draft-ietf-sidr-rpki-rtr-rfc6810-bis-07.txt   draft-ietf-sidr-rpki-rtr-rfc6810-bis-08.txt 
Network Working Group R. Bush Network Working Group R. Bush
Internet-Draft Internet Initiative Japan Internet-Draft Internet Initiative Japan
Obsoletes: 6810 (if approved) R. Austein Intended status: Standards Track R. Austein
Intended status: Standards Track Dragon Research Labs Expires: July 11, 2017 Dragon Research Labs
Expires: September 4, 2016 March 3, 2016 January 7, 2017
The Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) to Router Protocol The Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) to Router Protocol
draft-ietf-sidr-rpki-rtr-rfc6810-bis-07 draft-ietf-sidr-rpki-rtr-rfc6810-bis-08
Abstract Abstract
In order to verifiably validate the origin Autonomous Systems and In order to verifiably validate the origin Autonomous Systems and
Autonomous System Paths of BGP announcements, routers need a simple Autonomous System Paths of BGP announcements, routers need a simple
but reliable mechanism to receive Resource Public Key Infrastructure but reliable mechanism to receive Resource Public Key Infrastructure
(RFC 6480) prefix origin data and router keys from a trusted cache. (RFC 6480) prefix origin data and router keys from a trusted cache.
This document describes a protocol to deliver validated prefix origin This document describes a protocol to deliver them.
data and router keys to routers.
This document describes version 1 of the rpki-rtr protocol. This document describes version 1 of the rpki-rtr protocol. RFC 6810
describes version 0.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 4, 2016. This Internet-Draft will expire on July 11, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Changes from RFC 6810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2. Changes from RFC 6810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Deployment Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Deployment Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Operational Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Operational Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. Protocol Data Units (PDUs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. Protocol Data Units (PDUs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5.1. Fields of a PDU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5.1. Fields of a PDU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5.2. Serial Notify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.2. Serial Notify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.3. Serial Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.3. Serial Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.4. Reset Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.4. Reset Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.5. Cache Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.5. Cache Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.6. IPv4 Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.6. IPv4 Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.7. IPv6 Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.7. IPv6 Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.8. End of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.8. End of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.9. Cache Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.9. Cache Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.10. Router Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.10. Router Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.11. Error Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.11. Error Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6. Protocol Timing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. Protocol Timing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
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16.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 16.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
In order to verifiably validate the origin Autonomous Systems (ASes) In order to verifiably validate the origin Autonomous Systems (ASes)
and AS paths of BGP announcements, routers need a simple but reliable and AS paths of BGP announcements, routers need a simple but reliable
mechanism to receive cryptographically validated Resource Public Key mechanism to receive cryptographically validated Resource Public Key
Infrastructure (RPKI) [RFC6480] prefix origin data and router keys Infrastructure (RPKI) [RFC6480] prefix origin data and router keys
from a trusted cache. This document describes a protocol to deliver from a trusted cache. This document describes a protocol to deliver
validated prefix origin data and router keys to routers. The design them. The design is intentionally constrained to be usable on much
is intentionally constrained to be usable on much of the current of the current generation of ISP router platforms.
generation of ISP router platforms.
Section 3 describes the deployment structure, and Section 4 then Section 3 describes the deployment structure, and Section 4 then
presents an operational overview. The binary payloads of the presents an operational overview. The binary payloads of the
protocol are formally described in Section 5, and the expected protocol are formally described in Section 5, and the expected
Protocol Data Unit (PDU) sequences are described in Section 8. The Protocol Data Unit (PDU) sequences are described in Section 8. The
transport protocol options are described in Section 9. Section 10 transport protocol options are described in Section 9. Section 10
details how routers and caches are configured to connect and details how routers and caches are configured to connect and
authenticate. Section 11 describes likely deployment scenarios. The authenticate. Section 11 describes likely deployment scenarios. The
traditional security and IANA considerations end the document. traditional security and IANA considerations end the document.
The protocol is extensible in order to support new PDUs with new The protocol is extensible in order to support new PDUs with new
semantics, if deployment experience indicates they are needed. PDUs semantics, if deployment experience indicates they are needed. PDUs
are versioned should deployment experience call for change. are versioned should deployment experience call for change.
For an implementation (not interoperability) report on the use of
this protocol with prefix origin data, see [RFC7128].
1.1. Requirements Language 1.1. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119] document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]
only when they appear in all upper case. They may also appear in only when they appear in all upper case. They may also appear in
lower or mixed case as English words, without special meaning. lower or mixed case as English words, without special meaning.
1.2. Changes from RFC 6810 1.2. Changes from RFC 6810
The protocol described in this document is largely compatible with This section summarizes the significant changes between [RFC6810] and
[RFC6810]. This section summarizes the significant changes. the protocol described in this document.
o New Router Key PDU type (Section 5.10) added. o New Router Key PDU type (Section 5.10) added.
o Explicit timing parameters (Section 5.8, Section 6) added. o Explicit timing parameters (Section 5.8, Section 6) added.
o Protocol version number incremented from zero to one. o Protocol version number incremented from zero to one.
o Protocol version number negotiation (Section 7) added. o Protocol version number negotiation (Section 7) added.
2. Glossary 2. Glossary
The following terms are used with special meaning. The following terms are used with special meaning.
Global RPKI: The authoritative data of the RPKI are published in a Global RPKI: The authoritative data of the RPKI are published in a
distributed set of servers at the IANA, Regional Internet distributed set of servers at the IANA, Regional Internet
Registries (RIRs), National Internet Registries (NIRs), and ISPs; Registries (RIRs), National Internet Registries (NIRs), and ISPs;
see [RFC6481]. see [RFC6481].
Cache: A coalesced copy of the published Global RPKI data, Cache: A coalesced copy of the published Global RPKI data,
periodically fetched or refreshed, directly or indirectly, using periodically fetched or refreshed, directly or indirectly, using
the [RFC5781] protocol or some successor protocol. Relying party the [RFC5781] protocol or some successor. Relying party software
software is used to gather and validate the distributed data of is used to gather and validate the distributed data of the RPKI
the RPKI into a cache. Trusting this cache further is a matter into a cache. Trusting this cache further is a matter between the
between the provider of the cache and a relying party. provider of the cache and a relying party.
Serial Number: A 32-bit strictly increasing unsigned integer which Serial Number: A 32-bit strictly increasing unsigned integer which
wraps from 2^32-1 to 0. It denotes the logical version of a wraps from 2^32-1 to 0. It denotes the logical version of a
cache. A cache increments the value when it successfully updates cache. A cache increments the value when it successfully updates
its data from a parent cache or from primary RPKI data. While a its data from a parent cache or from primary RPKI data. While a
cache is receiving updates, new incoming data and implicit deletes cache is receiving updates, new incoming data and implicit deletes
are associated with the new serial but MUST NOT be sent until the are associated with the new serial but MUST NOT be sent until the
fetch is complete. A Serial Number is not commensurate between fetch is complete. A Serial Number is not commensurate between
different caches or different protocol versions, nor need it be different caches or different protocol versions, nor need it be
maintained across resets of the cache server. See [RFC1982] on maintained across resets of the cache server. See [RFC1982] on
DNS Serial Number Arithmetic for too much detail on the topic. DNS Serial Number Arithmetic for too much detail on the topic.
Session ID: When a cache server is started, it generates a Session Session ID: When a cache server is started, it generates a Session
ID to uniquely identify the instance of the cache and to bind it ID to uniquely identify the instance of the cache and to bind it
to the sequence of Serial Numbers that cache instance will to the sequence of Serial Numbers that cache instance will
generate. This allows the router to restart a failed session generate. This allows the router to restart a failed session
knowing that the Serial Number it is using is commensurate with knowing that the Serial Number it is using is commensurate with
that of the cache. that of the cache.
Payload PDU: A protocol message which contains data for use by the Payload PDU: A protocol message which contains data for use by the
router, as opposed to a PDU which just conveys the semantics of router, as opposed to a PDU which conveys the control mechanisms
this protocol. Prefixes and Router Keys are examples of payload of this protocol. Prefixes and Router Keys are examples of
PDUs. payload PDUs.
3. Deployment Structure 3. Deployment Structure
Deployment of the RPKI to reach routers has a three-level structure Deployment of the RPKI to reach routers has a three-level structure
as follows: as follows:
Global RPKI: The authoritative data of the RPKI are published in a Global RPKI: The authoritative data of the RPKI are published in a
distributed set of servers, RPKI publication repositories, e.g., distributed set of servers, RPKI publication repositories, e.g.,
by the IANA, RIRs, NIRs, and ISPs (see [RFC6481]). by the IANA, RIRs, NIRs, and ISPs (see [RFC6481]).
Local Caches: A local set of one or more collected and verified Local Caches: A local set of one or more collected and verified
caches. A relying party, e.g., router or other client, MUST have caches of RPKI data. A relying party, e.g., router or other
a trust relationship with, and a trusted transport channel to, any client, MUST have a trust relationship with, and a trusted
cache(s) it uses. transport channel to, any cache(s) it uses.
Routers: A router fetches data from a local cache using the protocol Routers: A router fetches data from a local cache using the protocol
described in this document. It is said to be a client of the described in this document. It is said to be a client of the
cache. There MAY be mechanisms for the router to assure itself of cache. There MAY be mechanisms for the router to assure itself of
the authenticity of the cache and to authenticate itself to the the authenticity of the cache and to authenticate itself to the
cache. cache (see Section 9).
4. Operational Overview 4. Operational Overview
A router establishes and keeps open a connection to one or more A router establishes and keeps open a connection to one or more
caches with which it has client/server relationships. It is caches with which it has client/server relationships. It is
configured with a semi-ordered list of caches, and establishes a configured with a semi-ordered list of caches, and establishes a
connection to the most preferred cache, or set of caches, which connection to the most preferred cache, or set of caches, which
accept the connections. accept the connections.
The router MUST choose the most preferred, by configuration, cache or The router MUST choose the most preferred, by configuration, cache or
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a router establishes a new session with a cache, or wishes to reset a a router establishes a new session with a cache, or wishes to reset a
current relationship, it sends a Reset Query. current relationship, it sends a Reset Query.
The cache responds to the Serial Query with all data changes which The cache responds to the Serial Query with all data changes which
took place since the given Serial Number. This may be the null set, took place since the given Serial Number. This may be the null set,
in which case the End of Data PDU is still sent. Note that the in which case the End of Data PDU is still sent. Note that the
Serial Number comparison used to determine "since the given Serial Serial Number comparison used to determine "since the given Serial
Number" MUST take wrap-around into account, see [RFC1982]. Number" MUST take wrap-around into account, see [RFC1982].
When the router has received all data records from the cache, it sets When the router has received all data records from the cache, it sets
its current Serial Number to that of the Serial Number in the End of its current Serial Number to that of the Serial Number in the
Data PDU. received End of Data PDU.
When the cache updates its database, it sends a Notify message to When the cache updates its database, it sends a Notify message to
every currently connected router. This is a hint that now would be a every currently connected router. This is a hint that now would be a
good time for the router to poll for an update, but is only a hint. good time for the router to poll for an update, but is only a hint.
The protocol requires the router to poll for updates periodically in The protocol requires the router to poll for updates periodically in
any case. any case.
Strictly speaking, a router could track a cache simply by asking for Strictly speaking, a router could track a cache simply by asking for
a complete data set every time it updates, but this would be very a complete data set every time it updates, but this would be very
inefficient. The Serial Number based incremental update mechanism inefficient. The Serial Number based incremental update mechanism
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router already has. In such cases, a router will detect the error router already has. In such cases, a router will detect the error
and reset the session. The one case in which the router may stay and reset the session. The one case in which the router may stay
out of sync is when nothing in the Cache Response contradicts any out of sync is when nothing in the Cache Response contradicts any
data currently held by the router. data currently held by the router.
Using persistent storage for the Session ID or a clock-based Using persistent storage for the Session ID or a clock-based
scheme for generating Session IDs should avoid the risk of Session scheme for generating Session IDs should avoid the risk of Session
ID collisions. ID collisions.
The Session ID might be a pseudo-random value, a strictly The Session ID might be a pseudo-random value, a strictly
increasing value if the cache has reliable storage, etc. increasing value if the cache has reliable storage, et cetera. A
seconds-since-epoch timestamp value such as the POSIX time()
function makes a good Session ID value.
Length: A 32-bit unsigned integer which has as its value the count Length: A 32-bit unsigned integer which has as its value the count
of the bytes in the entire PDU, including the eight bytes of of the bytes in the entire PDU, including the eight bytes of
header which end with the length field. header which includes the length field.
Flags: The lowest order bit of the Flags field is 1 for an Flags: The lowest order bit of the Flags field is 1 for an
announcement and 0 for a withdrawal. For a Prefix PDU (IPv4 or announcement and 0 for a withdrawal. For a Prefix PDU (IPv4 or
IPv6), the flag indicates whether this PDU announces a new right IPv6), the flag indicates whether this PDU announces a new right
to announce the prefix or withdraws a previously announced right; to announce the prefix or withdraws a previously announced right;
a withdraw effectively deletes one previously announced Prefix PDU a withdraw effectively deletes one previously announced Prefix PDU
with the exact same Prefix, Length, Max-Len, and Autonomous System with the exact same Prefix, Length, Max-Len, and Autonomous System
Number (ASN). Similarly, for a Router Key PDU, the flag indicates Number (ASN). Similarly, for a Router Key PDU, the flag indicates
whether this PDU announces a new Router Key or deletes one whether this PDU announces a new Router Key or deletes one
previously announced Router Key PDU with the exact same AS Number, previously announced Router Key PDU with the exact same AS Number,
subjectKeyIdentifier, and subjectPublicKeyInfo. subjectKeyIdentifier, and subjectPublicKeyInfo.
The remaining bits in the flags field are reserved for future use. The remaining bits in the flags field are reserved for future use.
In protocol version 1, they MUST be 0 on transmission and SHOULD In protocol version 1, they MUST be 0 on transmission and SHOULD
be ignored on receipt. be ignored on receipt.
Prefix Length: An 8-bit unsigned integer denoting the shortest Prefix Length: An 8-bit unsigned integer denoting the shortest
prefix allowed for the prefix. prefix allowed for the Prefix element.
Max Length: An 8-bit unsigned integer denoting the longest prefix Max Length: An 8-bit unsigned integer denoting the longest prefix
allowed by the prefix. This MUST NOT be less than the Prefix allowed by the Prefix element. This MUST NOT be less than the
Length element. Prefix Length element.
Prefix: The IPv4 or IPv6 prefix of the ROA. Prefix: The IPv4 or IPv6 prefix of the ROA.
Autonomous System Number: A 32-bit unsigned integer representing an Autonomous System Number: A 32-bit unsigned integer representing an
ASN allowed to announce a prefix or associated with a router key. ASN allowed to announce a prefix or associated with a router key.
Subject Key Identifier: 20-octet Subject Key Identifier (SKI) value Subject Key Identifier: 20-octet Subject Key Identifier (SKI) value
of a router key, as described in [RFC6487]. of a router key, as described in [RFC6487].
Subject Public Key Info: a router key's subjectPublicKeyInfo value, Subject Public Key Info: a router key's subjectPublicKeyInfo value,
as described in [I-D.ietf-sidr-bgpsec-algs]. This is the full as described in [I-D.ietf-sidr-bgpsec-algs]. This is the full
ASN.1 DER encoding of the subjectPublicKeyInfo, including the ASN.1 DER encoding of the subjectPublicKeyInfo, including the
ASN.1 tag and length values of the subjectPublicKeyInfo SEQUENCE. ASN.1 tag and length values of the subjectPublicKeyInfo SEQUENCE.
Zero: Fields shown as zero MUST be zero on transmission. The value Refresh Interval: Interval between normal cache polls. See
of such a field SHOULD be ignored on receipt. Section 6
Retry Interval: Interval between cache poll retries after a failed
cache poll. See Section 6
Expire Interval: Interval during which data fetched from a cache
remains valid in the absence of a successful subsequent cache
poll. See Section 6
5.2. Serial Notify 5.2. Serial Notify
The cache notifies the router that the cache has new data. The cache notifies the router that the cache has new data.
The Session ID reassures the router that the Serial Numbers are The Session ID reassures the router that the Serial Numbers are
commensurate, i.e., the cache session has not been changed. commensurate, i.e., the cache session has not been changed.
Upon receipt of a Serial Notify PDU, the router MAY issue an Upon receipt of a Serial Notify PDU, the router MAY issue an
immediate Serial Query (Section 5.3) or Reset Query (Section 5.4) immediate Serial Query (Section 5.3) or Reset Query (Section 5.4)
without waiting for the Refresh Interval timer (see Section 6) to without waiting for the Refresh Interval timer (see Section 6) to
expire. expire.
Serial Notify is the only message that the cache can send that is not Serial Notify is the only message that the cache can send that is not
in response to a message from the router. in response to a message from the router.
If the router receives a Serial Notify PDU during the initial start- If the router receives a Serial Notify PDU during the initial start-
up period where the router and cache are still negotiating to agree up period where the router and cache are still negotiating to agree
on a protocol version, the router SHOULD simply ignore the Serial on a protocol version, the router MUST simply ignore the Serial
Notify PDU, even if the Serial Notify PDU is for an unexpected Notify PDU, even if the Serial Notify PDU is for an unexpected
protocol version. See Section 7 for details. protocol version. See Section 7 for details.
0 8 16 24 31 0 8 16 24 31
.-------------------------------------------. .-------------------------------------------.
| Protocol | PDU | | | Protocol | PDU | |
| Version | Type | Session ID | | Version | Type | Session ID |
| 1 | 0 | | | 1 | 0 | |
+-------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------+
| | | |
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| Retry Interval | | Retry Interval |
| | | |
+-------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| Expire Interval | | Expire Interval |
| | | |
`-------------------------------------------' `-------------------------------------------'
The Refresh Interval, Retry Interval, and Expire Interval are all The Refresh Interval, Retry Interval, and Expire Interval are all
32-bit elapsed times measured in seconds, and express the timing 32-bit elapsed times measured in seconds, and express the timing
parameters that the cache expects the router to use to decide when parameters which the cache expects the router to use in deciding when
next to send the cache another Serial Query or Reset Query PDU. See to send subsequent Serial Query or Reset Query PDUs to the cache.
Section 6 for an explanation of the use and the range of allowed See Section 6 for an explanation of the use and the range of allowed
values for these parameters. values for these parameters.
5.9. Cache Reset 5.9. Cache Reset
The cache may respond to a Serial Query informing the router that the The cache may respond to a Serial Query informing the router that the
cache cannot provide an incremental update starting from the Serial cache cannot provide an incremental update starting from the Serial
Number specified by the router. The router must decide whether to Number specified by the router. The router must decide whether to
issue a Reset Query or switch to a different cache. issue a Reset Query or switch to a different cache.
0 8 16 24 31 0 8 16 24 31
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Also note that it is possible, albeit very unlikely, for multiple Also note that it is possible, albeit very unlikely, for multiple
distinct Subject Public Key values to hash to the same SKI. For this distinct Subject Public Key values to hash to the same SKI. For this
reason, implementations MUST compare Subject Public Key values as reason, implementations MUST compare Subject Public Key values as
well as SKIs when detecting duplicate PDUs. well as SKIs when detecting duplicate PDUs.
5.11. Error Report 5.11. Error Report
This PDU is used by either party to report an error to the other. This PDU is used by either party to report an error to the other.
Error reports are only sent as responses to other PDUs. Error reports are only sent as responses to other PDUs, not to report
errors in Error Report PDUS.
The Error Code is described in Section 12. The Error Code is described in Section 12.
If the error is generic (e.g., "Internal Error") and not associated If the error is generic (e.g., "Internal Error") and not associated
with the PDU to which it is responding, the Erroneous PDU field MUST with the PDU to which it is responding, the Erroneous PDU field MUST
be empty and the Length of Encapsulated PDU field MUST be zero. be empty and the Length of Encapsulated PDU field MUST be zero.
An Error Report PDU MUST NOT be sent for an Error Report PDU. If an An Error Report PDU MUST NOT be sent for an Error Report PDU. If an
erroneous Error Report PDU is received, the session SHOULD be erroneous Error Report PDU is received, the session SHOULD be
dropped. dropped.
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retrieved from the Global RPKI system at intervals which are only retrieved from the Global RPKI system at intervals which are only
known to the cache, only the cache can really know how frequently it known to the cache, only the cache can really know how frequently it
makes sense for the router to poll the cache, or how long the data makes sense for the router to poll the cache, or how long the data
are likely to remain valid (or, at least, unchanged). For this are likely to remain valid (or, at least, unchanged). For this
reason, as well as to allow the cache some control over the load reason, as well as to allow the cache some control over the load
placed on it by its client routers, the End Of Data PDU includes placed on it by its client routers, the End Of Data PDU includes
three values that allow the cache to communicate timing parameters to three values that allow the cache to communicate timing parameters to
the router. the router.
Refresh Interval: This parameter tells the router how long to wait Refresh Interval: This parameter tells the router how long to wait
before next attempting to poll the cache, using a Serial Query or before next attempting to poll the cache and between subsequent
Reset Query PDU. The router SHOULD NOT poll the cache sooner than attempts, using a Serial Query or Reset Query PDU. The router
indicated by this parameter. Note that receipt of a Serial Notify SHOULD NOT poll the cache sooner than indicated by this parameter.
PDU overrides this interval and allows the router to issue an Note that receipt of a Serial Notify PDU overrides this interval
immediate query without waiting for the Refresh Interval to and suggests that the router issue an immediate query without
expire. Countdown for this timer starts upon receipt of the waiting for the Refresh Interval to expire. Countdown for this
containing End Of Data PDU. timer starts upon receipt of the containing End Of Data PDU.
Minimum allowed value: 1 second. Minimum allowed value: 1 second.
Maximum allowed value: 86400 seconds (one day). Maximum allowed value: 86400 seconds (one day).
Recommended default: 3600 seconds (one hour). Recommended default: 3600 seconds (one hour).
Retry Interval: This parameter tells the router how long to wait Retry Interval: This parameter tells the router how long to wait
before retrying a failed Serial Query or Reset Query. The router before retrying a failed Serial Query or Reset Query. The router
SHOULD NOT retry sooner than indicated by this parameter. Note SHOULD NOT retry sooner than indicated by this parameter. Note
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restarts after each subsequent failure until a query succeeds. restarts after each subsequent failure until a query succeeds.
Minimum allowed value: 1 second. Minimum allowed value: 1 second.
Maximum allowed value: 7200 seconds (two hours). Maximum allowed value: 7200 seconds (two hours).
Recommended default: 600 seconds (ten minutes). Recommended default: 600 seconds (ten minutes).
Expire Interval: This parameter tells the router how long it can Expire Interval: This parameter tells the router how long it can
continue to use the current version of the data while unable to continue to use the current version of the data while unable to
perform a successful query. The router MUST NOT retain the data perform a successful subsequent query. The router MUST NOT retain
past the time indicated by this parameter. Countdown for this the data past the time indicated by this parameter. Countdown for
timer starts upon receipt of the containing End Of Data PDU. this timer starts upon receipt of the containing End Of Data PDU.
Minimum allowed value: 600 seconds (ten minutes). Minimum allowed value: 600 seconds (ten minutes).
Maximum allowed value: 172800 seconds (two days). Maximum allowed value: 172800 seconds (two days).
Recommended default: 7200 seconds (two hours). Recommended default: 7200 seconds (two hours).
If the router has never issued a successful query against a If the router has never issued a successful query against a
particular cache, it SHOULD retry periodically using the default particular cache, it SHOULD retry periodically using the default
Retry Interval, above. Retry Interval, above.
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1. The cache may terminate the connection, perhaps with a version 0 1. The cache may terminate the connection, perhaps with a version 0
Error Report PDU. In this case the router MAY retry the Error Report PDU. In this case the router MAY retry the
connection using protocol version 0. connection using protocol version 0.
2. The cache may reply with a version 0 response. In this case the 2. The cache may reply with a version 0 response. In this case the
router MUST either downgrade to version 0 or terminate the router MUST either downgrade to version 0 or terminate the
connection. connection.
In any of the downgraded combinations above, the new features of In any of the downgraded combinations above, the new features of
version 1 will not be available. version 1 will not be available, and all PDUs will have 0 in their
version fields.
If either party receives a PDU containing an unrecognized Protocol If either party receives a PDU containing an unrecognized Protocol
Version (neither 0 nor 1) during this negotiation, it MUST either Version (neither 0 nor 1) during this negotiation, it MUST either
downgrade to a known version or terminate the connection, with an downgrade to a known version or terminate the connection, with an
Error Report PDU unless the received PDU is itself an Error Report Error Report PDU unless the received PDU is itself an Error Report
PDU. PDU.
The router MUST ignore any Serial Notify PDUs it might receive from The router MUST ignore any Serial Notify PDUs it might receive from
the cache during this initial start-up period, regardless of the the cache during this initial start-up period, regardless of the
Protocol Version field in the Serial Notify PDU. Since Session ID Protocol Version field in the Serial Notify PDU. Since Session ID
and Serial Number values are specific to a particular protocol and Serial Number values are specific to a particular protocol
version, the values in the notification are not useful to the router. version, the values in the notification are not useful to the router.
Even if these values were meaningful, the only effect that processing Even if these values were meaningful, the only effect that processing
the notification would have would be to trigger exactly the same the notification would have would be to trigger exactly the same
Reset Query or Serial Query that the router has already sent as part Reset Query or Serial Query that the router has already sent as part
of the not-yet-complete version negotiation process, so there is of the not-yet-complete version negotiation process, so there is
nothing to be gained by processing notifications until version nothing to be gained by processing notifications until version
negotiation completes. negotiation completes.
Caches SHOULD NOT send Serial Notify PDUs before version negotiation Caches SHOULD NOT send Serial Notify PDUs before version negotiation
completes. Note, however, that routers MUST handle such completes. Routers, however, MUST handle such notifications (by
notifications (by ignoring them) for backwards compatibility with ignoring them) for backwards compatibility with caches serving
caches serving protocol version 0. protocol version 0.
Once the cache and router have agreed upon a Protocol Version via the Once the cache and router have agreed upon a Protocol Version via the
negotiation process above, that version is stable for the life of the negotiation process above, that version is stable for the life of the
session. See Section 5.1 for a discussion of the interaction between session. See Section 5.1 for a discussion of the interaction between
Protocol Version and Session ID. Protocol Version and Session ID.
If either party receives a PDU for a different Protocol Version once If either party receives a PDU for a different Protocol Version once
the above negotiation completes, that party MUST drop the session; the above negotiation completes, that party MUST drop the session;
unless the PDU containing the unexpected Protocol Version was itself unless the PDU containing the unexpected Protocol Version was itself
an Error Report PDU, the party dropping the session SHOULD send an an Error Report PDU, the party dropping the session SHOULD send an
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| <----- Reset Query -------- | R requests data (or Serial Query) | <----- Reset Query -------- | R requests data (or Serial Query)
| | | |
| ----- Cache Response -----> | C confirms request | ----- Cache Response -----> | C confirms request
| ------- Payload PDU ------> | C sends zero or more | ------- Payload PDU ------> | C sends zero or more
| ------- Payload PDU ------> | IPv4 Prefix, IPv6 Prefix, | ------- Payload PDU ------> | IPv4 Prefix, IPv6 Prefix,
| ------- Payload PDU ------> | or Router Key PDUs | ------- Payload PDU ------> | or Router Key PDUs
| ------- End of Data ------> | C sends End of Data | ------- End of Data ------> | C sends End of Data
| | and sends new serial | | and sends new serial
~ ~ ~ ~
When a transport connection is first established, the router MAY send When a transport connection is first established, the router MUST
a Reset Query and the cache responds with a data sequence of all data send either a Reset Query or a Serial Query. A Serial Query would be
it contains. appropriate if the router has significant unexpired data from a
broken session with the same cache and remembers the Session ID of
Alternatively, if the router has significant unexpired data from a that session, in which case a Serial Query containing the Session ID
broken session with the same cache, it MAY start with a Serial Query from the previous session will allow the router to bring itself up to
containing the Session ID from the previous session to ensure the date while ensuring that the Serial Numbers are commensurate and that
Serial Numbers are commensurate. the router and cache are speaking compatible versions of the
protocol. In all other cases, the router lacks the necessary data
for fast re-synchronization and therefore MUST fall back to a Reset
Query.
This Reset Query sequence is also used when the router receives a The Reset Query sequence is also used when the router receives a
Cache Reset, chooses a new cache, or fears that it has otherwise lost Cache Reset, chooses a new cache, or fears that it has otherwise lost
its way. its way.
The router MUST send either a Reset Query or a Serial Query when See Section 7 for details on version negotiation.
starting a transport connection, in order to confirm that router and
cache are speaking compatible versions of the protocol. See
Section 7 for details on version negotiation.
To limit the length of time a cache must keep the data necessary to To limit the length of time a cache must keep the data necessary to
generate incremental updates, a router MUST send either a Serial generate incremental updates, a router MUST send either a Serial
Query or a Reset Query periodically. This also acts as a keep-alive Query or a Reset Query periodically. This also acts as a keep-alive
at the application layer. See Section 6 for details on the required at the application layer. See Section 6 for details on the required
polling frequency. polling frequency.
8.2. Typical Exchange 8.2. Typical Exchange
Cache Router Cache Router
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It is expected that, when the TCP Authentication Option (TCP-AO) It is expected that, when the TCP Authentication Option (TCP-AO)
[RFC5925] is available on all platforms deployed by operators, it [RFC5925] is available on all platforms deployed by operators, it
will become the mandatory-to-implement transport. will become the mandatory-to-implement transport.
Caches and routers MUST implement unprotected transport over TCP Caches and routers MUST implement unprotected transport over TCP
using a port, rpki-rtr (323); see Section 14. Operators SHOULD use using a port, rpki-rtr (323); see Section 14. Operators SHOULD use
procedural means, e.g., access control lists (ACLs), to reduce the procedural means, e.g., access control lists (ACLs), to reduce the
exposure to authentication issues. exposure to authentication issues.
Caches and routers SHOULD use TCP-AO, SSHv2, TCP MD5, or IPsec
transport.
If unprotected TCP is the transport, the cache and routers MUST be on If unprotected TCP is the transport, the cache and routers MUST be on
the same trusted and controlled network. the same trusted and controlled network.
If available to the operator, caches and routers MUST use one of the If available to the operator, caches and routers MUST use one of the
following more protected protocols. following more protected protocols.
Caches and routers SHOULD use TCP-AO transport [RFC5925] over the Caches and routers SHOULD use TCP-AO transport [RFC5925] over the
rpki-rtr port. rpki-rtr port.
Caches and routers MAY use SSHv2 transport [RFC4252] using the normal Caches and routers MAY use SSHv2 transport [RFC4252] using the normal
SSH port. For an example, see Section 9.1. SSH port. For an example, see Section 9.1.
Caches and routers MAY use TCP MD5 transport [RFC2385] using the Caches and routers MAY use TCP MD5 transport [RFC2385] using the
rpki-rtr port. Note that TCP MD5 has been obsoleted by TCP-AO rpki-rtr port. Note that TCP MD5 has been obsoleted by TCP-AO
[RFC5925]. [RFC5925].
Caches and routers MAY use TCP over IPsec transport [RFC4301] using Caches and routers MAY use TCP over IPsec transport [RFC4301] using
the rpki-rtr port. the rpki-rtr port.
Caches and routers MAY use TLS transport [RFC5246] using a port, Caches and routers MAY use TLS transport [RFC5246] using port rpki-
rpki-rtr-tls (324); see Section 14. rtr-tls (324); see Section 14.
9.1. SSH Transport 9.1. SSH Transport
To run over SSH, the client router first establishes an SSH transport To run over SSH, the client router first establishes an SSH transport
connection using the SSHv2 transport protocol, and the client and connection using the SSHv2 transport protocol, and the client and
server exchange keys for message integrity and encryption. The server exchange keys for message integrity and encryption. The
client then invokes the "ssh-userauth" service to authenticate the client then invokes the "ssh-userauth" service to authenticate the
application, as described in the SSH authentication protocol application, as described in the SSH authentication protocol
[RFC4252]. Once the application has been successfully authenticated, [RFC4252]. Once the application has been successfully authenticated,
the client invokes the "ssh-connection" service, also known as the the client invokes the "ssh-connection" service, also known as the
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the application transport as an SSH subsystem called "rpki-rtr". the application transport as an SSH subsystem called "rpki-rtr".
Subsystem support is a feature of SSH version 2 (SSHv2) and is not Subsystem support is a feature of SSH version 2 (SSHv2) and is not
included in SSHv1. Running this protocol as an SSH subsystem avoids included in SSHv1. Running this protocol as an SSH subsystem avoids
the need for the application to recognize shell prompts or skip over the need for the application to recognize shell prompts or skip over
extraneous information, such as a system message that is sent at extraneous information, such as a system message that is sent at
shell start-up. shell start-up.
It is assumed that the router and cache have exchanged keys out of It is assumed that the router and cache have exchanged keys out of
band by some reasonably secured means. band by some reasonably secured means.
Cache servers supporting SSH transport MUST accept RSA and Digital Cache servers supporting SSH transport MUST accept RSA authentication
Signature Algorithm (DSA) authentication and SHOULD accept Elliptic and SHOULD accept Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)
Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) authentication. User authentication. User authentication MUST be supported; host
authentication MUST be supported; host authentication MAY be authentication MAY be supported. Implementations MAY support
supported. Implementations MAY support password authentication. password authentication. Client routers SHOULD verify the public key
Client routers SHOULD verify the public key of the cache to avoid of the cache to avoid monkey-in-the-middle attacks.
monkey-in-the-middle attacks.
9.2. TLS Transport 9.2. TLS Transport
Client routers using TLS transport MUST present client-side Client routers using TLS transport MUST present client-side
certificates to authenticate themselves to the cache in order to certificates to authenticate themselves to the cache in order to
allow the cache to manage the load by rejecting connections from allow the cache to manage the load by rejecting connections from
unauthorized routers. In principle, any type of certificate and unauthorized routers. In principle, any type of certificate and
certificate authority (CA) may be used; however, in general, cache certificate authority (CA) may be used; however, in general, cache
operators will wish to create their own small-scale CA and issue operators will wish to create their own small-scale CA and issue
certificates to each authorized router. This simplifies credential certificates to each authorized router. This simplifies credential
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establish a session with each potential serving cache in preference establish a session with each potential serving cache in preference
order, and then starts to load data from the most preferred cache to order, and then starts to load data from the most preferred cache to
which it can connect and authenticate. The router's list of caches which it can connect and authenticate. The router's list of caches
has the following elements: has the following elements:
Preference: An unsigned integer denoting the router's preference to Preference: An unsigned integer denoting the router's preference to
connect to that cache; the lower the value, the more preferred. connect to that cache; the lower the value, the more preferred.
Name: The IP address or fully qualified domain name of the cache. Name: The IP address or fully qualified domain name of the cache.
Key: Any needed public key of the cache. Cache Credential(s): Any credential (such as a public key) needed to
authenticate the cache's identity to the router.
MyKey: Any needed private key or certificate of this client. Router Credential(s): Any credential (such as a private key or
certificate) needed to authenticate the router's identity to the
cache.
Due to the distributed nature of the RPKI, caches simply cannot be Due to the distributed nature of the RPKI, caches simply cannot be
rigorously synchronous. A client may hold data from multiple caches rigorously synchronous. A client may hold data from multiple caches
but MUST keep the data marked as to source, as later updates MUST but MUST keep the data marked as to source, as later updates MUST
affect the correct data. affect the correct data.
Just as there may be more than one covering ROA from a single cache, Just as there may be more than one covering ROA from a single cache,
there may be multiple covering ROAs from multiple caches. The there may be multiple covering ROAs from multiple caches. The
results are as described in [RFC6811]. results are as described in [RFC6811].
If data from multiple caches are held, implementations MUST NOT If data from multiple caches are held, implementations MUST NOT
distinguish between data sources when performing validation. distinguish between data sources when performing validation of BGP
announcements.
When a more preferred cache becomes available, if resources allow, it When a more preferred cache becomes available, if resources allow, it
would be prudent for the client to start fetching from that cache. would be prudent for the client to start fetching from that cache.
The client SHOULD attempt to maintain at least one set of data, The client SHOULD attempt to maintain at least one set of data,
regardless of whether it has chosen a different cache or established regardless of whether it has chosen a different cache or established
a new connection to the previous cache. a new connection to the previous cache.
A client MAY drop the data from a particular cache when it is fully A client MAY drop the data from a particular cache when it is fully
in sync with one or more other caches. in sync with one or more other caches.
skipping to change at page 28, line 10 skipping to change at page 28, line 10
recommended that primary caches which load from the distributed recommended that primary caches which load from the distributed
Global RPKI not do so all at the same times, e.g., on the hour. Global RPKI not do so all at the same times, e.g., on the hour.
Choose a random time, perhaps the ISP's AS number modulo 60 and Choose a random time, perhaps the ISP's AS number modulo 60 and
jitter the inter-fetch timing. jitter the inter-fetch timing.
12. Error Codes 12. Error Codes
This section contains a preliminary list of error codes. The authors This section contains a preliminary list of error codes. The authors
expect additions to the list during development of the initial expect additions to the list during development of the initial
implementations. There is an IANA registry where valid error codes implementations. There is an IANA registry where valid error codes
are listed; see Section 14. Errors which are considered fatal SHOULD are listed; see Section 14. Errors which are considered fatal MUST
cause the session to be dropped. cause the session to be dropped.
0: Corrupt Data (fatal): The receiver believes the received PDU to 0: Corrupt Data (fatal): The receiver believes the received PDU to
be corrupt in a manner not specified by another error code. be corrupt in a manner not specified by another error code.
1: Internal Error (fatal): The party reporting the error experienced 1: Internal Error (fatal): The party reporting the error experienced
some kind of internal error unrelated to protocol operation (ran some kind of internal error unrelated to protocol operation (ran
out of memory, a coding assertion failed, et cetera). out of memory, a coding assertion failed, et cetera).
2: No Data Available: The cache believes itself to be in good 2: No Data Available: The cache believes itself to be in good
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request to be invalid. request to be invalid.
4: Unsupported Protocol Version (fatal): The Protocol Version is not 4: Unsupported Protocol Version (fatal): The Protocol Version is not
known by the receiver of the PDU. known by the receiver of the PDU.
5: Unsupported PDU Type (fatal): The PDU Type is not known by the 5: Unsupported PDU Type (fatal): The PDU Type is not known by the
receiver of the PDU. receiver of the PDU.
6: Withdrawal of Unknown Record (fatal): The received PDU has Flag=0 6: Withdrawal of Unknown Record (fatal): The received PDU has Flag=0
but a matching record ({Prefix, Len, Max-Len, ASN} tuple for an but a matching record ({Prefix, Len, Max-Len, ASN} tuple for an
IPvX PDU, {SKI, ASN, Subject Public Key} tuple for a Router Key IPvX PDU, or {SKI, ASN, Subject Public Key} tuple for a Router Key
PDU) does not exist in the receiver's database. PDU) does not exist in the receiver's database.
7: Duplicate Announcement Received (fatal): The received PDU has 7: Duplicate Announcement Received (fatal): The received PDU has
Flag=1 but a matching record ({Prefix, Len, Max-Len, ASN} tuple Flag=1 but a matching record ({Prefix, Len, Max-Len, ASN} tuple
for an IPvX PDU, {SKI, ASN, Subject Public Key} tuple for a Router for an IPvX PDU, or {SKI, ASN, Subject Public Key} tuple for a
Key PDU) is already active in the router. Router Key PDU) is already active in the router.
8: Unexpected Protocol Version (fatal): The received PDU has a 8: Unexpected Protocol Version (fatal): The received PDU has a
Protocol Version field that differs from the protocol version Protocol Version field that differs from the protocol version
negotiated in Section 7. negotiated in Section 7.
13. Security Considerations 13. Security Considerations
As this document describes a security protocol, many aspects of As this document describes a security protocol, many aspects of
security interest are described in the relevant sections. This security interest are described in the relevant sections. This
section points out issues which may not be obvious in other sections. section points out issues which may not be obvious in other sections.
skipping to change at page 31, line 33 skipping to change at page 31, line 33
No doubt this list is incomplete. We apologize to any contributor No doubt this list is incomplete. We apologize to any contributor
whose name we missed. whose name we missed.
16. References 16. References
16.1. Normative References 16.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-sidr-bgpsec-algs] [I-D.ietf-sidr-bgpsec-algs]
Turner, S., "BGPsec Algorithms, Key Formats, & Signature Turner, S., "BGPsec Algorithms, Key Formats, & Signature
Formats", draft-ietf-sidr-bgpsec-algs-14 (work in Formats", draft-ietf-sidr-bgpsec-algs-16 (work in
progress), November 2015. progress), November 2016.
[RFC1982] Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Serial Number Arithmetic", RFC 1982, [RFC1982] Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Serial Number Arithmetic", RFC 1982,
August 1996. August 1996.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997. Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.
[RFC2385] Heffernan, A., "Protection of BGP Sessions via the TCP MD5 [RFC2385] Heffernan, A., "Protection of BGP Sessions via the TCP MD5
Signature Option", RFC 2385, August 1998. Signature Option", RFC 2385, August 1998.
skipping to change at page 33, line 12 skipping to change at page 33, line 12
[RFC5781] Weiler, S., Ward, D., and R. Housley, "The rsync URI [RFC5781] Weiler, S., Ward, D., and R. Housley, "The rsync URI
Scheme", RFC 5781, February 2010. Scheme", RFC 5781, February 2010.
[RFC6480] Lepinski, M. and S. Kent, "An Infrastructure to Support [RFC6480] Lepinski, M. and S. Kent, "An Infrastructure to Support
Secure Internet Routing", RFC 6480, February 2012. Secure Internet Routing", RFC 6480, February 2012.
[RFC6481] Huston, G., Loomans, R., and G. Michaelson, "A Profile for [RFC6481] Huston, G., Loomans, R., and G. Michaelson, "A Profile for
Resource Certificate Repository Structure", RFC 6481, Resource Certificate Repository Structure", RFC 6481,
February 2012. February 2012.
[RFC7128] Bush, R., Austein, R., Patel, K., Gredler, H., and M.
Waehlisch, "Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI)
Router Implementation Report", RFC 7128, February 2014.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Randy Bush Randy Bush
Internet Initiative Japan Internet Initiative Japan
5147 Crystal Springs 5147 Crystal Springs
Bainbridge Island, Washington 98110 Bainbridge Island, Washington 98110
US US
Email: randy@psg.com Email: randy@psg.com
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