draft-ietf-rmcat-wireless-tests-09.txt   draft-ietf-rmcat-wireless-tests-10.txt 
Network Working Group Z. Sarker Network Working Group Z. Sarker
Internet-Draft I. Johansson Internet-Draft Ericsson AB
Intended status: Informational Ericsson AB Intended status: Informational X. Zhu
Expires: August 30, 2020 X. Zhu Expires: September 10, 2020 J. Fu
J. Fu
W. Tan W. Tan
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
M. Ramalho M. Ramalho
AcousticComms AcousticComms
February 27, 2020 March 9, 2020
Evaluation Test Cases for Interactive Real-Time Media over Wireless Evaluation Test Cases for Interactive Real-Time Media over Wireless
Networks Networks
draft-ietf-rmcat-wireless-tests-09 draft-ietf-rmcat-wireless-tests-10
Abstract Abstract
The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a common transport choice The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a common transport choice
for interactive multimedia communication applications. The for interactive multimedia communication applications. The
performance of these applications typically depends on a well- performance of these applications typically depends on a well-
functioning congestion control algorithm. To ensure a seamless and functioning congestion control algorithm. To ensure a seamless and
robust user experience, a well-designed RTP-based congestion control robust user experience, a well-designed RTP-based congestion control
algorithm should work well across all access network types. This algorithm should work well across all access network types. This
document describes test cases for evaluating performances of document describes test cases for evaluating performances of
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
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Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 30, 2020. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 10, 2020.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Cellular Network Specific Test Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Cellular Network Specific Test Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1. Varying Network Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1. Varying Network Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.1. Network Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.1. Network Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.2. Simulation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.2. Simulation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2. Bad Radio Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2. Bad Radio Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.1. Network connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2.1. Network connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.2. Simulation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2.2. Simulation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3. Desired Evaluation Metrics for cellular test cases . . . 10
3.3. Desired Evaluation Metrics for cellular test cases . . . 10 3. Wi-Fi Networks Specific Test Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. Wi-Fi Networks Specific Test Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1. Bottleneck in Wired Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1. Bottleneck in Wired Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.1.1. Network topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1.1. Network topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.1.2. Test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.1.2. Test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.1.3. Typical test scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.1.3. Typical test scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.1.4. Expected behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1.4. Expected behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2. Bottleneck in Wi-Fi Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2. Bottleneck in Wi-Fi Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2.1. Network topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2.1. Network topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2.2. Test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2.2. Test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2.3. Typical test scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2.3. Typical test scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.2.4. Expected behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.2.4. Expected behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.3. Other Potential Test Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.3. Other Potential Test Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.3.1. EDCA/WMM usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.3.1. EDCA/WMM usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.3.2. Effect of heterogeneous link rates . . . . . . . . . 19
4.3.2. Effect of heterogeneous link rates . . . . . . . . . 19 4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Wireless networks (both cellular and Wi-Fi [IEEE802.11]) are an Wireless networks (both cellular and Wi-Fi [IEEE802.11]) are an
integral and increasingly more significant part of the Internet. integral and increasingly more significant part of the Internet.
Typical application scenarios for interactive multimedia Typical application scenarios for interactive multimedia
communication over wireless include from video conferencing calls in communication over wireless include from video conferencing calls in
a bus or train as well as live media streaming at home. It is well a bus or train as well as live media streaming at home. It is well
known that the characteristics and technical challenges for known that the characteristics and technical challenges for
supporting multimedia services over wireless are very different from supporting multimedia services over wireless are very different from
those of providing the same service over a wired network. Although those of providing the same service over a wired network. Although
the basic test cases as defined in [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-test] have the basic test cases as defined in [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-test] have
covered many common effects of network impairments for evaluating covered many common effects of network impairments for evaluating
RTP-based congestion control schemes, they remain to be tested over RTP-based congestion control schemes, they remain to be tested over
characteristics and dynamics unique to a given wireless environment. characteristics and dynamics unique to a given wireless environment.
For example, in cellular networks, the base station maintains For example, in cellular networks, the base station maintains
individual queues per radio bearer per user hence it leads to a individual queues per radio bearer per user hence it leads to a
different nature of interactions between traffic flows of different different nature of interactions between traffic flows of different
users. This contrasts with the wired network setting where traffic users. This contrasts with a typical wired network setting where
flows from all users share the same queue. Furthermore, user traffic flows from all users share the same queue at the bottleneck.
mobility patterns in a cellular network differ from those in a Wi-Fi Furthermore, user mobility patterns in a cellular network differ from
network. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the performance of those in a Wi-Fi network. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the
proposed candidate RTP-based congestion control solutions over performance of proposed candidate RTP-based congestion control
cellular mobile networks and over Wi-Fi networks respectively. solutions over cellular mobile networks and over Wi-Fi networks
respectively.
The draft [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-criteria] provides the guideline for The draft [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-criteria] provides the guideline for
evaluating candidate algorithms and recognizes the importance of evaluating candidate algorithms and recognizes the importance of
testing over wireless access networks. However, it does not describe testing over wireless access networks. However, it does not describe
any specific test cases for performance evaluation of candidate any specific test cases for performance evaluation of candidate
algorithms. This document describes test cases specifically algorithms. This document describes test cases specifically
targeting cellular and Wi-Fi networks. targeting cellular and Wi-Fi networks.
2. Terminologies 2. Cellular Network Specific Test Cases
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here.
3. Cellular Network Specific Test Cases
A cellular environment is more complicated than its wireline A cellular environment is more complicated than its wireline
counterpart since it seeks to provide services in the context of counterpart since it seeks to provide services in the context of
variable available bandwidth, location dependencies and user variable available bandwidth, location dependencies and user
mobilities at different speeds. In a cellular network, the user may mobilities at different speeds. In a cellular network, the user may
reach the cell edge which may lead to a significant amount of reach the cell edge which may lead to a significant amount of
retransmissions to deliver the data from the base station to the retransmissions to deliver the data from the base station to the
destination and vice versa. These radio links will often act as a destination and vice versa. These radio links will often act as a
bottleneck for the rest of the network and will eventually lead to bottleneck for the rest of the network and will eventually lead to
excessive delays or packet drops. An efficient retransmission or excessive delays or packet drops. An efficient retransmission or
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cellular network needs to cope with a shared bottleneck link and cellular network needs to cope with a shared bottleneck link and
variable link capacity, events like handover, non-congestion related variable link capacity, events like handover, non-congestion related
loss, abrupt changes in bandwidth (both short term and long term) due loss, abrupt changes in bandwidth (both short term and long term) due
to handover, network load and bad radio coverage. Even though 3GPP to handover, network load and bad radio coverage. Even though 3GPP
has defined QoS bearers [QoS-3GPP] to ensure high-quality user has defined QoS bearers [QoS-3GPP] to ensure high-quality user
experience, it is still preferable for real-time applications to experience, it is still preferable for real-time applications to
behave in an adaptive manner. behave in an adaptive manner.
Different mobile operators deploy their own cellular networks with Different mobile operators deploy their own cellular networks with
their own set of network functionalities and policies. Usually, a their own set of network functionalities and policies. Usually, a
mobile operator network includes 2G, EDGE, 3G and 4G radio access mobile operator network includes a range of radio access technologies
technologies. Looking at the specifications of such radio such as 3G and 4G/LTE. Looking at the specifications of such radio
technologies it is evident that only the more recent radio technologies it is evident that only the more recent radio
technologies can support the high bandwidth requirements from real- technologies can support the high bandwidth requirements from real-
time interactive video applications. The future real-time time interactive video applications. The future real-time
interactive application will impose even greater demand on cellular interactive application will impose even greater demand on cellular
network performance which makes 4G (and beyond) radio technologies network performance which makes 4G (and beyond) radio technologies
more suitable for such genre of application. more suitable for such genre of application.
The key factors in defining test cases for cellular networks are: The key factors in defining test cases for cellular networks are:
o Shared and varying link capacity o Shared and varying link capacity
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that these networks are controlled by cellular operators and there that these networks are controlled by cellular operators and there
exist various amounts of competing traffic in the same cell(s). In exist various amounts of competing traffic in the same cell(s). In
practice, it is only in underground mines that one can carry out near practice, it is only in underground mines that one can carry out near
deterministic testing. Even there, it is not guaranteed either as deterministic testing. Even there, it is not guaranteed either as
workers in the mines may carry with them their personal mobile workers in the mines may carry with them their personal mobile
phones. Furthermore, the underground mining setting may not reflect phones. Furthermore, the underground mining setting may not reflect
typical usage patterns in an urban setting. We, therefore, recommend typical usage patterns in an urban setting. We, therefore, recommend
that a cellular network simulator is used for the test cases defined that a cellular network simulator is used for the test cases defined
in this document, for example -- the LTE simulator in [NS-3]. in this document, for example -- the LTE simulator in [NS-3].
3.1. Varying Network Load 2.1. Varying Network Load
The goal of this test is to evaluate the performance of the candidate The goal of this test is to evaluate the performance of the candidate
congestion control algorithm under varying network load. The network congestion control algorithm under varying network load. The network
load variation is created by adding and removing network users a.k.a. load variation is created by adding and removing network users a.k.a.
User Equipments (UEs) during the simulation. In this test case, each User Equipments (UEs) during the simulation. In this test case, each
user/UE in the media session is an endpoint following RTP-based user/UE in the media session is an endpoint following RTP-based
congestion control. User arrivals follow a Poisson distribution congestion control. User arrivals follow a Poisson distribution
proportional to the length of the call, to keep the number of users proportional to the length of the call, to keep the number of users
per cell fairly constant during the evaluation period. At the per cell fairly constant during the evaluation period. At the
beginning of the simulation, there should be enough time to warm-up beginning of the simulation, there should be enough time to warm-up
the network. This is to avoid running the evaluation in an empty the network. This is to avoid running the evaluation in an empty
network where network nodes are having empty buffers, low network where network nodes are having empty buffers, low
interference at the beginning of the simulation. This network interference at the beginning of the simulation. This network
initialization period should be excluded from the evaluation period. initialization period should be excluded from the evaluation period.
Typically, the evaluation period starts 30 seconds after test
initialization.
This test case also includes user mobility and some competing This test case also includes user mobility and some competing
traffic. The latter includes both the same types of flows (with same traffic. The latter includes both the same types of flows (with same
adaptation algorithms) and different types of flows (with different adaptation algorithms) and different types of flows (with different
services and congestion control schemes). The investigated services and congestion control schemes). The investigated
congestion control algorithms should show maximum possible network congestion control algorithms should show maximum possible network
utilization and stability in terms of rate variations, lowest utilization and stability in terms of rate variations, lowest
possible end to end frame latency, network latency and Packet Loss possible end to end frame latency, network latency and Packet Loss
Rate (PLR) at different cell load level. Rate (PLR) at different cell load level.
3.1.1. Network Connection 2.1.1. Network Connection
Each mobile user is connected to a fixed user. The connection Each mobile user is connected to a fixed user. The connection
between the mobile user and fixed user consists of a cellular radio between the mobile user and fixed user consists of a cellular radio
access, an Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and an Internet connection. The access, an Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and an Internet connection. The
mobile user is connected to the EPC using cellular radio access mobile user is connected to the EPC using cellular radio access
technology which is further connected to the Internet. At the other technology which is further connected to the Internet. At the other
end, the fixed user is connected to the Internet via wired connection end, the fixed user is connected to the Internet via wired connection
with sufficiently high bandwidth, for instance, 10 Gbps, so that the with sufficiently high bandwidth, for instance, 10 Gbps, so that the
system bottleneck is on the cellular radio access interface. The system bottleneck is on the cellular radio access interface. The
wired connection to in this setup does not introduce any network wired connection to in this setup does not introduce any network
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++-+ ((o)) ++-+ ((o))
| | / \ +-------+ +------+ +---+ | | / \ +-------+ +------+ +---+
+--+ / \----+ +-----+ +----+ | +--+ / \----+ +-----+ +----+ |
/ \ +-------+ +------+ +---+ / \ +-------+ +------+ +---+
UE BS EPC Internet fixed UE BS EPC Internet fixed
<--------------------------+ <--------------------------+
downlink downlink
Figure 1: Simulation Topology Figure 1: Simulation Topology
3.1.2. Simulation Setup 2.1.2. Simulation Setup
The values enclosed within "[ ]" for the following simulation The values enclosed within "[ ]" for the following simulation
attributes follow the same notion as in [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-test]. attributes follow the same notion as in [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-test].
The desired simulation setup is as follows -- The desired simulation setup is as follows --
1. Radio environment: 1. Radio environment:
A. Deployment and propagation model: 3GPP case 1 (see A. Deployment and propagation model: 3GPP case 1 (see
[HO-deploy-3GPP]) [HO-deploy-3GPP])
B. Antenna: Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO), [2D, 3D] B. Antenna: Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO), 2D or 3D
antenna pattern.
C. Mobility: [3km/h, 30km/h] C. Mobility: [3km/h, 30km/h]
D. Transmission bandwidth: 10Mhz D. Transmission bandwidth: 10MHz
E. Number of cells: multi-cell deployment (3 Cells per Base E. Number of cells: multi-cell deployment (3 Cells per Base
Station (BS) * 7 BS) = 21 cells Station (BS) * 7 BS) = 21 cells
F. Cell radius: 166.666 Meters F. Cell radius: 166.666 Meters
G. Scheduler: Proportional fair with no priority G. Scheduler: Proportional fair with no priority
H. Bearer: Default bearer for all traffic. H. Bearer: Default bearer for all traffic.
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8. Other traffic models: 8. Other traffic models:
* Downlink simulation: Maximum of 4Mbps/cell (web browsing or * Downlink simulation: Maximum of 4Mbps/cell (web browsing or
FTP traffic following default TCP congestion control FTP traffic following default TCP congestion control
[RFC5681]) [RFC5681])
* Unlink simulation: Maximum of 2Mbps/cell (web browsing or FTP * Unlink simulation: Maximum of 2Mbps/cell (web browsing or FTP
traffic following default TCP congestion control [RFC5681]) traffic following default TCP congestion control [RFC5681])
3.2. Bad Radio Coverage 2.2. Bad Radio Coverage
The goal of this test is to evaluate the performance of candidate The goal of this test is to evaluate the performance of candidate
congestion control algorithm when users visit part of the network congestion control algorithm when users visit part of the network
with bad radio coverage. The scenario is created by using a larger with bad radio coverage. The scenario is created by using a larger
cell radius than that in the previous test case. In this test case, cell radius than that in the previous test case. In this test case,
each user/UE in the media session is an RMCAT compliant endpoint. each user/UE in the media session is an endpoint following RTP-based
User arrivals follow a Poisson distribution proportional to the congestion control. User arrivals follow a Poisson distribution
length of the call, to keep the number of users per cell fairly proportional to the length of the call, to keep the number of users
constant during the evaluation period. At the beginning of the per cell fairly constant during the evaluation period. At the
simulation, there should be enough amount of time to warm-up the beginning of the simulation, there should be enough amount of time to
network. This is to avoid running the evaluation in an empty network warm-up the network. This is to avoid running the evaluation in an
where network nodes are having empty buffers, low interference at the empty network where network nodes are having empty buffers, low
beginning of the simulation. This network initialization period interference at the beginning of the simulation. This network
should be excluded from the evaluation period. initialization period should be excluded from the evaluation period.
Typically, the evaluation period starts 30 seconds after test
initialization.
This test case also includes user mobility and some competing This test case also includes user mobility and some competing
traffic. The latter includes the same kind of flows (with same traffic. The latter includes the same kind of flows (with same
adaptation algorithms). The investigated congestion control adaptation algorithms). The investigated congestion control
algorithms should result in maximum possible network utilization and algorithms should result in maximum possible network utilization and
stability in terms of rate variations, lowest possible end to end stability in terms of rate variations, lowest possible end to end
frame latency, network latency and Packet Loss Rate (PLR) at frame latency, network latency and Packet Loss Rate (PLR) at
different cell load levels. different cell load levels.
3.2.1. Network connection 2.2.1. Network connection
Same as defined in Section 3.1.1 Same as defined in Section 2.1.1
3.2.2. Simulation Setup 2.2.2. Simulation Setup
The desired simulation setup is the same as the Varying Network Load The desired simulation setup is the same as the Varying Network Load
test case defined in Section 3.1 except the following changes: test case defined in Section 2.1 except the following changes:
1. Radio environment: Same as defined in Section 3.1.2 except the 1. Radio environment: Same as defined in Section 2.1.2 except the
following: following:
A. Deployment and propagation model: 3GPP case 3 (see A. Deployment and propagation model: 3GPP case 3 (see
[HO-deploy-3GPP]) [HO-deploy-3GPP])
B. Cell radius: 577.3333 Meters B. Cell radius: 577.3333 Meters
C. Mobility: 3km/h C. Mobility: 3km/h
2. User intensity = {0.7, 1.4, 2.1, 2.8, 3.5, 4.2, 4.9, 5.6, 6.3, 2. User intensity = {0.7, 1.4, 2.1, 2.8, 3.5, 4.2, 4.9, 5.6, 6.3,
7.0} 7.0}
3. Media traffic model: Same as defined in Section 3.1.2 3. Media traffic model: Same as defined in Section 2.1.2
4. Other traffic models: 4. Other traffic models:
* Downlink simulation: Maximum of 2Mbps/cell (web browsing or * Downlink simulation: Maximum of 2Mbps/cell (web browsing or
FTP traffic following default TCP congestion control FTP traffic following default TCP congestion control
[RFC5681]) [RFC5681])
* Unlink simulation: Maximum of 1Mbps/cell (web browsing or FTP * Unlink simulation: Maximum of 1Mbps/cell (web browsing or FTP
traffic following default TCP congestion control [RFC5681]) traffic following default TCP congestion control [RFC5681])
3.3. Desired Evaluation Metrics for cellular test cases 2.3. Desired Evaluation Metrics for cellular test cases
The evaluation criteria document [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-criteria] The evaluation criteria document [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-criteria]
defines the metrics to be used to evaluate candidate algorithms. defines the metrics to be used to evaluate candidate algorithms.
Considering the nature and distinction of cellular networks we Considering the nature and distinction of cellular networks we
recommend that at least the following metrics be used to evaluate the recommend that at least the following metrics be used to evaluate the
performance of the candidate algorithms: performance of the candidate algorithms:
o Average cell throughput (for all cells), shows cell utilizations. o Average cell throughput (for all cells), shows cell utilizations.
o Application sending and receiving bitrate, goodput. o Application sending and receiving bitrate, goodput.
o Packet Loss Rate (PLR). o Packet Loss Rate (PLR).
o End-to-end Media frame delay. For video, this means the delay o End-to-end Media frame delay. For video, this means the delay
from capture to display. from capture to display.
o Transport delay. o Transport delay.
o Algorithm stability in terms of rate variation. o Algorithm stability in terms of rate variation.
4. Wi-Fi Networks Specific Test Cases 3. Wi-Fi Networks Specific Test Cases
Given the prevalence of Internet access links over Wi-Fi, it is Given the prevalence of Internet access links over Wi-Fi, it is
important to evaluate candidate RTP-based congestion control important to evaluate candidate RTP-based congestion control
solutions over test cases that include Wi-Fi access links. Such solutions over test cases that include Wi-Fi access links. Such
evaluations should highlight the inherently different characteristics evaluations should highlight the inherently different characteristics
of Wi-Fi networks in contrast to their wired counterparts: of Wi-Fi networks in contrast to their wired counterparts:
o The wireless radio channel is subject to interference from nearby o The wireless radio channel is subject to interference from nearby
transmitters, multipath fading, and shadowing. These effects lead transmitters, multipath fading, and shadowing. These effects lead
to fluctuations in the link throughput and sometimes an error- to fluctuations in the link throughput and sometimes an error-
skipping to change at page 12, line 31 skipping to change at page 12, line 28
both scenarios separately. The same set of performance metrics as in both scenarios separately. The same set of performance metrics as in
[I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-test]) should be collected for each test case. [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-test]) should be collected for each test case.
We recommend to carry out the test cases as defined in this document We recommend to carry out the test cases as defined in this document
using a simulator, such as [NS-2] or [NS-3]. When feasible, it is using a simulator, such as [NS-2] or [NS-3]. When feasible, it is
encouraged to perform testbed-based evaluations using Wi-Fi access encouraged to perform testbed-based evaluations using Wi-Fi access
points and endpoints running up-to-date IEEE 802.11 protocols, such points and endpoints running up-to-date IEEE 802.11 protocols, such
as 802.11ac and the emerging Wi-Fi 6, so as to verify the viability as 802.11ac and the emerging Wi-Fi 6, so as to verify the viability
of the candidate schemes. of the candidate schemes.
4.1. Bottleneck in Wired Network 3.1. Bottleneck in Wired Network
The test scenarios below are intended to mimic the setup of video The test scenarios below are intended to mimic the setup of video
conferencing over Wi-Fi connections from the home. Typically, the conferencing over Wi-Fi connections from the home. Typically, the
Wi-Fi home network is not congested and the bottleneck is present Wi-Fi home network is not congested and the bottleneck is present
over the wired home access link. Although it is expected that test over the wired home access link. Although it is expected that test
evaluation results from this section are similar to those as in evaluation results from this section are similar to those as in
[I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-test], it is still worthwhile to run through [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-test], it is still worthwhile to run through
these tests as sanity checks. these tests as sanity checks.
4.1.1. Network topology 3.1.1. Network topology
Figure 2 shows the network topology of Wi-Fi test cases. The test Figure 2 shows the network topology of Wi-Fi test cases. The test
contains multiple mobile nodes (MNs) connected to a common Wi-Fi contains multiple mobile nodes (MNs) connected to a common Wi-Fi
access point (AP) and their corresponding wired clients on fixed access point (AP) and their corresponding wired clients on fixed
nodes (FNs). Each connection carries either a RTP-based media flow nodes (FNs). Each connection carries either a RTP-based media flow
or a TCP traffic flow. Directions of the flows can be uplink (i.e., or a TCP traffic flow. Directions of the flows can be uplink (i.e.,
from mobile nodes to fixed nodes), downlink (i.e., from fixed nodes from mobile nodes to fixed nodes), downlink (i.e., from fixed nodes
to mobile nodes), or bi-directional. The total number of to mobile nodes), or bi-directional. The total number of
uplink/downlink/bi-directional flows for RTP-based media traffic and uplink/downlink/bi-directional flows for RTP-based media traffic and
TCP traffic are denoted as N and M, respectively. TCP traffic are denoted as N and M, respectively.
skipping to change at page 13, line 31 skipping to change at page 13, line 31
. )) \\ . . )) \\ .
. )) \\ . . )) \\ .
+----------+ )) \\ +----------+ +----------+ )) \\ +----------+
| MN_tcp_M |))) \=====| FN_tcp_M | | MN_tcp_M |))) \=====| FN_tcp_M |
+----------+ +----------+ +----------+ +----------+
+<-----------------+ +<-----------------+
Downlink Downlink
Figure 2: Network topology for Wi-Fi test cases Figure 2: Network topology for Wi-Fi test cases
4.1.2. Test setup 3.1.2. Test setup
o Test duration: 120s o Test duration: 120s
o Wi-Fi network characteristics: o Wi-Fi network characteristics:
* Radio propagation model: Log-distance path loss propagation * Radio propagation model: Log-distance path loss propagation
model (see [NS3WiFi]) model (see [NS3WiFi])
* PHY- and MAC-layer configuration: IEEE 802.11n * PHY- and MAC-layer configuration: IEEE 802.11n
skipping to change at page 14, line 15 skipping to change at page 14, line 15
* Bottleneck queue size: 300ms. * Bottleneck queue size: 300ms.
* Path loss ratio: 0%. * Path loss ratio: 0%.
o Application characteristics: o Application characteristics:
* Media Traffic: * Media Traffic:
+ Media type: Video + Media type: Video
+ Media direction: See Section 4.1.3 + Media direction: See Section 3.1.3
+ Number of media sources (N): See Section 4.1.3 + Number of media sources (N): See Section 3.1.3
+ Media timeline: + Media timeline:
- Start time: 0s. - Start time: 0s.
- End time: 119s. - End time: 119s.
* Competing traffic: * Competing traffic:
+ Type of sources: long-lived TCP or CBR over UDP + Type of sources: long-lived TCP or CBR over UDP
+ Traffic direction: See Section 4.1.3 + Traffic direction: See Section 3.1.3
+ Number of sources (M): See Section 4.1.3 + Number of sources (M): See Section 3.1.3
+ Congestion control: Default TCP congestion control [RFC5681] + Congestion control: Default TCP congestion control [RFC5681]
or constant-bit-rate (CBR) traffic over UDP. or constant-bit-rate (CBR) traffic over UDP.
+ Traffic timeline: See Section 4.1.3 + Traffic timeline: See Section 3.1.3
4.1.3. Typical test scenarios 3.1.3. Typical test scenarios
o Single uplink RTP-based media flow: N=1 with uplink direction and o Single uplink RTP-based media flow: N=1 with uplink direction and
M=0. M=0.
o One pair of bi-directional RTP-based media flows: N=2 (i.e., one o One pair of bi-directional RTP-based media flows: N=2 (i.e., one
uplink flow and one downlink flow); M=0. uplink flow and one downlink flow); M=0.
o One pair of bi-directional RTP-based media flows: N=2; one uplink o One pair of bi-directional RTP-based media flows: N=2; one uplink
on-off CBR flow over UDP: M=1 (uplink). The CBR flow has ON time on-off CBR flow over UDP: M=1 (uplink). The CBR flow has ON time
at t=0s-60s and OFF time at t=60s-119s. at t=0s-60s and OFF time at t=60s-119s.
o One pair of bi-directional RTP-based media flows: N=2; one uplink o One pair of bi-directional RTP-based media flows: N=2; one uplink
off-on CBR flow over UDP: M=1 (uplink). The CBR flow has OFF time off-on CBR flow over UDP: M=1 (uplink). The CBR flow has OFF time
at t=0s-60s and ON time at t=60s-119s. at t=0s-60s and ON time at t=60s-119s.
o One RTP-based media flow competing against one long-live TCP flow o One RTP-based media flow competing against one long-live TCP flow
in the uplink direction: N=1 (uplink) and M = 1(uplink). The TCP in the uplink direction: N=1 (uplink) and M = 1(uplink). The TCP
flow has start time at t=0s and end time at t=119s. flow has start time at t=0s and end time at t=119s.
4.1.4. Expected behavior 3.1.4. Expected behavior
o Single uplink RTP-based media flow: the candidate algorithm is o Single uplink RTP-based media flow: the candidate algorithm is
expected to detect the path capacity constraint, to converge to expected to detect the path capacity constraint, to converge to
the bottleneck link capacity, and to adapt the flow to avoid the bottleneck link capacity, and to adapt the flow to avoid
unwanted oscillations when the sending bit rate is approaching the unwanted oscillations when the sending bit rate is approaching the
bottleneck link capacity. No excessive oscillations in the media bottleneck link capacity. No excessive oscillations in the media
rate should be present. rate should be present.
o Bi-directional RTP-based media flows: the candidate algorithm is o Bi-directional RTP-based media flows: the candidate algorithm is
expected to converge to the bottleneck capacity of the wired path expected to converge to the bottleneck capacity of the wired path
in both directions despite the presence of measurement noise over in both directions despite the presence of measurement noise over
the Wi-Fi connection. In the presence of background TCP or CBR the Wi-Fi connection. In the presence of background TCP or CBR
over UDP traffic, the rate of RTP-based media flows should adapt over UDP traffic, the rate of RTP-based media flows should adapt
promptly to the arrival and departure of background traffic flows. promptly to the arrival and departure of background traffic flows.
o One RTP-based media flow competing with long-live TCP flow in the o One RTP-based media flow competing with long-live TCP flow in the
uplink direction: the candidate algorithm is expected to avoid uplink direction: the candidate algorithm is expected to avoid
congestion collapse and to stabilize at a fair share of the congestion collapse and to stabilize at a fair share of the
bottleneck link capacity. bottleneck link capacity.
4.2. Bottleneck in Wi-Fi Network 3.2. Bottleneck in Wi-Fi Network
The test cases in this section assume that the wired segment along The test cases in this section assume that the wired segment along
the media path is well-provisioned whereas the bottleneck exists over the media path is well-provisioned whereas the bottleneck exists over
the Wi-Fi access network. This is to mimic the application scenarios the Wi-Fi access network. This is to mimic the application scenarios
typically encountered by users in an enterprise environment or at a typically encountered by users in an enterprise environment or at a
coffee house. coffee house.
4.2.1. Network topology 3.2.1. Network topology
Same as defined in Section 4.1.1 Same as defined in Section 3.1.1
4.2.2. Test setup 3.2.2. Test setup
o Test duration: 120s o Test duration: 120s
o Wi-Fi network characteristics: o Wi-Fi network characteristics:
* Radio propagation model: Log-distance path loss propagation * Radio propagation model: Log-distance path loss propagation
model (see [NS3WiFi]) model (see [NS3WiFi])
* PHY- and MAC-layer configuration: IEEE 802.11n * PHY- and MAC-layer configuration: IEEE 802.11n
* MCS Index at 11: 16-QAM 1/2, Raw Data Rate at 52Mbps * MCS Index at 11: 16-QAM 1/2, Raw Data Rate at 52Mbps
skipping to change at page 16, line 26 skipping to change at page 16, line 26
* Bottleneck queue size: 300ms. * Bottleneck queue size: 300ms.
* Path loss ratio: 0%. * Path loss ratio: 0%.
o Application characteristics: o Application characteristics:
* Media Traffic: * Media Traffic:
+ Media type: Video + Media type: Video
+ Media direction: See Section 4.2.3. + Media direction: See Section 3.2.3.
+ Number of media sources (N): See Section 4.2.3. + Number of media sources (N): See Section 3.2.3.
+ Media timeline: + Media timeline:
- Start time: 0s. - Start time: 0s.
- End time: 119s. - End time: 119s.
* Competing traffic: * Competing traffic:
+ Type of sources: long-lived TCP or CBR over UDP. + Type of sources: long-lived TCP or CBR over UDP.
+ Number of sources (M): See Section 4.2.3. + Number of sources (M): See Section 3.2.3.
+ Traffic direction: See Section 4.2.3. + Traffic direction: See Section 3.2.3.
+ Congestion control: Default TCP congestion control [RFC5681] + Congestion control: Default TCP congestion control [RFC5681]
or constant-bit-rate (CBR) traffic over UDP. or constant-bit-rate (CBR) traffic over UDP.
+ Traffic timeline: See Section 4.2.3. + Traffic timeline: See Section 3.2.3.
4.2.3. Typical test scenarios 3.2.3. Typical test scenarios
This section describes a few test scenarios that are deemed as This section describes a few test scenarios that are deemed as
important for understanding the behavior of a candidate RTP-based important for understanding the behavior of a candidate RTP-based
congestion control scheme over a Wi-Fi network. congestion control scheme over a Wi-Fi network.
a. Multiple RTP-based media flows sharing the wireless downlink: a. Multiple RTP-based media flows sharing the wireless downlink:
N=16 (all downlink); M = 0. This test case is for studying the N=16 (all downlink); M = 0. This test case is for studying the
impact of contention on the multiple concurrent media flows. For impact of contention on the multiple concurrent media flows. For
an 802.11n network, given the MCS Index of 11 and the an 802.11n network, given the MCS Index of 11 and the
corresponding link rate of 52Mbps, the total application-layer corresponding link rate of 52Mbps, the total application-layer
throughput (assuming reasonable distance, low interference and throughput (assuming reasonable distance, low interference and
infrequent contentions caused by competing streams) is around infrequent contentions caused by competing streams) is around
20Mbps. A total of N=16 RTP-based media flows (with a maximum 20Mbps. A total of N=16 RTP-based media flows (with a maximum
rate of 1.5Mbps each) are expected to saturate the wireless rate of 1.5Mbps each) are expected to saturate the wireless
interface in this experiment. Evaluation of a given candidate interface in this experiment. Evaluation of a given candidate
scheme should focus on whether the downlink media flows can scheme should focus on whether the downlink media flows can
stabilize at a fair share of the total application-layer stabilize at a fair share of the total application-layer
throughput. throughput.
b. Multiple RTP-based media flows sharing the wireless uplink:N = 16 b. Multiple RTP-based media flows sharing the wireless uplink: N =
(all downlink); M = 0. When multiple clients attempt to transmit 16 (all uplink); M = 0. When multiple clients attempt to
media packets uplink over the Wi-Fi network, they introduce more transmit media packets uplink over the Wi-Fi network, they
frequent contentions and potential collisions. Per-flow introduce more frequent contentions and potential collisions.
throughput is expected to be lower than that in the previous Per-flow throughput is expected to be lower than that in the
downlink-only scenario. Evaluation of a given candidate scheme previous downlink-only scenario. Evaluation of a given candidate
should focus on whether the uplink flows can stabilize at a fair scheme should focus on whether the uplink flows can stabilize at
share of the total application-layer throughput. a fair share of the total application-layer throughput.
c. Multiple bi-directional RTP-based media flows: N = 16 (8 uplink c. Multiple bi-directional RTP-based media flows: N = 16 (8 uplink
and 8 downlink); M = 0. The goal of this test is to evaluate the and 8 downlink); M = 0. The goal of this test is to evaluate the
performance of the candidate scheme in terms of bandwidth performance of the candidate scheme in terms of bandwidth
fairness between uplink and downlink flows. fairness between uplink and downlink flows.
d. Multiple bi-directional RTP-based media flows with on-off CBR d. Multiple bi-directional RTP-based media flows with on-off CBR
traffic over UDP: N = 16 (8 uplink and 8 downlink); M = 5 traffic over UDP: N = 16 (8 uplink and 8 downlink); M = 5
(uplink). The goal of this test is to evaluate the adaptation (uplink). The goal of this test is to evaluate the adaptation
behavior of the candidate scheme when its available bandwidth behavior of the candidate scheme when its available bandwidth
skipping to change at page 18, line 24 skipping to change at page 18, line 24
g. Varying number of RTP-based media flows: A series of tests can be g. Varying number of RTP-based media flows: A series of tests can be
carried out for the above test cases with different values of N, carried out for the above test cases with different values of N,
e.g., N = [4, 8, 12, 16, 20]. The goal of this test is to e.g., N = [4, 8, 12, 16, 20]. The goal of this test is to
evaluate how a candidate scheme responds to varying traffic load/ evaluate how a candidate scheme responds to varying traffic load/
demand over a congested Wi-Fi network. The start times of the demand over a congested Wi-Fi network. The start times of the
media flows are randomly distributes within a window of t=0-10s; media flows are randomly distributes within a window of t=0-10s;
their end times are randomly distributed within a window of their end times are randomly distributed within a window of
t=110-120s. t=110-120s.
4.2.4. Expected behavior 3.2.4. Expected behavior
o Multiple downlink RTP-based media flows: each media flow is o Multiple downlink RTP-based media flows: each media flow is
expected to get its fair share of the total bottleneck link expected to get its fair share of the total bottleneck link
bandwidth. Overall bandwidth usage should not be significantly bandwidth. Overall bandwidth usage should not be significantly
lower than that experienced by the same number of concurrent lower than that experienced by the same number of concurrent
downlink TCP flows. In other words, the behavior of multiple downlink TCP flows. In other words, the behavior of multiple
concurrent TCP flows will be used as a performance benchmark for concurrent TCP flows will be used as a performance benchmark for
this test scenario. The end-to-end delay and packet loss ratio this test scenario. The end-to-end delay and packet loss ratio
experienced by each flow should be within an acceptable range for experienced by each flow should be within an acceptable range for
real-time multimedia applications. real-time multimedia applications.
skipping to change at page 19, line 23 skipping to change at page 19, line 23
o Varying number of bi-directional RTP-based media flows: the test o Varying number of bi-directional RTP-based media flows: the test
results for varying values of N -- while keeping all other results for varying values of N -- while keeping all other
parameters constant -- is expected to show steady and stable per- parameters constant -- is expected to show steady and stable per-
flow throughput for each value of N. The average throughput of flow throughput for each value of N. The average throughput of
all media flows is expected to stay constant around the maximum all media flows is expected to stay constant around the maximum
rate when N is small, then gradually decrease with increasing rate when N is small, then gradually decrease with increasing
value of N till it reaches the minimum allowed rate, beyond which value of N till it reaches the minimum allowed rate, beyond which
the offered load to the Wi-Fi network exceeds its capacity (i.e., the offered load to the Wi-Fi network exceeds its capacity (i.e.,
with a very large value of N). with a very large value of N).
4.3. Other Potential Test Cases 3.3. Other Potential Test Cases
4.3.1. EDCA/WMM usage 3.3.1. EDCA/WMM usage
The EDCA/WMM mechanism defines prioritized QoS for four traffic The EDCA/WMM mechanism defines prioritized QoS for four traffic
classes (or Access Categories). RTP-based real-time media flows classes (or Access Categories). RTP-based real-time media flows
should achieve better performance in terms of lower delay and fewer should achieve better performance in terms of lower delay and fewer
packet losses with EDCA/WMM enabled when competing against non- packet losses with EDCA/WMM enabled when competing against non-
interactive background traffic such as file transfers. When most of interactive background traffic such as file transfers. When most of
the traffic over Wi-Fi is dominated by media, however, turning on WMM the traffic over Wi-Fi is dominated by media, however, turning on WMM
may degrade performance since all media flows now attempt to access may degrade performance since all media flows now attempt to access
the wireless transmission medium more aggressively, thereby causing the wireless transmission medium more aggressively, thereby causing
more frequent collisions and collision-induced losses. This is a more frequent collisions and collision-induced losses. This is a
topic worthy of further investigation. topic worthy of further investigation.
4.3.2. Effect of heterogeneous link rates 3.3.2. Effect of heterogeneous link rates
As discussed in [Heusse2003], the presence of clients operating over As discussed in [Heusse2003], the presence of clients operating over
slow PHY-layer link rates (e.g., a legacy 802.11b device) connected slow PHY-layer link rates (e.g., a legacy 802.11b device) connected
to a modern network may adversely impact the overall performance of to a modern network may adversely impact the overall performance of
the network. Additional test cases can be devised to evaluate the the network. Additional test cases can be devised to evaluate the
effect of clients with heterogeneous link rates on the performance of effect of clients with heterogeneous link rates on the performance of
the candidate congestion control algorithm. Such test cases, for the candidate congestion control algorithm. Such test cases, for
instance, can specify that the PHY-layer link rates for all clients instance, can specify that the PHY-layer link rates for all clients
span over a wide range (e.g., 2Mbps to 54Mbps) for investigating its span over a wide range (e.g., 2Mbps to 54Mbps) for investigating its
effect on the congestion control behavior of the real-time effect on the congestion control behavior of the real-time
interactive applications. interactive applications.
5. IANA Considerations 4. IANA Considerations
This memo includes no request to IANA. This memo includes no request to IANA.
6. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
The security considerations in [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-criteria] and the The security considerations in [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-criteria] and the
relevant congestion control algorithms apply. The principles for relevant congestion control algorithms apply. The principles for
congestion control are described in [RFC2914], and in particular, any congestion control are described in [RFC2914], and in particular, any
new method MUST implement safeguards to avoid congestion collapse of new method must implement safeguards to avoid congestion collapse of
the Internet. the Internet.
The evaluations of the test cases are intended to carry out in a Given the difficulty of deterministic wireless testing, it is
controlled lab environment. Hence, the applications, simulators and recommended and expected that the tests described in this document
network nodes ought to be well-behaved and should not impact the would be done via simulations. However, in the case where these test
desired results. It is important to take appropriate caution to cases are carried out in a testbed setting, the evaluation should
avoid leaking non-responsive traffic with unproven congestion take place in a controlled lab environment. In the testbed, the
avoidance behavior onto the open Internet. applications, simulators and network nodes ought to be well-behaved
and should not impact the desired results. It is important to take
appropriate caution to avoid leaking non-responsive traffic with
unproven congestion avoidance behavior onto the open Internet.
7. Acknowledgments 6. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Ingemar Johansson for contributing to
the cellular test cases during the earlier stage of this draft.
The authors would like to thank Tomas Frankkila, Magnus Westerlund, The authors would like to thank Tomas Frankkila, Magnus Westerlund,
Kristofer Sandlund, Sergio Mena de la Cruz, and Mirja Kuehlewind for Kristofer Sandlund, Sergio Mena de la Cruz, and Mirja Kuehlewind for
their valuable inputs and review comments regarding this draft. their valuable inputs and review comments regarding this draft.
8. References 7. References
8.1. Normative References 7.1. Normative References
[HO-deploy-3GPP] [HO-deploy-3GPP]
TS 25.814, 3GPP., "Physical layer aspects for evolved TS 25.814, 3GPP., "Physical layer aspects for evolved
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)", October 2006, Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)", October 2006,
<http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/ <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/
archive/25_series/25.814/25814-710.zip>. archive/25_series/25.814/25814-710.zip>.
[I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-criteria] [I-D.ietf-rmcat-eval-criteria]
Singh, V., Ott, J., and S. Holmer, "Evaluating Congestion Singh, V., Ott, J., and S. Holmer, "Evaluating Congestion
Control for Interactive Real-time Media", draft-ietf- Control for Interactive Real-time Media", draft-ietf-
skipping to change at page 21, line 16 skipping to change at page 21, line 21
IEEE, "Standard for Information technology-- IEEE, "Standard for Information technology--
Telecommunications and information exchange between Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific
requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
(MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", 2012. (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", 2012.
[NS3WiFi] "Wi-Fi Channel Model in ns-3 Simulator", [NS3WiFi] "Wi-Fi Channel Model in ns-3 Simulator",
<https://www.nsnam.org/doxygen/ <https://www.nsnam.org/doxygen/
classns3_1_1_yans_wifi_channel.html>. classns3_1_1_yans_wifi_channel.html>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC5681] Allman, M., Paxson, V., and E. Blanton, "TCP Congestion [RFC5681] Allman, M., Paxson, V., and E. Blanton, "TCP Congestion
Control", RFC 5681, DOI 10.17487/RFC5681, September 2009, Control", RFC 5681, DOI 10.17487/RFC5681, September 2009,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5681>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5681>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
8.2. Informative References 7.2. Informative References
[Heusse2003] [Heusse2003]
Heusse, M., Rousseau, F., Berger-Sabbatel, G., and A. Heusse, M., Rousseau, F., Berger-Sabbatel, G., and A.
Duda, "Performance anomaly of 802.11b", in Proc. 23th Duda, "Performance anomaly of 802.11b", in Proc. 23th
Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and
Communications Societies, (INFOCOM'03), March 2003. Communications Societies, (INFOCOM'03), March 2003.
[HO-def-3GPP] [HO-def-3GPP]
TR 21.905, 3GPP., "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications", TR 21.905, 3GPP., "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications",
December 2009, <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/ December 2009, <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/
skipping to change at page 22, line 5 skipping to change at page 22, line 5
Protocol specification", December 2011, Protocol specification", December 2011,
<http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/ <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/
archive/36_series/36.331/36331-990.zip>. archive/36_series/36.331/36331-990.zip>.
[HO-UMTS-3GPP] [HO-UMTS-3GPP]
TS 25.331, 3GPP., "Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol TS 25.331, 3GPP., "Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol
specification", December 2011, specification", December 2011,
<http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/ <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/
archive/25_series/25.331/25331-990.zip>. archive/25_series/25.331/25331-990.zip>.
[I-D.ietf-rmcat-cc-requirements]
Jesup, R. and Z. Sarker, "Congestion Control Requirements
for Interactive Real-Time Media", draft-ietf-rmcat-cc-
requirements-09 (work in progress), December 2014.
[NS-2] "ns-2", December 2014, [NS-2] "ns-2", December 2014,
<http://nsnam.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/Main_Page>. <http://nsnam.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/Main_Page>.
[NS-3] "ns-3 Network Simulator", <https://www.nsnam.org/>. [NS-3] "ns-3 Network Simulator", <https://www.nsnam.org/>.
[QoS-3GPP] [QoS-3GPP]
TS 23.203, 3GPP., "Policy and charging control TS 23.203, 3GPP., "Policy and charging control
architecture", June 2011, <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/ architecture", June 2011, <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/specs/
archive/23_series/23.203/23203-990.zip>. archive/23_series/23.203/23203-990.zip>.
skipping to change at page 22, line 35 skipping to change at page 22, line 30
Zaheduzzaman Sarker Zaheduzzaman Sarker
Ericsson AB Ericsson AB
Laboratoriegraend 11 Laboratoriegraend 11
Luleae 97753 Luleae 97753
Sweden Sweden
Phone: +46 107173743 Phone: +46 107173743
Email: zaheduzzaman.sarker@ericsson.com Email: zaheduzzaman.sarker@ericsson.com
Ingemar Johansson
Ericsson AB
Laboratoriegraend 11
Luleae 97753
Sweden
Phone: +46 10 7143042
Email: ingemar.s.johansson@ericsson.com
Xiaoqing Zhu Xiaoqing Zhu
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
12515 Research Blvd., Building 4 12515 Research Blvd., Building 4
Austin, TX 78759 Austin, TX 78759
USA USA
Email: xiaoqzhu@cisco.com Email: xiaoqzhu@cisco.com
Jiantao Fu Jiantao Fu
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
771 Alder Drive 771 Alder Drive
Milpitas, CA 95035 Milpitas, CA 95035
USA USA
Email: jianfu@cisco.com Email: jianfu@cisco.com
Wei-Tian Tan Wei-Tian Tan
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
510 McCarthy Blvd 510 McCarthy Blvd
Milpitas, CA 95035 Milpitas, CA 95035
USA USA
Email: dtan2@cisco.com Email: dtan2@cisco.com
Michael A. Ramalho Michael A. Ramalho
AcousticComms Consulting AcousticComms Consulting
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