Network Working Group                                        C. Jennings
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Intended status: Standards Track                             J. Mattsson
Expires: December 20, 25, 2020                                   Ericsson AB
                                                               D. McGrew
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                                 D. Wing
                                                    Citrix Systems, Inc.
                                                            F. Andreason
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                           June 18, 23, 2020

            Encrypted Key Transport for DTLS and Secure RTP


   Encrypted Key Transport (EKT) is an extension to DTLS (Datagram
   Transport Layer Security) and Secure Real-time Transport Protocol
   (SRTP) that provides for the secure transport of SRTP master keys,
   rollover counters, and other information within SRTP.  This facility
   enables SRTP for decentralized conferences by distributing a common
   key to all of the conference endpoints.

Status of This Memo

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   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 20, 25, 2020.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Conventions Used In This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Encrypted Key Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  EKTField Formats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  SPIs and EKT Parameter Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  Packet Processing and State Machine . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.3.1.  Outbound Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8   9
       4.3.2.  Inbound Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.4.  Ciphers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.4.1.  AES Key Wrap  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.4.2.  Defining New EKT Ciphers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.5.  Synchronizing Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.6.  Timing and Reliability Consideration  . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.  Use of EKT with DTLS-SRTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14  15
     5.1.  DTLS-SRTP Recap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     5.2.  SRTP EKT Key Transport Extensions to DTLS-SRTP  . . . . .  15
       5.2.1.  Negotiating an EKTCipher  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       5.2.2.  Establishing an EKT Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.3.  Offer/Answer Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.4.  Sending the DTLS EKTKey Reliably  . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     7.1.  EKT Message Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     7.2.  EKT Ciphers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     7.3.  TLS Extensions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     7.4.  TLS Handshake Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24

1.  Introduction

   Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is designed to allow decentralized
   groups with minimal control to establish sessions, such as for
   multimedia conferences.  Unfortunately, Secure RTP (SRTP [RFC3711])
   cannot be used in many minimal-control scenarios, because it requires
   that synchronization source (SSRC) values and other data be
   coordinated among all of the participants in a session.  For example,
   if a participant joins a session that is already in progress, that
   participant needs to be told the SRTP keys along with the SSRC,
   rollover counter (ROC) and other details of the other SRTP sources.

   The inability of SRTP to work in the absence of central control was
   well understood during the design of the protocol; the omission was
   considered less important than optimizations such as bandwidth
   conservation.  Additionally, in many situations SRTP is used in
   conjunction with a signaling system that can provide the central
   control needed by SRTP.  However, there are several cases in which
   conventional signaling systems cannot easily provide all of the
   coordination required.

   This document defines Encrypted Key Transport (EKT) for SRTP and
   reduces the amount of external signaling control that is needed in a
   SRTP session with multiple receivers.  EKT securely distributes the
   SRTP master key and other information for each SRTP source.  With
   this method, SRTP entities are free to choose SSRC values as they see
   fit, and to start up new SRTP sources with new SRTP master keys
   within a session without coordinating with other entities via
   external signaling or other external means.

   EKT extends DTLS and SRTP to enable a common key encryption key
   (called an EKTKey) to be distributed to all endpoints, so that each
   endpoint can securely send its SRTP master key and current SRTP
   rollover counter to the other participants in the session.  This data
   furnishes the information needed by the receiver to instantiate an
   SRTP receiver context.

   EKT can be used in conferences where the central media distributor or
   conference bridge cannot decrypt the media, such as the type defined
   for [I-D.ietf-perc-private-media-framework].  It can also be used for
   large scale conferences where the conference bridge or media
   distributor can decrypt all the media but wishes to encrypt the media
   it is sending just once and then send the same encrypted media to a
   large number of participants.  This reduces the amount of CPU time
   needed for encryption and can be used for some optimization to media
   sending that use source specific multicast.

   EKT does not control the manner in which the SSRC is generated.  It
   is only concerned with distributing the security parameters that an
   endpoint needs to associate with a given SSRC in order to decrypt
   SRTP packets from that sender.

   EKT is not intended to replace external key establishment mechanisms.
   Instead, it is used in conjunction with those methods, and it
   relieves those methods of the burden to deliver the context for each
   SRTP source to every SRTP participant.  This document defines how EKT
   works with the DTLS-SRTP approach to key establishment, by using keys
   derived from the DTLS-SRTP handshake to encipher the EKTKey in
   addition to the SRTP media.

2.  Overview

   This specification defines a way for the server in a DTLS-SRTP
   negotiation, see Section 5, to provide an EKTKey to the client during
   the DTLS handshake.  The EKTKey thus obtained can be used to encrypt
   the SRTP master key that is used to encrypt the media sent by the
   endpoint.  This specification also defines a way to send the
   encrypted SRTP master key (with the EKTKey) along with the SRTP
   packet, see Section 4.  Endpoints that receive this and know the
   EKTKey can use the EKTKey to decrypt the SRTP master key which can
   then be used to decrypt the SRTP packet.

   One way to use this is described in the architecture defined by
   [I-D.ietf-perc-private-media-framework].  Each participant in the
   conference forms a DTLS-SRTP connection to a common key distributor
   that distributes the same EKTKey to all the endpoints.  Then each
   endpoint picks its own SRTP master key for the media they send.  When
   sending media, the endpoint also includes the SRTP master key
   encrypted with the EKTKey in the SRTP packet.  This allows all the
   endpoints to decrypt the media.

3.  Conventions Used In This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

4.  Encrypted Key Transport

   EKT defines a new method of providing SRTP master keys to an
   endpoint.  In order to convey the ciphertext corresponding to the
   SRTP master key, and other additional information, an additional
   field, called EKTField, is added to the SRTP packets.  The EKTField
   appears at the end of the SRTP packet.  It appears after the optional
   authentication tag if one is present, otherwise the EKTField appears
   after the ciphertext portion of the packet.

   EKT MUST NOT be used in conjunction with SRTP's MKI (Master Key
   Identifier) or with SRTP's <From, To> [RFC3711], as those SRTP
   features duplicate some of the functions of EKT.  Senders MUST NOT
   include MKI when using EKT.  Receivers SHOULD simply ignore any MKI
   field received if EKT is in use.

   This document defines the use of EKT with SRTP.  Its use with SRTCP
   would be similar, but is reserved for a future specification.  SRTP
   is preferred for transmitting key material because it shares fate
   with the transmitted media, because SRTP rekeying can occur without
   concern for RTCP transmission limits, and because it avoids the need
   for SRTCP compound packets with RTP translators and mixers.

4.1.  EKTField Formats

   The EKTField uses the format defined in Figure 1 for the FullEKTField
   and ShortEKTField.  The EKTField appended to an SRTP packet can be
   referred to as an "EKT tag".

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     :                                                               :
     :                        EKT Ciphertext                         :
     :                                                               :
     |   Security Parameter Index    |             Epoch             |
     |            Length             |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|

                       Figure 1: FullEKTField format

                              0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
                             |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|

                      Figure 2: ShortEKTField format

   The following shows the syntax of the EKTField expressed in ABNF
   [RFC5234].  The EKTField is added to the end of an SRTP or SRTCP packet.  The
   EKTPlaintext is the concatenation of SRTPMasterKeyLength,
   SRTPMasterKey, SSRC, and ROC in that order.  The EKTCiphertext is
   computed by encrypting the EKTPlaintext using the EKTKey.  Future
   extensions to the EKTField MUST conform to the syntax of

   BYTE = %x00-FF

   EKTMsgTypeFull = %x02
   EKTMsgTypeShort = %x00
   EKTMsgTypeExtension = %x03-FF ; Message type %x01 is reserved, due to
                                 ; usage by legacy implementations.

   EKTMsgLength = 2BYTE;

   SRTPMasterKeyLength = BYTE
   SRTPMasterKey = 1*256BYTE 1*242BYTE
   SSRC = 4BYTE; SSRC from RTP

   EKTPlaintext = SRTPMasterKeyLength SRTPMasterKey SSRC ROC

   EKTCiphertext = 1*256BYTE 1*251BYTE ; EKTEncrypt(EKTKey, EKTPlaintext)
   Epoch = 2BYTE
   SPI = 2BYTE

   FullEKTField = EKTCiphertext SPI Epoch EKTMsgLength EKTMsgTypeFull

   ShortEKTField = EKTMsgTypeShort

   ExtensionData = 1*1024BYTE
   ExtensionEKTField = ExtensionData EKTMsgLength EKTMsgTypeExtension

   EKTField = FullEKTField / ShortEKTField / ExtensionEKTField

                         Figure 3: EKTField Syntax

   These fields and data elements are defined as follows:

   EKTPlaintext: The data that is input to the EKT encryption operation.
   This data never appears on the wire, and is used only in computations
   internal to EKT.  This is the concatenation of the SRTP Master Key
   and its length, the SSRC, and the ROC.

   EKTCiphertext: The data that is output from the EKT encryption
   operation, described in Section 4.4.  This field is included in SRTP
   packets when EKT is in use.  The length of EKTCiphertext can be
   larger than the length of the EKTPlaintext that was encrypted.

   SRTPMasterKey: On the sender side, the SRTP Master Key associated
   with the indicated SSRC.

   SRTPMasterKeyLength: The length of the SRTPMasterKey in bytes.  This
   depends on the cipher suite negotiated for SRTP using SDP Offer/
   Answer [RFC3264] for the SRTP.

   SSRC: On the sender side, this is the SSRC for this SRTP source.  The
   length of this field is 32 bits.  The SSRC value in the EKT tag MUST
   be the same as the one in the header of the SRTP packet to which the
   tag is appended.

   Rollover Counter (ROC): On the sender side, this is set to the
   current value of the SRTP rollover counter in the SRTP/SRTCP SRTP context
   associated with the SSRC in the SRTP or SRTCP packet.  The length of this
   field is 32 bits.

   Security Parameter Index (SPI): This field indicates the appropriate
   EKTKey and other parameters for the receiver to use when processing
   the packet, within a given conference.  The length of this field is
   16 bits, representing a two-byte integer in network byte order.  The
   parameters identified by this field are:

   o  The EKT cipher used to process the packet.

   o  The EKTKey used to process the packet.

   o  The SRTP Master Salt associated with any master key encrypted with
      this EKT Key. The master salt is communicated separately, via
      signaling, typically along with the EKTKey.  (Recall that the SRTP
      master salt is used in the formation of IVs / nonces.)

   Epoch: This field indicates how many SRTP keys have been sent for
   this SSRC under the current EKTKey, prior to the current key, as a
   two-byte integer in network byte order.  It starts at zero at the
   beginning of a session and resets to zero whenever the EKTKey is
   changed (i.e., when a new SPI appears).  The epoch for an SSRC
   increments by one every time the sender transmits a new key.  The
   recipient of a FullEKTField MUST reject any future FullEKTField for
   this SPI and SSRC that has an equal or lower epoch value to an epoch
   already seen.

   Together, these data elements are called an EKT parameter set.  Each
   distinct EKT parameter set that is used MUST be associated with a
   distinct SPI value to avoid ambiguity.

   EKTMsgLength: All EKT messages types other than the ShortEKTField
   have a length as second from the last element.  This is the length in
   octets (in network byte order) of either the FullEKTField/
   ExtensionEKTField including this length field and the following EKT
   Message Type.

   Message Type: The last byte is used to indicate the type of the
   EKTField.  This MUST be 2 for the FullEKTField format and 0 in
   ShortEKTField format.  If a received EKT tag has an unknown message
   type, then the receiver MUST discard the whole EKT tag.

4.2.  SPIs and EKT Parameter Sets

   The SPI field identifies the parameters for how the EKT tag should be

   o  The EKTKey and EKT cipher used to process the packet.

   o  The SRTP Master Salt associated with any master key encrypted with
      this EKT Key. The master salt is communicated separately, via
      signaling, typically along with the EKTKey.

   Together, these data elements are called an "EKT parameter set".
   Each distinct EKT parameter set that is used MUST be associated with
   a distinct SPI value to avoid ambiguity.  The association of a given
   parameter set with a given SPI value is configured by some other
   protocol, e.g., the DTLS-SRTP extension defined in Section 5.

4.3.  Packet Processing and State Machine

   At any given time, each SRTP/SRTCP SRTP source has associated with it a single
   EKT parameter set.  This parameter set is used to process all
   outbound packets, and is called the outbound parameter set for that
   SSRC.  There may be other EKT parameter sets that are used by other
   SRTP sources in the same session, including other SRTP/SRTCP SRTP sources on the
   same endpoint (e.g., one endpoint with voice and video might have two
   EKT parameter sets, or there might be multiple video sources on an
   endpoint each with their own EKT parameter set).  All of the received
   EKT parameter sets SHOULD be stored by all of the participants in an
   SRTP session, for use in processing inbound SRTP
   and SRTCP traffic.  If a
   participant deletes an EKT parameter set (e.g., because of space
   limitations, then it will be unable to process Full EKT Tags
   containing updated media keys, and thus unable to receive media from
   a particpant that has changed its media key.

   Either the FullEKTField or ShortEKTField is appended at the tail end
   of all SRTP packets.  The decision on which to send when is specified
   in Section 4.6.

4.3.1.  Outbound Processing

   See Section 4.6 which describes when to send an SRTP packet with a
   FullEKTField.  If a FullEKTField is not being sent, then a
   ShortEKTField is sent so the receiver can correctly determine how to
   process the packet.

   When an SRTP packet is sent with a FullEKTField, the EKTField for
   that packet is created as follows, or uses an equivalent set of
   steps.  The creation of the EKTField MUST precede the normal SRTP
   packet processing.

   1.  The Security Parameter Index (SPI) field is set to the value of
       the Security Parameter Index that is associated with the outbound
       parameter set.

   2.  The EKTPlaintext field is computed from the SRTP Master Key,
       SSRC, and ROC fields, as shown in Section 4.1.  The ROC, SRTP
       Master Key, and SSRC used in EKT processing MUST be the same as
       the one used in the SRTP processing.

   3.  The EKTCiphertext field is set to the ciphertext created by
       encrypting the EKTPlaintext with the EKTCipher using the EKTKey
       as the encryption key.  The encryption process is detailed in
       Section 4.4.

   4.  Then the FullEKTField is formed using the EKTCiphertext and the
       SPI associated with the EKTKey used above.  Also appended are the
       Length and Message Type using the FullEKTField format.

       *  Note: the value of the EKTCiphertext field is identical in
          successive packets protected by the same EKTKey and SRTP
          master key.  This value MAY be cached by an SRTP sender to
          minimize computational effort.

   The computed value of the FullEKTField is appended to the end of the
   SRTP packet, after the encrypted payload.

   When a packet is sent with the ShortEKTField, the ShortEKFField is
   simply appended to the packet.

   Outbound packets SHOULD continue to use the old SRTP Master Key for
   250 ms after sending any new key in a FullEKTField value.  This gives
   all the receivers in the system time to get the new key before they
   start receiving media encrypted with the new key.  (The specific
   value of 250ms is chosen to represent a reasonable upper bound on the
   amount of latency and jitter that is tolerable in a real-time

4.3.2.  Inbound Processing

   When receiving a packet on a RTP stream, the following steps are
   applied for each SRTP received packet.

   1.  The final byte is checked to determine which EKT format is in
       use.  When an SRTP or SRTCP packet contains a ShortEKTField, the
       ShortEKTField is removed from the packet then normal SRTP or
       processing occurs.  If the packet contains a FullEKTField, then
       processing continues as described below.  The reason for using
       the last byte of the packet to indicate the type is that the
       length of the SRTP or SRTCP part is not known until the decryption has
       occurred.  At this point in the processing, there is no easy way
       to know where the EKTField would start.  However, the whole UDP
       packet has been received, so instead of the starting at the front
       of the packet, the parsing works backwards at the end of the
       packet and thus the type is placed at the very end of the packet.

   2.  The Security Parameter Index (SPI) field is used to find the
       right EKT parameter set to be used for processing the packet.  If
       there is no matching SPI, then the verification function MUST
       return an indication of authentication failure, and the steps
       described below are not performed.  The EKT parameter set
       contains the EKTKey, EKTCipher, and the SRTP Master Salt.

   3.  The EKTCiphertext is authenticated and decrypted, as described in
       Section 4.4, using the EKTKey and EKTCipher found in the previous
       step.  If the EKT decryption operation returns an authentication
       failure, then EKT processing MUST be aborted.  The receiver
       SHOULD discard the whole UDP packet.

   4.  The resulting EKTPlaintext is parsed as described in Section 4.1,
       to recover the SRTP Master Key, SSRC, and ROC fields.  The SRTP
       Master Salt that is associated with the EKTKey is also retrieved.
       If the value of the srtp_master_salt sent as part of the EKTkey
       is longer than needed by SRTP, then it is truncated by taking the
       first N bytes from the srtp_master_salt field.

   5.  If the SSRC in the EKTPlaintext does not match the SSRC of the
       SRTP packet received, then all the information from this
       EKTPlaintext FullEKTField MUST be discarded
       and the following steps in this list are skipped.  After stripping
       the FullEKTField, the remainder of the SRTP packet MAY be
       processed as normal.

   6.  The SRTP Master Key, ROC, and SRTP Master Salt from the previous
       steps are saved in a map indexed by the SSRC found in the
       EKTPlaintext and can be used for any future crypto operations on
       the inbound packets with that SSRC.

       *  Unless the transform specifies other acceptable key lengths,
          the length of the SRTP Master Key MUST be the same as the
          master key length for the SRTP transform in use.  If this is
          not the case, then the receiver MUST abort EKT processing and
          SHOULD discared the whole UDP packet.

       *  If the length of the SRTP Master Key is less than the master
          key length for the SRTP transform in use, and the transform
          specifies that this length is acceptable, then the SRTP Master
          Key value is used to replace the first bytes in the existing
          master key.  The other bytes remain the same as in the old
          key.  For example, the Double GCM transform
          [I-D.ietf-perc-double] allows replacement of the first, "end
          to end" half of the master key.

   7.  At this point, EKT processing has successfully completed, and the
       normal SRTP or SRTCP processing takes place.

   The value of the EKTCiphertext field is identical in successive
   packets protected by the same EKT parameter set and the same SRTP
   master key, and ROC.  SRTP senders and receivers MAY cache an
   EKTCiphertext value to optimize processing in cases where the master
   key hasn't changed.  Instead of encrypting and decrypting, senders
   can simply copy the pre-computed value and receivers can compare a
   received EKTCiphertext to the known value.

   Section 4.3.1 recommends that SRTP senders continue using an old key
   for some time after sending a new key in an EKT tag.  Receivers that
   wish to avoid packet loss due to decryption failures MAY perform
   trial decryption with both the old key and the new key, keeping the
   result of whichever decryption succeeds.  Note that this approach is
   only compatible with SRTP transforms that include integrity

   When receiving a new EKTKey, implementations need to use the ekt_ttl
   field (see Section 5.2.2) to create a time after which this key
   cannot be used and they also need to create a counter that keeps
   track of how many times the key has been used to encrypt data to
   ensure it does not exceed the T value for that cipher (see
   Section 4.4).  If either of these limits are exceeded, the key can no
   longer be used for encryption.  At this point implementation need to
   either use the call signaling to renegotiate a new session or need to
   terminate the existing session.  Terminating the session is a
   reasonable implementation choice because these limits should not be
   exceeded except under an attack or error condition.

4.4.  Ciphers

   EKT uses an authenticated cipher to encrypt and authenticate the
   EKTPlaintext.  This specification defines the interface to the
   cipher, in order to abstract the interface away from the details of
   that function.  This specification also defines the default cipher
   that is used in EKT.  The default cipher described in Section 4.4.1
   MUST be implemented, but another cipher that conforms to this
   interface MAY be used.  The cipher used for a given EKTCiphertext
   value is negotiated using the supported_ekt_ciphers and indicated
   with the SPI value in the FullEKTField.

   An EKTCipher consists of an encryption function and a decryption
   function.  The encryption function E(K, P) takes the following

   o  a secret key K with a length of L bytes, and

   o  a plaintext value P with a length of M bytes.

   The encryption function returns a ciphertext value C whose length is
   N bytes, where N may be larger than M.  The decryption function D(K,
   C) takes the following inputs:

   o  a secret key K with a length of L bytes, and

   o  a ciphertext value C with a length of N bytes.

   The decryption function returns a plaintext value P that is M bytes
   long, or returns an indication that the decryption operation failed
   because the ciphertext was invalid (i.e. it was not generated by the
   encryption of plaintext with the key K).

   These functions have the property that D(K, E(K, P)) = P for all
   values of K and P.  Each cipher also has a limit T on the number of
   times that it can be used with any fixed key value.  The EKTKey MUST
   NOT be used for encryption more that T times.  Note that if the same
   FullEKTField is retransmitted 3 times, that only counts as 1

   Security requirements for EKT ciphers are discussed in Section 6.

4.4.1.  AES Key Wrap

   The default EKT Cipher is the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Key
   Wrap with Padding [RFC5649] algorithm.  It requires a plaintext
   length M that is at least one octet, and it returns a ciphertext with
   a length of N = M + (M mod 8) + 8 octets.

   It can be used with key sizes of L = 16, and L = 32 octets, and its
   use with those key sizes is indicated as AESKW128, or AESKW256,
   respectively.  The key size determines the length of the AES key used
   by the Key Wrap algorithm.  With this cipher, T=2^48.

                         | Cipher   |  L |    T |
                         | AESKW128 | 16 | 2^48 |
                         | AESKW256 | 32 | 2^48 |

                           Table 1: EKT Ciphers

   As AES-128 is the mandatory to implement transform in SRTP, AESKW128
   MUST be implemented for EKT and AESKW256 MAY be implemented.

4.4.2.  Defining New EKT Ciphers

   Other specifications may extend this document by defining other
   EKTCiphers as described in Section 7.  This section defines how those
   ciphers interact with this specification.

   An EKTCipher determines how the EKTCiphertext field is written, and
   how it is processed when it is read.  This field is opaque to the
   other aspects of EKT processing.  EKT ciphers are free to use this
   field in any way, but they SHOULD NOT use other EKT or SRTP fields as
   an input.  The values of the parameters L, and T MUST be defined by
   each EKTCipher.  The cipher MUST provide integrity protection.

4.5.  Synchronizing Operation

   If a source has its EKTKey changed by the key management, it MUST
   also change its SRTP master key, which will cause it to send out a
   new FullEKTField. FullEKTField and eventually begin encrypting with it, as defined
   in Section 4.3.1.  This ensures that if key management thought the
   EKTKey needs changing (due to a participant leaving or joining) and
   communicated that to a source, the source will also change its SRTP
   master key, so that traffic can be decrypted only by those who know
   the current EKTKey.

4.6.  Timing and Reliability Consideration

   A system using EKT learns the SRTP master keys distributed with the
   FullEKTField sent with the SRTP, rather than with call signaling.  A
   receiver can immediately decrypt an SRTP packet, provided the SRTP
   packet contains a FullEKTField.

   This section describes how to reliably and expediently deliver new
   SRTP master keys to receivers.

   There are three cases to consider.  The first case is a new sender
   joining a session, which needs to communicate its SRTP master key to
   all the receivers.  The second case is a sender changing its SRTP
   master key which needs to be communicated to all the receivers.  The
   third case is a new receiver joining a session already in progress
   which needs to know the sender's SRTP master key.

   The three cases are:

   New sender:
      A new sender SHOULD send a packet containing the FullEKTField as
      soon as possible, always before or coincident with sending its
      initial SRTP packet.  To accommodate packet loss, it is
      RECOMMENDED that three consecutive packets contain the FullEKTField be transmitted. transmitted in three
      consecutive packets.  If the sender does not send a FullEKTField
      in its initial packets and receivers have not otherwise been
      provisioned with a decryption key, then decryption will fail and
      SRTP packets will be dropped until the receiver receives a
      FullEKTField from the sender.

      By sending EKT tag over SRTP, the rekeying event shares fate with
      the SRTP packets protected with that new SRTP master key.  To
      accommodate packet loss, it is RECOMMENDED that three consecutive
      packets contain the FullEKTField be transmitted.

   New receiver:
      When a new receiver joins a session it does not need to
      communicate its sending SRTP master key (because it is a
      receiver).  When a new receiver joins a session, the sender is
      generally unaware of the receiver joining the session.  Thus,
      senders SHOULD periodically transmit the FullEKTField.  That
      interval depends on how frequently new receivers join the session,
      the acceptable delay before those receivers can start processing
      SRTP packets, and the acceptable overhead of sending the
      FullEKTField.  If sending audio and video, the RECOMMENDED
      frequency is the same as the rate of intra coded video frames.  If
      only sending audio, the RECOMMENDED frequency is every 100ms.

   In general, sending EKT tags less frequently will consume less
   bandwidth, but increase the time it takes for a join or rekey to take
   effect.  Applications should schedule the sending of EKT tags in a
   way that makes sense for their bandwidth and latency requirements.

5.  Use of EKT with DTLS-SRTP

   This document defines an extension to DTLS-SRTP called SRTP EKTKey
   Transport which enables secure transport of EKT keying material from
   the DTLS-SRTP peer in the server role to the client.  This allows
   those peers to process EKT keying material in SRTP (or SRTCP) and retrieve the
   embedded SRTP keying material.  This combination of protocols is
   valuable because it combines the advantages of DTLS, which has strong
   authentication of the endpoint and flexibility, along with allowing
   secure multiparty RTP with loose coordination and efficient
   communication of per-source keys.

   In cases where the DTLS termination point is more trusted than the
   media relay, the protection that DTLS affords to EKT key material can
   allow EKT keys to be tunneled through an untrusted relay such as a
   centralized conference bridge.  For more details, see

5.1.  DTLS-SRTP Recap

   DTLS-SRTP [RFC5764] uses an extended DTLS exchange between two peers
   to exchange keying material, algorithms, and parameters for SRTP.
   The SRTP flow operates over the same transport as the DTLS-SRTP
   exchange (i.e., the same 5-tuple).  DTLS-SRTP combines the
   performance and encryption flexibility benefits of SRTP with the
   flexibility and convenience of DTLS-integrated key and association
   management.  DTLS-SRTP can be viewed in two equivalent ways: as a new
   key management method for SRTP, and a new RTP-specific data format
   for DTLS.

5.2.  SRTP EKT Key Transport Extensions to DTLS-SRTP

   This document defines a new TLS negotiated extension
   supported_ekt_ciphers and a new TLS handshake message type ekt_key.
   The extension negotiates the cipher to be used in encrypting and
   decrypting EKTCiphertext values, and the handshake message carries
   the corresponding key.

   Figure 4 shows a message flow of DTLS 1.3 client and server using EKT
   configured using the DTLS extensions described in this section.  (The
   initial cookie exchange and other normal DTLS messages are omitted.)
   To be clear, EKT can be used with versions of DTLS prior to 1.3.  The
   only difference is that in a pre-1.3 TLS stacks will not have built-
   in support for generating and processing ACK messages.

        Client                                             Server

         + use_srtp
         + supported_ekt_ciphers

                                                        + use_srtp
                                           + supported_ekt_ciphers
                                                    {... Finished}

        {... Finished}          -------->

                                <--------                 [EKTKey]

        [ACK]                   -------->

        |SRTP packets|          <------->           |SRTP packets|
        + <EKT tags>                                  + <EKT tags>

        {} Messages protected using DTLS handshake keys

        [] Messages protected using DTLS application traffic keys

        <> Messages protected using the EKTKey and EKT cipher

        || Messages protected using the SRTP Master Key sent in
           a Full EKT Tag

                                 Figure 4

   In the context of a multi-party SRTP session in which each endpoint
   performs a DTLS handshake as a client with a central DTLS server, the
   extensions defined in this document allow the DTLS server to set a
   common EKTKey for all participants.  Each endpoint can then use EKT
   tags encrypted with that common key to inform other endpoint of the
   keys it uses to protect SRTP packets.  This avoids the need for many
   individual DTLS handshakes among the endpoints, at the cost of
   preventing endpoints from directly authenticating one another.

         Client A                 Server                 Client B

             <----DTLS Handshake---->
                                     <----DTLS Handshake---->

             -------------SRTP Packet + EKT Tag------------->
             <------------SRTP Packet + EKT Tag--------------

5.2.1.  Negotiating an EKTCipher

   To indicate its support for EKT, a DTLS-SRTP client includes in its
   ClientHello an extension of type supported_ekt_ciphers listing the
   ciphers used for EKT by the client supports in preference order, with
   the most preferred version first.  If the server agrees to use EKT,
   then it includes a supported_ekt_ciphers extension in its ServerHello
   containing a cipher selected from among those advertised by the

   The extension_data field of this extension contains an "EKTCipher"
   value, encoded using the syntax defined in [RFC8446]:

           enum {
           } EKTCipherType;

           struct {
               select (Handshake.msg_type) {
                   case client_hello:
                       EKTCipherType supported_ciphers<1..255>;

                   case server_hello:
                       EKTCipherType selected_cipher;
           } EKTCipher;

5.2.2.  Establishing an EKT Key

   Once a client and server have concluded a handshake that negotiated
   an EKTCipher, the server MUST provide to the client a key to be used
   when encrypting and decrypting EKTCiphertext values.  EKTKeys are
   sent in encrypted handshake records, using handshake type
   ekt_key(TBD).  The body of the handshake message contains an EKTKey

   [[ NOTE: RFC Editor, please replace "TBD" above with the code point
   assigned by IANA ]]

                    struct {
                      opaque ekt_key_value<1..256>;
                      opaque srtp_master_salt<1..256>;
                      uint16 ekt_spi;
                      uint24 ekt_ttl;
                    } EKTKey;

   The contents of the fields in this message are as follows:

      The EKTKey that the recipient should use when generating
      EKTCiphertext values

      The SRTP Master Salt to be used with any Master Key encrypted with
      this EKT Key

      The SPI value to be used to reference this EKTKey and SRTP Master
      Salt in EKT tags (along with the EKT cipher negotiated in the

      The maximum amount of time, in seconds, that this EKTKey can be
      used.  The ekt_key_value in this message MUST NOT be used for
      encrypting or decrypting information after the TTL expires.

   If the server did not provide a supported_ekt_ciphers extension in
   its ServerHello, then EKTKey messages MUST NOT be sent by the client
   or the server.

   When an EKTKey is received and processed successfully, the recipient
   MUST respond with an ACK message as described in Section 7 of
   [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13].  The EKTKey message and ACK MUST be
   retransmitted following the rules of the negotiated version of DTLS.

   EKT MAY be used with versions of DTLS prior to 1.3.  In such cases,
   the ACK message is still used to provide reliability.  Thus, DTLS
   implementations supporting EKT with DTLS pre-1.3 will need to have
   explicit affordances for sending the ACK message in response to an
   EKTKey message, and for verifying that an ACK message was received.
   The retransmission rules for both sides are otherwise defined by the
   negotiated version of DTLS.

   If an EKTKey message is received that cannot be processed, then the
   recipient MUST respond with an appropriate DTLS alert.

5.3.  Offer/Answer Considerations

   When using EKT with DTLS-SRTP, the negotiation to use EKT is done at
   the DTLS handshake level and does not change the [RFC3264] Offer /
   Answer messaging.

5.4.  Sending the DTLS EKTKey Reliably

   The DTLS EKTKey message is sent using the retransmissions specified
   in Section 4.2.4.  of DTLS [RFC6347].  Retransmission is finished
   with an ACK message or an alert is received.

6.  Security Considerations

   EKT inherits the security properties of the the key management
   protocol that is used to establish the EKTKey, e.g., the DTLS-SRTP
   extension defined in this document.

   With EKT, each SRTP sender and receiver MUST generate distinct SRTP
   master keys.  This property avoids any security concern over the re-
   use of keys, by empowering the SRTP layer to create keys on demand.
   Note that the inputs of EKT are the same as for SRTP with key-
   sharing: a single key is provided to protect an entire SRTP session.
   However, EKT remains secure even when SSRC values collide.

   SRTP master keys MUST be randomly generated, and [RFC4086] offers
   some guidance about random number generation.  SRTP master keys MUST
   NOT be re-used for any other purpose, and SRTP master keys MUST NOT
   be derived from other SRTP master keys.

   The EKT Cipher includes its own authentication/integrity check.  For
   an attacker to successfully forge a FullEKTField, it would need to
   defeat the authentication mechanisms of the EKT Cipher authentication

   The presence of the SSRC in the EKTPlaintext ensures that an attacker
   cannot substitute an EKTCiphertext from one SRTP stream into another
   SRTP stream.  This mitigates the impact of the cut-and-paste attacks
   that arise due to the lack of a cryptographic binding between the EKT
   tag and the rest of the SRTP packet.  SRTP tags can only be cut-and-
   pasted within the stream of packets sent by a given RTP endpoint; an
   attacker cannot "cross the streams" and use an EKT tag from one SSRC
   to reset the key for another SSRC.  The epoch field in the
   FullEKTField also prevents an attacker from rolling back to a
   previous key.

   An attacker could send packets containing a FullEKTField, in an
   attempt to consume additional CPU resources of the receiving system
   by causing the receiving system to decrypt the EKT ciphertext and
   detect an authentication failure.  In some cases, caching the
   previous values of the Ciphertext as described in Section 4.3.2 helps
   mitigate this issue.

   In a similar vein, EKT has no replay protection, so an attacker could
   implant improper keys in receivers by capturing EKTCiphertext values
   encrypted with a given EKTKey and replaying them in a different
   context, e.g., from a different sender.  When the underlying SRTP
   transform provides integrity protection, this attack will just result
   in packet loss.  If it does not, then it will result in random data
   being fed to RTP payload processing.  An attacker that is in a
   position to mount these attacks, however, could achieve the same
   effects more easily without attacking EKT.

   The key encryption keys distributed with EKTKey messages are group
   shared symmetric keys, which means they do not provide protection
   within the group.  Group members can impersonate each other; for
   example, any group member can generate an EKT tag for any SSRC.  The
   entity that distributes EKTKeys can decrypt any keys distributed
   using EKT, and thus any media protected with those keys.

   Each EKT cipher specifies a value T that is the maximum number of
   times a given key can be used.  An endpoint MUST NOT encrypt more
   than T different FullEKTField values using the same EKTKey.  In
   addition, the EKTKey MUST NOT be used beyond the lifetime provided by
   the TTL described in Section 5.2.

   The confidentiality, integrity, and authentication of the EKT cipher
   MUST be at least as strong as the SRTP cipher and at least as strong
   as the DTLS-SRTP ciphers.

   Part of the EKTPlaintext is known, or easily guessable to an
   attacker.  Thus, the EKT Cipher MUST resist known plaintext attacks.
   In practice, this requirement does not impose any restrictions on our
   choices, since the ciphers in use provide high security even when
   much plaintext is known.

   An EKT cipher MUST resist attacks in which both ciphertexts and
   plaintexts can be adaptively chosen and adversaries that can query
   both the encryption and decryption functions adaptively.

   In some systems, when a member of a conference leaves the
   conferences, the conferences is rekeyed so that member no longer has
   the key.  When changing to a new EKTKey, it is possible that the
   attacker could block the EKTKey message getting to a particular
   endpoint and that endpoint would keep sending media encrypted using
   the old key.  To mitigate that risk, the lifetime of the EKTKey MUST
   be limited using the ekt_ttl.

7.  IANA Considerations

7.1.  EKT Message Types

   IANA is requested to create a new table for "EKT Messages Types" in
   the "Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) Parameters" registry.  The
   initial values in this registry are:

                 | Message Type | Value | Specification |
                 | Short        |     0 | RFCAAAA       |
                 | Full         |     2 | RFCAAAA       |
                 | Unallocated  | 3-254 | RFCAAAA       |
                 | Reserved     |   255 | RFCAAAA       |

                        Table 2: EKT Messages Types

   Note to RFC Editor: Please replace RFCAAAA with the RFC number for
   this specification.

   New entries to this table can be added via "Specification Required"
   as defined in [RFC8126].  IANA SHOULD prefer allocation of even
   values over odd ones until the even code points are consumed to avoid
   conflicts with pre standard versions of EKT that have been deployed.
   Allocated values MUST be in the range of 0 to 254.

   All new EKT messages MUST be defined to have a length as second from
   the last element, as specified.

7.2.  EKT Ciphers

   IANA is requested to create a new table for "EKT Ciphers" in the
   "Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) Parameters" registry.  The
   initial values in this registry are:

                  | Name        | Value | Specification |
                  | AESKW128    |     0 | RFCAAAA       |
                  | AESKW256    |     1 | RFCAAAA       |
                  | Unallocated | 2-254 |               |
                  | Reserved    |   255 | RFCAAAA       |

                         Table 3: EKT Cipher Types

   Note to RFC Editor: Please replace RFCAAAA with the RFC number for
   this specification.

   New entries to this table can be added via "Specification Required"
   as defined in [RFC8126].  The expert SHOULD ensure the specification
   defines the values for L and T as required in Section 4.4 of RFCAAAA.
   Allocated values MUST be in the range of 0 to 254.

7.3.  TLS Extensions

   IANA is requested to add supported_ekt_ciphers as a new extension
   name to the "TLS ExtensionType Values" table of the "Transport Layer
   Security (TLS) Extensions" registry:

                   Value: [TBD-at-Registration]
                   Extension Name: supported_ekt_ciphers
                   TLS 1.3: CH, SH
                   Recommended: Y
                   Reference: RFCAAAA

   [[ Note to RFC Editor: TBD will be allocated by IANA. ]]

7.4.  TLS Handshake Type

   IANA is requested to add ekt_key as a new entry in the "TLS
   HandshakeType Registry" table of the "Transport Layer Security (TLS)
   Parameters" registry:

                       Value: [TBD-at-Registration]
                       Description: ekt_key
                       DTLS-OK: Y
                       Reference: RFCAAAA

   [[ Note to RFC Editor: TBD will be allocated by IANA. ]]

8.  Acknowledgements

   Thank you to Russ Housley provided detailed review and significant
   help with crafting text for this document.  Thanks to David Benham,
   Yi Cheng, Lakshminath Dondeti, Kai Fischer, Nermeen Ismail, Paul
   Jones, Eddy Lem, Jonathan Lennox, Michael Peck, Rob Raymond, Sean
   Turner, Magnus Westerlund, and Felix Wyss for fruitful discussions,
   comments, and contributions to this document.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC3264]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model
              with Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3264, June 2002,

   [RFC3711]  Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
              Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
              RFC 3711, DOI 10.17487/RFC3711, March 2004,

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008,

   [RFC5649]  Housley, R. and M. Dworkin, "Advanced Encryption Standard
              (AES) Key Wrap with Padding Algorithm", RFC 5649,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5649, September 2009,

   [RFC5764]  McGrew, D. and E. Rescorla, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security (DTLS) Extension to Establish Keys for the Secure
              Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC 5764,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5764, May 2010,

   [RFC6347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, DOI 10.17487/RFC6347,
              January 2012, <>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,

9.2.  Informative References

              Jennings, C., Jones, P., Barnes, R., and A. Roach, "SRTP
              Double Encryption Procedures", draft-ietf-perc-double-12
              (work in progress), August 2019.

              Jones, P., Benham, D., and C. Groves, "A Solution
              Framework for Private Media in Privacy Enhanced RTP
              Conferencing (PERC)", draft-ietf-perc-private-media-
              framework-12 (work in progress), June 2019.

              Rescorla, E., Tschofenig, H., and N. Modadugu, "The
              Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) Protocol Version
              1.3", draft-ietf-tls-dtls13-38 (work in progress), May

   [RFC4086]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
              "Randomness Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4086, June 2005,

Authors' Addresses

   Cullen Jennings
   Cisco Systems

   John Mattsson
   Ericsson AB


   David A. McGrew
   Cisco Systems


   Dan Wing
   Citrix Systems, Inc.


   Flemming Andreason
   Cisco Systems