DISPATCH                                                   K. Rehor, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Intended status: Informational                                   R. Jain
Expires: February 2, April 1, 2011                                       IPC Systems
                                                              L. Portman
                                                            NICE Systems
                                                               A. Hutton
                                       Siemens Enterprise Communications
                                                         August 31,
                                                      September 28, 2010

          Requirements for SIP-based Media Recording (SIPREC)


   Session recording is a critical requirement in many business
   communications environments such as call centers and financial
   trading floors.  In some of these environments, all calls must be
   recorded for regulatory and compliance reasons.  In others, calls may
   be recorded for quality control or business analytics.

   Recording is typically done by sending a copy of the session media to
   the recording devices.  This document specifies requirements for
   extensions to SIP that will manage delivery of RTP media from an end-
   point that originates media (or that has access to it) to a recording
   device.  This is being referred to as SIP-based Media Recording.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Requirements notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Example Deployment Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  Use Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   6.  Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 11
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 14
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 14
   10. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   11. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 15
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.  Requirements notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119] and indicate
   requirement levels for compliant mechanisms.

2.  Introduction

   Session recording is a critical operational requirement in many
   businesses, especially where voice is used as a medium for commerce
   and customer support.  A prime example where voice is used for trade
   is the financial industry.  The call recording requirements in this
   industry are quite stringent.  The recorded calls are used for
   dispute resolution and compliance.  Other businesses such as customer
   support call centers typically employ call recording for quality
   control or business analytics, with different requirements.

   Depending on the country and its regulatory requirements, financial
   trading floors typically must record all calls.  The recorded media
   content must be an exact copy of the actual conversation (i.e.
   clipping and loss of media are unacceptable).  A new call attempt
   would be automatically rejected if the recording device becomes
   temporarily unavailable.  An existing call would be dropped in the
   same situation.  In contrast, support call centers typically only
   record a subset of the calls, and calls must not fail regardless of
   the availability of the recording device.

   Furthermore, the scale and cost burdens vary widely, in all markets,
   where the different needs for solution capabilities such as media
   injection, transcoding, and security-related needs do not conform
   well to a one-size-fits-all model.  If a standardized solution
   supports all of the requirements from every recording market, but
   doing so would be expensive for markets with lesser needs, then
   proprietary solutions for those markets will continue to propagate.
   Care must be taken, therefore, to make a standards-based solution
   support optionality and flexibility.

   This document specifies requirements for using SIP [RFC3261] between
   a Session Recording Client and a Session Recording Server to control
   the recording of media that has been transmitted in the context of a
   Communication Session."  The Session Recording Client is the source
   of the recorded media.  The Session Recording Server is the sink of
   recorded media.  It should be noted that the requirements for the
   protocol between a Session Recording Server and Session Recording
   Client have very similar requirements (such as codec and transport
   negotiation, encryption key interchange, firewall traversal) as
   compared to regular SIP media sessions.  The choice of SIP for
   session recording provides reuse of an existing protocol.  This document specifies
   requirements for using SIP [RFC3261] to record a media session
   between a Session Recording Client and a Session Recording Server,
   The Session Recording Client is the source of the recorded media.

   The Session Recording Server is the sink of recorded media.

   The recorded sessions can be any SIP-based RTP media sessions including voice,
   video, and text (as defined by [RFC4103]).

   An archived session recording is typically comprised of the session
   Communication Session media content and the session metadata. Communication Session
   Metadata.  The session metadata Communication Session Metadata allows recording
   archives to be searched and filtered at a later time.  The
   conveyance of time and allows a
   session metadata to be played back in a meaningful way, e.g., with correct
   synchronization between the media.  The Communication Session
   Metadata needs to be conveyed from the Session Recording Client to
   the Session Recording Server may or may not be over SIP.  The Server.  (The requirements for session metadata
   delivery will be are specified in a
   future revision of this document or in a separate document.

   In some situations it may be advantageous to correlate the
   Communication Session with other information, such as an IM or other
   text chat session. separately [draft-ram-siprec-metadata-00]).

   This document only considers active recording, where the Session
   Recording Client purposefully streams media to a Session Recording
   Server.  Passive recording, where a recording device detects media
   directly from the network, is outside the scope of this document.  In
   addition, lawful intercept is outside the scope of this document.

3.  Definitions

   Session Recording Server (SRS): A Session Recording Server (SRS) is a
   SIP User Agent (UA) that is a specialized media server or collector
   that acts as the sink of the recorded media.  An SRS is a logical
   function that typically archives media for extended durations of time
   and provides interfaces for search and retrieval of the archived
   media.  An SRS is typically implemented as a multi-port device that
   is capable of receiving media from several sources simultaneously.
   An SRS is typically also the sink of the recorded session metadata.
   Note that the term "Server" does not imply the SRS is the server side
   of a signaling protocol - the SRS may be the initiator of recording
   requests, for example.

   Session Recording Client (SRC): A Session Recording Client (SRC) is a
   SIP User Agent (UA) that acts as the source of the recorded media,
   sending it to the SRS.  An SRC is a logical function.  Its
   capabilities may be implemented across one or more physical devices.
   In practice, an SRC could be a personal device (such as a SIP phone),
   a SIP Media Gateway (MG), a Session Border Controller (SBC) or a SIP
   Media Server (MS) integrated with an Application Server (AS).  This
   specification defines the term SRC such that all such SIP entities
   can be generically addressed under one definition.  The SRC itself or
   another entity working on its behalf (such as a SIP Application
   Server) may act as the source of the recording metadata.

   Communication Session (CS): A session created between two or more SIP
   User Agents (UAs) that is the target for recording.

   Recording Session (RS): The SIP session created between an SRC and
   SRS for the purpose of recording a Communication Session.

   Figure 1 pictorially represents the relationship between a Recording
   Session and Communication Session.

      |                  (Session Recording Client)                   |
      |   +-------------+                           +-----------+     |
      |   |             |   Communication Session   |           |     |
      |   |     A       |<------------------------->|   B       |     |
      |   |             |                           |           |     |
      |   +-------------+                           +-----------+     |
                                     | Recording
                                     | Session
                              |             |
                              |   Session   |
                              |  Recording  |
                              |   Server    |
                              |             |

                                 Figure 1

   Metadata: Data Information that describes the Communication Session recorded media and Recording
   Session.. the CS to
   which they relate.

   SIPREC: The set of SIP extensions that supports recording of
   Communication Sessions.

   Pause/Resume recording: Pause: Temporarily discontinue capture

   Pause and
   storage Resume during a Communication Session: Pause: The action of
   temporarily discontinuing the incoming recording of media stream.  Recording may continue via the
   Resume command. during a CS.
   Resume: Continue capture and storage The action of recommencing the incoming
   media stream into the same recording session. of media for a CS
   following a pause.

4.  Example Deployment Architectures

   A recording system deployment consists of the Recording Client and
   Recording Server.  Recording Control is bi-directional; Recording
   Media and Call Communication Session (CS) Metadata are sent from the RC SRC
   to RS. SRS.

      +-------------+                           +--------------+
      |             |      Call      CS Metadata          |              |
      |   Session   |-------------------------->|    Session   |
      |  Recording  |                           |   Recording  |
      |   Client    |    Recording Control      |    Server    |
      |    (SRC)    |<------------------------->|     (SRS)    |
      |             |                           |              |
      |             |     Recorded Media        |              |
      |             |-------------------------->|              |
      |             |                           |              |
      +-------------+                           +--------------+

                                 Figure 2

5.  Use Cases

   Use Case 1: Full-time Recording: One (or more, in the case of
   redundant recording) Recording Session for each Communication

   For example, the diagram below shows the lifecycle of Communication
   Sessions (CS) and the relationship to the Recording Sessions (RS)

   CS  |--- CS 1 ---|      |--- CS 2 ---|     |--- CS 3 ---|

   RS  |--- RS 1 ---|      |--- RS 2 ---|     |--- RS 3 ---|

                                 Figure 3

   Record every call for specific extension/person.  One Recording
   Session is created per Communication Session.

   The need to record all calls is typically due to business process
   purposes (such as transaction confirmation or dispute resolution) or
   to ensure compliance with governmental regulations.  Applications
   include enterprise, contact center, and financial trading floors.

   Also commonly known as Total Recording.

   Use Case 2: Selective Recording: Start a Recording Session when a
   Communication Session to be recorded is established.  Only specific calls are
   recorded, possibly based on business rules.  A Communication Session
   may or may not have a Recording Session (record only specific calls).

   In this example, Communication Sessions 1 and 3 are recorded but CS 2
   is not.

   CS  |--- CS 1 ---|      |--- CS 2 ---|     |--- CS 3 ---|

   RS  |--- RS 1----|                         |--- RS 2 ---|

                                 Figure 4

   Use Case 3: Dynamic Recording: Start/Stop a Recording Session during
   a Communication Session.

   The Recording Session starts during a Communication Session, either
   manually via a user-controlled mechanism (e.g. button on user's
   phone) or automatically via an application (e.g. a Contact Center
   customer service application) or business event.  A Recording Session
   either ends during the Communication Session, or when the
   Communication Session ends.

   One or more Recording Sessions per Communication Session:

   CS  |------------- Communication Session -----------|

   RS           |---- RS 1 ----|  |---- RS 2 -----|

                                 Figure 5

   Also known as Mid-session or Mid-call Recording.

   Applications include:

   o Enterprise back office recording where only specific calls (based
   on privacy) have to be recorded

   o A user requests session recording at call setup time or during a
   call. Mid-call Recording.

   Use Case 4: Persistent Recording: A single Recording Session captures
   one or more Communication Sessions, in sequence (Fig. 6) or in
   parallel (Fig. 7).  The recording session is a single RTP stream,
   therefore consists of a single offer/answer exchange.  There may be
   mid-session RE-INVITE offer/answer exchanges for codec changes or for
   moving the RTP streams to handle failure scenarios.

             |--- CS 1 ---|      |--- CS 2 ---|     |--- CS 3 ---|

   RS  |---------------------- Recording Session ---------------------|

                                 Figure 6

   A Recording Session records continuously without interruption.
   Applications include financial trading desks and emergency (first-
   responder) service bureaus.  The length of a Persistent Recording
   Sessions is independent from the length of the actual Communication
   Sessions.  Persistent Recording Sessions avoid issues such as media
   clipping that can occur due to delays in Recording Session

   The connection and attributes of media in the Recording Session are
   not dynamically signaled for each Communication Session before it can
   be recorded; however, codec re-negotiation is possible.  Call  CS details
   and CS metadata will still be signaled, but can be post- correlated post-correlated to
   the recorded media.  There will still need to be a means of
   correlating the recorded media connection/packets to the
   Communication Session, however this may be on a permanent filter-type
   basis, such as based on a SIP AoR of an agent that is always

   In some cases, more than one concurrent Communication Session (on a
   single end-user apparatus, e.g. trading floor turret) is mixed into
   one Recording Session:

                 |-------- CS 1 -------|
                    |-------- CS 2 -------|
               |-------- CS 3 -------|

   RS  |----------- Recording Session --------------|

                                 Figure 7

   Use Case 5: Real-time Recording Controls.

   For an active Recording Session, privacy or security reasons may
   demand not capturing a specific portion of a conversation.  An
   example is for PCI (payment card industry) compliance where credit
   card info must be protected.  One solution is to not record a caller
   speaking their credit card information.


   An example of a real-time controls may include Pause/Resume, or Mute/Unmute. is Pause/Resume.

   Use Case 6: IVR / Voice Portal Recording.

   Self-service Interactive Voice Response (DTMF or ASR) applications
   may need to be recorded for application performance tuning or to meet
   compliance requirements.

   Metadata about an IVR session recording must include session
   information and may include application context information (e.g.
   VoiceXML session variables, dialog names, etc.)

   Use Case 7: Enterprise Mobility Recording.

   Many agents and enterprise workers are not located on company


   o Home-based agents or enterprise workers.

   o Mobile phones of knowledge workers when they conduct work related
   (and legally required recording) calls. i.e. insurance agents,
   brokers, physicians.

   Use Case 8: Geographically distributed or centralized recording.

   Global banks with multiple branches up to thousands of small sites.

   o Only phones and network infrastructure in branches, no recording

   o Internal calls inside or between branches must be recorded.

   o Centralized recording system in data centers together with
   telephony infrastructure (e.g.  PBX).

   Obtain media by forking:

   o In data centers (inbound/outbound): fork media in gateway.

   o At branch locations (internal): fork from end points or from site
   level gateways.

   Use Case 9: Record complex call scenarios.

   Record a call that is associated with another call.


   o Customer in conversation with Agent

   o Agent puts customer on hold in order to consult with a Supervisor.

   o Agent in conversation with Supervisor.

   o Agent disconnects from Supervisor, reconnects with Customer.

   o The Supervisor call must be associated with the original customer

   Use case 10: High availability and continuous recording.

   Specific deployment scenarios present different requirements for
   system availability, error handling, etc. including:

   o An SRS must always be available at call setup time.

   o No loss of media recording, including during failure of an SRS.

   o The Communication Session must be terminated (or suitable
   notification) in the event of a recording failure.

   Use Case 11: Record multi-channel, multi-media session.

   Some applications require the recording of more than one media
   stream, possibly of different types.  Media is synchronized, either
   at storage or at playback.

   Speech analytics technologies (e.g. word spotting, emotion detection,
   speaker identification) may require speaker-separated recordings for
   optimum performance.

   Multi-modal Contact Centers may include audio, video, IM or other
   interaction modalities.

   In trading floors environments, in order to save resources, it may be
   preferable to mix multiple concurrent calls (Communication Sessions)
   on different handsets/speakers on the same turret into single
   recording session.

   Use Case 12: Real-time media processing.

   Recorder must support real-time media processing, such as speech

   Recording and real-time analytics of trading floor interactions
   (including video and instant messaging).  Real time analytics is
   required for automatic intervention (stopping interaction or alert)
   if for example, trader is not following regulations.

   Speaker separation is required in order to reliably detect who is
   saying specific phrases.

6.  Requirements

   The following are requirements for the Session Recording Protocol: SIP-based Media Recording:

   o REQ-000 The mechanism MUST provide a means for "using the SIP
   protocol for" establishing, maintaining and clearing terminating Recording
   Sessions between a Session Recording Client and a Session Recording Server for the purpose of
   recording, at the Session Recording Server, media from Communication

   o REQ-001 The mechanism MUST support Full-time Recording Sessions. the ability to record all CSs in
   their entirety.

   o REQ-002 The mechanism MUST support Selective Recording Sessions. the ability to record selected
   CSs in their entirety, according to policy.

   o REQ-003 The mechanism MUST support Dynamic (on-demand) Recording
   Sessions. the ability to record selected
   parts of selected CSs.

   o REQ-004 The mechanism MUST support Persistent Recording Sessions. the ability to record a CS
   without an intentional loss of media (for example, clipping media at
   the beginning of the CS) and without impacting the quality or timing
   of the CS (for example, delaying the start of the CS while
   preparation for recording takes place).  See Use Case 4 in Section 5.

   o REQ-005 The mechanism MUST support establishing Recording Sessions
   from the SRC to the SRS.  This requirement typically applies when the
   decision about whether a session should be recorded or not resides in
   the SRC.

   o REQ-006 The mechanism MUST support establishing Recording Sessions
   from the SRS to the SRC (SRS initiates recording).  This requirement
   typically applies when the decision about whether a session should be
   recorded or not resides in the SRS.

   o REQ-007 The mechanism MUST support the recording of IVR sessions.

   o REQ-008 The mechanism SHOULD support SRS failover and migration of
   Recording Sessions to a working SRS without disconnecting the
   Communication Sessions.

   o REQ-009 A request for a new Recording Session MUST be rejected by
   the SRS if service is unavailable (e.g. system overload, disk full,

   o REQ-010 A request for a new Recording Session MUST be redirected to
   an available SRS.

   o REQ-011 If no recording resources are available, appropriate error
   message MUST be returned.

   o REQ-012 The mechanism MUST support the ability for an SRC to
   deliver mixed audio streams from multiple Communication Sessions to
   an SRS.

   Note: A mixed audio stream is where several Communication Sessions
   are carried in a single Recording Session.  A mixed media stream is
   typically produced by a mixer function.  The RS MAY be informed about
   the composition of the mixed streams through session metadata.

   o REQ-012bis: The mechanism MUST support the ability for an SRC to
   deliver mixed audio streams from different parties of a given
   Communication Session to an SRS.

   o REQ-013 The mechanism MUST support the ability to deliver multiple
   media streams for a given Communication Session over separate
   Recording Sessions to the SRS.

   o REQ-014 The mechanism MUST support the ability to deliver multiple
   media streams for a given Communication Session over a single
   Recording Session to the SRS.

   o REQ-015 The mechanism MUST support the ability to pause and resume
   the Recording Session from the SRC.

   o REQ-016 The mechanism MUST support the ability to pause and resume
   the Recording Session from the SRS.

   o REQ-017 The mechanism MUST provide the SRS with metadata describing
   CSs that are being recorded, including the media being used and the
   identities of parties involved.

   o REQ-018 The mechanism MUST provide the SRS with the means to
   correlate RS media with CS participant media described in metadata metadata.

   o REQ-019 The mechanism MUST support the ability to transport the
   metadata in the same SIP dialog as the Recording Session.

   o REQ-020 The mechanism MUST support the ability to transport the
   metadata outside of the Recording Session SIP dialog.

   o REQ-021 Metadata format must be agnostic of the transport protocol.

   o REQ-022: The mechanism MUST support a means to cancel and discard a
   Recording Session during a Communication Session.

   o REQ-023 The mechanism MUST support a means for a SIP UA involved in
   a CS to request request, prior to the start of recording, that a Communication Session is the CS not be
   recorded prior to recording.

   o REQ-024 The mechanism MUST provide a means of indicating to the end
   users of a Communication Session that the session in which they are
   participating is being recorded.

   Examples include: inject tones into the Communication Session from
   the SRC, play a message at the beginning of a session, a visual
   indicator on a display, etc.

   o REQ-025 The mechanism MUST support the initiation of a Recording
   Session at the beginning of a Communication Session.

   o REQ-026 The mechanism MUST support the initiation of a Recording
   Session during a Communication Session.

   o REQ-027 The mechanism SHOULD support means to avoid clipping media
   (leading or trailing samples) when the media is transported from the
   SRC to the SRS.

   Note: Media clipping can occur due to delays in recording session
   establishment.  SRC implementations typically buffer some portion of
   the media to overcome this problem.

   o REQ-028 The mechanism MUST NOT prevent high availability

   o REQ-029 The mechanism MUST support a means of providing security
   (confidentiality, integrity and authentication) for the SIPREC.

   o REQ-030 The mechanism MUST provide a means for the Recording
   Session identifier so that the Recording Session itself is labeled as
   a SIP session that is established for the purpose of recording.

   o REQ-031 The mechanism MUST support the existing SIP security model,
   including eavesdropping protection, authorization and authentication.

   o REQ-032 If the Communication Session is encrypted, the Recording
   Session MUST use different keys.

   o REQ-033 The mechanism SHALL support means to relate Recording
   Session(s) with Communication Session(s).

7.  Security Considerations

   Session recording has substantial security implications, both for the SIP
   UA's being recorded, and for the Session Recording Protocol
   itself in terms of the SRC SRC, and the SRS.

   For the SIP UA's involved in the Communication Session, the
   requirements in this draft enable the UA to identify that a session
   Communication Session is being recorded and for the UA to request
   that a given session Communication Session is not subject to recording.

   Since humans don't typically look at or know about protocol signaling
   such as SIP, and indeed the SIP session might have originated through
   a PSTN Gateway without any ability to pass on in-signaling
   indications of recording, users can be notified of recording in the
   media itself through voice announcements, a visual indicator on the
   endpoint, or other means.

   With regards to security implications of the protocol(s), clearly
   there is a need for authentication, authorization, eavesdropping
   protection, and non-repudiation for the solution.  The SRC needs to
   know the SRS it is communicating with is legitimate, and vice-versa,
   even if they are in different domains.  Both the signaling and media
   for the SIPREC needs the ability to be authenticated and protected
   from eavesdropping and non-repudiation.  Requirements are detailed in
   the requirements section.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

9.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Dan Wing, Alan Johnson, Vijay Gurbani, and Cullen Jennings
   for their help with this document, and to all the members of the
   DISPATCH WG mailing list for providing valuable input to this work.

10.  Contributors

   In addition to the editors, the following people provided substantial
   technical and writing contributions to this document, listed

   Hadriel Kaplan
   Acme Packet
   71 Third Ave.
   Burlington, MA 01803

   Henry Lum
   Genesys, Alcatel-Lucent
   1380 Rodick Road, Suite 200
   Markham, Ontario L3R 4G5

   Martin Palmer
   BT Global Services
   Annandale House,1 Hanworth Road,
   Sunbury on Thames Middlesex TW16 5DJ

   Dave Smith
   Genesys, Alcatel-Lucent
   2001 Junipero Serra Blvd, Daly City, CA 94014

11.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2804]  IAB and IESG, "IETF Policy on Wiretapping", RFC 2804,
              May 2000.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

Authors' Addresses

   Ken Rehor (editor)
   Cisco Systems
   170 West Tasman Dr.
   Mail Stop SJC30/2/
   San Jose, CA  95134

   Email: krehor@cisco.com

   Rajnish Jain
   IPC Systems
   777 Commerce Drive
   Fairfield, CT  06825

   Email: rajnish.jain@ipc.com

   Leon Portman
   NICE Systems
   8 Hapnina
   Ra'anana  43017

   Email: leon.portman@nice.com

   Andrew Hutton
   Siemens Enterprise Communications

   Email: andrew.hutton@siemens-enterprise.com
   URI:   http://www.siemens-enterprise.com