draft-ietf-roll-routing-dispatch-05.txt   rfc8138.txt 
roll P. Thubert, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) P. Thubert, Ed.
Internet-Draft Cisco Request for Comments: 8138 Cisco
Intended status: Standards Track C. Bormann Category: Standards Track C. Bormann
Expires: April 30, 2017 Uni Bremen TZI ISSN: 2070-1721 Uni Bremen TZI
L. Toutain L. Toutain
IMT-TELECOM Bretagne IMT Atlantique
R. Cragie R. Cragie
ARM ARM
October 27, 2016 April 2017
6LoWPAN Routing Header IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN)
draft-ietf-roll-routing-dispatch-05 Routing Header
Abstract Abstract
This specification introduces a new 6LoWPAN dispatch type for use in This specification introduces a new IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
6LoWPAN Route-Over topologies, that initially covers the needs of RPL Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) dispatch type for use in 6LoWPAN
(RFC6550) data packets compression. Using this dispatch type, this route-over topologies, which initially covers the needs of Routing
specification defines a method to compress RPL Option (RFC6553) Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) data packet
information and Routing Header type 3 (RFC6554), an efficient IP-in- compression (RFC 6550). Using this dispatch type, this specification
IP technique and is extensible for more applications. defines a method to compress the RPL Option (RFC 6553) information
and Routing Header type 3 (RFC 6554), an efficient IP-in-IP
technique, and is extensible for more applications.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 30, 2017. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8138.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. Using the Page Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Using the Page Dispatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1. New Routing Header Dispatch (6LoRH) . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. New Routing Header Dispatch (6LoRH) . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2. Placement Of 6LoRH headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. Placement of 6LoRH Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.1. Relative To Non-6LoRH Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2.1. Relative to Non-6LoRH Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.2. Relative To Other 6LoRH Headers . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2.2. Relative to Other 6LoRH Headers . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. 6LoWPAN Routing Header General Format . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. 6LoWPAN Routing Header General Format . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1. Elective Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1. Elective Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2. Critical Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2. Critical Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3. Compressing Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.3. Compressing Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3.1. Coalescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.3.1. Coalescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3.2. DODAG Root Address Determination . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.3.2. DODAG Root Address Determination . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. The SRH 6LoRH Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5. The SRH-6LoRH Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1. Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.1. Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. SRH-6LoRH General Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2. SRH-6LoRH General Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2.1. Uncompressed SRH Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2.1. Uncompressed SRH Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2.2. 6LoRH-Compressed SRH Operation . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2.2. 6LoRH-Compressed SRH Operation . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2.3. Inner LOWPAN_IPHC Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2.3. Inner LOWPAN_IPHC Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.3. The Design Point of Popping Entries . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.3. The Design Point of Popping Entries . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.4. Compression Reference for SRH-6LoRH header entries . . . 16 5.4. Compression Reference for SRH-6LoRH Header Entries . . . 17
5.5. Popping Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.5. Popping Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.6. Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.6. Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6. The RPL Packet Information 6LoRH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6. The RPL Packet Information 6LoRH (RPI-6LoRH) . . . . . . . . 19
6.1. Compressing the RPLInstanceID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.1. Compressing the RPLInstanceID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.2. Compressing the SenderRank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.2. Compressing the SenderRank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.3. The Overall RPI-6LoRH encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.3. The Overall RPI-6LoRH Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7. The IP-in-IP 6LoRH Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 7. The IP-in-IP 6LoRH Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8. Management Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 8. Management Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10.1. Reserving Space in 6LoWPAN Dispatch Page 1 . . . . . . . 26 10.1. Reserving Space in 6LoWPAN Dispatch Page 1 . . . . . . . 27
10.2. New Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type Registry . . . 26 10.2. New Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type Registry . . . 28
10.3. New Elective 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type Registry . . . 26 10.3. New Elective 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type Registry . . . 28
11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Appendix A. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 A.1. Examples Compressing the RPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
A.1. Examples Compressing The RPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 A.2. Example of a Downward Packet in Non-Storing Mode . . . . 32
A.2. Example Of Downward Packet In Non-Storing Mode . . . . . 31 A.3. Example of SRH-6LoRH Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
A.3. Example of SRH-6LoRH life-cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The design of Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) is generally The design of Low-Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) is generally
focused on saving energy, a very constrained resource in most cases. focused on saving energy, a very constrained resource in most cases.
The other constraints, such as the memory capacity and the duty The other constraints, such as the memory capacity and the duty
cycling of the LLN devices, derive from that primary concern. Energy cycling of the LLN devices, derive from that primary concern. Energy
is often available from primary batteries that are expected to last is often available from primary batteries that are expected to last
for years, or is scavenged from the environment in very limited for years, or it is scavenged from the environment in very limited
quantities. Any protocol that is intended for use in LLNs must be quantities. Any protocol that is intended for use in LLNs must be
designed with the primary concern of saving energy as a strict designed with the primary concern of saving energy as a strict
requirement. requirement.
Controlling the amount of data transmission is one possible venue to Controlling the amount of data transmission is one possible venue to
save energy. In a number of LLN standards, the frame size is limited save energy. In a number of LLN standards, the frame size is limited
to much smaller values than the guaranteed IPv6 maximum transmission to much smaller values than the guaranteed IPv6 Maximum Transmission
unit (MTU) of 1280 bytes. In particular, an LLN that relies on the Unit (MTU) of 1280 bytes. In particular, an LLN that relies on the
classical Physical Layer (PHY) of IEEE 802.15.4 [IEEE802154] is classical Physical Layer (PHY) of IEEE 802.15.4 [IEEE.802.15.4] is
limited to 127 bytes per frame. The need to compress IPv6 packets limited to 127 bytes per frame. The need to compress IPv6 packets
over IEEE 802.15.4 led to the "6LoWPAN Header Compression" [RFC6282] over IEEE 802.15.4 led to the writing of "Compression Format for IPv6
work (6LoWPAN_HC). Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks" [RFC6282].
Innovative Route-over techniques have been and are still being Innovative route-over techniques have been and still are being
developed for routing inside a LLN. In a general fashion, such developed for routing inside an LLN. Generally, such techniques
techniques require additional information in the packet to provide require additional information in the packet to provide loop
loop prevention and to indicate information such as flow prevention and to indicate information such as flow identification,
identification, source routing information, etc. source routing information, etc.
For reasons such as security and the capability to send ICMPv6 errors For reasons such as security and the capability to send ICMPv6 errors
(see "Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6)" [RFC4443]) back to (see "Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
the source, an original packet must not be tampered with, and any Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification" [RFC4443]) back to the
source, an original packet must not be tampered with, and any
information that must be inserted in or removed from an IPv6 packet information that must be inserted in or removed from an IPv6 packet
must be placed in an extra IP-in-IP encapsulation. must be placed in an extra IP-in-IP encapsulation.
This is the case when the additional routing information is inserted This is the case when the additional routing information is inserted
by a router on the path of a packet, for instance the root of a mesh, by a router on the path of a packet, for instance, the root of a
as opposed to the source node, with the non-storing mode of the "IPv6 mesh, as opposed to the source node, with the Non-Storing mode of the
Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks" [RFC6550] (RPL). "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks"
[RFC6550].
This is also the case when some routing information must be removed This is also the case when some routing information must be removed
from a packet that flows outside the LLN. from a packet that flows outside the LLN.
"When to use RFC 6553, RFC 6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6" "When to use RFC 6553, RFC 6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6" [RPL-INFO] details
[I-D.ietf-roll-useofrplinfo] details different cases where IPv6 different cases where IPv6 headers defined in the RPL Option for
headers defined in the "RPL Option for Carrying RPL Information in Carrying RPL Information in Data-Plane Datagrams [RFC6553], Header
Data-Plane Datagrams" [RFC6553] and the "Routing Header for Source for Source Routes with RPL [RFC6554], and IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation,
Routes with RPL" [RFC6554], and IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation, are are inserted or removed from packets in LLN environments operating
inserted or removed from packets in a LLN environments operating RPL. RPL.
When using RFC 6282 [RFC6282] the outer IP header of an IP-in-IP When using RFC 6282 [RFC6282], the outer IP header of an IP-in-IP
encapsulation may be compressed down to 2 octets in stateless encapsulation may be compressed down to 2 octets in stateless
compression and down to 3 octets in stateful compression when context compression and down to 3 octets in stateful compression when context
information must be added. information must be added.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| 0 | 1 | 1 | TF |NH | HLIM |CID|SAC| SAM | M |DAC| DAM | | 0 | 1 | 1 | TF |NH | HLIM |CID|SAC| SAM | M |DAC| DAM |
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
Figure 1: LOWPAN_IPHC base Encoding (RFC6282). Figure 1: LOWPAN_IPHC Base Encoding (RFC 6282)
The Stateless Compression of an IPv6 addresses can only happen if the The stateless compression of an IPv6 address can only happen if the
IPv6 address can de deduced from the MAC addresses, meaning that the IPv6 address can de deduced from the Media Access Control (MAC)
IP end point is also the MAC-layer endpoint. This is generally not addresses, meaning that the IP endpoint is also the MAC-layer
the case in a RPL network which is generally a multi-hop route-over endpoint. This is usually not the case in a RPL network, which is
(i.e., operated at Layer-3) network. A better compression, which generally a multi-hop route-over (i.e., operated at Layer 3) network.
does not involve variable compressions depending on the hop in the A better compression, which does not involve variable compressions
mesh, can be achieved based on the fact that the outer encapsulation depending on the hop in the mesh, can be achieved based on the fact
is usually between the source (or destination) of the inner packet that the outer encapsulation is usually between the source (or
and the root. Also, the inner IP header can only be compressed by destination) of the inner packet and the root. Also, the inner IP
RFC 6282 [RFC6282] if all the fields preceding it are also header can only be compressed by RFC 6282 [RFC6282] if all the fields
compressed. This specification makes the inner IP header the first preceding it are also compressed. This specification makes the inner
header to be compressed by RFC 6282 [RFC6282], and keeps the inner IP header the first header to be compressed by RFC 6282 [RFC6282],
packet encoded the same way whether it is encapsulated or not, thus and it keeps the inner packet encoded the same way whether or not it
preserving existing implementations. is encapsulated, thus preserving existing implementations.
As an example, RPL [RFC6550] is designed to optimize the routing As an example, RPL [RFC6550] is designed to optimize the routing
operations in constrained LLNs. As part of this optimization, RPL operations in constrained LLNs. As part of this optimization, RPL
requires the addition of RPL Packet Information (RPI) in every requires the addition of RPL Packet Information (RPI) in every
packet, as defined in Section 11.2 of RFC 6550 [RFC6550]. packet, as defined in Section 11.2 of RFC 6550 [RFC6550].
The "RPL Option for Carrying RPL Information in Data-Plane Datagrams" "The Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) Option
[RFC6553] specification indicates how the RPI can be placed in a RPL for Carrying RPL Information in Data-Plane Datagrams" [RFC6553]
Option (RPL-OPT) that is placed in an IPv6 Hop-by-Hop header. specification indicates how the RPI can be placed in a RPL Option
(RPL-OPT) that is placed in an IPv6 Hop-by-Hop header.
This representation demands a total of 8 bytes, while in most cases This representation demands a total of 8 bytes, while, in most cases,
the actual RPI payload requires only 19 bits. Since the Hop-by-Hop the actual RPI payload requires only 19 bits. Since the Hop-by-Hop
header must not flow outside of the RPL domain, it must be inserted header must not flow outside of the RPL domain, it must be inserted
in packets entering the domain and be removed from packets that leave in packets entering the domain and be removed from packets that leave
the domain. In both cases, this operation implies an IP-in-IP the domain. In both cases, this operation implies an IP-in-IP
encapsulation. encapsulation.
Additionally, in the case of the Non-Storing Mode of Operation (MOP), Additionally, in the case of the Non-Storing Mode of Operation (MOP),
RPL requires a Source Routing Header (SRH) in all packets that are RPL requires a Source Routing Header (SRH) in all packets that are
routed down a RPL graph. for that purpose, the "IPv6 Routing Header routed down a RPL graph. For that purpose, "An IPv6 Routing Header
for Source Routes with RPL" [RFC6554] specification defines the type for Source Routes with the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy
3 Routing Header for IPv6 (RH3). Networks (RPL)" [RFC6554] defines the type 3 Routing Header for IPv6
(RH3).
------+--------- ^ ------+--------- ^
| Internet | | Internet |
| | Native IPv6 | | Native IPv6
+-----+ | +-----+ |
| | Border Router (RPL Root) + | + | | Border Router (RPL Root) + | +
| | | | | | | | | |
+-----+ | | | tunneled +-----+ | | | tunneled
| | | | using | | | | using
o o o o | | | IPv6-in- o o o o | | | IPv6-in-
o o o o o o o o o | | | IPv6 and o o o o o o o o o | | | IPv6 and
o o o o o o o o o o | | | RPL SRH o o o o o o o o o o | | | RPL SRH
o o o o o o o o o | | | o o o o o o o o o | | |
o o o o o o o o | | | o o o o o o o o | | |
o o o o + v + o o o o + v +
LLN LLN
Figure 2: IP-in-IP Encapsulation within the LLN. Figure 2: IP-in-IP Encapsulation within the LLN
With Non-Storing RPL, even if the source is a node in the same LLN, With Non-Storing RPL, even if the source is a node in the same LLN,
the packet must first reach up the graph to the root so that the root the packet must first reach up the graph to the root so that the root
can insert the SRH to go down the graph. In any fashion, whether the can insert the SRH to go down the graph. In any fashion, whether the
packet was originated in a node in the LLN or outside the LLN, and packet was originated in a node in the LLN or outside the LLN, and
regardless of whether the packet stays within the LLN or not, as long regardless of whether or not the packet stays within the LLN, as long
as the source of the packet is not the root itself, the source- as the source of the packet is not the root itself, the source-
routing operation also implies an IP-in-IP encapsulation at the root routing operation also implies an IP-in-IP encapsulation at the root
in order to insert the SRH. in order to insert the SRH.
"The 6TiSCH Architecture" [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] specifies "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode of IEEE 802.15.4"
the operation of IPv6 over the "TimeSlotted Channel Hopping" [IPv6-ARCH] specifies the operation of IPv6 over the mode of
[RFC7554] (TSCH) mode of operation of IEEE 802.15.4. The operation described in "Using IEEE 802.15.4e Time-Slotted Channel
architecture requires the use of both RPL and the 6lo adaptation Hopping (TSCH) in the Internet of Things (IoT): Problem Statement"
layer over IEEE 802.15.4. Because it inherits the constraints on [RFC7554]. The architecture requires the use of both RPL and the 6lo
frame size from the MAC layer, 6TiSCH cannot afford to allocate 8 adaptation layer over IEEE 802.15.4. Because it inherits the
bytes per packet on the RPI. Hence the requirement for 6LoWPAN constraints on frame size from the MAC layer, 6TiSCH cannot afford to
header compression of the RPI. allocate 8 bytes per packet on the RPI, hence the requirement for
6LoWPAN header compression of the RPI.
An extensible compression technique is required that simplifies IP- An extensible compression technique is required that simplifies
in-IP encapsulation when it is needed, and optimally compresses IP-in-IP encapsulation when it is needed and optimally compresses
existing routing artifacts found in RPL LLNs. existing routing artifacts found in RPL LLNs.
This specification extends the 6lo adaptation layer framework (RFC This specification extends the 6lo adaptation layer framework
4944 [RFC4944] and RFC 6282 [RFC6282]) so as to carry routing ([RFC4944] [RFC6282]) so as to carry routing information for route-
information for route-over networks based on RPL. The specification over networks based on RPL. It includes the formats necessary for
includes the formats necessary for RPL and is extensible for RPL and is extensible for additional formats.
additional formats.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
2119 [RFC2119]. 2119 [RFC2119].
The Terminology used in this document is consistent with and This document uses the terms from, and is consistent with, "Terms
incorporates that described in Terminology in Low power And Lossy Used in Routing for Low-Power and Lossy Networks" [RFC7102] and RPL
Networks [RFC7102] and RPL [RFC6550]. [RFC6550].
The terms Route-over and Mesh-under are defined in RFC 6775 The terms "route-over" and "mesh-under" are defined in RFC 6775
[RFC6775]. [RFC6775].
Other terms in use in LLNs are found in "Terminology for Constrained- Other terms in use in LLNs are found in "Terminology for Constrained-
Node Networks" [RFC7228]. Node Networks" [RFC7228].
The term "byte" is used in its now customary sense as a synonym for The term "byte" is used in its now customary sense as a synonym for
"octet". "octet".
3. Using the Page Dispatch 3. Using the Page Dispatch
The 6LoWPAN Paging Dispatch [I-D.ietf-6lo-paging-dispatch] The "IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN)
specification extends the 6lo adaptation layer framework (RFC 4944 Paging Dispatch" [RFC8025] specification extends the 6lo adaptation
[RFC4944] and RFC 6282 [RFC6282]) by introducing a concept of layer framework ([RFC4944] [RFC6282]) by introducing a concept of
"context" in the 6LoWPAN parser, a context being identified by a Page "context" in the 6LoWPAN parser, a context being identified by a Page
number. The specification defines 16 Pages. number. The specification defines 16 Pages.
This draft operates within Page 1, which is indicated by a Dispatch This document operates within Page 1, which is indicated by a
Value of binary 11110001. dispatch value of binary 11110001.
3.1. New Routing Header Dispatch (6LoRH) 3.1. New Routing Header Dispatch (6LoRH)
This specification introduces a new 6LoWPAN Routing Header (6LoRH) to This specification introduces a new 6LoWPAN Routing Header (6LoRH) to
carry IPv6 routing information. The 6LoRH may contain source routing carry IPv6 routing information. The 6LoRH may contain source routing
information such as a compressed form of SRH, as well as other sorts information such as a compressed form of SRH, as well as other sorts
of routing information such as the RPI and IP-in-IP encapsulation. of routing information such as the RPI and IP-in-IP encapsulation.
The 6LoRH is expressed in a 6loWPAN packet as a Type-Length-Value The 6LoRH is expressed in a 6loWPAN packet as a Type-Length-Value
(TLV) field, which is extensible for future use. (TLV) field, which is extensible for future use.
It is expected that a router that does not recognize the 6LoRH It is expected that a router that does not recognize the 6LoRH
general format detailed in Section 4 will drop the packet when a general format detailed in Section 4 will drop the packet when a
6LoRH is present. 6LoRH is present.
This specification uses the bit pattern 10xxxxxx in Page 1 for the This specification uses the bit pattern 10xxxxxx in Page 1 for the
new 6LoRH Dispatch. Section 4 describes how RPL artifacts in data new 6LoRH Dispatch. Section 4 describes how RPL artifacts in data
packets can be compressed as 6LoRH headers. packets can be compressed as 6LoRH headers.
3.2. Placement Of 6LoRH headers 3.2. Placement of 6LoRH Headers
3.2.1. Relative To Non-6LoRH Headers 3.2.1. Relative to Non-6LoRH Headers
In a zone of a packet where Page 1 is active (that is, once the Page In a zone of a packet where Page 1 is active (that is, once the Page
1 Paging Dispatch is parsed, and until another Paging Dispatch is 1 Paging Dispatch is parsed, and until another Paging Dispatch is
parsed as described in the 6LoWPAN Paging Dispatch specification parsed as described in the 6LoWPAN Paging Dispatch specification
[I-D.ietf-6lo-paging-dispatch]), the parsing of the packet MUST [RFC8025]), the parsing of the packet MUST follow this specification
follow this specification if the 6LoRH Bit Pattern (see Section 3.1) if the 6LoRH Bit Pattern (see Section 3.1) is found.
is found.
With this specification, the 6LoRH Dispatch is only defined in Page With this specification, the 6LoRH Dispatch is only defined in
context is active. context is active.
Because a 6LoRH header requires a Page 1 context, it MUST always be Because a 6LoRH header requires a Page 1 context, it MUST always be
placed after any Fragmentation Header and/or Mesh Header as defined placed after any Fragmentation Header and/or Mesh Header as defined
in RFC 4944 [RFC4944]. in RFC 4944 [RFC4944].
A 6LoRH header MUST always be placed before the LOWPAN_IPHC as A 6LoRH header MUST always be placed before the LOWPAN_IPHC as
defined in RFC 6282 [RFC6282]. It is designed in such a fashion that defined in RFC 6282 [RFC6282]. It is designed in such a fashion that
placing or removing a header that is encoded with 6LoRH does not placing or removing a header that is encoded with 6LoRH does not
modify the part of the packet that is encoded with LOWPAN_IPHC, modify the part of the packet that is encoded with LOWPAN_IPHC,
whether there is an IP-in-IP encapsulation or not. For instance, the whether or not there is an IP-in-IP encapsulation. For instance, the
final destination of the packet is always the one in the LOWPAN_IPHC final destination of the packet is always the one in the LOWPAN_IPHC,
whether there is a Routing Header or not. whether or not there is a Routing Header.
3.2.2. Relative To Other 6LoRH Headers 3.2.2. Relative to Other 6LoRH Headers
The "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification" [RFC2460] The "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification" [RFC2460]
defines chains of headers that are introduced by an IPv6 header and defines chains of headers that are introduced by an IPv6 header and
terminated by either another IPv6 header (IP-in-IP) or an Upper Layer terminated by either another IPv6 header (IP-in-IP) or an Upper-Layer
Protocol (ULP) header. When an outer header is stripped from the Protocol (ULP) header. When an outer header is stripped from the
packet, the whole chain goes with it. When one or more header(s) are packet, the whole chain goes with it. When one or more headers are
inserted by an intermediate router, that router normally chains the inserted by an intermediate router, that router normally chains the
headers and encapsulates the result in IP-in-IP. headers and encapsulates the result in IP-in-IP.
With this specification, the chains of headers MUST be compressed in With this specification, the chains of headers MUST be compressed in
the same order as they appear in the uncompressed form of the packet. the same order as they appear in the uncompressed form of the packet.
This means that if there is more than one nested IP-in-IP This means that if there is more than one nested IP-in-IP
encapsulations, the first IP-in-IP encapsulation, with all its chain encapsulation, the first IP-in-IP encapsulation, with all its chain
of headers, is encoded first in the compressed form. of headers, is encoded first in the compressed form.
In the compressed form of a packet that has a Source Route or a Hop- In the compressed form of a packet that has a Source Route or a Hop-
by-Hop (HbH) Options Header [RFC2460] after the inner IPv6 header by-Hop (HbH) Options Header [RFC2460] after the inner IPv6 header
(e.g., if there is no IP-in-IP encapsulation), these headers are (e.g., if there is no IP-in-IP encapsulation), these headers are
placed in the 6LoRH form before the 6LOWPAN_IPHC that represents the placed in the 6LoRH form before the 6LOWPAN_IPHC that represents the
IPv6 header (see Section 3.2.1). If this packet gets encapsulated IPv6 header (see Section 3.2.1). If this packet gets encapsulated
and some other SRH or HbH Options Headers are added as part of the and some other SRH or HbH Options Headers are added as part of the
encapsulation, placing the 6LoRH headers next to one another may encapsulation, placing the 6LoRH headers next to one another may
present an ambiguity on which header belong to which chain in the present an ambiguity on which header belongs to which chain in the
uncompressed form. uncompressed form.
In order to disambiguate the headers that follow the inner IPv6 In order to disambiguate the headers that follow the inner IPv6
header in the uncompressed form from the headers that follow the header in the uncompressed form from the headers that follow the
outer IP-in-IP header, it is REQUIRED that the compressed IP-in-IP outer IP-in-IP header, it is REQUIRED that the compressed IP-in-IP
header is placed last in the encoded chain. This means that the header is placed last in the encoded chain. This means that the
6LoRH headers that are found after the last compressed IP-in-IP 6LoRH headers that are found after the last compressed IP-in-IP
header are to be inserted after the IPv6 header that is encoded with header are to be inserted after the IPv6 header that is encoded with
the 6LOWPAN_IPHC when decompressing the packet. the 6LOWPAN_IPHC when decompressing the packet.
With regards to the relative placement of the SRH and the RPI in the With regard to the relative placement of the SRH and the RPI in the
compressed form, it is a design point for this specification that the compressed form, it is a design point for this specification that the
SRH entries are consumed as the packet progresses down the LLN (see SRH entries are consumed as the packet progresses down the LLN (see
Section 5.3). In order to make this operation simpler in the Section 5.3). In order to make this operation simpler in the
compressed form, it is REQUIRED that in the compressed form, the compressed form, it is REQUIRED that in the compressed form, the
addresses along the source route path are encoded in the order of the addresses along the source route path are encoded in the order of the
path, and that the compressed SRH are placed before the compressed path, and that the compressed SRH are placed before the compressed
RPI. RPI.
4. 6LoWPAN Routing Header General Format 4. 6LoWPAN Routing Header General Format
The 6LoRH uses the Dispatch Value Bit Pattern of 10xxxxxx in Page 1. The 6LoRH uses the Dispatch Value Bit Pattern of 10xxxxxx in Page 1.
The Dispatch Value Bit Pattern is split in two forms of 6LoRH: The Dispatch Value Bit Pattern is split in two forms of 6LoRH:
Elective (6LoRHE) that may skipped if not understood Elective (6LoRHE), which may skipped if not understood
Critical (6LoRHC) that may not be ignored Critical (6LoRHC), which may not be ignored
For each form, a Type field is used to encode the type of 6LoRH. For each form, a Type field is used to encode the type of 6LoRH.
Note that there is a different registry for the Type field of each Note that there is a different registry for the Type field of each
form of 6LoRH. form of 6LoRH.
This means that a value for the Type that is defined for one form of This means that a value for the Type that is defined for one form of
6LoRH may be redefined in the future for the other form. 6LoRH may be redefined in the future for the other form.
4.1. Elective Format 4.1. Elective Format
skipping to change at page 1, line 396 skipping to change at page 1, line 398
may be ignored and skipped in parsing. If it is ignored, the 6LoRHE may be ignored and skipped in parsing. If it is ignored, the 6LoRHE
is forwarded with no change inside the LLN. is forwarded with no change inside the LLN.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
|1|0|1| Length | Type | | |1|0|1| Length | Type | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
<-- Length --> <-- Length -->
Figure 3: Elective 6LoWPAN Routing Header. Figure 3: Elective 6LoWPAN Routing Header
Length: Length of the 6LoRHE expressed in bytes, excluding the first Length: Length of the 6LoRHE expressed in bytes, excluding the first
2 bytes. This enables a node to skip a 6LoRHE header that it 2 bytes. This enables a node to skip a 6LoRHE header that it
does not support and/or cannot parse, for instance if the Type does not support and/or cannot parse, for instance, if the Type
is not recognized. is not recognized.
Type: Type of the 6LoRHE Type: Type of the 6LoRHE
4.2. Critical Format 4.2. Critical Format
The 6LoRHC uses the Dispatch Value Bit Pattern of 100xxxxx. The 6LoRHC uses the Dispatch Value Bit Pattern of 100xxxxx.
A node which does not support the 6LoRHC Type MUST silently discard A node that does not support the 6LoRHC Type MUST silently discard
the packet. the packet.
Note: the situation where a node receives a message with a Critical Note: A situation where a node receives a message with a Critical
6LoWPAN Routing Header that it does not understand should not occur 6LoWPAN Routing Header that it does not understand should not occur
and is an administrative error, see Section 8. and is an administrative error, see Section 8.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
|1|0|0| TSE | Type | | |1|0|0| TSE | Type | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
<-- Length implied by Type/TSE --> <-- Length implied by Type/TSE -->
Figure 4: Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header. Figure 4: Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header
TSE: Type Specific Extension. The meaning depends on the Type, Type-Specific Extension (TSE): The meaning depends on the Type,
which must be known in all of the nodes. The interpretation of which must be known in all of the nodes. The interpretation of
the TSE depends on the Type field that follows. For instance, the TSE depends on the Type field that follows. For instance,
it may be used to transport control bits, the number of it may be used to transport control bits, the number of
elements in an array, or the length of the remainder of the elements in an array, or the length of the remainder of the
6LoRHC expressed in a unit other than bytes. 6LoRHC expressed in a unit other than bytes.
Type: Type of the 6LoRHC Type: Type of the 6LoRHC
4.3. Compressing Addresses 4.3. Compressing Addresses
The general technique used in this draft to compress an address is The general technique used in this document to compress an address is
first to determine a reference that has a long prefix match with this first to determine a reference that has a long prefix match with this
address, and then elide that matching piece. In order to reconstruct address and then elide that matching piece. In order to reconstruct
the compressed address, the receiving node will perform the process the compressed address, the receiving node will perform the process
of coalescence described in Section 4.3.1. of coalescence described in Section 4.3.1.
One possible reference is the root of the RPL DODAG that is being One possible reference is the root of the RPL Destination-Oriented
traversed. It is used by 6LoRH as the reference to compress an outer Directed Acyclic Graph (DODAG) that is being traversed. It is used
IP header, in case of an IP-in-IP encapsulation. If the root is the by 6LoRH as the reference to compress an outer IP header in case of
source of the packet, this technique allows to fully elide the source an IP-in-IP encapsulation. If the root is the source of the packet,
address in the compressed form of the IP header. If the root is not this technique allows one to fully elide the source address in the
the encapsulator, then the encapsulator address may still be compressed form of the IP header. If the root is not the
compressed using the root as reference. How the address of the root encapsulator, then the Encapsulator Address may still be compressed
is determined is discussed in Section 4.3.2. using the root as a reference. How the address of the root is
determined is discussed in Section 4.3.2.
Once the address of the source of the packet is determined, it Once the address of the source of the packet is determined, it
becomes the reference for the compression of the addresses that are becomes the reference for the compression of the addresses that are
located in compressed SRH headers that are present inside the IP-in- located in compressed SRH headers that are present inside the IP-in-
IP encapsulation in the uncompressed form. IP encapsulation in the uncompressed form.
4.3.1. Coalescence 4.3.1. Coalescence
An IPv6 compressed address is coalesced with a reference address by An IPv6 compressed address is coalesced with a reference address by
overriding the N rightmost bytes of the reference address with the overriding the N rightmost bytes of the reference address with the
compressed address, where N is the length of the compressed address, compressed address, where N is the length of the compressed address,
as indicated by the Type of the SRH-6LoRH header in Figure 7. as indicated by the Type of the SRH-6LoRH header in Figure 7.
The reference address MAY be a compressed address as well, in which The reference address MAY be a compressed address as well, in which
case it MUST be compressed in a form that is of an equal or greater case, it MUST be compressed in a form that is of an equal or greater
length than the address that is being coalesced. length than the address that is being coalesced.
A compressed address is expanded by coalescing it with a reference A compressed address is expanded by coalescing it with a reference
address. In the particular case of a Type 4 SRH-6LoRH, the address address. In the particular case of a Type 4 SRH-6LoRH, the address
is expressed in full and the coalescence is a complete override as is expressed in full and the coalescence is a complete override as
illustrated in Figure 5. illustrated in Figure 5.
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR reference address, may be compressed or not RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR A reference address, which may be
compressed or not
CCCCCCC compressed address, shorter or same as reference CCCCCCC A compressed address, which may be
shorter or the same as the reference
RRRRRRRRRRRRCCCCCCC coalesced address, same compression as reference RRRRRRRRRRRRCCCCCCC A coalesced address, which may be the
same compression as the reference
Figure 5: Coalescing addresses. Figure 5: Coalescing Addresses
4.3.2. DODAG Root Address Determination 4.3.2. DODAG Root Address Determination
Stateful Address compression requires that some state is installed in Stateful address compression requires that some state is installed in
the devices to store the compression information that is elided from the devices to store the compression information that is elided from
the packet. That state is stored in an abstract context table and the packet. That state is stored in an abstract context table, and
some form of index is found in the packet to obtain the compression some form of index is found in the packet to obtain the compression
information from the context table. information from the context table.
With RFC 6282 [RFC6282], the state is provided to the stack by the With RFC 6282 [RFC6282], the state is provided to the stack by the
"6LoWPAN Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)" [RFC6775]. NDP exchanges 6LoWPAN Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) [RFC6775]. NDP exchanges
the context through 6LoWPAN Context Option in Router Advertisement the context through the 6LoWPAN Context Option in Router
(RA) messages. In the compressed form of the packet, the context can Advertisement (RA) messages. In the compressed form of the packet,
be signaled in a Context Identifier Extension. the context can be signaled in a Context Identifier Extension.
With this specification, the compression information is provided to With this specification, the compression information is provided to
the stack by RPL, and RPL exchanges it through the DODAGID field in the stack by RPL, and RPL exchanges it through the DODAGID field in
the DAG Information Object (DIO) messages, as described in more the DAG Information Object (DIO) messages, as described in more
detail below. In the compressed form of the packet, the context can detail below. In the compressed form of the packet, the context can
be signaled in by the RPLInstanceID in the RPI. be signaled by the RPLInstanceID in the RPI.
With RPL [RFC6550], the address of the DODAG root is known from the With RPL [RFC6550], the address of the DODAG root is known from the
DODAGID field of the DIO messages. For a Global Instance, the DODAGID field of the DIO messages. For a Global Instance, the
RPLInstanceID that is present in the RPI is enough information to RPLInstanceID that is present in the RPI is enough information to
identify the DODAG that this node participates to and its associated identify the DODAG that this node participates with and its
root. But for a Local Instance, the address of the root MUST be associated root. But, for a Local Instance, the address of the root
explicit, either in some device configuration or signaled in the MUST be explicit, either in some device configuration or signaled in
packet, as the source or the destination address, respectively. the packet, as the source or the destination address, respectively.
When implicit, the address of the DODAG root MUST be determined as When implicit, the address of the DODAG root MUST be determined as
follows: follows:
If the whole network is a single DODAG then the root can be well- If the whole network is a single DODAG, then the root can be well-
known and does not need to be signaled in the packets. But since known and does not need to be signaled in the packets. But, since
RPL does not expose that property, it can only be known by a RPL does not expose that property, it can only be known by a
configuration applied to all nodes. configuration applied to all nodes.
Else, the router that encapsulates the packet and compresses it Else, the router that encapsulates the packet and compresses it
with this specification MUST also place an RPI in the packet as with this specification MUST also place an RPI in the packet as
prescribed by RPL to enable the identification of the DODAG. The prescribed by RPL to enable the identification of the DODAG. The
RPI must be present even in the case when the router also places RPI must be present even in the case when the router also places
an SRH header in the packet. an SRH header in the packet.
It is expected that the RPL implementation maintains an abstract It is expected that the RPL implementation maintains an abstract
context table, indexed by Global RPLInstanceID, that provides the context table, indexed by Global RPLInstanceID, that provides the
address of the root of the DODAG that this nodes participates to for address of the root of the DODAG that this node participates in for
that particular RPL Instance. that particular RPL Instance.
5. The SRH 6LoRH Header 5. The SRH-6LoRH Header
5.1. Encoding 5.1. Encoding
A Source Routing Header 6LoRH (SRH-6LoRH) header provides a A Source Routing Header 6LoRH (SRH-6LoRH) provides a compressed form
compressed form for the SRH, as defined in RFC 6554 [RFC6554] for use for the SRH, as defined in RFC 6554 [RFC6554], for use by RPL
by RPL routers. routers.
One or more SRH-6LoRH header(s) MAY be placed in a 6LoWPAN packet. One or more SRH-6LoRH header(s) MAY be placed in a 6LoWPAN packet.
If a non-RPL router receives a packet with a SRH-6LoRH header, there If a non-RPL router receives a packet with an SRH-6LoRH header, there
was a routing or a configuration error (see Section 8). was a routing or a configuration error (see Section 8).
The desired reaction for the non-RPL router is to drop the packet as The desired reaction for the non-RPL router is to drop the packet, as
opposed to skip the header and forward the packet. opposed to skipping the header and forwarding the packet.
The Dispatch Value Bit Pattern for the SRH-6LoRH header indicates The Dispatch Value Bit Pattern for the SRH-6LoRH header indicates it
Critical. Routers that understand the 6LoRH general format detailed is Critical. Routers that understand the 6LoRH general format
in Section 4 cannot ignore a 6LoRH header of this type, and will drop detailed in Section 4 cannot ignore a 6LoRH header of this type and
the packet if it is unknown to them. will drop the packet if it is unknown to them.
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- -+- -+ ... +- -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- -+- -+ ... +- -+
|1|0|0| Size |6LoRH Type 0..4| Hop1 | Hop2 | | HopN | |1|0|0| Size |6LoRH Type 0..4| Hop1 | Hop2 | | HopN |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- -+- -+ ... +- -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- -+- -+ ... +- -+
Where N = Size + 1 Where N = Size + 1
Figure 6: The SRH-6LoRH. Figure 6: The SRH-6LoRH
The 6LoRH Type of a SRH-6LoRH header indicates the compression level The 6LoRH Type of an SRH-6LoRH header indicates the compression level
used for that header. used for that header.
The fields following the 6LoRH Type are compressed addresses The fields following the 6LoRH Type are compressed addresses
indicating the consecutive hops, and are ordered from the first to indicating the consecutive hops and are ordered from the first to the
the last hop. last hop.
All the addresses in a given SRH-6LoRH header MUST be compressed in All the addresses in a given SRH-6LoRH header MUST be compressed in
an identical fashion, so the Length of the compressed form is the an identical fashion, so the Length of the compressed form is the
same for all. same for all.
In order to get different degrees of compression, multiple In order to get different degrees of compression, multiple
consecutive SRH-6LoRH headers MUST be used. consecutive SRH-6LoRH headers MUST be used.
Type 0 means that the address is compressed down to one byte, whereas Type 0 means that the address is compressed down to one byte, whereas
Type 4 means that the address is provided in full in the SRH-6LoRH Type 4 means that the address is provided in full in the SRH-6LoRH
skipping to change at page 1, line 588 skipping to change at page 1, line 594
| 6LoRH | Length of compressed | | 6LoRH | Length of compressed |
| Type | IPv6 address (bytes) | | Type | IPv6 address (bytes) |
+-----------+----------------------+ +-----------+----------------------+
| 0 | 1 | | 0 | 1 |
| 1 | 2 | | 1 | 2 |
| 2 | 4 | | 2 | 4 |
| 3 | 8 | | 3 | 8 |
| 4 | 16 | | 4 | 16 |
+-----------+----------------------+ +-----------+----------------------+
Figure 7: The SRH-6LoRH Types. Figure 7: The SRH-6LoRH Types
In the case of a SRH-6LoRH header, the TSE field is used as a Size, In the case of an SRH-6LoRH header, the TSE field is used as a Size,
which encodes the number of hops minus 1; so a Size of 0 means one which encodes the number of hops minus 1; so a Size of 0 means one
hop, and the maximum that can be encoded is 32 hops. (If more than hop, and the maximum that can be encoded is 32 hops. (If more than
32 hops need to be expressed, a sequence of SRH-6LoRH elements can be 32 hops need to be expressed, a sequence of SRH-6LoRH elements can be
employed.) It results that the Length in bytes of a SRH-6LoRH header employed.) The result is that the Length, in bytes, of an SRH-6LoRH
is: header is:
2 + Length_of_compressed_IPv6_address * (Size + 1) 2 + Length_of_compressed_IPv6_address * (Size + 1)
5.2. SRH-6LoRH General Operation 5.2. SRH-6LoRH General Operation
5.2.1. Uncompressed SRH Operation 5.2.1. Uncompressed SRH Operation
In the non-compressed form, when the root generates or forwards a In the uncompressed form, when the root generates or forwards a
packet in non-Storing Mode, it needs to include a Source Routing packet in Non-Storing mode, it needs to include a Source Routing
Header [RFC6554] to signal a strict source-route path to a final Header [RFC6554] to signal a strict source route path to a final
destination down the DODAG. destination down the DODAG.
All the hops along the path, but the first one, are encoded in order All the hops along the path, except the first one, are encoded in
in the SRH. The last entry in the SRH is the final destination and order in the SRH. The last entry in the SRH is the final
the destination in the IPv6 header is the first hop along the source- destination; the destination in the IPv6 header is the first hop
route path. The intermediate hops perform a swap and the Segment- along the source route path. The intermediate hops perform a swap
Left field indicates the active entry in the Routing Header and the Segments Left field indicates the active entry in the Routing
[RFC2460]. Header [RFC2460].
The current destination of the packet, which is the termination of The current destination of the packet, which is the termination of
the current segment, is indicated at all times by the destination the current segment, is indicated at all times by the destination
address of the IPv6 header. address of the IPv6 header.
5.2.2. 6LoRH-Compressed SRH Operation 5.2.2. 6LoRH-Compressed SRH Operation
The handling of the SRH-6LoRH is different: there is no swap, and a The handling of the SRH-6LoRH is different: there is no swap, and a
forwarding router that corresponds to the first entry in the first forwarding router that corresponds to the first entry in the first
SRH-6LoRH upon reception of a packet effectively consumes that entry SRH-6LoRH, upon reception of a packet, effectively consumes that
when forwarding. This means that the size of a compressed source- entry when forwarding. This means that the size of a compressed
routed packet decreases as the packet progresses along its path and source-routed packet decreases as the packet progresses along its
that the routing information is lost along the way. This also means path and that the routing information is lost along the way. This
that an SRH encoded with 6LoRH is not recoverable and cannot be also means that an SRH encoded with 6LoRH is not recoverable and
protected. cannot be protected.
When compressed with this specification, all the remaining hops MUST When compressed with this specification, all the remaining hops MUST
be encoded in order in one or more consecutive SRH-6LoRH headers. be encoded in order in one or more consecutive SRH-6LoRH headers.
Whether or not there is a SRH-6LoRH header present, the address of Whether or not there is an SRH-6LoRH header present, the address of
the final destination is indicated in the LOWPAN_IPHC at all times the final destination is indicated in the LOWPAN_IPHC at all times
along the path. Examples of this are provided in Appendix A. along the path. Examples of this are provided in Appendix A.
The current destination (termination of the current segment) for a The current destination (termination of the current segment) for a
compressed source-routed packet is indicated in the first entry of compressed source-routed packet is indicated in the first entry of
the first SRH-6LoRH. In strict source-routing, that entry MUST match the first SRH-6LoRH. In strict source routing, that entry MUST match
an address of the router that receives the packet. an address of the router that receives the packet.
The last entry in the last SRH-6LoRH is the last router on the way to The last entry in the last SRH-6LoRH is the last router on the way to
the final destination in the LLN. This router can be the final the final destination in the LLN. This router can be the final
destination if it is found desirable to carry a whole IP-in-IP destination if it is found desirable to carry a whole IP-in-IP
encapsulation all the way. Else, it is the RPL parent of the final encapsulation all the way. Else, it is the RPL parent of the final
destination, or a router acting at 6LR [RFC6775] for the destination destination, or a router acting at 6LoWPAN Router (6LR) [RFC6775] for
host, and advertising the host as an external route to RPL. the destination host, and it is advertising the host as an external
route to RPL.
If the SRH-6LoRH header is contained in an IP-in-IP encapsulation, If the SRH-6LoRH header is contained in an IP-in-IP encapsulation,
the last router removes the whole chain of headers. Otherwise, it the last router removes the whole chain of headers. Otherwise, it
removes the SRH-6LoRH header only. removes the SRH-6LoRH header only.
5.2.3. Inner LOWPAN_IPHC Compression 5.2.3. Inner LOWPAN_IPHC Compression
6LoWPAN ND [RFC6282] is designed to support more than one IPv6 6LoWPAN ND [RFC6282] is designed to support more than one IPv6
address per node and per Interface Identifier (IID), an IID being address per node and per Interface Identifier (IID); an IID is
typically derived from a MAC address to optimize the LOWPAN_IPHC typically derived from a MAC address to optimize the LOWPAN_IPHC
compression. compression.
Link local addresses are compressed with stateless address Link-local addresses are compressed with stateless address
compression (S/DAC=0). The other addresses are derived from compression (S/DAC=0). The other addresses are derived from
different prefixes and they can be compressed with stateful address different prefixes, and they can be compressed with stateful address
compression based on a context (S/DAC=1). compression based on a context (S/DAC=1).
But stateless compression is only defined for the specific link-local But, stateless compression is only defined for the specific link-
prefix as opposed to the prefix in an encapsulating header. And with local prefix as opposed to the prefix in an encapsulating header.
stateful compression, the compression reference is found in a And with stateful compression, the compression reference is found in
context, as opposed to an encapsulating header. a context, as opposed to an encapsulating header.
It results that in the case of an IP-in-IP encapsulation, it is The result is that, in the case of an IP-in-IP encapsulation, it is
possible to compress an inner source (respectively destination) IP possible to compress an inner source (respective destination) IP
address in a LOWPAN_IPHC based on the encapsulating IP header only if address in a LOWPAN_IPHC based on the encapsulating IP header only if
stateful (context-based) compression is used. The compression will stateful (context-based) compression is used. The compression will
operate only if the IID in the source (respectively the destination) operate only if the IID in the source (respective destination) IP
IP address in the outer and inner headers match, which usually means address in the outer and inner headers match, which usually means
that they refer to the same node . This is encoded as S/DAC = 1 and that they refer to the same node. This is encoded as S/DAC = 1 and
S/AM=11. It must be noted that the outer destination address that is S/AM=11. It must be noted that the outer destination address that is
used to compress the inner destination address is the last entry in used to compress the inner destination address is the last entry in
the last SRH-6LoRH header. the last SRH-6LoRH header.
5.3. The Design Point of Popping Entries 5.3. The Design Point of Popping Entries
In order to save energy and to optimize the chances of transmission In order to save energy and to optimize the chances of transmission
success on lossy media, it is a design point for this specification success on lossy media, it is a design point for this specification
that the entries in the SRH that have been used are removed from the that the entries in the SRH that have been used are removed from the
packet. This creates a discrepancy from the art of IPv6 where packet. This creates a discrepancy from the art of IPv6, where
Routing Header are mutable but recoverable. Routing Headers are mutable but recoverable.
With this specification, the packet can be expanded at any hop into a With this specification, the packet can be expanded at any hop into a
valid IPv6 packet, including a SRH, and compressed back. But the valid IPv6 packet, including an SRH, and compressed back. But the
packet as decompressed along the way will not carry all the consumed packet, as decompressed along the way, will not carry all the
addresses that packet would have if it had been forwarded in the consumed addresses that packet would have if it had been forwarded in
uncompressed form. the uncompressed form.
It is noted that: It is noted that:
The value of keeping the whole RH in an IPv6 header is for the The value of keeping the whole RH in an IPv6 header is for the
receiver to reverse it to use the symmetrical path on the way receiver to reverse it to use the symmetrical path on the way
back. back.
It is generally not a good idea to reverse a routing header. The It is generally not a good idea to reverse a Routing Header. The
RH may have been used to stay away from the shortest path for some RH may have been used to stay away from the shortest path for some
reason that is only valid on the way in (segment routing). reason that is only valid on the way in (segment routing).
There is no use of reversing a RH in the present RPL There is no use in reversing an RH in the present RPL
specifications. specifications.
P2P RPL reverses a path that was learned reactively, as a part of Point-to-Point (P2P) RPL reverses a path that was learned
the protocol operation, which is probably a cleaner way than a reactively as a part of the protocol operation, which is probably
reversed echo on the data path. a cleaner way than a reversed echo on the data path.
Reversing a header is discouraged by RFC 2460 [RFC2460] for RH0 Reversing a header is discouraged (by RFC 2460 [RFC2460]) for
unless it is authenticated, which requires an Authentication Redirected Header Option (RHO) unless it is authenticated, which
Header (AH). There is no definition of an AH operation for SRH, requires an Authentication Header (AH). There is no definition of
and there is no indication that the need exists in LLNs. an AH operation for SRH, and there is no indication that the need
exists in LLNs.
It is noted that AH does not protect the RH on the way. AH is a AH does not protect the RH on the way. AH is a validation at the
validation at the receiver with the sole value of enabling the receiver with the sole value of enabling the receiver to reverse
receiver to reversing it. it.
A RPL domain is usually protected by L2 security and that secures A RPL domain is usually protected by L2 security, which secures
both RPL itself and the RH in the packets, at every hop. This is both RPL itself and the RH in the packets at every hop. This is a
a better security than that provided by AH. better security than that provided by AH.
In summary, the benefit of saving energy and lowering the chances of In summary, the benefit of saving energy and lowering the chances of
loss by sending smaller frames over the LLN are seen as overwhelming loss by sending smaller frames over the LLN are seen as overwhelming
compared to the value of possibly reversing the header. compared to the value of possibly reversing the header.
5.4. Compression Reference for SRH-6LoRH header entries 5.4. Compression Reference for SRH-6LoRH Header Entries
In order to optimize the compression of IP addresses present in the In order to optimize the compression of IP addresses present in the
SRH headers, this specification requires that the 6LoWPAN layer SRH headers, this specification requires that the 6LoWPAN layer
identifies an address that is used as reference for the compression. identifies an address that is used as a reference for the
compression.
With this specification, the Compression Reference for the first With this specification, the Compression Reference for the first
address found in an SRH header is the source of the IPv6 packet, and address found in an SRH header is the source of the IPv6 packet, and
then the reference for each subsequent entry is the address of its then the reference for each subsequent entry is the address of its
predecessor once it is uncompressed. predecessor once it is uncompressed.
With RPL [RFC6550], an SRH header may only be present in Non-Storing With RPL [RFC6550], an SRH header may only be present in Non-Storing
mode, and it may only be placed in the packet by the root of the mode, and it may only be placed in the packet by the root of the
DODAG, which must be the source of the resulting IPv6 packet DODAG, which must be the source of the resulting IPv6 packet
[RFC2460]. In this case, the address used as Compression Reference [RFC2460]. In this case, the address used as Compression Reference
is the address of the root. is the address of the root.
The Compression Reference MUST be determined as follows: The Compression Reference MUST be determined as follows:
The reference address may be obtained by configuration. The The reference address may be obtained by configuration. The
configuration may indicate either the address in full, or the configuration may indicate either the address in full or the
identifier of a 6LoWPAN Context that carries the address [RFC6775], identifier of a 6LoWPAN Context that carries the address
for instance one of the 16 Context Identifiers used in LOWPAN_IPHC [RFC6775], for instance, one of the 16 Context Identifiers used in
[RFC6282]. LOWPAN_IPHC [RFC6282].
Else, and if there is no IP-in-IP encapsulation, the source address Else, if there is no IP-in-IP encapsulation, the source address in
in the IPv6 header that is compressed with LOWPAN_IPHC is the the IPv6 header that is compressed with LOWPAN_IPHC is the
reference for the compression. reference for the compression.
Else, and if the IP-in-IP compression specified in this document is Else, if the IP-in-IP compression specified in this document is
used and the Encapsulator Address is provided, then the Encapsulator used and the Encapsulator Address is provided, then the
Address is the reference. Encapsulator Address is the reference.
Else, meaning that the IP-in-IP compression specified in this Else, meaning that the IP-in-IP compression specified in this
document is used and the encapsulator is implicitly the root, the document is used and the encapsulator is implicitly the root, the
address of the root is the reference. address of the root is the reference.
5.5. Popping Headers 5.5. Popping Headers
Upon reception, the router checks whether the address in the first Upon reception, the router checks whether the address in the first
entry of the first SRH-6LoRH one of its own addresses. In that case, entry of the first SRH-6LoRH is one of its own addresses. If that is
router MUST consume that entry before forwarding, which is an action the case, the router MUST consume that entry before forwarding, which
of popping from a stack, where the stack is effectively the sequence is an action of popping from a stack, where the stack is effectively
of entries in consecutive SRH-6LoRH headers. the sequence of entries in consecutive SRH-6LoRH headers.
Popping an entry of an SRH-6LoRH header is a recursive action Popping an entry of an SRH-6LoRH header is a recursive action
performed as follows: performed as follows:
If the Size of the SRH-6LoRH header is 1 or more, indicating that If the Size of the current SRH-6LoRH header is 1 or more
there are at least 2 entries in the header, the router removes the (indicating that there are at least 2 entries in the header), the
first entry and decrements the Size (by 1). router removes the first entry and decrements the Size by 1.
Else (meaning that this is the last entry in the SRH-6LoRH header), If the Size of the current SRH-6LoRH header is 0 (indicating that
and if there is no next SRH-6LoRH header after this then the SRH- there is only 1 entry in the header) and there is no subsequent
6LoRH is removed. SRH-6LoRH after this, then the current SRH-6LoRH is removed.
Else, if there is a next SRH-6LoRH of a Type with a larger or equal If the Size of the current SRH-6LoRH header is 0 and there is a
value, meaning a same or lesser compression yielding same or larger subsequent SRH-6LoRH and the Type of the subsequent SRH-6LoRH is
compressed forms, then the SRH-6LoRH is removed. equal to or greater than the Type of the current SRH-6LoRH header
(indicating the same or lesser compression yielding the same or
larger compressed forms), then the current SRH-6LoRH is removed.
Else, the first entry of the next SRH-6LoRH is popped from the next If the Size of the current SRH-6LoRH header is 0 and there is a
SRH-6LoRH and coalesced with the first entry of this SRH-6LoRH. subsequent SRH-6LoRH and the Type of the subsequent SRH-6LoRH is
less the Type of the current SRH-6LoRH header, the first entry of
the subsequent SRH-6LoRH is removed and coalesced with the first
entry of the current SRH-6LoRH.
At the end of the process, if there is no more SRH-6LoRH in the At the end of the process, if there are no more SRH-6LoRH in the
packet, then the processing node is the last router along the source packet, then the processing node is the last router along the
route path. source route path.
An example of this operation is provided in Appendix A.3. An example of this operation is provided in Appendix A.3.
5.6. Forwarding 5.6. Forwarding
When receiving a packet with a SRH-6LoRH, a router determines the When receiving a packet with an SRH-6LoRH, a router determines the
IPv6 address of the current segment endpoint. IPv6 address of the current segment endpoint.
If strict source routing is enforced and this router is not the If strict source routing is enforced and this router is not the
segment endpoint for the packet then this router MUST drop the segment endpoint for the packet, then this router MUST drop the
packet. packet.
If this router is the current segment endpoint, then the router pops If this router is the current segment endpoint, then the router pops
its address as described in Section 5.5 and continues processing the its address as described in Section 5.5 and continues processing the
packet. packet.
If there is still a SRH-6LoRH, then the router determines the new If there is still an SRH-6LoRH, then the router determines the new
segment endpoint and routes the packet towards that endpoint. segment endpoint and routes the packet towards that endpoint.
Otherwise the router uses the destination in the inner IP header to Otherwise, the router uses the destination in the inner IP header to
forward or accept the packet. forward or accept the packet.
The segment endpoint of a packet MUST be determined as follows: The segment endpoint of a packet MUST be determined as follows:
The router first determines the Compression Reference as discussed in The router first determines the Compression Reference as discussed
Section 4.3.1. in Section 4.3.1.
The router then coalesces the Compression Reference with the first The router then coalesces the Compression Reference with the first
entry of the first SRH-6LoRH header as discussed in Section 5.4. If entry of the first SRH-6LoRH header as discussed in Section 5.4.
the type of the SRH-6LoRH header is type 4 then the coalescence is a If the SRH-6LoRH header is Type 4, then the coalescence is a full
full override. override.
Since the Compression Reference is an uncompressed address, the Since the Compression Reference is an uncompressed address, the
coalesced IPv6 address is also expressed in the full 128bits. coalesced IPv6 address is also expressed in the full 128 bits.
6. The RPL Packet Information 6LoRH 6. The RPL Packet Information 6LoRH (RPI-6LoRH)
RPL [RFC6550], Section 11.2, specifies the RPL Packet Information Section 11.2 of the RPL document [RFC6550] specifies the RPL Packet
(RPI) as a set of fields that are placed by RPL routers in IP packets Information (RPI) as a set of fields that are placed by RPL routers
to identify the RPL Instance, detect anomalies and trigger corrective in IP packets to identify the RPL Instance, detect anomalies, and
actions. trigger corrective actions.
In particular, the SenderRank, which is the scalar metric computed by In particular, the SenderRank, which is the scalar metric computed by
a specialized Objective Function such as described in RFC 6552 a specialized Objective Function such as described in RFC 6552
[RFC6552], indicates the Rank of the sender and is modified at each [RFC6552], indicates the Rank of the sender and is modified at each
hop. The SenderRank field is used to validate that the packet hop. The SenderRank field is used to validate that the packet
progresses in the expected direction, either upwards or downwards, progresses in the expected direction, either upwards or downwards,
along the DODAG. along the DODAG.
RPL defines the "RPL Option for Carrying RPL Information in Data- RPL defines the "The Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy
Plane Datagrams" [RFC6553] to transport the RPI, which is carried in Networks (RPL) Option for Carrying RPL Information in Data-Plane
an IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Options Header [RFC2460], typically consuming Datagrams" [RFC6553] to transport the RPI, which is carried in an
eight bytes per packet. IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Options Header [RFC2460], typically consuming 8 bytes
per packet.
With RFC 6553 [RFC6553], the RPL option is encoded as six octets, With RFC 6553 [RFC6553], the RPL Option is encoded as 6 octets, which
which must be placed in a Hop-by-Hop header that consumes two must be placed in a Hop-by-Hop header that consumes two additional
additional octets for a total of eight octets. To limit the header's octets for a total of 8 octets. To limit the header's range to just
range to just the RPL domain, the Hop-by-Hop header must be added to the RPL domain, the Hop-by-Hop header must be added to (or removed
(or removed from) packets that cross the border of the RPL domain. from) packets that cross the border of the RPL domain.
The 8-byte overhead is detrimental to LLN operation, in particular The 8-byte overhead is detrimental to LLN operation, particularly
with regards to bandwidth and battery constraints. These bytes may with regard to bandwidth and battery constraints. These bytes may
cause a containing frame to grow above maximum frame size, leading to cause a containing frame to grow above maximum frame size, leading to
Layer 2 or 6LoWPAN [RFC4944] fragmentation, which in turn leads to Layer 2 or 6LoWPAN [RFC4944] fragmentation, which in turn leads to
even more energy expenditure and issues discussed in "LLN Fragment even more energy expenditure and issues discussed in "LLN Fragment
Forwarding and Recovery" [I-D.thubert-6lo-forwarding-fragments]. Forwarding and Recovery" [FORWARD-FRAG].
An additional overhead comes from the need, in certain cases, to add An additional overhead comes from the need, in certain cases, to add
an IP-in-IP encapsulation to carry the Hop-by-Hop header. This is an IP-in-IP encapsulation to carry the Hop-by-Hop header. This is
needed when the router that inserts the Hop-by-Hop header is not the needed when the router that inserts the Hop-by-Hop header is not the
source of the packet, so that an error can be returned to the router. source of the packet so that an error can be returned to the router.
This is also the case when a packet originated by a RPL node must be This is also the case when a packet originated by a RPL node must be
stripped from the Hop-by-Hop header to be routed outside the RPL stripped from the Hop-by-Hop header to be routed outside the RPL
domain. domain.
For that reason, this specification defines an IP-in-IP-6LoRH header For that reason, this specification defines an IP-in-IP-6LoRH header
in Section 7, but it must be noted that removal of a 6LoRH header in Section 7, but it must be noted that removal of a 6LoRH header
does not require manipulation of the packet in the LOWPAN_IPHC, and does not require manipulation of the packet in the LOWPAN_IPHC, and
thus, if the source address in the LOWPAN_IPHC is the node that thus, if the source address in the LOWPAN_IPHC is the node that
inserted the IP-in-IP-6LoRH header then this situation alone does not inserted the IP-in-IP-6LoRH header, then this situation alone does
mandate an IP-in-IP-6LoRH header. not mandate an IP-in-IP-6LoRH header.
Note: it was found that some implementations omit the RPI for packets Note: It was found that some implementations omit the RPI for packets
going down the RPL graph in Non-Storing Mode, even though RPL going down the RPL graph in Non-Storing mode, even though RPL
indicates that the RPI should be placed in the packet. With this indicates that the RPI should be placed in the packet. With this
specification, the RPI is important to indicate the RPLInstanceID so specification, the RPI is important to indicate the RPLInstanceID, so
the RPI should not be omitted. the RPI should not be omitted.
As a result, a RPL packet may bear only an RPI-6LoRH header and no As a result, a RPL packet may bear only an RPI-6LoRH header and no
IP-in-IP-6LoRH header. In that case, the source and destination of IP-in-IP-6LoRH header. In that case, the source and destination of
the packet are specified by the LOWPAN_IPHC. the packet are specified by the LOWPAN_IPHC.
As with RFC 6553 [RFC6553], the fields in the RPI include an 'O', an As with RFC 6553 [RFC6553], the fields in the RPI include an 'O', an
'R', and an 'F' bit, an 8-bit RPLInstanceID (with some internal 'R', and an 'F' bit, an 8-bit RPLInstanceID (with some internal
structure), and a 16-bit SenderRank. structure), and a 16-bit SenderRank.
skipping to change at page 1, line 907 skipping to change at page 1, line 922
[RFC6550]. A number of simple use cases do not require more than one [RFC6550]. A number of simple use cases do not require more than one
RPL Instance, and in such cases, the RPL Instance is expected to be RPL Instance, and in such cases, the RPL Instance is expected to be
the Global Instance 0. A global RPLInstanceID is encoded in a the Global Instance 0. A global RPLInstanceID is encoded in a
RPLInstanceID field as follows: RPLInstanceID field as follows:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|0| ID | Global RPLInstanceID in 0..127 |0| ID | Global RPLInstanceID in 0..127
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 8: RPLInstanceID Field Format for Global Instances. Figure 8: RPLInstanceID Field Format for Global Instances
For the particular case of the Global Instance 0, the RPLInstanceID For the particular case of the Global Instance 0, the RPLInstanceID
field is all zeros. This specification allows to elide a field is all zeros. This specification allows the compressor to
RPLInstanceID field that is all zeros, and defines a I flag that, elide a RPLInstanceID field that is all zeros and defines an I flag
when set, signals that the field is elided. that, when set, signals that the field is elided.
6.2. Compressing the SenderRank 6.2. Compressing the SenderRank
The SenderRank is the result of the DAGRank operation on the rank of The SenderRank is the result of the DAGRank operation on the Rank of
the sender; here the DAGRank operation is defined in Section 3.5.1 of the sender; here, the DAGRank operation is defined in Section 3.5.1
the RPL specification [RFC6550] as: of the RPL specification [RFC6550] as:
DAGRank(rank) = floor(rank/MinHopRankIncrease) DAGRank(rank) = floor(rank/MinHopRankIncrease)
If MinHopRankIncrease is set to a multiple of 256, the least If MinHopRankIncrease is set to a multiple of 256, the least
significant 8 bits of the SenderRank will be all zeroes; by eliding significant eight bits of the SenderRank will be all zeroes; by
those, the SenderRank can be compressed into a single byte. This eliding those, the SenderRank can be compressed into a single byte.
idea is used in RFC 6550 [RFC6550] by defining This idea is used in RFC 6550 [RFC6550], by defining
DEFAULT_MIN_HOP_RANK_INCREASE as 256 and in RFC 6552 [RFC6552] that DEFAULT_MIN_HOP_RANK_INCREASE as 256, and in RFC 6552 [RFC6552],
defaults MinHopRankIncrease to DEFAULT_MIN_HOP_RANK_INCREASE. which defaults MinHopRankIncrease to DEFAULT_MIN_HOP_RANK_INCREASE.
This specification allows to encode the SenderRank as either one or This specification allows for the SenderRank to be encoded as either
two bytes, and defines a K flag that, when set, signals that a single 1 or 2 bytes and defines a K flag that, when set, signals that a
byte is used. single byte is used.
6.3. The Overall RPI-6LoRH encoding 6.3. The Overall RPI-6LoRH Encoding
The RPI-6LoRH header provides a compressed form for the RPL RPI. The RPI-6LoRH header provides a compressed form for the RPL RPI.
Routers that need to forward a packet with a RPI-6LoRH header are Routers that need to forward a packet with a RPI-6LoRH header are
expected to be RPL routers that support this specification. expected to be RPL routers that support this specification.
If a non-RPL router receives a packet with a RPI-6LoRH header, there If a non-RPL router receives a packet with a RPI-6LoRH header, there
was a routing or a configuration error (see Section 8). was a routing or a configuration error (see Section 8).
The desired reaction for the non-RPL router is to drop the packet as The desired reaction for the non-RPL router is to drop the packet as
opposed to skip the header and forward the packet, which could end up opposed to skip the header and forward the packet, which could end up
forming loops by reinjecting the packet in the wrong RPL Instance. forming loops by reinjecting the packet in the wrong RPL Instance.
The Dispatch Value Bit Pattern for the SRH-6LoRH header indicates The Dispatch Value Bit Pattern for the SRH-6LoRH header indicates it
Critical. Routers that understand the 6LoRH general format detailed is Critical. Routers that understand the 6LoRH general format
in Section 4 cannot ignore a 6LoRH header of this type, and will drop detailed in Section 4 cannot ignore a 6LoRH header of this type and
the packet if it is unknown to them. will drop the packet if it is unknown to them.
Since the RPI-6LoRH header is a critical header, the TSE field does Since the RPI-6LoRH header is a Critical header, the TSE field does
not need to be a length expressed in bytes. In that case the field not need to be a length expressed in bytes. Here, the field is fully
is fully reused for control bits that encode the O, R and F flags reused for control bits that encode the O, R, and F flags from the
from the RPI, as well as the I and K flags that indicate the RPI, as well as the I and K flags that indicate the compression
compression format. format.
The Type for the RPI-6LoRH is 5. The RPI-6LoRH is Type 5.
The RPI-6LoRH header is immediately followed by the RPLInstanceID The RPI-6LoRH header is immediately followed by the RPLInstanceID
field, unless that field is fully elided, and then the SenderRank, field, unless that field is fully elided, and then the SenderRank,
which is either compressed into one byte or fully in-lined as two which is either compressed into one byte or fully in-lined as 2
bytes. The I and K flags in the RPI-6LoRH header indicate whether bytes. The I and K flags in the RPI-6LoRH header indicate whether
the RPLInstanceID is elided and/or the SenderRank is compressed. the RPLInstanceID is elided and/or the SenderRank is compressed.
Depending on these bits, the Length of the RPI-6LoRH may vary as Depending on these bits, the Length of the RPI-6LoRH may vary as
described hereafter. described hereafter.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+
|1|0|0|O|R|F|I|K| 6LoRH Type=5 | Compressed fields | |1|0|0|O|R|F|I|K| 6LoRH Type=5 | Compressed fields |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+
Figure 9: The Generic RPI-6LoRH Format. Figure 9: The Generic RPI-6LoRH Format
O, R, and F bits: The O, R, and F bits are defined in section 11.2 O, R, and F bits: The O, R, and F bits are defined in Section 11.2
of RFC 6550 [RFC6550]. of RFC 6550 [RFC6550].
I flag: If it is set, the RPLInstanceID is elided and the I flag: If it is set, the RPLInstanceID is elided and the
RPLInstanceID is the Global RPLInstanceID 0. If it is not set, RPLInstanceID is the Global RPLInstanceID 0. If it is not set,
the octet immediately following the type field contains the the octet immediately following the Type field contains the
RPLInstanceID as specified in section 5.1 of RFC 6550 RPLInstanceID as specified in Section 5.1 of RFC 6550
[RFC6550]. [RFC6550].
K flag: If it is set, the SenderRank is compressed into one octet, K flag: If it is set, the SenderRank is compressed into 1 octet,
with the least significant octet elided. If it is not set, the with the least significant octet elided. If it is not set, the
SenderRank, is fully inlined as two octets. SenderRank is fully inlined as 2 octets.
In Figure 10, the RPLInstanceID is the Global RPLInstanceID 0, and In Figure 10, the RPLInstanceID is the Global RPLInstanceID 0, and
the MinHopRankIncrease is a multiple of 256 so the least significant the MinHopRankIncrease is a multiple of 256, so the least significant
byte is all zeros and can be elided: byte is all zeros and can be elided:
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1|0|0|O|R|F|1|1| 6LoRH Type=5 | SenderRank | |1|0|0|O|R|F|1|1| 6LoRH Type=5 | SenderRank |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
I=1, K=1 I=1, K=1
Figure 10: The most compressed RPI-6LoRH. Figure 10: The Most Compressed RPI-6LoRH
In Figure 11, the RPLInstanceID is the Global RPLInstanceID 0, but In Figure 11, the RPLInstanceID is the Global RPLInstanceID 0, but
both bytes of the SenderRank are significant so it can not be both bytes of the SenderRank are significant so it cannot be
compressed: compressed:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1|0|0|O|R|F|1|0| 6LoRH Type=5 | SenderRank | |1|0|0|O|R|F|1|0| 6LoRH Type=5 | SenderRank |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
I=1, K=0 I=1, K=0
Figure 11: Eliding the RPLInstanceID. Figure 11: Eliding the RPLInstanceID
In Figure 12, the RPLInstanceID is not the Global RPLInstanceID 0, In Figure 12, the RPLInstanceID is not the Global RPLInstanceID 0,
and the MinHopRankIncrease is a multiple of 256: and the MinHopRankIncrease is a multiple of 256:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1|0|0|O|R|F|0|1| 6LoRH Type=5 | RPLInstanceID | SenderRank | |1|0|0|O|R|F|0|1| 6LoRH Type=5 | RPLInstanceID | SenderRank |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
I=0, K=1 I=0, K=1
Figure 12: Compressing SenderRank. Figure 12: Compressing SenderRank
In Figure 13, the RPLInstanceID is not the Global RPLInstanceID 0, In Figure 13, the RPLInstanceID is not the Global RPLInstanceID 0,
and both bytes of the SenderRank are significant: and both bytes of the SenderRank are significant:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|1|0|0|O|R|F|0|0| 6LoRH Type=5 | RPLInstanceID | Sender-... |1|0|0|O|R|F|0|0| 6LoRH Type=5 | RPLInstanceID | Sender-...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
...-Rank | ...-Rank |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
I=0, K=0 I=0, K=0
Figure 13: Least compressed form of RPI-6LoRH. Figure 13: The Least Compressed Form of RPI-6LoRH
7. The IP-in-IP 6LoRH Header 7. The IP-in-IP 6LoRH Header
The IP-in-IP 6LoRH (IP-in-IP-6LoRH) header is an Elective 6LoWPAN The IP-in-IP 6LoRH (IP-in-IP-6LoRH) header is an Elective 6LoWPAN
Routing Header that provides a compressed form for the encapsulating Routing Header that provides a compressed form for the encapsulating
IPv6 Header in the case of an IP-in-IP encapsulation. IPv6 Header in the case of an IP-in-IP encapsulation.
An IP-in-IP encapsulation is used to insert a field such as a Routing An IP-in-IP encapsulation is used to insert a field such as a Routing
Header or an RPI at a router that is not the source of the packet. Header or an RPI at a router that is not the source of the packet.
In order to send an error back regarding the inserted field, the In order to send an error back regarding the inserted field, the
address of the router that performs the insertion must be provided. address of the router that performs the insertion must be provided.
The encapsulation can also enable the last router prior to The encapsulation can also enable the last router prior to the
Destination to remove a field such as the RPI, but this can be done Destination to remove a field such as the RPI, but this can be done
in the compressed form by removing the RPI-6LoRH, so an IP-in-IP- in the compressed form by removing the RPI-6LoRH, so an IP-in-IP-
6LoRH encapsulation is not required for that sole purpose. 6LoRH encapsulation is not required for that sole purpose.
The Dispatch Value Bit Pattern for the SRH-6LoRH header indicates The Dispatch Value Bit Pattern for the SRH-6LoRH header indicates it
Elective. This field is not critical for routing since it does not is Elective. This field is not Critical for routing since it does
indicate the destination of the packet, which is either encoded in a not indicate the destination of the packet, which is either encoded
SRH-6LoRH header or in the inner IP header. A 6LoRH header of this in an SRH-6LoRH header or in the inner IP header. A 6LoRH header of
type can be skipped if not understood (per Section 4), and the 6LoRH this type can be skipped if not understood (per Section 4), and the
header indicates the Length in bytes. 6LoRH header indicates the Length in bytes.
0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
|1|0|1| Length | 6LoRH Type 6 | Hop Limit | Encaps. Address | |1|0|1| Length | 6LoRH Type 6 | Hop Limit | Encaps. Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- ... -+
Figure 14: The IP-in-IP-6LoRH. Figure 14: The IP-in-IP-6LoRH
The Length of an IP-in-IP-6LoRH header is expressed in bytes and MUST The Length of an IP-in-IP-6LoRH header is expressed in bytes and MUST
be at least 1, to indicate a Hop Limit (HL), that is decremented at be at least 1, to indicate a Hop Limit (HL) that is decremented at
each hop. When the HL reaches 0, the packet is dropped per RFC 2460 each hop. When the HL reaches 0, the packet is dropped per RFC 2460
[RFC2460]. [RFC2460].
If the Length of an IP-in-IP-6LoRH header is exactly 1, then the If the Length of an IP-in-IP-6LoRH header is exactly 1, then the
Encapsulator Address is elided, which means that the Encapsulator is Encapsulator Address is elided, which means that the encapsulator is
a well-known router, for instance the root in a RPL graph. a well-known router, for instance, the root in a RPL graph.
The most efficient compression of an IP-in-IP encapsulation that can The most efficient compression of an IP-in-IP encapsulation that can
be achieved with this specification is obtained when an endpoint of be achieved with this specification is obtained when an endpoint of
the packet is the root of the RPL DODAG associated to the RPL the packet is the root of the RPL DODAG associated to the RPL
Instance that is used to forward the packet, and the root address is Instance that is used to forward the packet, and the root address is
known implicitly as opposed to signaled explicitly in the data known implicitly as opposed to signaled explicitly in the data
packets. packets.
If the Length of an IP-in-IP-6LoRH header is greater than 1, then an If the Length of an IP-in-IP-6LoRH header is greater than 1, then an
Encapsulator Address is placed in a compressed form after the Hop Encapsulator Address is placed in a compressed form after the Hop
Limit field. The value of the Length indicates which compression is Limit field. The value of the Length indicates which compression is
performed on the Encapsulator Address. For instance, a Length of 3 performed on the Encapsulator Address. For instance, a Length of 3
indicates that the Encapsulator Address is compressed to 2 bytes. indicates that the Encapsulator Address is compressed to 2 bytes.
The reference for the compression is the address of the root of the The reference for the compression is the address of the root of the
DODAG. The way the address of the root is determined is discussed in DODAG. The way the address of the root is determined is discussed in
Section 4.3.2. Section 4.3.2.
With RPL, the destination address in the IP-in-IP header is With RPL, the destination address in the IP-in-IP header is
implicitly the root in the RPL graph for packets going upwards, and, implicitly the root in the RPL graph for packets going upwards; in
in storing mode, it is the destination address in the LOWPAN_IPHC for Storing mode, it is the destination address in the LOWPAN_IPHC for
packets going downwards. In non-storing mode, there is no implicit packets going downwards. In Non-Storing mode, there is no implicit
value for packets going downwards. value for packets going downwards.
If the implicit value is correct, the destination IP address of the If the implicit value is correct, the destination IP address of the
IP-in-IP encapsulation can be elided. Else, the destination IP IP-in-IP encapsulation can be elided. Else, the destination IP
address of the IP-in-IP header is transported in a SRH-6LoRH header address of the IP-in-IP header is transported in an SRH-6LoRH header
as the first entry of the first of these headers. as the first entry of the first of these headers.
If the final destination of the packet is a leaf that does not If the final destination of the packet is a leaf that does not
support this specification, then the chain of 6LoRH headers must be support this specification, then the chain of 6LoRH headers must be
stripped by the RPL/6LR router to which the leaf is attached. In stripped by the RPL/6LR router to which the leaf is attached. In
that example, the destination IP address of the IP-in-IP header that example, the destination IP address of the IP-in-IP header
cannot be elided. cannot be elided.
In the special case where a 6LoRH header is used to route 6LoWPAN In the special case where a 6LoRH header is used to route 6LoWPAN
fragments, the destination address is not accessible in the fragments, the destination address is not accessible in the
LOWPAN_IPHC on all fragments and can be elided only for the first LOWPAN_IPHC on all fragments and can be elided only for the first
fragment and for packets going upwards. fragment and for packets going upwards.
8. Management Considerations 8. Management Considerations
Though it is possible to decompress a packet at any hop, this Though it is possible to decompress a packet at any hop, this
specification is optimized to enable that a packet is forwarded in specification is optimized to enable that a packet is forwarded in
its compressed form all the way, and it makes sense to deploy its compressed form all the way, and it makes sense to deploy
homogeneous networks, where all nodes, or no node at all, use the homogeneous networks where all nodes, or no nodes at all, use the
compression technique detailed therein. compression technique detailed therein.
This specification aims at a simple implementation running in This specification aims at a simple implementation running in
constrained nodes, so it does indeed expect an homogeneous network constrained nodes, so it does indeed expect a homogeneous network
and as a consequence it does not provide a method to determine the and, as a consequence, it does not provide a method to determine the
level of support by the next hops at forwarding time. level of support by the next hops at forwarding time.
Should an extension to this specification provide such a method, Should an extension to this specification provide such a method,
forwarding nodes could compress or uncompress the RPL artifacts forwarding nodes could compress or decompress the RPL artifacts
appropriately and enable a backward compatibility between nodes that appropriately and enable a backward compatibility between nodes that
support this specification and nodes that do not. support this specification and nodes that do not.
It results that this specification does not attempt to enable such It results that this specification does not attempt to enable such
backwards compatibility. It does not require extraneous code to backwards compatibility. It does not require extraneous code to
exchange and handle error messages to correct automatically mismatch exchange and handle error messages to automatically correct mismatch
situations, either. situations either.
When a packet is expected to carry a 6LoRH header but it does not, When a packet is expected to carry a 6LoRH header but does not, the
the node that discovers the issue is expected to send an ICMPv6 error node that discovers the issue is expected to send an ICMPv6 error
message to the root, at an adapted rate limitation and with a Type 4 message to the root. It should be sent at an adapted rate-limitation
indicating a "Parameter Problem", and a Code 0 indicating an and with a type 4 (indicating a "Parameter Problem") and a code 0
"erroneous header field encountered", embedding the relevant portion (indicating an "Unrecognized Next Header field encountered"). The
of the received packet and pointing at the offset therein where the relevant portion of the received packet should be embedded and the
6LoRH header was expected. offset therein where the 6LoRH header was expected should be pointed
out.
When a packet is received with a 6LoRH header that is not recognized, When a packet is received with a 6LoRH header that is not recognized,
the node that discovers the issue is expected to send an ICMPv6 error the node that discovers the issue is expected to send an ICMPv6 error
message, to the root, at an adapted rate limitation and with a Type 4 message to the root. It should be sent at an adapted rate-limitation
indicating a "Parameter Problem", and a Code 1 indicating an and with a type 4 (indicating a "Parameter Problem") and a code 1
"unrecognized Next Header type", embedding the relevant portion of (indicating an "Unrecognized Next Header type encountered"). The
the received packet and pointing at the offset therein where the relevant portion of the received packet should be embedded and the
6LoRH header was expected. offset therein where the 6LoRH header was expected should be pointed
out.
In both cases, the node SHOULD NOT place a 6LoRH header defined in In both cases, the node SHOULD NOT place a 6LoRH header as defined in
this specification in the resulting message, and should either omit this specification in the resulting message, and the node should
the RPI or place it uncompressed after the IPv6 header. either omit the RPI or place it uncompressed after the IPv6 header.
In both cases also, an alternate management method may be preferred Additionally, in both cases, an alternate management method may be
in order to notify the network administrator that there is a preferred in order to notify the network administrator that there is
configuration error. a configuration error.
Keeping the network homogeneous is either a deployment issue, by Keeping the network homogeneous is either a deployment issue, by
deploying only devices with a same capability, or a management issue, deploying only devices with a same capability, or a management issue,
by configuring all devices to either use, or not use, a certain level by configuring all devices to either use or not use a certain level
of this compression technique and its future additions. of this compression technique and its future additions.
In particular, the situation where a node receives a message with a In particular, the situation where a node receives a message with a
Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header that it does not understand is an Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header that it does not understand is an
administrative error whereby the wrong device is placed in a network, administrative error whereby the wrong device is placed in a network,
or the device is mis-configured. or the device is misconfigured.
When a mismatch situation is detected, it is expected that the device When a mismatch situation is detected, it is expected that the device
raises some management alert, indicating the issue, e.g., that it has raises some management alert indicating the issue, e.g., that it has
to drop a packet with a Critical 6LoRH. to drop a packet with a Critical 6LoRH.
9. Security Considerations 9. Security Considerations
The security considerations of RFC 4944 [RFC4944], RFC 6282 The security considerations of RFC 4944 [RFC4944], RFC 6282
[RFC6282], and RFC 6553 [RFC6553] apply. [RFC6282], and RFC 6553 [RFC6553] apply.
Using a compressed format as opposed to the full in-line format is Using a compressed format as opposed to the full in-line format is
logically equivalent and is believed to not create an opening for a logically equivalent and is believed not to create an opening for a
new threat when compared to RFC 6550 [RFC6550], RFC 6553 [RFC6553] new threat when compared to RFC 6550 [RFC6550], RFC 6553 [RFC6553],
and RFC 6554 [RFC6554], noting that, even though intermediate hops and RFC 6554 [RFC6554], noting that, even though intermediate hops
are removed from the SRH header as they are consumed, a node may are removed from the SRH header as they are consumed, a node may
still identify that the rest of the source routed path includes a still identify that the rest of the source-routed path includes a
loop or not (see Security section of RFC 6554). It must be noted loop or not (see the "Security" section of RFC 6554). It must be
that if the attacker is not part of the loop, then there is always a noted that if the attacker is not part of the loop, then there is
node at the beginning of the loop that can detect it and remove it. always a node at the beginning of the loop that can detect it and
remove it.
10. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
This specification reserves Dispatch Value Bit Patterns within the This specification reserves Dispatch Value Bit Patterns within the
6LoWPAN Dispatch Page 1 as follows: 6LoWPAN Dispatch Page 1 as follows:
101xxxxx: for Elective 6LoWPAN Routing Headers 10 1xxxxx: for Elective 6LoWPAN Routing Headers
100xxxxx: for Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Headers. 10 0xxxxx: for Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Headers
Additionally this document creates two IANA registries, one for the Additionally, this document creates two IANA registries: one for the
Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type and one for the Elective 6LoWPAN Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type and one for the Elective 6LoWPAN
Routing Header Type, each with 32 possible values from 0 to 31, as Routing Header Type, each with 256 possible values, from 0 to 255, as
described below. described below.
Future assignments in these registries are to be coordinated via IANA Future assignments are made by IANA using the "RFC Required"
under the policy of "RFC Required" (per RFC 5226 [RFC5226]) to enable procedure [RFC5226].
any type of RFC to obtain a value in the registry.
10.2. New Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type Registry 10.2. New Critical 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type Registry
This document creates an IANA registry for the Critical 6LoWPAN This document creates an IANA registry titled "Critical 6LoWPAN
Routing Header Type, and assigns the following values: Routing Header Type" and assigns the following values:
0..4: SRH-6LoRH [RFCthis] 0-4: SRH-6LoRH [RFC8138]
5: RPI-6LoRH [RFCthis] 5: RPI-6LoRH [RFC8138]
10.3. New Elective 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type Registry 10.3. New Elective 6LoWPAN Routing Header Type Registry
This document creates an IANA registry for the Elective 6LoWPAN This document creates an IANA registry titled "Elective 6LoWPAN
Routing Header Type, and assigns the following value: Routing Header Type" and assigns the following value:
6: IP-in-IP-6LoRH [RFCthis]
11. Acknowledgments
The authors wish to thank Tom Phinney, Thomas Watteyne, Tengfei
Chang, Martin Turon, James Woodyatt, Samita Chakrabarti, Jonathan
Hui, Gabriel Montenegro and Ralph Droms for constructive reviews to
the design in the 6lo Working Group. The overall discussion involved
participants to the 6MAN, 6TiSCH and ROLL WGs, thank you all.
Special thanks to the chairs of the ROLL WG, Michael Richardson and
Ines Robles, Brian Haberman, Internet Area A-D, and Alvaro Retana and
Adrian Farrel, Routing Area A-Ds, for driving this complex effort
across Working Groups and Areas.
12. References 6: IP-in-IP-6LoRH [RFC8138]
12.1. Normative References 11. References
[I-D.ietf-6lo-paging-dispatch] 11.1. Normative References
Thubert, P. and R. Cragie, "6LoWPAN Paging Dispatch",
draft-ietf-6lo-paging-dispatch-05 (work in progress),
October 2016.
[IEEE802154] [IEEE.802.15.4]
IEEE standard for Information Technology, "IEEE std. IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Low-Rate Wireless Networks",
802.15.4, Part. 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) IEEE 802.15.4-2015, DOI 10.1109/IEEESTD.2016.7460875,
and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate <http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7460875/>.
Wireless Personal Area Networks", 2015.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460, (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>. December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.
skipping to change at page 28, line 39 skipping to change at page 29, line 39
Information in Data-Plane Datagrams", RFC 6553, Information in Data-Plane Datagrams", RFC 6553,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6553, March 2012, DOI 10.17487/RFC6553, March 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6553>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6553>.
[RFC6554] Hui, J., Vasseur, JP., Culler, D., and V. Manral, "An IPv6 [RFC6554] Hui, J., Vasseur, JP., Culler, D., and V. Manral, "An IPv6
Routing Header for Source Routes with the Routing Protocol Routing Header for Source Routes with the Routing Protocol
for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL)", RFC 6554, for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL)", RFC 6554,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6554, March 2012, DOI 10.17487/RFC6554, March 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6554>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6554>.
12.2. Informative References [RFC8025] Thubert, P., Ed. and R. Cragie, "IPv6 over Low-Power
Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) Paging Dispatch",
RFC 8025, DOI 10.17487/RFC8025, November 2016,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8025>.
[I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] 11.2. Informative References
Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode
of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-10 (work
in progress), June 2016.
[I-D.ietf-roll-useofrplinfo] [FORWARD-FRAG]
Robles, I., Richardson, M., and P. Thubert, "When to use Thubert, P., Ed. and J. Hui, "LLN Fragment Forwarding and
RFC 6553, 6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6", draft-ietf-roll- Recovery", Work in Progress, draft-thubert-6lo-forwarding-
useofrplinfo-09 (work in progress), October 2016. fragments-05, April 2017.
[I-D.thubert-6lo-forwarding-fragments] [IPv6-ARCH]
Thubert, P. and J. Hui, "LLN Fragment Forwarding and Thubert, P., Ed., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH
Recovery", draft-thubert-6lo-forwarding-fragments-03 (work mode of IEEE 802.15.4", Work in Progress,
in progress), October 2016. draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-11, January 2017.
[RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. [RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012, RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.
[RFC7102] Vasseur, JP., "Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and [RFC7102] Vasseur, JP., "Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and
Lossy Networks", RFC 7102, DOI 10.17487/RFC7102, January Lossy Networks", RFC 7102, DOI 10.17487/RFC7102, January
2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7102>. 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7102>.
skipping to change at page 29, line 31 skipping to change at page 30, line 31
Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228, Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>.
[RFC7554] Watteyne, T., Ed., Palattella, M., and L. Grieco, "Using [RFC7554] Watteyne, T., Ed., Palattella, M., and L. Grieco, "Using
IEEE 802.15.4e Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) in the IEEE 802.15.4e Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) in the
Internet of Things (IoT): Problem Statement", RFC 7554, Internet of Things (IoT): Problem Statement", RFC 7554,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7554, May 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7554, May 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7554>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7554>.
[RPL-INFO] Robles, M., Richardson, M., and P. Thubert, "When to use
RFC 6553, 6554 and IPv6-in-IPv6", Work in Progress,
draft-ietf-roll-useofrplinfo-14, April 2017.
Appendix A. Examples Appendix A. Examples
A.1. Examples Compressing The RPI A.1. Examples Compressing the RPI
The example in Figure 15 illustrates the 6LoRH compression of a The example in Figure 15 illustrates the 6LoRH compression of a
classical packet in Storing Mode in all directions, as well as in classical packet in Storing mode in all directions, as well as in
non-Storing mode for a packet going up the DODAG following the Non-Storing mode for a packet going up the DODAG following the
default route to the root. In this particular example, a default route to the root. In this particular example, a
fragmentation process takes place per RFC 4944 [RFC4944], and the fragmentation process takes place per RFC 4944 [RFC4944], and the
fragment headers must be placed in Page 0 before switching to Page 1: fragment headers must be placed in Page 0 before switching to Page 1:
+- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+... +- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...
|Frag type|Frag hdr |11110001| RPI- |IP-in-IP| LOWPAN_IPHC | ... |Frag type|Frag hdr |11110001| RPI- |IP-in-IP| LOWPAN_IPHC | ...
|RFC 4944 |RFC 4944 | Page 1 | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | | |RFC 4944 |RFC 4944 | Page 1 | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | |
+- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+... +- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...
<- RFC 6282 -> <- RFC 6282 ->
No RPL artifact No RPL artifact
skipping to change at page 30, line 22 skipping to change at page 31, line 33
+- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+... +- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...
|Frag type|Frag hdr | |Frag type|Frag hdr |
|RFC 4944 |RFC 4944 | Payload (cont) |RFC 4944 |RFC 4944 | Payload (cont)
+- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+... +- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...
+- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+... +- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...
|Frag type|Frag hdr | |Frag type|Frag hdr |
|RFC 4944 |RFC 4944 | Payload (cont) |RFC 4944 |RFC 4944 | Payload (cont)
+- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+... +- ... -+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+ ... -+- ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...
Figure 15: Example Compressed Packet with RPI. Figure 15: Example Compressed Packet with RPI
In Storing Mode, if the packet stays within the RPL domain, then it In Storing mode, if the packet stays within the RPL domain, then it
is possible to save the IP-in-IP encapsulation, in which case only is possible to save the IP-in-IP encapsulation, in which case, only
the RPI is compressed with a 6LoRH, as illustrated in Figure 16 in the RPI is compressed with a 6LoRH, as illustrated in Figure 16 in
the case of a non-fragmented ICMP packet: the case of a non-fragmented ICMP packet:
+- ... -+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+... +- ... -+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...
|11110001| RPI-6LoRH | NH = 0 | NH = 58 | ICMP message ... |11110001| RPI-6LoRH | NH = 0 | NH = 58 | ICMP message ...
|Page 1 | type 5 | 6LOWPAN_IPHC | (ICMP) | (no compression) |Page 1 | Type 5 | 6LOWPAN_IPHC | (ICMP) | (no compression)
+- ... -+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+... +- ... -+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...
<- RFC 6282 -> <- RFC 6282 ->
No RPL artifact No RPL artifact
Figure 16: Example ICMP Packet with RPI in Storing Mode. Figure 16: Example ICMP Packet with RPI in Storing Mode
The format in Figure 16 is logically equivalent to the non-compressed The format in Figure 16 is logically equivalent to the uncompressed
format illustrated in Figure 17: format illustrated in Figure 17:
+-+-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+... +-+-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...
| IPv6 Header | Hop-by-Hop | RPI in | ICMP message ... | IPv6 Header | Hop-by-Hop | RPI in | ICMP message ...
| NH = 58 | Header | RPL Option | | NH = 58 | Header | RPL Option |
+-+-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+... +-+-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...
Figure 17: Uncompressed ICMP Packet with RPI. Figure 17: Uncompressed ICMP Packet with RPI
For a UDP packet, the transport header can be compressed with 6LoWPAN For a UDP packet, the transport header can be compressed with 6LoWPAN
HC [RFC6282] as illustrated in Figure 18: HC [RFC6282] as illustrated in Figure 18:
+-+ ... -+-+-...-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+... +-+ ... -+-+-...-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+...
|11110001| RPI- | NH=1 |11110CPP| Compressed | UDP |11110001| RPI- | NH=1 |11110CPP| Compressed | UDP
|Page 1 | 6LoRH | LOWPAN_IPHC | UDP | UDP header | Payload |Page 1 | 6LoRH | LOWPAN_IPHC | UDP | UDP header | Payload
+-+ ... -+-+-...-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+... +-+ ... -+-+-...-+-+- ... -+-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+...
<- RFC 6282 -> <- RFC 6282 ->
No RPL artifact No RPL artifact
Figure 18: Uncompressed ICMP Packet with RPI. Figure 18: Uncompressed ICMP Packet with RPI
If the packet is received from the Internet in Storing Mode, then the If the packet is received from the Internet in Storing mode, then the
root is supposed to encapsulate the packet to insert the RPI. The root is supposed to encapsulate the packet to insert the RPI. The
resulting format would be as represented in Figure 19: resulting format would be as represented in Figure 19:
+-+ ... -+-+-...-+-+-- ... -+-+-+-+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+-+ ... -+-+-+... +-+ ... -+-+-...-+-+-- ... -+-+-+-+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+-+ ... -+-+-+...
|11110001| RPI- | IP-in-IP | NH=1 |11110CPP| Compressed | UDP |11110001| RPI- | IP-in-IP | NH=1 |11110CPP| Compressed | UDP
|Page 1 | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | LOWPAN_IPHC | UDP | UDP header | Payld |Page 1 | 6LoRH | 6LoRH | LOWPAN_IPHC | UDP | UDP header | Payld
+-+ ... -+-+-...-+-+-- ... -+-+-+-+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+-+ ... -+-+-+... +-+ ... -+-+-...-+-+-- ... -+-+-+-+- ... -+-+ ... -+-+-+ ... -+-+-+...
<- RFC 6282 -> <- RFC 6282 ->
No RPL artifact No RPL artifact
Figure 19: RPI inserted by the root in Storing Mode. Figure 19: RPI Inserted by the Root in Storing Mode
A.2. Example Of Downward Packet In Non-Storing Mode A.2. Example of a Downward Packet in Non-Storing Mode
The example illustrated in Figure 20 is a classical packet in non- The example illustrated in Figure 20 is a classical packet in Non-
Storing mode for a packet going down the DODAG following a source Storing mode for a packet going down the DODAG following a source-
routed path from the root. Say that we have 4 forwarding hops to routed path from the root. Say that we have four forwarding hops to
reach a destination. In the non-compressed form, when the root reach a destination. In the uncompressed form, when the root
generates the packet, the last 3 hops are encoded in a Routing Header generates the packet, the last 3 hops are encoded in a Routing Header
type 3 (SRH) and the first hop is the destination of the packet. The Type 3 (SRH) and the first hop is the destination of the packet. The
intermediate hops perform a swap and the hop count indicates the intermediate hops perform a swap; the hop count indicates the current
current active hop as defined in RFC 2460 [RFC2460] and RFC 6554 active hop as defined in RFC 2460 [RFC2460] and RFC 6554 [RFC6554].
[RFC6554].
When compressed with this specification, the 4 hops are encoded in When compressed with this specification, the 4 hops are encoded in
SRH-6LoRH when the root generates the packet, and the final SRH-6LoRH when the root generates the packet, and the final
destination is left in the LOWPAN_IPHC. There is no swap, and the destination is left in the LOWPAN_IPHC. There is no swap; the
forwarding node that corresponds to the first entry effectively forwarding node that corresponds to the first entry effectively
consumes it when forwarding, which means that the size of the encoded consumes it when forwarding, which means that the size of the encoded
packet decreases and that the hop information is lost. packet decreases and that the hop information is lost.
If the last hop in a SRH-6LoRH is not the final destination then it If the last hop in an SRH-6LoRH is not the final destination, then it
removes the SRH-6LoRH before forwarding. removes the SRH-6LoRH before forwarding.
In the particular example illustrated in Figure 20, all addresses in In the particular example illustrated in Figure 20, all addresses in
the DODAG are assigned from a same /112 prefix and the last 2 octets the DODAG are assigned from the same /112 prefix and the last 2
encoding an identifier such as a IEEE 802.15.4 short address. In octets encoding an identifier such as an IEEE 802.15.4 short address.
that case, all addresses can be compressed to 2 octets, using the In that case, all addresses can be compressed to 2 octets, using the
root address as reference. There will be one SRH_6LoRH header, with, root address as reference. There will be one SRH_6LoRH header with,
in this example, 3 compressed addresses: in this example, three compressed addresses:
+-+ ... -+-+ ... +-+- ... -+-+- ... +-+-+-+ ... +-+-+ ... -+ ... +-... +-+ ... -+-+ ... +-+- ... -+-+- ... +-+-+-+ ... +-+-+ ... -+ ... +-...
|11110001|SRH-6LoRH| RPI- | IP-in-IP | NH=1 |11110CPP| UDP | UDP |11110001|SRH-6LoRH| RPI- | IP-in-IP | NH=1 |11110CPP| UDP | UDP
|Page 1 |Type1 S=2| 6LoRH | 6LoRH |LOWPAN_IPHC| UDP | hdr |Payld |Page 1 |Type1 S=2| 6LoRH | 6LoRH |LOWPAN_IPHC| UDP | hdr |Payld
+-+ ... -+-+ ... +-+- ... -+-+-- ... -+-+-+ ... +-+-+ ... -+ ... +-... +-+ ... -+-+ ... +-+- ... -+-+-- ... -+-+-+ ... +-+-+ ... -+ ... +-...
<-8bytes-> <- RFC 6282 -> <-8bytes-> <- RFC 6282 ->
No RPL artifact No RPL artifact
Figure 20: Example Compressed Packet with SRH. Figure 20: Example Compressed Packet with SRH
One may note that the RPI is provided. This is because the address One may note that the RPI is provided. This is because the address
of the root that is the source of the IP-in-IP header is elided and of the root that is the source of the IP-in-IP header is elided and
inferred from the RPLInstanceID in the RPI. Once found from a local inferred from the RPLInstanceID in the RPI. Once found from a local
context, that address is used as Compression Reference to expand context, that address is used as a Compression Reference to expand
addresses in the SRH-6LoRH. addresses in the SRH-6LoRH.
With the RPL specifications available at the time of writing this With the RPL specifications available at the time of writing, the
draft, the root is the only node that may incorporate a SRH in an IP root is the only node that may incorporate an SRH in an IP packet.
packet. When the root forwards a packet that it did not generate, it When the root forwards a packet that it did not generate, it has to
has to encapsulate the packet with IP-in-IP. encapsulate the packet with IP-in-IP.
But if the root generates the packet towards a node in its DODAG, But, if the root generates the packet towards a node in its DODAG,
then it should avoid the extra IP-in-IP as illustrated in Figure 21: then it should avoid the extra IP-in-IP as illustrated in Figure 21:
+- ... -+-+-+ ... +-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-++-+- ... -+-+-+-+-+... +- ... -+-+-+ ... +-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-++-+- ... -+-+-+-+-+...
|11110001| SRH-6LoRH | NH=1 | 11110CPP | Compressed | UDP |11110001| SRH-6LoRH | NH=1 | 11110CPP | Compressed | UDP
|Page 1 | Type1 S=3 | LOWPAN_IPHC| LOWPAN-NHC| UDP header | Payload |Page 1 | Type1 S=3 | LOWPAN_IPHC| LOWPAN-NHC| UDP header | Payload
+- ... -+-+-+ ... +-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-++-+- ... -+-+-+-+-+... +- ... -+-+-+ ... +-+-+-+ ... -+-+-+-+-+-+-+-++-+- ... -+-+-+-+-+...
<- RFC 6282 -> <- RFC 6282 ->
Figure 21: compressed SRH 4*2bytes entries sourced by root. Figure 21: Compressed SRH 4*2bytes Entries Sourced by Root
Note: the RPI is not represented though RPL [RFC6550] generally Note: The RPI is not represented, though RPL [RFC6550] generally
expects it. In this particular case, since the Compression Reference expects it. In this particular case, since the Compression Reference
for the SRH-6LoRH is the source address in the LOWPAN_IPHC, and the for the SRH-6LoRH is the source address in the LOWPAN_IPHC, and the
routing is strict along the source route path, the RPI does not routing is strict along the source route path, the RPI does not
appear to be absolutely necessary. appear to be absolutely necessary.
In Figure 21, all the nodes along the source route path share a same In Figure 21, all the nodes along the source route path share the
/112 prefix. This is typical of IPv6 addresses derived from an same /112 prefix. This is typical of IPv6 addresses derived from an
IEEE802.15.4 short address, as long as all the nodes share a same IEEE802.15.4 short address, as long as all the nodes share the same
PAN-ID. In that case, a type-1 SRH-6LoRH header can be used for PAN-ID. In that case, a Type 1 SRH-6LoRH header can be used for
encoding. The IPv6 address of the root is taken as reference, and encoding. The IPv6 address of the root is taken as reference, and
only the last 2 octets of the address of the intermediate hops is only the last 2 octets of the address of the intermediate hops are
encoded. The Size of 3 indicates 4 hops, resulting in a SRH-6LoRH of encoded. The Size of 3 indicates 4 hops, resulting in an SRH-6LoRH
10 bytes. of 10 bytes.
A.3. Example of SRH-6LoRH life-cycle A.3. Example of SRH-6LoRH Life Cycle
This section illustrates the operation specified in Section 5.6 of This section illustrates the operation specified in Section 5.6 of
forwarding a packet with a compressed SRH along an A->B->C->D source forwarding a packet with a compressed SRH along an A->B->C->D source
route path. The operation of popping addresses is exemplified at route path. The operation of popping addresses is exemplified at
each hop. each hop.
Packet as received by node A Packet as received by node A
---------------------------- ----------------------------
Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA
Type 1 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 BBBB Type 1 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 BBBB
Type 2 SRH-6LoRH Size = 1 CCCC CCCC Type 2 SRH-6LoRH Size = 1 CCCC CCCC
DDDD DDDD DDDD DDDD
Step 1 popping BBBB the first entry of the next SRH-6LoRH Step 1: Popping BBBB, the first entry of the next SRH-6LoRH
Step 2 next is if larger value (2 vs. 1) the SRH-6LoRH is removed Step 2: If larger value (2 vs. 1), the SRH-6LoRH is removed
Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA
Type 2 SRH-6LoRH Size = 1 CCCC CCCC Type 2 SRH-6LoRH Size = 1 CCCC CCCC
DDDD DDDD DDDD DDDD
Step 3: recursion ended, coalescing BBBB with the first entry Step 3: Recursion ended; coalescing BBBB with the first entry
Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA AAAA BBBB Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA AAAA BBBB
Step 4: routing based on next segment endpoint to B Step 4: Routing based on next segment endpoint to B
Figure 22: Processing at Node A. Figure 22: Processing at Node A
Packet as received by node B Packet as received by node B
---------------------------- ----------------------------
Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA AAAA BBBB Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA AAAA BBBB
Type 2 SRH-6LoRH Size = 1 CCCC CCCC Type 2 SRH-6LoRH Size = 1 CCCC CCCC
DDDD DDDD DDDD DDDD
Step 1 popping CCCC CCCC, the first entry of the next SRH-6LoRH Step 1: Popping CCCC CCCC, the first entry of the next SRH-6LoRH
Step 2 removing the first entry and decrementing the Size (by 1) Step 2: Removing the first entry and decrementing the Size (by 1)
Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA AAAA BBBB Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA AAAA BBBB
Type 2 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 DDDD DDDD Type 2 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 DDDD DDDD
Step 3: recursion ended, coalescing CCCC CCCC with the first entry Step 3: Recursion ended; coalescing CCCC CCCC with the first entry
Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA CCCC CCCC Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA CCCC CCCC
Step 4: routing based on next segment endpoint to C Step 4: Routing based on next segment endpoint to C
Figure 23: Processing at Node B. Figure 23: Processing at Node B
Packet as received by node C Packet as received by node C
---------------------------- ----------------------------
Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA CCCC CCCC Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA CCCC CCCC
Type 2 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 DDDD DDDD Type 2 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 DDDD DDDD
Step 1 popping DDDD DDDD, the first entry of the next SRH-6LoRH Step 1: Popping DDDD DDDD, the first entry of the next SRH-6LoRH
Step 2 the SRH-6LoRH is removed Step 2: The SRH-6LoRH is removed
Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA CCCC CCCC Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA CCCC CCCC
Step 3: recursion ended, coalescing DDDD DDDDD with the first entry Step 3: Recursion ended; coalescing DDDD DDDDD with the first entry
Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA DDDD DDDD Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA DDDD DDDD
Step 4: routing based on next segment endpoint to D Step 4: Routing based on next segment endpoint to D
Figure 24: Processing at Node C. Figure 24: Processing at Node C
Packet as received by node D Packet as received by node D
---------------------------- ----------------------------
Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA DDDD DDDD Type 3 SRH-6LoRH Size = 0 AAAA AAAA DDDD DDDD
Step 1 the SRH-6LoRH is removed. Step 1: The SRH-6LoRH is removed
Step 2 no more header, routing based on inner IP header. Step 2: No more header; routing based on inner IP header
Figure 25: Processing at Node D. Figure 25: Processing at Node D
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank Tom Phinney, Thomas Watteyne, Tengfei
Chang, Martin Turon, James Woodyatt, Samita Chakrabarti, Jonathan
Hui, Gabriel Montenegro, and Ralph Droms for constructive reviews to
the design in the 6lo working group. The overall discussion involved
participants to the 6MAN, 6TiSCH, and ROLL WGs; thank you all.
Special thanks to Michael Richardson and Ines Robles (the Chairs of
the ROLL WG), Brian Haberman (the Internet Area AD), and Alvaro
Retana and Adrian Farrel (Routing Area ADs) for driving this complex
effort across working groups and areas.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Pascal Thubert (editor) Pascal Thubert (editor)
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
Building D - Regus Building D - Regus
45 Allee des Ormes 45 Allee des Ormes
BP1200 BP1200
MOUGINS - Sophia Antipolis 06254 MOUGINS - Sophia Antipolis 06254
France France
skipping to change at page 35, line 37 skipping to change at page 37, line 28
Carsten Bormann Carsten Bormann
Universitaet Bremen TZI Universitaet Bremen TZI
Postfach 330440 Postfach 330440
Bremen D-28359 Bremen D-28359
Germany Germany
Phone: +49-421-218-63921 Phone: +49-421-218-63921
Email: cabo@tzi.org Email: cabo@tzi.org
Laurent Toutain Laurent Toutain
Institut MINES TELECOM; TELECOM Bretagne IMT Atlantique
2 rue de la Chataigneraie 2 rue de la Chataigneraie
CS 17607 CS 17607
Cesson-Sevigne Cedex 35576 Cesson-Sevigne Cedex 35576
France France
Email: Laurent.Toutain@telecom-bretagne.eu Email: Laurent.Toutain@IMT-Atlantique.fr
Robert Cragie Robert Cragie
ARM Ltd. ARM Ltd.
110 Fulbourn Road 110 Fulbourn Road
Cambridge CB1 9NJ Cambridge CB1 9NJ
UK United Kingdom
Email: robert.cragie@gridmerge.com Email: robert.cragie@arm.com
 End of changes. 230 change blocks. 
538 lines changed or deleted 553 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.45. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/