]. their networks more effectively MEF 17 [MEF-17].
2.2. The Acronym Broken Up 2.1.1. O in OAM
2.2.1. O in OAM
The O in the OAM acronym invariably stands for "Operations".
However there is some ambivalence in the definition and scope of the The O in the OAM acronym invariably stands for "Operations". However
term "Operation". there is some ambivalence in the definition and scope of the term
"Operation".
Examples of tools related to "operations" are performance monitoring Examples of tools related to "operations" are performance monitoring
tools used for service level agreement (SLA) measurement, fault tools used for service level agreement (SLA) measurement, fault
management tools used to monitor the health of nodes and links in the management tools used to monitor the health of nodes and links in the
network, and network provisioning tools. network, and network provisioning tools.
2.2.2. A in OAM 2.1.2. A in OAM
The A in the OAM acronym stands for "Administration". The A in the OAM acronym stands for "Administration".
Examples of "administration" tools are network discovery and planning Examples of "administration" tools are network discovery and planning
tools. tools.
2.2.3. M in OAM 2.1.3. M in OAM
In the list above the M in the OAM acronym stands for "Maintenance"
or "Management".
Maintenance and Management may have different interpretations.
Maintenance is defined further in Section 3, while Management is a
broader term applicable to many functions applied to the network as
described in Section 3.
Since these terms have different interpretations, it is not a good The M in the OAM acronym stands for "Maintenance" or "Management".
idea to use them interchangeably. This document defines the "M" in
the OAM acronym to mean Maintenance.
Examples of "maintenance" tools are implementations of connectivity Examples of "maintenance" tools are implementations of connectivity
check, loopback, link trace, and other tools that can be used to check, loopback, link trace, and other tools that can be used to
monitor and diagnose failures in a network or network element. monitor and diagnose failures in a network or network element.
The Recommendation ITU-T M.20 [ITU-T-M.20] defines maintenance as the The Recommendation ITU-T M.20 [ITU-T-M.20] defines maintenance as the
whole of operations required for setting up and maintaining, within whole of operations required for setting up and maintaining, within
prescribed limits, any element involved in the setting up of a prescribed limits, any element involved in the setting up of a
connection (see the ITU-T M.60 [ITU-T-M.60] Recommendation). The connection (see the ITU-T M.60 [ITU-T-M.60] Recommendation). The
purpose is to properly plan and program the maintenance operations purpose is to properly plan and program the maintenance operations
required to establish and maintain a network. required to establish and maintain a network.
A major aim of the concept of maintenance is to minimize both the A major aim of the concept of maintenance is to minimize both the
occurrence and the impact of failures and to ensure that in case of a occurrence and the impact of failures and to ensure that in case of a
failure the correct actions are taken. failure the correct actions are taken.
3. Recommendations on the use of the OAM Acronym 2.2. Uses of OAM in the IETF
In Section 4 the IETF recommended expansion of the OAM acronym is The examples below show a number of different ways that the OAM
listed. This section gives some background on the definitions acronym has been expanded in IETF RFCs. The reference list is not
provided. exhaustive.
o OAM = Operations, Administration, and Maintenance in RFC 5586
[RFC5586]
o OAM = Operations and Maintenance in RFC 3429 [RFC3429]
o OAM = Operations and Management in RFC 4377 [RFC4377]
o O&M = OAM and Maintenance in RFC 1812 [RFC1812]
"Mgmt" will be used if an abbreviation for "Management" is needed. Sometimes there is a fourth letter added to the acronym:
This document does not define Management. It is noted, however, that o OAM&P = Operations, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning
an important part of management functionality relates to tools to in RFC 4594 [RFC4594]
report the state of the network.
The OAM acronym is to be used for "Operations, Administration, and 3. Recommendations on the use of the OAM Acronym
Maintenance", excluding provisioning.
OAM tools and protocols, and the "Management space" are complementary The IETF recommended expansion of the OAM acronym is given below. In
in nature. Management focuses on FCAPS (Fault, Configuration, addition to the OAM acronym, two other recommendations are made in
Accounting, Performance, and Security) functionality and on manager this section.
(or NOC (Network Operations Center)) to device (or network)
interaction.
From an architecture point of view OAM protocols and tools deployed o OAM - Operations, Administration, and Maintenance
in the data plane tend to be "horizontal", i.e., network element to o O&M - OAM and Management
network element. The management protocols tend to be "vertical", o "Mgmt" - Management
i.e., between management stations and network elements.
The components of the OAM acronym (and provisioning) are defined as The components of the OAM acronym (and provisioning) are defined as
follows: follows:
o Operations - Operation activities are undertaken to keep the o Operations - Operation activities are undertaken to keep the
network (and the services that the network provides) up and network (and the services that the network provides) up and
running. It includes monitoring the network and finding problems. running. It includes monitoring the network and finding problems.
Ideally these problems should be found before users are affected. Ideally these problems should be found before users are affected.
o Administration - Administration activities involve keeping track o Administration - Administration activities involve keeping track
of resources in the network and how they are used. It includes of resources in the network and how they are used. It includes
all the bookkeeping that is necessary to track networking all the bookkeeping that is necessary to track networking
resources and the network under control. resources and the network under control.
o Maintenance - Maintenance activities are focused on facilitating o Maintenance - Maintenance activities are focused on facilitating
repairs and upgrades - for example, when equipment must be repairs and upgrades - for example, when equipment must be
replaced, when a router needs a patch for an operating system replaced, when a router needs a patch for an operating system
image, or when a new switch is added to a network. Maintenance image, or when a new switch is added to a network. Maintenance
also involves corrective and preventive measures to make the also involves corrective and preventive measures to make the
managed network run more effectively, e.g., adjusting device managed network run more effectively, e.g., adjusting device
configuration and parameters. configuration and parameters.
"Provisioning" is outside the scope of this document, but the "Provisioning" is outside the scope of this document, but the
following definition is provided for completeness. following definition is provided for completeness.
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In general, Provisioning is used to configure the network to provide In general, Provisioning is used to configure the network to provide
new services, whereas OAM is used to keep the network in a state that new services, whereas OAM is used to keep the network in a state that
it can support already existing services. it can support already existing services.
Sometimes it is necessary to talk about the combination of functions Sometimes it is necessary to talk about the combination of functions
and tools supplied by OAM and Management, it is preferred that this and tools supplied by OAM and Management, it is preferred that this
is spelled out as "OAM and Management". In cases where an acronym is is spelled out as "OAM and Management". In cases where an acronym is
needed O&M should be used. needed O&M should be used.
4. Recommended Acronyms "Mgmt" will be used if an abbreviation for "Management" is needed.
This document does not define Management.
The IETF recommended expansion of the OAM acronym is given below. In
addition to the OAM acronym, two other recommendations are made in
this section.
OAM - Operations, Administration, and Maintenance
O&M - OAM and Management
"Mgmt" - Management
5. IANA Considerations 4. IANA Considerations
This memo includes no request to IANA. This memo includes no request to IANA.
6. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
This document provides guidance for the use of the OAM acronym in This document provides guidance for the use of the OAM acronym in
other documents. This document does not have direct security other documents. This document does not have direct security
implications. implications.
Misunderstanding of an acronym may lead to incorrect specification or Misunderstanding of an acronym may lead to incorrect specification or
implementation which may, in turn, open up security concerns with implementation which may, in turn, open up security concerns with
protocols or deployed networks. Clarifying the meaning of OAM is, protocols or deployed networks. Clarifying the meaning of OAM is,
therefore, a benefit for future stability of specifications. therefore, a benefit for future stability of specifications.
7. Acknowledgments 6. Acknowledgments
The following individuals significantly contributed to this document. The following individuals significantly contributed to this document.
o Malcolm Betts from M. C. Betts Consulting Ltd. o Malcolm Betts from M. C. Betts Consulting Ltd.
o Kam Lam from Alcatel Lucent o Kam Lam from Alcatel Lucent
o Dieter Beller from Alcatel Lucent o Dieter Beller from Alcatel Lucent
o David Harrington from Huawei Technologies o David Harrington from Huawei Technologies
Thanks to the experts of ITU-T SG 15 for their review and comments. Thanks to the experts of ITU-T SG 15 for their review and comments.
8. Informative references 7. Informative references
[I-D.ietf-opsawg-oam-overview] [I-D.ietf-opsawg-oam-overview]
Mizrahi, T., Sprecher, N., Bellagamba, E., and Y. Mizrahi, T., Sprecher, N., Bellagamba, E., and Y.
Weingarten, "An Overview of Operations, Administration, Weingarten, "An Overview of Operations, Administration,
and Maintenance (OAM) Mechanisms", and Maintenance (OAM) Mechanisms",
draft-ietf-opsawg-oam-overview-04 (work in progress), draft-ietf-opsawg-oam-overview-04 (work in progress),
March 2011. March 2011.
[IEEE.802.3-2008] [IEEE.802.3-2008]
IEEE, "Information technology - Telecommunications and IEEE, "Information technology - Telecommunications and
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[ITU-T-Y.1731] [ITU-T-Y.1731]
International Telecommunication Union, "OAM functions and International Telecommunication Union, "OAM functions and
mechanisms for Ethernet based networks", ITU- mechanisms for Ethernet based networks", ITU-
T Recommendation Y.1731, February 2008. T Recommendation Y.1731, February 2008.
[MEF-17] Metro Ethernet Forum, "Service OAM Requirements & [MEF-17] Metro Ethernet Forum, "Service OAM Requirements &
Framework - Phase 1", MEF Technical Specification MEF 17, Framework - Phase 1", MEF Technical Specification MEF 17,
April 2007. April 2007.
[RFC1812] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
RFC 1812, June 1995.
[RFC3429] Ohta, H., "Assignment of the 'OAM Alert Label' for
Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture (MPLS)
Operation and Maintenance (OAM) Functions", RFC 3429,
November 2002.
[RFC4377] Nadeau, T., Morrow, M., Swallow, G., Allan, D., and S.
Matsushima, "Operations and Management (OAM) Requirements
for Multi-Protocol Label Switched (MPLS) Networks",
RFC 4377, February 2006.
[RFC4594] Babiarz, J., Chan, K., and F. Baker, "Configuration
Guidelines for DiffServ Service Classes", RFC 4594,
August 2006.
[RFC5586] Bocci, M., Vigoureux, M., and S. Bryant, "MPLS Generic
Associated Channel", RFC 5586, June 2009.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Loa Andersson Loa Andersson
Ericsson Ericsson
Email: loa.andersson@ericsson.com Email: loa.andersson@ericsson.com
Huub van Helvoort Huub van Helvoort
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
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