draft-ietf-radius-accounting-v2-00.txt   draft-ietf-radius-accounting-v2-01.txt 
RADIUS Working Group C Rigney RADIUS Working Group C Rigney
INTERNET-DRAFT Livingston INTERNET-DRAFT Livingston
expires September 1999 February 1999
RADIUS Accounting RADIUS Accounting
draft-ietf-radius-accounting-v2-00.txt draft-ietf-radius-accounting-v2-01.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
This document is a submission to the RADIUS Working Group of the This document is a submission to the RADIUS Working Group of the
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Comments should be submitted Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Comments should be submitted
to the ietf-radius@livingston.com mailing list. to the ietf-radius@livingston.com mailing list.
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material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1997). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.
Abstract Abstract
This document describes a protocol for carrying accounting This document describes a protocol for carrying accounting
information between a Network Access Server and a shared Accounting information between a Network Access Server and a shared Accounting
Server. Server.
Implementation Note Implementation Note
This memo documents the RADIUS Accounting protocol. The early This memo documents the RADIUS Accounting protocol. The early
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5.5 Acct-Session-Id ................................. 15 5.5 Acct-Session-Id ................................. 15
5.6 Acct-Authentic .................................. 16 5.6 Acct-Authentic .................................. 16
5.7 Acct-Session-Time ............................... 17 5.7 Acct-Session-Time ............................... 17
5.8 Acct-Input-Packets .............................. 18 5.8 Acct-Input-Packets .............................. 18
5.9 Acct-Output-Packets ............................. 19 5.9 Acct-Output-Packets ............................. 19
5.10 Acct-Terminate-Cause ............................ 19 5.10 Acct-Terminate-Cause ............................ 19
5.11 Acct-Multi-Session-Id ........................... 22 5.11 Acct-Multi-Session-Id ........................... 22
5.12 Acct-Link-Count ................................. 22 5.12 Acct-Link-Count ................................. 22
5.13 Table of Attributes ............................. 24 5.13 Table of Attributes ............................. 24
6. Security Considerations ............................... 25 6. Security Considerations ............................... 26
7. Change Log ............................................ 25 7. Change Log ............................................ 26
8. References ............................................ 26 8. References ............................................ 26
9. Acknowledgements ...................................... 26 9. Acknowledgements ...................................... 26
10. Chair's Address ....................................... 26 10. Chair's Address ....................................... 27
11. Author's Address ...................................... 26 11. Author's Address ...................................... 27
12. Full Copyright Statement .............................. 27 12. Full Copyright Statement .............................. 28
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Managing dispersed serial line and modem pools for large numbers of Managing dispersed serial line and modem pools for large numbers of
users can create the need for significant administrative support. users can create the need for significant administrative support.
Since modem pools are by definition a link to the outside world, they Since modem pools are by definition a link to the outside world, they
require careful attention to security, authorization and accounting. require careful attention to security, authorization and accounting.
This can be best achieved by managing a single "database" of users, This can be best achieved by managing a single "database" of users,
which allows for authentication (verifying user name and password) as which allows for authentication (verifying user name and password) as
well as configuration information detailing the type of service to well as configuration information detailing the type of service to
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Extensible Protocol Extensible Protocol
All transactions are comprised of variable length Attribute- All transactions are comprised of variable length Attribute-
Length-Value 3-tuples. New attribute values can be added Length-Value 3-tuples. New attribute values can be added
without disturbing existing implementations of the protocol. without disturbing existing implementations of the protocol.
1.1. Specification of Requirements 1.1. Specification of Requirements
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [2]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [2]. These
key words mean the same thing whether capitalized or not.
1.2. Terminology 1.2. Terminology
This document uses the following terms: This document uses the following terms:
service The NAS provides a service to the dial-in user, such as PPP service The NAS provides a service to the dial-in user, such as PPP
or Telnet. or Telnet.
session Each service provided by the NAS to a dial-in user session Each service provided by the NAS to a dial-in user
constitutes a session, with the beginning of the session constitutes a session, with the beginning of the session
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The Identifier field is one octet, and aids in matching requests and The Identifier field is one octet, and aids in matching requests and
replies. The RADIUS server can detect a duplicate request if it has replies. The RADIUS server can detect a duplicate request if it has
the same client source IP address and source UDP port and Identifier the same client source IP address and source UDP port and Identifier
within a short span of time. within a short span of time.
Length Length
The Length field is two octets. It indicates the length of the The Length field is two octets. It indicates the length of the
packet including the Code, Identifier, Length, Authenticator and packet including the Code, Identifier, Length, Authenticator and
Attribute fields. Octets outside the range of the Length field Attribute fields. Octets outside the range of the Length field MUST
should be treated as padding and should be ignored on reception. If be treated as padding and ignored on reception. If the packet is
the packet is shorter than the Length field indicates, it should be shorter than the Length field indicates, it MUST be silently
silently discarded. The minimum length is 20 and maximum length is discarded. The minimum length is 20 and maximum length is 4095.
4096.
Authenticator Authenticator
The Authenticator field is sixteen (16) octets. The most significant The Authenticator field is sixteen (16) octets. The most significant
octet is transmitted first. This value is used to authenticate the octet is transmitted first. This value is used to authenticate the
messages between the client and RADIUS accounting server. messages between the client and RADIUS accounting server.
Request Authenticator Request Authenticator
In Accounting-Request Packets, the Authenticator value is a 16 In Accounting-Request Packets, the Authenticator value is a 16
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Description Description
Accounting-Response packets are sent by the RADIUS accounting Accounting-Response packets are sent by the RADIUS accounting
server to the client to acknowledge that the Accounting-Request server to the client to acknowledge that the Accounting-Request
has been received and recorded successfully. If the Accounting- has been received and recorded successfully. If the Accounting-
Request was recorded successfully then the RADIUS accounting Request was recorded successfully then the RADIUS accounting
server MUST transmit a packet with the Code field set to 5 server MUST transmit a packet with the Code field set to 5
(Accounting-Response). On reception of an Accounting-Response by (Accounting-Response). On reception of an Accounting-Response by
the client, the Identifier field is matched with a pending the client, the Identifier field is matched with a pending
Accounting-Request. Invalid packets are silently discarded. Accounting-Request. The Response Authenticator field MUST contain
the correct response for the pending Accounting-Request. Invalid
packets are silently discarded.
A RADIUS Accounting-Response is not required to have any A RADIUS Accounting-Response is not required to have any
attributes in it. attributes in it.
A summary of the Accounting-Response packet format is shown below. A summary of the Accounting-Response packet format is shown below.
The fields are transmitted from left to right. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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49 Acct-Terminate-Cause 49 Acct-Terminate-Cause
50 Acct-Multi-Session-Id 50 Acct-Multi-Session-Id
51 Acct-Link-Count 51 Acct-Link-Count
60+ (refer to RADIUS document [1]) 60+ (refer to RADIUS document [1])
Length Length
The Length field is one octet, and indicates the length of this The Length field is one octet, and indicates the length of this
attribute including the Type, Length and Value fields. If an attribute including the Type, Length and Value fields. If an
attribute is received in an Accounting-Request with an invalid attribute is received in an Accounting-Request with an invalid
Length, the entire request should be silently discarded. Length, the entire request MUST be silently discarded.
Value Value
The Value field is zero or more octets and contains information The Value field is zero or more octets and contains information
specific to the attribute. The format and length of the Value specific to the attribute. The format and length of the Value
field is determined by the Type and Length fields. field is determined by the Type and Length fields.
Note that a "string" in RADIUS does not terminate with a NUL (hex
00). The Attribute has a length field and does not use a
terminator. Strings may contain UTF-8 [6] characters or 8-bit
binary data and servers and servers and clients MUST be able to
deal with embedded nulls. RADIUS implementers using C are
cautioned not to use strcpy() when handling strings.
The format of the value field is one of four data types. The format of the value field is one of four data types.
string 0-253 octets string 1-253 octets. Strings of length zero (0) MUST NOT be
sent; omit the entire attribute instead.
address 32 bit value, most significant octet first. address 32 bit value, most significant octet first.
integer 32 bit unsigned value, most significant octet first. integer 32 bit unsigned value, most significant octet first.
time 32 bit unsigned value, most significant octet first -- time 32 bit unsigned value, most significant octet first --
seconds since 00:00:00 GMT, January 1, 1970. The seconds since 00:00:00 UTC, January 1, 1970. The
standard Attributes do not use this data type but it is standard Attributes do not use this data type but it is
presented here for possible use within Vendor-Specific presented here for possible use within future
attributes. attributes.
5.1. Acct-Status-Type 5.1. Acct-Status-Type
Description Description
This attribute indicates whether this Accounting-Request marks the This attribute indicates whether this Accounting-Request marks the
beginning of the user service (Start) or the end (Stop). beginning of the user service (Start) or the end (Stop).
It MAY be used by the client to mark the start of accounting (for It MAY be used by the client to mark the start of accounting (for
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Value Value
The Value field is four octets. The Value field is four octets.
1 Start 1 Start
2 Stop 2 Stop
3 Interim-Update 3 Interim-Update
7 Accounting-On 7 Accounting-On
8 Accounting-Off 8 Accounting-Off
9-13 Reserved for Tunnel Accounting 9-14 Reserved for Tunnel Accounting
15 Reserved for Failed
5.2. Acct-Delay-Time 5.2. Acct-Delay-Time
Description Description
This attribute indicates how many seconds the client has been This attribute indicates how many seconds the client has been
trying to send this record for, and can be subtracted from the trying to send this record for, and can be subtracted from the
time of arrival on the server to find the approximate time of the time of arrival on the server to find the approximate time of the
event generating this Accounting-Request. (Network transit time event generating this Accounting-Request. (Network transit time
is ignored.) is ignored.)
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6 6
Value Value
The Value field is four octets. The Value field is four octets.
5.5. Acct-Session-Id 5.5. Acct-Session-Id
Description Description
This attribute is a unique Accounting ID to make it easy to match This attribute is a unique Accounting ID to make it easy to match
start and stop records in a log file. The start and stop records start and stop records in a log file. The start and stop records
for a given session MUST have the same Acct-Session-Id. An for a given session MUST have the same Acct-Session-Id. An
Accounting-Request packet MUST have an Acct-Session-Id. An Accounting-Request packet MUST have an Acct-Session-Id. An
Access-Request packet MAY have an Acct-Session-Id; if it does, Access-Request packet MAY have an Acct-Session-Id; if it does,
then the NAS MUST use the same Acct-Session-Id in the Accounting- then the NAS MUST use the same Acct-Session-Id in the Accounting-
Request packets for that session. Request packets for that session.
It is strongly recommended that the Acct-Session-Id be a printable It is strongly recommended that the Acct-Session-Id be a printable
UTF-8 [6] string. For example, one implementation uses a string UTF-8 string. For example, one implementation uses a string with
with an 8-digit upper case hexadecimal number, the first two an 8-digit upper case hexadecimal number, the first two digits
digits increment on each reboot (wrapping every 256 reboots) and increment on each reboot (wrapping every 256 reboots) and the next
the next 6 digits counting from 0 for the first person logging in 6 digits counting from 0 for the first person logging in after a
after a reboot up to 2^24-1, about 16 million. Other encodings reboot up to 2^24-1, about 16 million. Other encodings are
are possible. possible.
A summary of the Acct-Session-Id attribute format is shown below. A summary of the Acct-Session-Id attribute format is shown below.
The fields are transmitted from left to right. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | String ... | Type | Length | String ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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| Type | Length | String ... | Type | Length | String ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type Type
44 for Acct-Session-Id. 44 for Acct-Session-Id.
Length Length
>= 3 >= 3
String String
The String field SHOULD be a string of printable ASCII characters. The String field SHOULD be a string of printable UTF-8 characters.
5.6. Acct-Authentic 5.6. Acct-Authentic
Description Description
This attribute MAY be included in an Accounting-Request to This attribute MAY be included in an Accounting-Request to
indicate how the user was authenticated, whether by RADIUS, the indicate how the user was authenticated, whether by RADIUS, the
NAS itself, or another remote authentication protocol. Users who NAS itself, or another remote authentication protocol. Users who
are delivered service without being authenticated SHOULD NOT are delivered service without being authenticated SHOULD NOT
generate Accounting records. generate Accounting records.
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Host Request Login Host terminated session normally. Host Request Login Host terminated session normally.
5.11. Acct-Multi-Session-Id 5.11. Acct-Multi-Session-Id
Description Description
This attribute is a unique Accounting ID to make it easy to link This attribute is a unique Accounting ID to make it easy to link
together multiple related sessions in a log file. Each session together multiple related sessions in a log file. Each session
linked together would have a unique Acct-Session-Id but the same linked together would have a unique Acct-Session-Id but the same
Acct-Multi-Session-Id. It is strongly recommended that the Acct- Acct-Multi-Session-Id. It is strongly recommended that the Acct-
Multi-Session-Id be a printable ASCII string. Multi-Session-Id be a printable UTF-8 string.
A summary of the Acct-Session-Id attribute format is shown below. A summary of the Acct-Session-Id attribute format is shown below.
The fields are transmitted from left to right. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | String ... | Type | Length | String ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Type Type
50 for Acct-Multi-Session-Id. 50 for Acct-Multi-Session-Id.
Length Length
>= 3 >= 3
String String
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Type Type
50 for Acct-Multi-Session-Id. 50 for Acct-Multi-Session-Id.
Length Length
>= 3 >= 3
String String
The String field SHOULD be a string of printable ASCII characters. The String field SHOULD be a string of printable UTF-8 characters.
5.12. Acct-Link-Count 5.12. Acct-Link-Count
Description Description
This attribute gives the count of links which are known to have This attribute gives the count of links which are known to have
been in a given multilink session at the time the accounting been in a given multilink session at the time the accounting
record is generated. The NAS MAY include the Acct-Link-Count record is generated. The NAS MAY include the Acct-Link-Count
attribute in any Accounting-Request which might have multiple attribute in any Accounting-Request which might have multiple
links. links.
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0-1 Acct-Output-Packets 0-1 Acct-Output-Packets
0-1 Acct-Terminate-Cause 0-1 Acct-Terminate-Cause
0+ Acct-Multi-Session-Id 0+ Acct-Multi-Session-Id
0+ Acct-Link-Count 0+ Acct-Link-Count
0 CHAP-Challenge 0 CHAP-Challenge
0-1 NAS-Port-Type 0-1 NAS-Port-Type
0-1 Port-Limit 0-1 Port-Limit
0-1 Login-LAT-Port 0-1 Login-LAT-Port
[Note 1] An Accounting-Request MUST contain either a NAS-IP-Address [Note 1] An Accounting-Request MUST contain either a NAS-IP-Address
or a NAS-Identifier, and it is permitted (but not recommended) for it or a NAS-Identifier (or both).
to contain both.
The following table defines the above table entries. The following table defines the above table entries.
0 This attribute MUST NOT be present 0 This attribute MUST NOT be present
0+ Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present. 0+ Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present.
0-1 Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present. 0-1 Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present.
1 Exactly one instance of this attribute MUST be present. 1 Exactly one instance of this attribute MUST be present.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
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US-ASCII replaced by UTF-8. US-ASCII replaced by UTF-8.
Added notes on Proxy. Added notes on Proxy.
Framed-IP-Address should contain the actual IP address of the user. Framed-IP-Address should contain the actual IP address of the user.
If Acct-Session-ID was sent in an access-request, it must be used in If Acct-Session-ID was sent in an access-request, it must be used in
the accounting-request for that session. the accounting-request for that session.
Interim-Update added to Acct-Status-Type. New values added to Acct-Status-Type.
8. References 8. References
[1] Rigney, C., Rubens, A., Simpson, W., and Willens, S., "Remote [1] Rigney, C., Rubens, A., Simpson, W., and Willens, S., "Remote
Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 2138, Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 2138,
January 1997. January 1997.
[2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels." BCP14, RFC 2119, March, 1997. Levels." BCP14, RFC 2119, March, 1997.
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Carl Rigney Carl Rigney
Livingston Enterprises Livingston Enterprises
4464 Willow Road 4464 Willow Road
Pleasanton, California 94588 Pleasanton, California 94588
EMail: cdr@livingston.com EMail: cdr@livingston.com
12. Full Copyright Statement 12. Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1997). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implmentation may be prepared, copied, published and or assist in its implmentation may be prepared, copied, published and
distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind,
provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
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