draft-ietf-opsawg-oam-overview-15.txt   draft-ietf-opsawg-oam-overview-16.txt 
Operations and Management Area Working Group T. Mizrahi Operations and Management Area Working Group T. Mizrahi
Internet Draft Marvell Internet Draft Marvell
Intended status: Informational N. Sprecher Intended status: Informational N. Sprecher
Expires: September 2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks Expires: September 2014 Nokia Solutions and Networks
E. Bellagamba E. Bellagamba
Ericsson Ericsson
Y. Weingarten Y. Weingarten
March 25, 2014 March 28, 2014
An Overview of An Overview of
Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) Tools Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) Tools
draft-ietf-opsawg-oam-overview-15.txt draft-ietf-opsawg-oam-overview-16.txt
Abstract Abstract
Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) is a general term Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) is a general term
that refers to a toolset for fault detection and isolation, and for that refers to a toolset for fault detection and isolation, and for
performance measurement. Over the years various OAM tools have been performance measurement. Over the years various OAM tools have been
defined for various layers in the protocol stack. defined for various layers in the protocol stack.
This document summarizes some of the OAM tools defined in the IETF in This document summarizes some of the OAM tools defined in the IETF in
the context of IP unicast, MPLS, MPLS Transport Profile (MPLS-TP), the context of IP unicast, MPLS, MPLS Transport Profile (MPLS-TP),
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 25, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 28, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................................. 4 1. Introduction ................................................. 4
1.1. Background .............................................. 4 1.1. Background .............................................. 4
1.2. Target Audience.......................................... 5 1.2. Target Audience.......................................... 5
1.3. OAM-related Work in the IETF ............................ 5 1.3. OAM-related Work in the IETF ............................ 6
1.4. Focusing on the Data Plane .............................. 7 1.4. Focusing on the Data Plane .............................. 7
2. Terminology .................................................. 7 2. Terminology .................................................. 7
2.1. Abbreviations ........................................... 7 2.1. Abbreviations ........................................... 7
2.2. Terminology used in OAM Standards ....................... 9 2.2. Terminology used in OAM Standards ....................... 9
2.2.1. General Terms ...................................... 9 2.2.1. General Terms ...................................... 9
2.2.2. Operations, Administration and Maintenance ......... 9 2.2.2. Operations, Administration and Maintenance ......... 9
2.2.3. Functions, Tools and Protocols .................... 10 2.2.3. Functions, Tools and Protocols .................... 10
2.2.4. Data Plane, Control Plane and Management Plane .... 11 2.2.4. Data Plane, Control Plane and Management Plane .... 11
2.2.5. The Players ....................................... 11 2.2.5. The Players ....................................... 12
2.2.6. Proactive and On-demand Activation ................ 12 2.2.6. Proactive and On-demand Activation ................ 12
2.2.7. Connectivity Verification and Continuity Checks ... 13 2.2.7. Connectivity Verification and Continuity Checks ... 13
2.2.8. Connection Oriented vs. Connectionless Communication13 2.2.8. Connection Oriented vs. Connectionless Communication14
2.2.9. Point-to-point vs. Point-to-multipoint Services ... 14 2.2.9. Point-to-point vs. Point-to-multipoint Services ... 14
2.2.10. Failures ......................................... 15 2.2.10. Failures ......................................... 15
3. OAM Functions ............................................... 16 3. OAM Functions ............................................... 16
4. OAM Tools in the IETF - a Detailed Description .............. 16 4. OAM Tools in the IETF - a Detailed Description .............. 16
4.1. IP Ping ................................................ 16 4.1. IP Ping ................................................ 17
4.2. IP Traceroute .......................................... 17 4.2. IP Traceroute .......................................... 17
4.3. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) ............... 18 4.3. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) ............... 18
4.3.1. Overview .......................................... 18 4.3.1. Overview .......................................... 18
4.3.2. Terminology ....................................... 18 4.3.2. Terminology ....................................... 19
4.3.3. BFD Control ....................................... 19 4.3.3. BFD Control ....................................... 19
4.3.4. BFD Echo .......................................... 19 4.3.4. BFD Echo .......................................... 19
4.4. MPLS OAM ............................................... 20 4.4. MPLS OAM ............................................... 20
4.4.1. LSP Ping .......................................... 20 4.4.1. LSP Ping .......................................... 20
4.4.2. BFD for MPLS ...................................... 21 4.4.2. BFD for MPLS ...................................... 21
4.4.3. OAM for Virtual Private Networks (VPN) over MPLS .. 21 4.4.3. OAM for Virtual Private Networks (VPN) over MPLS .. 21
4.5. MPLS-TP OAM ............................................ 21 4.5. MPLS-TP OAM ............................................ 21
4.5.1. Overview .......................................... 21 4.5.1. Overview .......................................... 21
4.5.2. Terminology ....................................... 22 4.5.2. Terminology ....................................... 22
4.5.3. Generic Associated Channel ........................ 23 4.5.3. Generic Associated Channel ........................ 24
4.5.4. MPLS-TP OAM Toolset ............................... 24 4.5.4. MPLS-TP OAM Toolset ............................... 24
4.5.4.1. Continuity Check and Connectivity Verification 24 4.5.4.1. Continuity Check and Connectivity Verification 25
4.5.4.2. Route Tracing ................................ 25 4.5.4.2. Route Tracing ................................ 25
4.5.4.3. Lock Instruct ................................ 25 4.5.4.3. Lock Instruct ................................ 25
4.5.4.4. Lock Reporting ............................... 25 4.5.4.4. Lock Reporting ............................... 25
4.5.4.5. Alarm Reporting .............................. 25 4.5.4.5. Alarm Reporting .............................. 26
4.5.4.6. Remote Defect Indication ..................... 26 4.5.4.6. Remote Defect Indication ..................... 26
4.5.4.7. Client Failure Indication .................... 26 4.5.4.7. Client Failure Indication .................... 26
4.5.4.8. Performance Monitoring ....................... 26 4.5.4.8. Performance Monitoring ....................... 26
4.5.4.8.1. Packet Loss Measurement (LM) ............ 26 4.5.4.8.1. Packet Loss Measurement (LM) ............ 26
4.5.4.8.2. Packet Delay Measurement (DM) ........... 27 4.5.4.8.2. Packet Delay Measurement (DM) ........... 27
4.6. Pseudowire OAM ......................................... 27 4.6. Pseudowire OAM ......................................... 27
4.6.1. Pseudowire OAM using Virtual Circuit Connectivity 4.6.1. Pseudowire OAM using Virtual Circuit Connectivity
Verification (VCCV) ...................................... 27 Verification (VCCV) ...................................... 27
4.6.2. Pseudowire OAM using G-ACh ........................ 28 4.6.2. Pseudowire OAM using G-ACh ........................ 29
4.6.3. Attachment Circuit - Pseudowire Mapping ........... 29 4.6.3. Attachment Circuit - Pseudowire Mapping ........... 29
4.7. OWAMP and TWAMP......................................... 29 4.7. OWAMP and TWAMP......................................... 29
4.7.1. Overview .......................................... 29 4.7.1. Overview .......................................... 29
4.7.2. Control and Test Protocols ........................ 30 4.7.2. Control and Test Protocols ........................ 30
4.7.3. OWAMP ............................................. 30 4.7.3. OWAMP ............................................. 31
4.7.4. TWAMP ............................................. 31 4.7.4. TWAMP ............................................. 31
4.8. TRILL .................................................. 31 4.8. TRILL .................................................. 32
5. Summary ..................................................... 32 5. Summary ..................................................... 32
5.1. Summary of OAM Tools ................................... 32 5.1. Summary of OAM Tools ................................... 32
5.2. Summary of OAM Functions ............................... 34 5.2. Summary of OAM Functions ............................... 35
5.3. Guidance to Network Equipment Vendors .................. 36 5.3. Guidance to Network Equipment Vendors .................. 36
6. Security Considerations ..................................... 36 6. Security Considerations ..................................... 36
7. IANA Considerations ......................................... 36 7. IANA Considerations ......................................... 37
8. Acknowledgments ............................................. 37 8. Acknowledgments ............................................. 37
9. References .................................................. 37 9. References .................................................. 37
9.1. Informative References ................................. 37 9.1. Normative References ................................... 37
9.2. Informative References ................................. 37
Appendix A. List of OAM Documents .............................. 43 Appendix A. List of OAM Documents .............................. 43
A.1. List of IETF OAM Documents ............................. 43 A.1. List of IETF OAM Documents ............................. 43
A.2. List of Selected Non-IETF OAM Documents ................ 48 A.2. List of Selected Non-IETF OAM Documents ................ 48
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
OAM is a general term that refers to a toolset for detecting, OAM is a general term that refers to a toolset for detecting,
isolating and reporting failures and for monitoring the network isolating and reporting failures and for monitoring the network
performance. performance.
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The target audience of this document includes: The target audience of this document includes:
o Standards development organizations - both IETF working groups and o Standards development organizations - both IETF working groups and
non-IETF organizations can benefit from this document when non-IETF organizations can benefit from this document when
designing new OAM protocols, or when looking to reuse existing OAM designing new OAM protocols, or when looking to reuse existing OAM
tools for new technologies. tools for new technologies.
o Network equipment vendors and network operators - can use this o Network equipment vendors and network operators - can use this
document as an index to some of the common IETF OAM tools. document as an index to some of the common IETF OAM tools.
It should be noted that this document is not necessarily suitable for It should be noted that some background in OAM is necessary in order
beginners without any background in OAM. to understand and benefit from this document. Specifically, the
reader is assumed to be familiar with the term OAM [OAM-Def], the
motivation for using OAM, and the distinction between OAM and network
management [OAM-Mng].
1.3. OAM-related Work in the IETF 1.3. OAM-related Work in the IETF
This memo provides an overview of the different sets of OAM tools This memo provides an overview of the different sets of OAM tools
defined by the IETF. The set of OAM tools described in this memo are defined by the IETF. The set of OAM tools described in this memo are
applicable to IP unicast, MPLS, pseudowires, MPLS Transport Profile applicable to IP unicast, MPLS, pseudowires, MPLS Transport Profile
(MPLS-TP), and TRILL. While OAM tools that are applicable to other (MPLS-TP), and TRILL. While OAM tools that are applicable to other
technologies exist, they are beyond the scope of this memo. technologies exist, they are beyond the scope of this memo.
This document focuses on IETF documents that have been published as This document focuses on IETF documents that have been published as
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It should be noted that while the G-ACh was defined as part of the It should be noted that while the G-ACh was defined as part of the
MPLS-TP definition effort, the G-ACh is a generic tool that can be MPLS-TP definition effort, the G-ACh is a generic tool that can be
used in MPLS in general, and not only in MPLS-TP. used in MPLS in general, and not only in MPLS-TP.
4.5.4. MPLS-TP OAM Toolset 4.5.4. MPLS-TP OAM Toolset
To address the functionality that is required of the OAM toolset, the To address the functionality that is required of the OAM toolset, the
MPLS WG conducted an analysis of the existing IETF and ITU-T OAM MPLS WG conducted an analysis of the existing IETF and ITU-T OAM
tools and their ability to fulfill the required functionality. The tools and their ability to fulfill the required functionality. The
conclusions of this analysis are documented in [OAM-Analys]. The MPLS conclusions of this analysis are documented in [OAM-Analys]. MPLS-TP
working group currently plans to use a mixture of OAM tools that are uses a mixture of OAM tools that are based on previous standards, and
based on various existing standards, and adapt them to the adapted to the requirements of [MPLS-TP-OAM]. Some of the main
requirements of [MPLS-TP-OAM]. Some of the main building blocks of building blocks of this solution are based on:
this solution are based on:
o Bidirectional Forwarding Detection ([BFD], [BFD-LSP]) for o Bidirectional Forwarding Detection ([BFD], [BFD-LSP]) for
proactive continuity check and connectivity verification. proactive continuity check and connectivity verification.
o LSP Ping as defined in [LSP-Ping] for on-demand connectivity o LSP Ping as defined in [LSP-Ping] for on-demand connectivity
verification. verification.
o New protocol packets, using G-ACH, to address different o New protocol packets, using G-ACH, to address different
functionality. functionality.
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mechanisms that provide integrity protection, thereby preventing mechanisms that provide integrity protection, thereby preventing
attackers from forging or tampering with OAM packets. For example, attackers from forging or tampering with OAM packets. For example,
[BFD] includes an optional authentication mechanism for BFD Control [BFD] includes an optional authentication mechanism for BFD Control
packets, using either SHA1, MD5, or a simple password. [OWAMP] and packets, using either SHA1, MD5, or a simple password. [OWAMP] and
[TWAMP] have 3 modes of security: unauthenticated, authenticated, [TWAMP] have 3 modes of security: unauthenticated, authenticated,
and encrypted. The authentication uses SHA1 as the HMAC algorithm, and encrypted. The authentication uses SHA1 as the HMAC algorithm,
and the encrypted mode uses AES encryption. and the encrypted mode uses AES encryption.
Confidentiality is typically not considered a requirement for OAM Confidentiality is typically not considered a requirement for OAM
protocols. However, the use of encryption (e.g., [OWAMP] and protocols. However, the use of encryption (e.g., [OWAMP] and
[TWAMP]) can make it difficult for attackers to identify OAM [TWAMP]) can make it difficult for attackers to identify OAM
packets, thus making it more difficult to attack the OAM protocol. packets, thus making it more difficult to attack the OAM protocol.
OAM can also be used as a means for network reconnaissance;
information about addresses, port numbers and about the network
topology and performance can be gathered either by passively
eavesdropping to OAM packets, or by actively sending OAM packets and
gathering information from the respective responses. This
information can then be used maliciously to attack the network. Note
that some of this information, e.g., addresses and port numbers, can
be gather even when encryption is used ([OWAMP], [TWAMP]).
For further details about the security considerations of each OAM For further details about the security considerations of each OAM
protocol, the reader is encouraged to review the Security protocol, the reader is encouraged to review the Security
Considerations section of each document referenced by this memo. Considerations section of each document referenced by this memo.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
There are no new IANA considerations implied by this document. There are no new IANA considerations implied by this document.
8. Acknowledgments 8. Acknowledgments
The authors gratefully acknowledge Sasha Vainshtein, Carlos The authors gratefully acknowledge Sasha Vainshtein, Carlos
Pignataro, David Harrington, Dan Romascanu, Ron Bonica, Benoit Pignataro, David Harrington, Dan Romascanu, Ron Bonica, Benoit
Claise, Stewart Bryant, Tom Nadeau, Elwyn Davies, Al Morton, Sam Claise, Stewart Bryant, Tom Nadeau, Elwyn Davies, Al Morton, Sam
Aldrin, Thomas Narten, and other members of the OPSA WG for their Aldrin, Thomas Narten, and other members of the OPSA WG for their
helpful comments on the mailing list. helpful comments on the mailing list.
This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot. This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Informative References 9.1. Normative References
[OAM-Def] Andersson, L., Van Helvoort, H., Bonica, R., Romascanu,
D., Mansfield, S., "Guidelines for the use of the OAM
acronym in the IETF ", RFC 6291, June 2011.
9.2. Informative References
[ATM-L2] Singh, S., Townsley, M., and C. Pignataro, [ATM-L2] Singh, S., Townsley, M., and C. Pignataro,
"Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) over Layer 2 "Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) over Layer 2
Tunneling Protocol Version 3 (L2TPv3)", RFC 4454, May Tunneling Protocol Version 3 (L2TPv3)", RFC 4454, May
2006. 2006.
[BFD] Katz, D., Ward, D., "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection [BFD] Katz, D., Ward, D., "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
(BFD)", RFC 5880, June 2010. (BFD)", RFC 5880, June 2010.
[BFD-Gen] Katz, D., Ward, D., "Generic Application of [BFD-Gen] Katz, D., Ward, D., "Generic Application of
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[NetTools] Enger, R., Reynolds, J., "FYI on a Network Management [NetTools] Enger, R., Reynolds, J., "FYI on a Network Management
Tool Catalog: Tools for Monitoring and Debugging Tool Catalog: Tools for Monitoring and Debugging
TCP/IP Internets and Interconnected Devices", RFC TCP/IP Internets and Interconnected Devices", RFC
1470, June 1993. 1470, June 1993.
[OAM-Analys] Sprecher, N., Fang, L., "An Overview of the OAM Tool [OAM-Analys] Sprecher, N., Fang, L., "An Overview of the OAM Tool
Set for MPLS based Transport Networks", RFC 6669, Set for MPLS based Transport Networks", RFC 6669,
July 2012. July 2012.
[OAM-Def] Andersson, L., Van Helvoort, H., Bonica, R., Romascanu,
D., Mansfield, S., "Guidelines for the use of the OAM
acronym in the IETF ", RFC 6291, June 2011.
[OAM-Label] Ohta, H., "Assignment of the 'OAM Alert Label' for [OAM-Label] Ohta, H., "Assignment of the 'OAM Alert Label' for
Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture (MPLS) Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture (MPLS)
Operation and Maintenance (OAM) Functions", RFC 3429, Operation and Maintenance (OAM) Functions", RFC 3429,
November 2002. November 2002.
[OAM-Mng] Ersue, M., Claise, B., "An Overview of the IETF Network
Management Standards", RFC 6632, June 2012.
[OnDemand-CV] Gray, E., Bahadur, N., Boutros, S., Aggarwal, R. "MPLS [OnDemand-CV] Gray, E., Bahadur, N., Boutros, S., Aggarwal, R. "MPLS
On-Demand Connectivity Verification and Route On-Demand Connectivity Verification and Route
Tracing", RFC 6426, November 2011. Tracing", RFC 6426, November 2011.
[OWAMP] Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and [OWAMP] Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and
Zekauskas, M., "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol Zekauskas, M., "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol
(OWAMP)", RFC 4656, September 2006. (OWAMP)", RFC 4656, September 2006.
[PARIS] Brice Augustin, Timur Friedman and Renata Teixeira, [PARIS] Brice Augustin, Timur Friedman and Renata Teixeira,
"Measuring Load-balanced Paths in the Internet", IMC, "Measuring Load-balanced Paths in the Internet", IMC,
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