draft-ietf-smime-cades-00.txt   draft-ietf-smime-cades-01.txt 
S/MIME Working Group J.Ross(Security and Standards) S/MIME Working Group J.Ross(Security and Standards)
INTERNET-DRAFT N.Pope(Security and Standards) INTERNET-DRAFT N.Pope(Security and Standards)
Expires June 2006 D.Pinkas(Bull) Expires September 2006 D.Pinkas(Bull)
Obsoletes: RFC 3126 December 2005 Obsoletes: RFC 3126 April 2006
Target Category: Informational Target Category: Informational
CMS Advanced Electronic Signatures (CAdES) CMS Advanced Electronic Signatures (CAdES)
< draft-ietf-smime-cades-00.txt> <draft-ietf-smime-cades-01.txt>
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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This document may not be modified, and derivative works of it may This document may not be modified, and derivative works of it may
not be created, except to publish it as an RFC and to translate it not be created, except to publish it as an RFC and to translate it
into languages other than English. into languages other than English.
Abstract Abstract
This document defines the format of an electronic signature that can This document defines the format of an electronic signature that can
remain valid over long periods. This includes evidence as to its remain valid over long periods. This includes evidence as to its
validity even if the signer or verifying party later attempts to deny validity even if the signer or verifying party later attempts to deny
(i.e., repudiates the validity of the signature). The format can be (i.e., repudiates the validity of the signature). The format can be
considered as an extension to RFC 3369 and RFC 2634, where, when considered as an extension to RFC 3852 [4] and RFC 2634 [5], where,
appropriate additional signed and unsigned attributes have been when appropriate additional signed and unsigned attributes have been
defined. The contents of this Informational RFC amounts to a defined. The contents of this Informational RFC amounts to a
transposition of the ETSI TS 101 733 V.1.6.3 (CMS Advanced transposition of the ETSI TS 101 733 V.1.6.3 (CMS Advanced
Electronic Signatures - CAdES) and is technically equivalent to it. Electronic Signatures - CAdES) [TS101733] and is technically
equivalent to it.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction 6 1. Introduction 6
2. Scope 6 2. Scope 6
3. Definitions and abbreviations 8 3. Definitions and abbreviations 8
3.1 Definitions 8 3.1 Definitions 8
3.2 Abbreviations 11 3.2 Abbreviations 11
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4.4.2 ES with Complete validation data references (CAdES-C) 20 4.4.2 ES with Complete validation data references (CAdES-C) 20
4.4.3 Extended electronic signature formats 22 4.4.3 Extended electronic signature formats 22
4.4.4 Archival Electronic Signature (CAdES-A) 26 4.4.4 Archival Electronic Signature (CAdES-A) 26
4.5 Arbitration 27 4.5 Arbitration 27
4.6 Validation process 28 4.6 Validation process 28
5. Electronic signature attributes 29 5. Electronic signature attributes 29
5.1 General syntax 29 5.1 General syntax 29
5.2 Data content type 29 5.2 Data content type 29
5.3 Signed-data content type 29 5.3 Signed-data content type 29
5.4 SignedData type 30 5.4 SignedData type 29
5.5 EncapsulatedContentInfo type 30 5.5 EncapsulatedContentInfo type 29
5.6 SignerInfo type 30 5.6 SignerInfo type 30
5.6.1 Message digest calculation process 31 5.6.1 Message digest calculation process 31
5.6.2 Message signature generation process 31 5.6.2 Message signature generation process 31
5.6.3 Message signature verification process 31 5.6.3 Message signature verification process 31
5.7 Basic ES mandatory present attributes 31 5.7 Basic ES mandatory present attributes 31
5.7.1 Content type 31 5.7.1 Content type 31
5.7.2 Message digest 31 5.7.2 Message digest 32
5.7.3 Signing certificate reference attribute 31 5.7.3 Signing certificate reference attribute 32
5.8 Additional mandatory attributes for Explicit Policy-based 5.8 Additional mandatory attributes for Explicit Policy-based
Electronic Signatures 33 Electronic Signatures 34
5.8.1 Signature policy identifier 33 5.8.1 Signature policy identifier 34
5.9 CMS imported optional attributes 35 5.9 CMS imported optional attributes 36
5.9.1 Signing time 35 5.9.1 Signing time 36
5.9.2 Countersignature 35 5.9.2 Countersignature 36
5.10 ESS imported optional attributes 36 5.10 ESS imported optional attributes 36
5.10.1 Content reference attribute 36 5.10.1 Content reference attribute 37
5.10.2 Content identifier attribute 36 5.10.2 Content identifier attribute 37
5.10.3 Content hints attribute 36 5.10.3 Content hints attribute 37
5.11 Additional optional attributes defined in the present document 37 5.11 Additional optional attributes defined in the present document 38
5.11.1 Commitment type indication attribute 37 5.11.1 Commitment type indication attribute 38
5.11.2 Signer location attribute 39 5.11.2 Signer location attribute 40
5.11.3 Signer attributes attribute 40 5.11.3 Signer attributes attribute 40
5.11.4 Content time-stamp 40 5.11.4 Content time-stamp 41
5.12 Support for multiple signatures 41 5.12 Support for multiple signatures 41
5.12.1 Independent signatures 41 5.12.1 Independent signatures 41
5.12.2 Embedded signatures 41 5.12.2 Embedded signatures 42
6. Additional Electronic Signature validation attributes 41 6. Additional Electronic Signature validation attributes 42
6.1 Electronic Signature Time-stamped (CAdES-T) 43 6.1 Electronic Signature Time-stamped (CAdES-T) 43
6.1.1 Signature time- stamp attribute definition 43 6.1.1 Signature time- stamp attribute definition 44
6.2 Complete validation reference data (CAdES-C) 44 6.2 Complete validation reference data (CAdES-C) 44
6.2.1 Complete certificate references attribute definition 44 6.2.1 Complete certificate references attribute definition 45
6.2.2 Complete Revocation References attribute definition 45 6.2.2 Complete Revocation References attribute definition 45
6.2.3 Attribute certificate references attribute definition 47 6.2.3 Attribute certificate references attribute definition 47
6.2.4 Attribute revocation references attribute definition 47 6.2.4 Attribute revocation references attribute definition 48
6.3 Extended validation data (CAdES-X) 48 6.3 Extended validation data (CAdES-X) 48
6.3.1 Time-stamped validation data (CAdES-X Type 1 or Type 2) 48 6.3.1 Time-stamped validation data (CAdES-X Type 1 or Type 2) 48
6.3.2 Long validation data (CAdES-X Long, CAdES-X Long Type 1 or 2) 48 6.3.2 Long validation data (CAdES-X Long, CAdES-X Long Type 1 or 2) 48
6.3.3 Certificate values attribute definition 49 6.3.3 Certificate values attribute definition 49
6.3.4 Revocation values attribute definition 50 6.3.4 Revocation values attribute definition 50
6.3.5 CAdES-C time-stamp attribute definition 51 6.3.5 CAdES-C time-stamp attribute definition 51
6.3.6 Time-stamped certificates and crls references attribute 6.3.6 Time-stamped certificates and crls references attribute
definition 51 definition 51
6.4 Archive validation data 52 6.4 Archive validation data 52
6.4.1 Archive time-stamp attribute definition 52 6.4.1 Archive time-stamp attribute definition 52
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7.2 Certificate revocation list format 54 7.2 Certificate revocation list format 54
7.3 OCSP response format 54 7.3 OCSP response format 54
7.4 Time-stamp token format 54 7.4 Time-stamp token format 54
7.5 Name and attribute formats 54 7.5 Name and attribute formats 54
7.6 Attribute certificate 55 7.6 Attribute certificate 55
8. Conformance requirements 55 8. Conformance requirements 55
8.1 CAdES-Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES) 56 8.1 CAdES-Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES) 56
8.2 CAdES-Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature 56 8.2 CAdES-Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature 56
8.3 Verification using time-stamping 56 8.3 Verification using time-stamping 56
8.4 Verification using secure records 57 8.4 Verification using secure records 56
9. Security considerations 58 9. Security considerations 57
9.1 Protection of private key 58 9.1 Protection of private key 57
9.2 Choice of algorithms 58 9.2 Choice of algorithms 57
10. IANA Considerations 58 10. IANA Considerations 57
11. References 58 11. References 57
11.1 Normative references 58 11.1 Normative references 57
11.2 Informative references 59 11.2 Informative references 58
12. Authors' addresses 62 12. Authors' addresses 61
13. Acknowledgments 62
Annex A (normative): ASN.1 definitions 63 Annex A (normative): ASN.1 definitions 63
A.1 Signature format definitions using X.208 ASN.1 syntax 63 A.1 Signature format definitions using X.208 ASN.1 syntax 63
A.2 Signature format definitions using X.680 ASN.1 syntax 72 A.2 Signature format definitions using X.680 ASN.1 syntax 71
Annex B (informative): Extended forms of Electronic Signatures 81 Annex B (informative): Extended forms of Electronic Signatures 79
B.1 Extended forms of validation data 81 B.1 Extended forms of validation data 79
B.1.1 CAdES-X Long 82 B.1.1 CAdES-X Long 80
B.1.2 CAdES-X Type 1 83 B.1.2 CAdES-X Type 1 81
B.1.3 CAdES-X Type 2 84 B.1.3 CAdES-X Type 2 82
B.1.4 CAdES-X Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2 85 B.1.4 CAdES-X Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2 83
B.2 Timestamp extensions 87 B.2 Timestamp extensions 85
B.3 Archive validation data (CAdES-A) 88 B.3 Archive validation data (CAdES-A) 86
B.4 Example validation sequence 90 B.4 Example validation sequence 88
B.5 Additional optional features 95 B.5 Additional optional features 93
Annex C (informative):General description 96 Annex C (informative):General description 94
C.1 The signature policy 96 C.1 The signature policy 94
C.2 Signed information 97 C.2 Signed information 95
C.3 Components of an electronic signature 97 C.3 Components of an electronic signature 95
C.3.1 Reference to the signature policy 97 C.3.1 Reference to the signature policy 95
C.3.2 Commitment type indication 98 C.3.2 Commitment type indication 96
C.3.3 Certificate identifier from the signer 98 C.3.3 Certificate identifier from the signer 96
C.3.4 Role attributes 99 C.3.4 Role attributes 97
C.3.4.1 Claimed role 99 C.3.4.1 Claimed role 97
C.3.4.2 Certified role 100 C.3.4.2 Certified role 98
C.3.5 Signer location 100 C.3.5 Signer location 98
C.3.6 Signing time 100 C.3.6 Signing time 98
C.3.7 Content format 101 C.3.7 Content format 99
C.3.8 Content cross referencing 101 C.3.8 Content hints 99
C.4 Components of validation data 101 C.3.9 Content cross referencing 99
C.4.1 Revocation status information 101 C.4 Components of validation data 99
C.4.1.1 CRL information 102 C.4.1 Revocation status information 99
C.4.1.2 OCSP information 102 C.4.1.1 CRL information 100
C.4.2 Certification path 103 C.4.1.2 OCSP information 100
C.4.3 Time-stamping for long life of signatures 103 C.4.2 Certification path 101
C.4.3 Time-stamping for long life of signatures 101
C.4.4 Time-stamping for long life of signature before CA key C.4.4 Time-stamping for long life of signature before CA key
compromises 104 compromises 102
C.4.4.1 Time-stamping the ES with complete validation data 105 C.4.4.1 Time-stamping the ES with complete validation data 103
C.4.4.2 Time-stamping certificates and revocation information C.4.4.2 Time-stamping certificates and revocation information
references 106 references 104
C.4.5 Time-stamping for archive of signature 107 C.4.5 Time-stamping for archive of signature 105
C.4.6 Reference to additional data 108 C.4.6 Reference to additional data 106
C.4.7 Time-stamping for mutual recognition 108 C.4.7 Time-stamping for mutual recognition 106
C.4.8 TSA key compromise 109 C.4.8 TSA key compromise 107
C.5 Multiple signatures 109 C.5 Multiple signatures 107
Annex D (informative):Data protocols to interoperate with TSPs 110 Annex D (informative):Data protocols to interoperate with TSPs 108
D.1 Operational protocols 110 D.1 Operational protocols 108
D.1.1 Certificate retrieval 110 D.1.1 Certificate retrieval 108
D.1.2 CRL retrieval 110 D.1.2 CRL retrieval 108
D.1.3 OnLine certificate status 110
D.1.4 Time-stamping 110
D.2 Management protocols 110
D.2.1 Request for certificate revocation 110
Annex E (informative): Guidance on naming 111 D.1.3 OnLine certificate status 108
E.1 Allocation of names 111 D.1.4 Time-stamping 108
E.2 Providing access to registration information 111 D.2 Management protocols 108
E.3 Naming schemes 112 D.2.1 Request for certificate revocation 108
E.3.1 Naming schemes for individual citizens 112
E.3.2 Naming schemes for employees of an organization 113
Annex F (informative): Example structured contents and MIME 114 Annex E (informative): Guidance on naming 109
F.1 General description 114 E.1 Allocation of names 109
F.2 Header information 114 E.2 Providing access to registration information 109
F.3 Content encoding 115 E.3 Naming schemes 110
F.4 Multi-part content 115 E.3.1 Naming schemes for individual citizens 110
F.5 S/MIME 116 E.3.2 Naming schemes for employees of an organization 111
Annex F (informative): Example structured contents and MIME 112
F.1 General description 112
F.2 Header information 112
F.3 Content encoding 113
F.4 Multi-part content 113
F.5 S/MIME 114
Annex G (informative): Relationship to the European Directive Annex G (informative): Relationship to the European Directive
And EESSI 119 And EESSI 117
G.1 Introduction 119 G.1 Introduction 117
G.2 Electronic signatures and the directive 119 G.2 Electronic signatures and the directive 117
G.3 ETSI electronic signature formats and the directive 120 G.3 ETSI electronic signature formats and the directive 118
G.4 EESSI standards and classes of electronic signature 120 G.4 EESSI standards and classes of electronic signature 118
G.4.1 Structure of EESSI standardization 120 G.4.1 Structure of EESSI standardization 118
G.4.2 Classes of electronic signatures 121 G.4.2 Classes of electronic signatures 119
G.4.3 EESSI classes and the ETSI electronic signature format 121 G.4.3 EESSI classes and the ETSI electronic signature format 119
Annex H (informative): APIs for the generation and verification Annex H (informative): APIs for the generation and verification
of electronic signatures tokens 122 of electronic signatures tokens 120
H.1 Data framing 122 H.1 Data framing 120
H.2 IDUP-GSS-APIs defined by the IETF 123 H.2 IDUP-GSS-APIs defined by the IETF 121
H.3 CORBA security interfaces defined by the OMG 124 H.3 CORBA security interfaces defined by the OMG 122
Annex I (informative):Cryptographic algorithms 126 Annex I (informative):Cryptographic algorithms 124
I.1 Digest algorithms 126 I.1 Digest algorithms 124
I.1.1 SHA-1 126 I.1.1 SHA-1 124
I.1.2 General 126 I.1.2 General 124
I.2 Digital signature algorithms 127 I.2 Digital signature algorithms 125
I.2.1 DSA 127 I.2.1 DSA 125
I.2.2 RSA 127 I.2.2 RSA 125
I.2.3 General 128 I.2.3 General 126
Annex J (informative): Changes from the previous version 130 Annex J (informative): Changes from the previous version 120
Full Copyright Statement 131 Full Copyright Statement 129
Disclaimer 131 Disclaimer 129
Intellectual Property 131 Intellectual Property 129
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document is intended to cover electronic signatures for various This document is intended to cover electronic signatures for various
types of transactions, including business transactions (e.g. purchase types of transactions, including business transactions (e.g. purchase
requisition, contract, and invoice applications) where long term requisition, contract, and invoice applications) where long term
validity of such signatures is important. This includes evidence as validity of such signatures is important. This includes evidence as
to its validity even if the signer or verifying party later attempts to its validity even if the signer or verifying party later attempts
to deny (i.e., repudiates, see ISO/IEC 10181-5) the validity of the to deny (i.e., repudiates, see ISO/IEC 10181-5 [ISO10181-5]) the
signature). validity of the signature).
Thus the present document can be used for any transaction between an Thus the present document can be used for any transaction between an
individual and a company, between two companies, between an individual individual and a company, between two companies, between an individual
and a governmental body, etc. The present document is independent of and a governmental body, etc. The present document is independent of
any environment. It can be applied to any environment e.g. smart cards, any environment. It can be applied to any environment e.g. smart cards,
GSM SIM cards, special programs for electronic signatures, etc. GSM SIM cards, special programs for electronic signatures, etc.
The European Directive on a community framework for Electronic The European Directive on a community framework for Electronic
Signatures defines an electronic signature as: "Data in electronic form Signatures defines an electronic signature as: "Data in electronic form
which is attached to or logically associated with other electronic data which is attached to or logically associated with other electronic data
and which serves as a method of authentication". and which serves as a method of authentication".
An electronic signature as used in the present document is a form An electronic signature as used in the present document is a form
of advanced electronic signature as defined in the Directive. of advanced electronic signature as defined in the Directive.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT",
"RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document (in uppercase,
as shown) are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [STDWORDS]
2. Scope 2. Scope
The scope the present document covers Electronic Signature Formats The scope of the present document covers Electronic Signature Formats
only. The aspects of Electronic Signature Policies are defined in RFC only. The aspects of Electronic Signature Policies are defined in
3125 and in TR 102 272 (see informative references). RFC 3125 [RFC3125] and in ETSI TR 102 272 [TR102272].
The present document defines a number of Electronic Signature Formats, The present document defines a number of Electronic Signature Formats,
including electronic signature that can remain valid over long periods. including electronic signature that can remain valid over long periods.
This includes evidence as to its validity even if the signer or This includes evidence as to its validity even if the signer or
verifying party later attempts to deny (repudiates) the validity of the verifying party later attempts to deny (repudiates) the validity of the
electronic signature. electronic signature.
The present document specifies use of trusted service providers (e.g. The present document specifies use of trusted service providers (e.g.
Time-Stamping Authorities), and the data that needs to be archived Time-Stamping Authorities), and the data that needs to be archived
(e.g. cross certificates and revocation lists) to meet the requirements (e.g. cross certificates and revocation lists) to meet the requirements
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- RFC 3852 [4] "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)"; - RFC 3852 [4] "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)";
- ISO/IEC 9594-8/ITU-T Recommendation X.509 [1]: "Information - ISO/IEC 9594-8/ITU-T Recommendation X.509 [1]: "Information
technology - Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory: technology - Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory:
Authentication framework"; Authentication framework";
- RFC 3280 [2] "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure (PKIX) - RFC 3280 [2] "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure (PKIX)
Certificate and CRL Profile"; Certificate and CRL Profile";
- RFC 3161 [7] "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Time-Stamp - RFC 3161 [7] "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Time-Stamp
Protocol (TSP)". Protocol".
NOTE: See section 11 for a full set of references. NOTE: See section 11 for a full set of references.
The present document describes formats for advanced electronic The present document describes formats for advanced electronic
signatures using ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation 1). These formats are signatures using ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation 1) [14]. ASN.1
based on CMS (Cryptographic Message Syntax) defined in RFC 3852 [4]. is encoded using X.209 [X.209].
These electronic signatures are thus called CAdES, for "CMS Advanced
Electronic Signatures".
Another document, TS 101 903 (see informative references), describes These formats are based on CMS (Cryptographic Message Syntax) defined
formats for XML advanced electronic signatures (XAdES) built on in RFC 3852 [4]. These electronic signatures are thus called CAdES,
XMLDSIG. for "CMS Advanced Electronic Signatures".
Another document, TS 101 903 [TS101903], describes formats for XML
advanced electronic signatures (XAdES) built on XMLDSIG [XMLDSIG].
In addition, the present document identifies other documents that In addition, the present document identifies other documents that
define formats for Public Key Certificates, Attribute Certificates, define formats for Public Key Certificates, Attribute Certificates,
Certificate Revocation Lists and supporting protocols, including, Certificate Revocation Lists and supporting protocols, including,
protocols for use of trusted third parties to support the operation of protocols for use of trusted third parties to support the operation of
electronic signature creation and validation. electronic signature creation and validation.
Informative annexes include: Informative annexes include:
- illustrations of extended forms of extended Electronic Signatures - illustrations of extended forms of extended Electronic Signatures
formats that protect against various vulnerabilities and examples formats that protect against various vulnerabilities and examples
of validation processes; of validation processes (Annex B);
- descriptions and explanations of some of the concepts used in the - descriptions and explanations of some of the concepts used in the
present document. giving a rational for normative parts of the present document, giving a rationale for normative parts of the
present document; present document (Annex C);
- information on protocols to interoperate with Trusted Service - information on protocols to interoperate with Trusted Service
Providers; Providers (Annex D);
- information on security considerations; - guidance on naming (Annex E);
- an example structured content and MIME; - an example structured content and MIME (Annex F);
- the relationship between the present document and the directive - the relationship between the present document and the directive
on electronic signature and associated standardization on electronic signature and associated standardization
initiatives; initiatives (Annex G);
- APIs to support the generation and the verification of electronic - APIs to support the generation and the verification of electronic
signatures; signatures (Annex H);
- cryptographic algorithms that may be used;
- guidance on naming. - cryptographic algorithms that may be used (Annex I); and
- changes from the previous version. - changes from the previous version (see Annex J).
3 Definitions and abbreviations 3 Definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Definitions 3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and
definitions apply: definitions apply:
Arbitrator: arbitrator entity may be used to arbitrate a dispute Arbitrator: arbitrator entity may be used to arbitrate a dispute
between a signer and verifier when there is a disagreement on the between a signer and verifier when there is a disagreement on the
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Certificate Revocation List (CRL): signed list indicating a set of Certificate Revocation List (CRL): signed list indicating a set of
public key certificates that are no longer considered valid by the public key certificates that are no longer considered valid by the
certificate issuer. certificate issuer.
Digital signature: data appended to, or a cryptographic transformation Digital signature: data appended to, or a cryptographic transformation
of, a data unit that allows a recipient of the data unit to prove the of, a data unit that allows a recipient of the data unit to prove the
source and integrity of the data unit and protect against forgery, e.g. source and integrity of the data unit and protect against forgery, e.g.
by the recipient. by the recipient.
NOTE: See ISO 7498-2 (see informative references). NOTE: See ISO 7498-2 [ISO7498-2].
Electronic signature: data in electronic form which are attached to or Electronic signature: data in electronic form which are attached to or
logically associated with other electronic data and which serve as a logically associated with other electronic data and which serve as a
method of authentication. method of authentication.
NOTE: See Directive 1999/93/EC of the European Parliament and of the NOTE: See Directive 1999/93/EC of the European Parliament and of the
Council of 13 December 1999 on a Community framework for Council of 13 December 1999 on a Community framework for
electronic signatures. electronic signatures [EU Directive].
Enhanced electronic signatures: electronic signatures enhanced by Enhanced electronic signatures: electronic signatures enhanced by
complementing the baseline requirements with additional data, such as complementing the baseline requirements with additional data, such as
time tamp tokens and certificate revocation data, to address commonly time tamp tokens and certificate revocation data, to address commonly
recognized threats. recognized threats.
Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature (EPES): an electronic Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature (EPES): an electronic
signature where the signature policy is explicitly specified that shall signature where the signature policy is explicitly specified that shall
be used to validate it. be used to validate it.
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electronic signature is generated in order to capture additional electronic signature is generated in order to capture additional
information that could make it valid for long term verification. information that could make it valid for long term verification.
Public Key Certificate (PKC): public keys of a user, together with some Public Key Certificate (PKC): public keys of a user, together with some
other information, rendered unforgeable by encipherment with the other information, rendered unforgeable by encipherment with the
private key of the certification authority which issued it. private key of the certification authority which issued it.
NOTE: See ITU-T Recommendation X.509 [1]. NOTE: See ITU-T Recommendation X.509 [1].
Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA): asymmetric cryptography algorithm based on Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA): asymmetric cryptography algorithm based on
the difficulty to factorize very large numbers, using a key pair: a the difficulty to factor very large numbers, using a key pair: a
private key and a public key. private key and a public key.
Signature policy: set of rules for the creation and validation of an Signature policy: set of rules for the creation and validation of an
electronic signature, that defines the technical and procedural electronic signature, that defines the technical and procedural
requirements for electronic signature creation and validation, in order requirements for electronic signature creation and validation, in order
to meet a particular business need, and under which the signature can to meet a particular business need, and under which the signature can
be determined to be valid. be determined to be valid.
Signature policy issuer: entity that defines and issues a signature Signature policy issuer: entity that defines and issues a signature
policy. policy.
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request. request.
Validation data: additional data that may be used by a verifier of Validation data: additional data that may be used by a verifier of
electronic signatures to determine the signature is valid. electronic signatures to determine the signature is valid.
Valid electronic signature: electronic signature which passes Valid electronic signature: electronic signature which passes
validation. validation.
Verifier: entity that verifies evidence. Verifier: entity that verifies evidence.
NOTE 1: See ISO/IEC 13888-1 (see informative references). NOTE 1: See ISO/IEC 13888-1 [ISO13888-1].
NOTE 2: Within the context of the present document this is an entity NOTE 2: Within the context of the present document this is an entity
that validates an electronic signature. that validates an electronic signature.
3.2 Abbreviations 3.2 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations
apply: apply:
AA Attribute Authority AA Attribute Authority
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EESSI European Electronic Signature Standardization Initiative EESSI European Electronic Signature Standardization Initiative
EPES Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature EPES Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature
ES Electronic Signature ES Electronic Signature
ESS Enhanced Security Services (enhances CMS) ESS Enhanced Security Services (enhances CMS)
IDL Interface Definition Language IDL Interface Definition Language
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
OCSP Online Certificate Status Provider OCSP Online Certificate Status Provider
OID Object IDentifier OID Object IDentifier
PKC Public Key Certificate PKC Public Key Certificate
PKIX internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure PKIX Public Key Infrastructure using X.509 (IETF Working Group)
RSA Rivest-Shamir-Adleman RSA Rivest-Shamir-Adleman
SHA-1 Secure Hash Algorithm 1 SHA-1 Secure Hash Algorithm 1
TSA Time-Stamping Authority TSA Time-Stamping Authority
TSP Trusted Service Provider TSP Trusted Service Provider
TST Time-Stamp Token TST Time-Stamp Token
TSU Time-Stamping Unit TSU Time-Stamping Unit
URI Uniform Resource Identifier URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform Resource Locator URL Uniform Resource Locator
XML eXtended Mark up Language XML eXtended Mark up Language
XMLDSIG XML-Signature Syntax and Processing XMLDSIG XML-Signature Syntax and Processing
4 Overview 4 Overview
The present document defines a number of Electronic Signature (ES) The present document defines a number of Electronic Signature (ES)
formats that build on CMS (RFC 3852 [4] by adding signed and unsigned formats that build on CMS (RFC 3852 [4]) by adding signed and unsigned
attributes. attributes.
This clause provides an introduction to the major parties involved This section provides an introduction to the major parties involved
(clause 4.1), the concept of Signature Policies (clause 4.2), provides (section 4.1), the concept of Signature Policies (section 4.2), provides
an overview of the various ES formats (clause 4.3), introduces the an overview of the various ES formats (section 4.3), introduces the
concept of validation data and provides an overview of formats that concept of validation data and provides an overview of formats that
incorporate validation data (clause 4.4), presents relevant incorporate validation data (section 4.4), presents relevant
considerations on arbitration (clause 4.5) and for the validation considerations on arbitration (section 4.5) and for the validation
process (clause 4.6). process (section 4.6).
The formal specifications of the attributes are specified in clauses 5 The formal specifications of the attributes are specified in sections 5
and 6, annexes C and D provide rationale for the definitions of the and 6, annexes C and D provide rationale for the definitions of the
different ES forms. different ES forms.
4.1 Major parties 4.1 Major parties
The major parties involved in a business transaction supported by The major parties involved in a business transaction supported by
electronic signatures as defined in the present document are: electronic signatures as defined in the present document are:
- the Signer; - the Signer;
- the Verifier; - the Verifier;
- Trusted Service Providers (TSP); - Trusted Service Providers (TSP); and
- the Arbitrator. - the Arbitrator.
The signer is the entity that creates the electronic signature. When The signer is the entity that creates the electronic signature. When
the signer digitally signs over data using the prescribed format, this the signer digitally signs over data using the prescribed format, this
represents a commitment on behalf of the signing entity to the data represents a commitment on behalf of the signing entity to the data
being signed. being signed.
The verifier is the entity that validates the electronic signature, it The verifier is the entity that validates the electronic signature, it
may be a single entity or multiple entities. may be a single entity or multiple entities.
The Trusted Service Providers (TSPs) are one or more entities that help The Trusted Service Providers (TSPs) are one or more entities that help
to build trust relationships between the signer and verifier. They to build trust relationships between the signer and verifier. They
support the signer and verifier by means of supporting services support the signer and verifier by means of supporting services
including: user certificates, cross-certificates, time-stamp tokens, including: user certificates, cross-certificates, time-stamp tokens,
CRLs, ARLs, OCSP responses. The following TSPs are used to support the CRLs, ARLs, OCSP responses. The following TSPs are used to support the
functions defined in the present document: functions defined in the present document:
- Certification Authorities; - Certification Authorities;
- Registration Authorities; - Registration Authorities;
- CRL Issuers;
- OCSP Responders;
- Repository Authorities (e.g. a Directory); - Repository Authorities (e.g. a Directory);
- Time-Stamping Authorities; - Time-Stamping Authorities;
- Time-Marking Authorities; - Time-Marking Authorities; and
- Signature Policy Issuers. - Signature Policy Issuers.
Certification Authorities provide users with public key certificates Certification Authorities provide users with public key certificates
and with a revocation service. and with a revocation service.
Registration Authorities allow the identification and registration of Registration Authorities allow the identification and registration of
entities before a CA generates certificates. entities before a CA generates certificates.
Repository Authorities publish CRLs issued by CAs, signature policies Repository Authorities publish CRLs issued by CAs, signature policies
issued by Signature Policy Issuers and optionally public key issued by Signature Policy Issuers and optionally public key
skipping to change at page 14, line 26 skipping to change at page 14, line 26
When the signature policy being used by the verifier is neither When the signature policy being used by the verifier is neither
indicated by the signer nor can be derived from other data, or the indicated by the signer nor can be derived from other data, or the
signature policy is incomplete then verifiers, including arbitrators, signature policy is incomplete then verifiers, including arbitrators,
may obtain different results when validating an electronic signature. may obtain different results when validating an electronic signature.
Therefore, comprehensive signature policies that ensure consistency of Therefore, comprehensive signature policies that ensure consistency of
signature validation are recommended from both the signers and signature validation are recommended from both the signers and
verifiers point of view. verifiers point of view.
Further information on signature policies is provided in: Further information on signature policies is provided in:
- TR 102 038 (see informative references); - TR 102 038 [TR102038];
- Clauses 5.8.1, C.1 and C.3.1 of the present document; - sections 5.8.1, C.1 and C.3.1 of the present document;
- RFC 3125 (see informative references); - RFC 3125 [RFC3125]; and
- TR 102 272 (see informative references). - TR 102 272 [TR102272].
4.3 Electronic signature formats 4.3 Electronic signature formats
The current clause provides an overview for two forms of CMS advanced The current document sectionprovides an overview for two forms of CMS
electronic signature specified in the present document, namely, the advanced electronic signature specified in the present document,
CAdES Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES) and the CAdES Explicit namely, the CAdES Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES) and the
Policy-based Electronic Signature (CAdES-EPES). Conformance to the CAdES Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature (CAdES-EPES).
present document mandates the signer creates one of these formats. Conformance to the present document mandates the signer creates one of
these formats.
4.3.1 CAdES Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES) 4.3.1 CAdES Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES)
A CAdES Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES) in accordance with the A CAdES Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES) in accordance with the
present contains: present contains:
- The signed user data (e.g. the signer's document) as defined in - The signed user data (e.g. the signer's document) as defined in
CMS (RFC 3852 [4]); CMS (RFC 3852 [4]);
- A collection of mandatory signed attributes as defined in CMS - A collection of mandatory signed attributes as defined in CMS
(RFC 3852 [4]).and in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]); (RFC 3852 [4]) and in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]);
- Additional mandatory signed attributes defined in the present - Additional mandatory signed attributes defined in the present
document; document; and
- The digital signature value computed on the user data and, when - The digital signature value computed on the user data and, when
present, on the signed attributes, as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 present, on the signed attributes, as defined in CMS (RFC 3852
[4]). [4]).
A CAdES Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES) in accordance with the A CAdES Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES) in accordance with the
present may contain: present document may contain:
- A collection of additional signed attributes; - a collection of additional signed attributes; and
- A collection of optional unsigned attributes. - a collection of optional unsigned attributes.
The mandatory signed attributes are: The mandatory signed attributes are:
- Content-type. It is defined in RFC 3852 [4] and specifies that - Content-type. It is defined in RFC 3852 [4] and specifies the
the content type of the ContentInfo is "signed-data". Details type of the EncapsulatedContentInfo value being signed. Details
are provided in clause 5.7.1; are provided in 5.7.1. Rationale for its inclusion is provided
in section C.3.7;
- Message-digest. It is defined in RFC 3852 [4] and specifies the - Message-digest. It is defined in RFC 3852 [4] and specifies the
message digest of the eContent OCTET STRING within message digest of the eContent OCTET STRING within
encapContentInfo being signed. Details are provided in clause encapContentInfo being signed. Details are provided in section
5.7.2; 5.7.2;
- ESS signing-certificate OR other-signing-certificate. The ESS - ESS signing-certificate OR ESS signing-certificate v2. The ESS
signing-certificate attribute is defined in Enhanced Security signing-certificate attribute is defined in Enhanced Security
Services (ESS), RFC 2634 [5] and only allows for the use of SHA-1 Services (ESS), RFC 2634 [5] and only allows for the use of SHA-1
as digest algorithm. The other-signing-certificate attribute one as digest algorithm. The ESS signing-certificate attribute V2
is defined in the present document and allows for the use of any is defined in "ESS Update: Adding CertID Algorithm Agility",
digest algorithm. A CAdES-BES claiming compliance with the RFC XXXX [15] and allows for the use of any digest algorithm.
present document must include one of them. Clause 5.7.3 provides A CAdES-BES claiming compliance with the present document must
the details of these attributes. Clause 5.7.3.2 shows the formal include one of them. Section 5.7.3 provides the details of these
specification of other-signing-certificate. Rationale for its attributes. Rationale for its inclusion is provided in section
inclusion is provided in clause C.3.3. C.3.3.
Optional signed attributes may be added to the CAdES-BES, including Optional signed attributes may be added to the CAdES-BES, including
optional signed attributes defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]), (RFC 2634 optional signed attributes defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]), ESS (RFC 2634
[5]) and the present document. Listed below are optional attributes [5]) and the present document. Listed below are optional attributes
that are defined in clause 5 and have a rational provided in annex C: that are defined in section 5 and have a rational provided in annex C:
- Signing-time: as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]) indicates the time - Signing-time: as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]) indicates the time
of the signature as claimed by the signer. Details and short of the signature as claimed by the signer. Details and short
rationale are provided in clause 5.9.1. Clause C.3.6 in provides rationale are provided in section 5.9.1. Section C.3.6 provides
the rationale. the rationale.
- Content-hints as defined in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]) provides - Content-hints as defined in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]) provides
information that describes the format of the signed content. information that describes the innermost signed content of a
Clause 5.10.1 provides the specification details. Clause C.3.7 multi-layer message where one content is encapsulated in another.
in provides the rationale. Section 5.10.1 provides the specification details. Section C.3.8
provides the rationale.
- Content-reference. as defined in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]) can be - Content-reference. as defined in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]) can be
incorporated as a way to link request and reply messages in an incorporated as a way to link request and reply messages in an
exchange between two parties. Clause 5.10.1 provides the exchange between two parties. Section 5.10.1 provides the
specification details. Clause C.3.8 in provides the rationale. specification details. Section C.3.9 provides the rationale.
- Content-identifier. as defined in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]) contains an - Content-identifier. as defined in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]) contains an
identifier that may be used later on in the previous content- identifier that may be used later on in the previous content-
reference attribute. Clause 5.10.2 provides the specification reference attribute. Section 5.10.2 provides the specification
details. Clause C.3.8 in provides the rationale. details. Section C.3.8 provides the rationale.
- Commitment-type-indication. This attribute is defined by the - Commitment-type-indication. This attribute is defined by the
present document as a way to indicate the commitment endorsed by present document as a way to indicate the commitment endorsed by
the signer when producing the signature. Clause 5.11.1 provides the signer when producing the signature. Section 5.11.1 provides
the specification details. Clause C.3.2 in provides the the specification details. Section C.3.2 provides the
rationale. rationale.
- Signer-location. This attribute is defined by the present - Signer-location. This attribute is defined by the present
document. It allows the signer to indicate the place where he document. It allows the signer to indicate the place where the
has purportedly produced the signature. Clause 5.11.2 provides signer purportedly produced the signature. Section 5.11.2
the specification details. Clause C.3.5 provides the rationale. provides the specification details. Section C.3.5 provides the
rationale.
- Signer-attributes. This attribute is defined by the present - Signer-attributes. This attribute is defined by the present
document. It allows a claimed or certified role to be document. It allows a claimed or certified role to be
incorporated into the signed information. Clause 5.11.3 provides incorporated into the signed information. Section 5.11.3 provides
the specification details. Clause C.3.4 provides the rationale. the specification details. Section C.3.4 provides the rationale.
- Content-time-stamp. This attribute is defined by the present - Content-time-stamp. This attribute is defined by the present
document. It allows a time-stamp token of the data to be signed document. It allows a time-stamp token of the data to be signed
to be incorporated into the signed information. It provides to be incorporated into the signed information. It provides
proof of the existence of the data before the signature was proof of the existence of the data before the signature was
created. Clause 5.11.4 provides the specification details. created. Section 5.11.4 provides the specification details.
Clause C.3.6 provides the rationale. Section C.3.6 provides the rationale.
A CAdES-BES form can also incorporate instances of unsigned attributes A CAdES-BES form can also incorporate instances of unsigned attributes
as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]) and (RFC 2634 [5]). as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]) and ESS (RFC 2634 [5]).
- CounterSignature. as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]). It can be - CounterSignature, as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]). It can be
incorporated wherever allowing embedded signatures is a incorporated wherever embedded signatures (i.e. a signature on
requirement. Clause 5.9.2 provides the specification details. a previous signature) are needed. Section 5.9.2 provides the
Clause C.5 in annex C provides the rationale. specification details. Section C.5 in annex C provides the
rationale.
The structure of the CAdES-BES is illustrated in figure 1. The structure of the CAdES-BES is illustrated in figure 1.
+------Elect.Signature (CAdES-BES)------+ +------Elect.Signature (CAdES-BES)------+
|+----------------------------------- + | |+----------------------------------- + |
||+---------+ +----------+ | | ||+---------+ +----------+ | |
|||Signer's | | Signed | Digital | | |||Signer's | | Signed | Digital | |
|||Document | |Attributes| Signature | | |||Document | |Attributes| Signature | |
||| | | | | | ||| | | | | |
||+---------+ +----------+ | | ||+---------+ +----------+ | |
|+------------------------------------+ | |+------------------------------------+ |
+---------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------+
Figure 1: Illustration of a CAdES-BES Figure 1: Illustration of a CAdES-BES
The signer's conformance requirements of a CAdES-BES are defined in The signer's conformance requirements of a CAdES-BES are defined in
clause 8.1. section 8.1.
NOTE: The CAdES-BES is the minimum format for an electronic signature NOTE: The CAdES-BES is the minimum format for an electronic signature
to be generated by the signer. On its own, it does not to be generated by the signer. On its own, it does not
provide enough information for it to be verified in the longer provide enough information for it to be verified in the longer
term. For example, revocation information issued by the term. For example, revocation information issued by the
relevant certificate status information issuer needs to be relevant certificate status information issuer needs to be
available for long term validation (see clause 4.4.2). available for long term validation (see section 4.4.2).
The CAdES-BES satisfies the legal requirements for electronic The CAdES-BES satisfies the legal requirements for electronic
signatures as defined in the European Directive on electronic signatures as defined in the European Directive on electronic
signatures, (see annex C for further discussion on relationship of the signatures, (see annex C for further discussion on relationship of the
present document to the Directive). It provides basic authentication present document to the Directive). It provides basic authentication
and integrity protection. and integrity protection.
The semantics of the signed data of a CAdES-BES or its context may The semantics of the signed data of a CAdES-BES or its context may
implicitly indicate a signature policy to the verifier. Specification implicitly indicate a signature policy to the verifier. Specification
of the contents of signature policies is outside the scope of the of the contents of signature policies is outside the scope of the
present document. present document. However, further information on signature policies
is provided in TR 102 038 [TR102038], RFC 3125 [RFC3125] and sections
Further information on signature policies is provided in TR 102 038 5.8.1, C.1 and C.3.1 of the present document.
(see informative references), RFC 3125 (see informative references) and
clauses 5.8.1, C.1 and C.3.1 of the present document.
4.3.2 CAdES Explicit Policy Electronic Signatures (CAdES-EPES) 4.3.2 CAdES Explicit Policy Electronic Signatures (CAdES-EPES)
A CAdES Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature (CAdES-EPES) in A CAdES Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature (CAdES-EPES) in
accordance with the present document, extends the definition of an accordance with the present document, extends the definition of an
electronic signature to conform to the identified signature policy. electronic signature to conform to the identified signature policy.
A CAdES Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature (CAdES-EPES) A CAdES Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature (CAdES-EPES)
incorporates a signed attribute (signature-policy-identifier) incorporates a signed attribute (signature-policy-identifier)
indicating that a signature policy that is mandatory to use to validate indicating that a signature policy that is mandatory to use to validate
the signature and specifies explicitly the signature policy that shall the signature and specifies explicitly the signature policy that shall
be used. This signed attribute is protected by the signature. The be used. This signed attribute is protected by the signature. The
signature may also have other signed attributes required to conform to signature may also have other signed attributes required to conform to
the mandated signature policy. the mandated signature policy.
Clause 5.7.3 provides the details on the specification of signature- Section 5.7.3 provides the details on the specification of signature-
policy-identifier attribute. Clause C.1 provides a short rationale. policy-identifier attribute. Section C.1 provides a short rationale.
Specification of the contents of signature policies is outside the Specification of the contents of signature policies is outside the
scope of the present document. scope of the present document.
Further information on signature policies is provided in TR 102 038 Further information on signature policies is provided in TR 102 038
(see informative references) and clauses 5.8.1, C.1 and C.3.1 of the [TR102038] and sections 5.8.1, C.1 and C.3.1 of the present document.
present document.
The structure of the CAdES-EPES is illustrated in figure 2. The structure of the CAdES-EPES is illustrated in figure 2.
+------------- Elect.Signature (CAdES-EPES) ---------------+ +------------- Elect.Signature (CAdES-EPES) ---------------+
||+----------------------------------------------------- + | | |
|| +---------------------------+ | | |+-------------------------------------------------------+ |
|| +---------+ | +----------+ | | | || +-----------+ | |
|| | | | | | | | | || | | +---------------------------+ | |
|| | | | +----------+ | | |
|| |Signer's | | |Signature | Signed | Digital | | || |Signer's | | |Signature | Signed | Digital | |
|| |Document | | |Policy ID | Attributes |Signature| | || |Document | | |Policy ID | Attributes |Signature| |
|| | | | | | | | | || | | | +----------+ | | |
|| +---------+ | +----------+ | | | || | | +---------------------------+ | |
|| +---------------------------+ | | || +-----------+ | |
|+-------------------------------------------------------+ | |+-------------------------------------------------------+ |
| | | |
+----------------------------------------------------------+ +----------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 2: Illustration of a CAdES-EPES Figure 2: Illustration of a CAdES-EPES
The signer's conformance requirements of CAdES-EPES are defined in The signer's conformance requirements of CAdES-EPES are defined in
clause 8.2. section 8.2.
4.4 Electronic signature formats with validation data 4.4 Electronic signature formats with validation data
Validation of an electronic signature in accordance with the present Validation of an electronic signature in accordance with the present
document requires additional data needed to validate the electronic document requires additional data needed to validate the electronic
signature. This additional data is called validation data; and signature. This additional data is called validation data; and
includes: includes:
- Public Key Certificates (PKCs); - Public Key Certificates (PKCs);
- revocation status information for each PKC; - revocation status information for each PKC;
- trusted time-stamps applied to the digital signature or a time- - trusted time-stamps applied to the digital signature or a time-
mark shall be available in an audit log; mark shall be available in an audit log; and
- when appropriate, the details of a signature policy to be used to - when appropriate, the details of a signature policy to be used to
verify the electronic signature. verify the electronic signature.
The validation data may be collected by the signer and/or the verifier. The validation data may be collected by the signer and/or the verifier.
When the signature policy id is present, it shall meet the requirements When the signature-policy-identifier signed attribute is present, it
of the signature policy. Validation data includes CA certificates as shall meet the requirements of the signature policy.
well as revocation status information in the form of Certificate
Revocation Lists (CRLs) or certificate status information (OCSP) Validation data includes CA certificates as well as revocation status
provided by an on-line service. Validation data also includes evidence information in the form of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) or
that the signature was created before a particular point in time this certificate status information (OCSP) provided by an on-line service.
may be either a time-stamp token or time-mark. Validation data also includes evidence that the signature was created
before a particular point in time this may be either a time-stamp
token or time-mark.
The present document defines unsigned attributes able to contain The present document defines unsigned attributes able to contain
validation data that can be added to CAdES-BES and CAdES-EPES leading validation data that can be added to CAdES-BES and CAdES-EPES leading
to electronic signature formats that include validation data. Clauses to electronic signature formats that include validation data. Sections
below summarize these formats and their most relevant characteristics. below summarize these formats and their most relevant characteristics.
4.4.1 Electronic Signature with Time (CAdES-T) 4.4.1 Electronic Signature with Time (CAdES-T)
Electronic Signature with Time (CAdES-T) in accordance with the present Electronic Signature with Time (CAdES-T) in accordance with the present
document is when there exits trusted time associated with the ES. document is when there exits trusted time associated with the ES.
The trusted time may be provided by: The trusted time may be provided by:
- the signature-time-stamp as an unsigned attribute added to the - the signature-time-stamp as an unsigned attribute added to the
ES; ES; and
- A time mark of the ES provided by a trusted service provider. - A time mark of the ES provided by a trusted service provider.
The signature-time-stamp attribute contains a time-stamp token of the The signature-time-stamp attribute contains a time-stamp token of the
electronic signature value. Clause 6.1.1 provides the specification electronic signature value. Section 6.1.1 provides the specification
details. Clause C.4.3 in provides the rationale. details. Section C.4.3 in provides the rationale.
A time-mark provided by a Trusted Service would have similar effect to A time-mark provided by a Trusted Service would have similar effect to
the signature-time-stamp attribute but in this case no attribute is the signature-time-stamp attribute but in this case no attribute is
added to the ES as it is the responsibility of the TSP to provide added to the ES as it is the responsibility of the TSP to provide
evidence of a time mark when required to do so. The management of time evidence of a time mark when required to do so. The management of time
marks is outside the scope of the present document. marks is outside the scope of the present document.
Trusted time provides the initial steps towards providing long term Trusted time provides the initial steps towards providing long term
validity. Electronic signatures with the time stamp attribute forming validity. Electronic signatures with the time stamp attribute forming
the CAdES-T is illustrated in figure 3. the CAdES-T is illustrated in figure 3.
skipping to change at page 20, line 15 skipping to change at page 19, line 46
+-------------------------------------------------CAdES-T ---------+ +-------------------------------------------------CAdES-T ---------+
|+------ CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES -------+ | |+------ CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES -------+ |
||+-----------------------------------+ | +----------------------+ | ||+-----------------------------------+ | +----------------------+ |
|||+---------+ +----------+ | | | | | |||+---------+ +----------+ | | | | |
||||Signer's | | Signed | Digital | | | Signature-time-stamp | | ||||Signer's | | Signed | Digital | | | Signature-time-stamp | |
||||Document | |Attributes| Signature | | | attribute required | | ||||Document | |Attributes| Signature | | | attribute required | |
|||| | | | | | | when using time | | |||| | | | | | | when using time | |
|||+---------+ +----------+ | | | stamps. | | |||+---------+ +----------+ | | | stamps. | |
||+-----------------------------------+ | | | | ||+-----------------------------------+ | | | |
|+--------------------------------------+ | or the BES/EPES | | |+--------------------------------------+ | or the BES/EPES | |
| | shall be tme marked | | | | shall be time marked | |
| | | | | | | |
| | Management and | | | | Management and | |
| | provision of time | | | | provision of time | |
| | mark is the | | | | mark is the | |
| | responsibility of | | | | responsibility of | |
| | the TSP. | | | | the TSP. | |
| +----------------------+ | | +----------------------+ |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 3: Illustration of CAdES-T formats Figure 3: Illustration of CAdES-T formats
NOTE 1 : A time stamp token is added to the CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES
as an unsigned attribute.
NOTE A time stamp token is added to the CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES as NOTE 2 : Timestamp tokens that may themselves include unsigned
an unsigned attribute. attributes required to validate the timestamp token, such
as the complete-certificate-references and complete-
revocation-references attributes as defined by the present
document.
4.4.2 ES with Complete validation data references (CAdES-C) 4.4.2 ES with Complete validation data references (CAdES-C)
Electronic Signature with Complete validation data references (CAdES-C) Electronic Signature with Complete validation data references (CAdES-C)
in accordance with the present document adds to the CAdES-T the in accordance with the present document adds to the CAdES-T the
complete-certificate-references and complete-revocation-references complete-certificate-references and complete-revocation-references
attributes as defined by the present document. The complete- attributes as defined by the present document. The complete-
certificate-references attribute contain references to all the certificate-references attribute contain references to all the
certificates present in the certification path used for verifying the certificates present in the certification path used for verifying the
signature. The complete-revocation-references attribute contains signature. The complete-revocation-references attribute contains
references to the CRLs and/or OCSP responses used for verifying the references to the CRLs and/or OCSP responses used for verifying the
signature. Clause 6.2 provides the specification details. Storing the signature. Section 6.2 provides the specification details. Storing the
references allows the values of the certification path and the CRLs or references allows the values of the certification path and the CRLs or
OCSPs responses to be stored elsewhere, reducing the size of a stored OCSPs responses to be stored elsewhere, reducing the size of a stored
electronic signature format. electronic signature format.
Clauses C.4.1 to C.4.2 provide rationale on the usage of validation Sections C.4.1 to C.4.2 provide rationale on the usage of validation
data and when it is suitable to generate the CAdES-C form. data and when it is suitable to generate the CAdES-C form.
Electronic signatures with the additional validation data forming the Electronic signatures with the additional validation data forming the
CAdES-C are illustrated in figure 4. CAdES-C are illustrated in figure 4.
+------------------------- CAdES-C --------------------------------+ +------------------------- CAdES-C --------------------------------+
|+----------------------------- CAdES-T ---------+ | |+----------------------------- CAdES-T ---------+ |
|| +----------+ | +-------------+ | || +----------+ | +-------------+ |
|| |Timestamp | | | | | || |Timestamp | | | | |
|| |attribute | | | | | || |attribute | | | | |
||+- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES ------+|over | | | | | ||+- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES ------+|over | | | | |
||| ||digital | | | Complete | | ||| ||digital | | | Complete | |
|||+---------++----------+ ||signature | | | certificate | | |||+---------++----------+ ||signature | | | certificate | |
||||Signer's || Signed | Digital ||is | | | and | | ||||Signer's || Signed | Digital ||is | | | and | |
||||Document ||Attributes|Signature||mandatory | | | revocation | | ||||Document ||Attributes|Signature||mandatory | | | revocation | |
|||| || | ||if is | | | references | | |||| || | ||if is not | | | references | |
|||+---------++----------+ ||NOT | | | | | |||+---------++----------+ ||timemarked| | | | |
||+--------------------------------+|timemarked| | | | | ||+--------------------------------++----------+ | | | |
|| +----------+ | | | | |+-----------------------------------------------+ +-------------+ |
|| | +-------------+ |
|+-----------------------------------------------+ |
| |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 4: Illustration of CAdES-C format Figure 4: Illustration of CAdES-C format
NOTE 1: The complete certificate and revocation references are added NOTE 1: The complete certificate and revocation references are added
to the CAdES-T as an unsigned attribute. to the CAdES-T as an unsigned attribute.
NOTE 2: As a minimum, the signer will provide the CAdES-BES or when NOTE 2: As a minimum, the signer will provide the CAdES-BES or when
indicating that the signature conforms to an explicit signing indicating that the signature conforms to an explicit signing
policy the CAdES-EPES. policy the CAdES-EPES.
skipping to change at page 21, line 54 skipping to change at page 21, line 30
NOTE 5: The signer and TSP could provide the CAdES-C, to minimize NOTE 5: The signer and TSP could provide the CAdES-C, to minimize
this risk and when the signer does not provide the CAdES-C, this risk and when the signer does not provide the CAdES-C,
the verifier should create the CAdES-C when the required the verifier should create the CAdES-C when the required
component of revocation and validation data become available, component of revocation and validation data become available,
this may require a grace period. this may require a grace period.
NOTE 6: A grace period permits certificate revocation information to NOTE 6: A grace period permits certificate revocation information to
propagate through the revocation processes. This period could propagate through the revocation processes. This period could
extend from the time an authorized entity requests certificate extend from the time an authorized entity requests certificate
revocation, to when the information is available for the revocation, to when the information is available for the
relying to use. In order to make sure that the certificate relying party to use. In order to make sure that the
was not revoked at the time the signature was time-marked or certificate was not revoked at the time the signature was
time-stamped, verifiers should wait until the end of the grace time-marked or time-stamped, verifiers should wait until the
period. A signature policy may define specific values for end of the grace period. A signature policy may define
grace periods. An illustration of a grace period is provided specific values for grace periods.
in figure 5.
An illustration of a grace period is provided in figure 5.
+<--------------Grace Period --------->+ +<--------------Grace Period --------->+
----+-------+-------+--------+---------------------+----------+ ----+-------+-------+--------+---------------------+----------+
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
Signature | First | Second | Signature | First | Second |
creation | revocation | revocation | creation | revocation | revocation |
time | status | status | time | status | status |
| checking | checking | | checking | checking |
| | | | | |
Time-stamp Certification Build Time-stamp Certification Build
or path CAdES-C or path CAdES-C
time-mark construction time-mark construction
over & verification over & verification
signature signature
Figure 5: Illustration of a grace period Figure 5: Illustration of a grace period
Figure 5: Illustration of a grace period NOTE 7: CWA 14171 [CWA 14171] specifies a signature validation
process using CAdES-T, CAdES-C and a grace period.
NOTE 7: CWA 14171 (see informative references) specifies a signature Annex B provides example validation processes. Section C.4
validation process using CAdES-T, CAdES-C and a grace period.
Annex B provides example validation processes. Clause C.4
provides additional information about applying grace periods provides additional information about applying grace periods
during the validation process. during the validation process.
The verifier's conformance requirements are defined in clause 8.3 for The verifier's conformance requirements are defined in section 8.3 for
time stamped CAdES-C and clause 8.4 for time marked CAdES-C. The time stamped CAdES-C and section 8.4 for time marked CAdES-C. The
present document only defines conformance requirements for the verifier present document only defines conformance requirements for the verifier
up to an ES with complete validation data (CAdES-C). This means that up to an ES with complete validation data (CAdES-C). This means that
none of the extended and archive forms of Electronic Signature as none of the extended and archive forms of Electronic Signature as
defined in clauses 4.4.3 to 4.4.4) need to be implemented to achieve defined in sections 4.4.3 to 4.4.4) need to be implemented to achieve
conformance to the present document. conformance to the present document.
4.4.3 Extended electronic signature formats 4.4.3 Extended electronic signature formats
CAdES-C can be extended by adding unsigned attributes to the electronic CAdES-C can be extended by adding unsigned attributes to the electronic
signature. The present document defines various unsigned attributes signature. The present document defines various unsigned attributes
that are applicable for very long term verification, and for preventing that are applicable for very long term verification, and for preventing
some disaster situations which are discussed in annex C. Annex B some disaster situations which are discussed in annex C. Annex B
provides the details of the various extended formats, all the required provides the details of the various extended formats, all the required
unsigned attributes for each type and how they can be used within the unsigned attributes for each type and how they can be used within the
electronic signature validation process. The clauses below give an electronic signature validation process. The sections below give an
overview of the various forms of extended signature formats in the overview of the various forms of extended signature formats in the
present document. present document.
4.4.3.1 EXtended Long Electronic Signature (CAdES-X Long) 4.4.3.1 EXtended Long Electronic Signature (CAdES-X Long)
Extended Long format (CAdES-X Long) in accordance with the present Extended Long format (CAdES-X Long) in accordance with the present
document adds to the CAdES-C format the certificate-values and document adds to the CAdES-C format the certificate-values and
revocation-values attributes. The first one contains the whole revocation-values attributes. The first one contains the whole
certificate path required for verifying the signature; the second one certificate path required for verifying the signature; the second one
the CRLs and/OCSP responses required for the validation of the the CRLs and/OCSP responses required for the validation of the
signature. This provides a know repository of certificate and signature. This provides a known repository of certificate and
revocation information required to validate an CAdES-C and prevents revocation information required to validate an CAdES-C and prevents
such information getting lost. Clauses 6.3.3 and 6.3.4 give such information getting lost. Sections 6.3.3 and 6.3.4 give
specification details. Clause B.1.1 gives details on the production of specification details. Section B.1.1 gives details on the production of
the format. Clauses C4.1 to C.4.2 provide the rationale. the format. Sections C4.1 to C.4.2 provide the rationale.
The structure of the CAdES-X Long format is illustrated in figure 6. The structure of the CAdES-X Long format is illustrated in figure 6.
+----------------------- CAdES-X-Long -----------------------------+ +----------------------- CAdES-X-Long -----------------------------+
|+------------------------------------ CadES-C --+ | |+------------------------------------ CadES-C --+ |
|| +----------+ | +-------------+ | || +----------+ | +-------------+ |
||+------ CAdES -------------------+|Timestamp | | | | | ||+------ CAdES -------------------+|Timestamp | | | | |
||| || over | | | Complete | | ||| || over | | | Complete | |
|||+---------++----------+ ||digital | | | certificate | | |||+---------++----------+ ||digital | | | certificate | |
||||Signer's || Signed | Digital ||signature | | | and | | ||||Signer's || Signed | Digital ||signature | | | and | |
skipping to change at page 23, line 55 skipping to change at page 23, line 42
4.4.3.2 EXtended Electronic Signature with Time Type 1 4.4.3.2 EXtended Electronic Signature with Time Type 1
(CAdES-X Type 1) (CAdES-X Type 1)
Extended format with time type 1 (CAdES-X Type 1) in accordance with Extended format with time type 1 (CAdES-X Type 1) in accordance with
the present document adds to the CAdES-C format the CAdES-C-time-stamp the present document adds to the CAdES-C format the CAdES-C-time-stamp
attribute, whose content is a time-stamp token on the CAdES-C itself. attribute, whose content is a time-stamp token on the CAdES-C itself.
This provides an integrity and trusted time protection over all the This provides an integrity and trusted time protection over all the
elements and references. It may protect the certificates, CRLs and elements and references. It may protect the certificates, CRLs and
OCSP responses in case of a later compromise of a CA key, CRL key or OCSP responses in case of a later compromise of a CA key, CRL key or
OCSP issuer key. Clause 6.3.5 provides the specification details. OCSP issuer key. Section 6.3.5 provides the specification details.
Clause B.1.2 gives details on the production of the time-stamping Section B.1.2 gives details on the production of the time-stamping
process. Clauses C.4.4.1 provides the rationale. process. Sections C.4.4.1 provides the rationale.
The structure of the CAdES-X Type 1 format is illustrated in figure 7. The structure of the CAdES-X Type 1 format is illustrated in figure 7.
+----------------------- CAdES-X-Type 1 -----------------------------+ +----------------------- CAdES-X-Type 1 ------------------------------+
|+-------------------------------------- CAdES-C --+ | |+-------------------------------------- CAdES-C -----+ |
|| +----------+ | +-------------+ | || +-------------+ | +-----------+ |
||+--------- CAdES ------------------+|Timestamp | | | | | ||+--------- CAdES ------------------+|Timestamp | | | | |
||| ||over | | | | | ||| ||over | | | | |
|||+---------++----------++---------+||digital | | | | | |||+---------++----------+ || digital | | | | |
||||Signer's || Signed || Digital |||signature | | | Timestamp | | ||||Signer's || Signed | Digital || signature | | | Timestamp | |
||||Document ||Attributes||Signature||| | | | over | | ||||Document ||Attributes| Signature || | | | over | |
|||| || || |||Optional | | | CAdES-C | | |||| || | || Optional | | | CAdES-C | |
|||+---------++----------++---------+||when | | | | | |||+---------++----------+ || when | | | | |
||+----------------------------------+|timemarked| | | | | ||+----------------------------------+| time-marked | | | | |
|| +----------+ | | | | || +-------------+ | | | |
|| +-------------+ | +-------------+ | || +-------------+ | +-----------+ |
|| | Complete | | | || | Complete | | |
|| | certificate | | | || | certificate | | |
|| | and | | | || | and | | |
|| | revocation | | | || | revocation | | |
|| | references | | | || | references | | |
|| +-------------+ | | || +-------------+ | |
|+-------------------------------------------------+ | |+----------------------------------------------------+ |
| | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 7: Illustration of CAdES-X Type 1 Figure 7: Illustration of CAdES-X Type 1
4.4.3.3 EXtended Electronic Signature with Time Type 2 4.4.3.3 EXtended Electronic Signature with Time Type 2
(CAdES-X Type 2) (CAdES-X Type 2)
Extended format with time type 2 (CAdES-X Type 2) in accordance with Extended format with time type 2 (CAdES-X Type 2) in accordance with
the present document adds to the CAdES-C format the CAdES-C-time- the present document adds to the CAdES-C format the CAdES-C-time-
stamped-certs-crls-references attribute, whose content is a time-stamp stamped-certs-crls-references attribute, whose content is a time-stamp
token on the certification path and revocation information references. token on the certification path and revocation information references.
This provides an integrity and trusted time protection over all the This provides an integrity and trusted time protection over all the
references. references.
It may protect the certificates, CRLs and OCSP responses in case of a It may protect the certificates, CRLs and OCSP responses in case of a
later compromise of a CA key, CRL key or OCSP issuer key. later compromise of a CA key, CRL key or OCSP issuer key.
Both CAdES-X Type 1 and CAdES-X Type 2 counter the same threats and the Both CAdES-X Type 1 and CAdES-X Type 2 counter the same threats and the
usage of one or the other depends on the environment. Clause 6.3.5 usage of one or the other depends on the environment. Section 6.3.5
provides the specification details. Clause B.1.3 gives details on the provides the specification details. Section B.1.3 gives details on the
production of the time-stamping process. Clause C.4.4.2 provides the production of the time-stamping process. Section C.4.4.2 provides the
rationale. rationale.
The structure of the CAdES-X Type 2 format is illustrated in figure 8. The structure of the CAdES-X Type 2 format is illustrated in figure 8.
+------------------------- CAdES-X-Type 2 ---------------------------+ +------------------------- CAdES-X-Type 2 ----------------------------+
|+-----------------------------------------CAdES-C --+ | |+----------------------------------------CAdES-C ---+ |
|| +-----------+| | || +------------+| |
||+----- CAdES ------------------------+| Timmestamp|| | ||+----- CAdES -----------------------+| Timmestamp || |
||| || over || | ||| || over || |
|||+---------+ +----------+ +---------+|| digital ||+-------------+| |||+---------+ +----------+ || digital || +-------------+|
||||Signer's | | Signed | | Digital ||| signature ||| Time-stamp || ||||Signer's | | Signed | Digital || signature || | Time-stamp ||
||||Document | |Attributes| |signature||| ||| only over || ||||Document | |Attributes| signature || || | only over ||
|||| | | | | ||| optional ||| complete || |||| | | | || optional || | complete ||
|||+---------+ +----------+ +---------+|| when ||| certificate || |||+---------+ +----------+ || when || | certificate ||
||+------------------------------------+| timemarked||| and || ||+-----------------------------------+| timemarked || | and ||
|| +-----------+|| revocation || || +------------+| | revocation ||
|| +-------------+|| references || || +-------------+|| references ||
|| | Complete ||+-------------+| || | Complete ||+-------------+|
|| | certificate || | || | certificate || |
|| | and || | || | and || |
|| | revocation || | || | revocation || |
|| | references || | || | references || |
|| +-------------+| | || +-------------+| |
|+---------------------------------------------------+ | |+---------------------------------------------------+ |
| | +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 8: Illustration of CAdES-X Type 2 Figure 8: Illustration of CAdES-X Type 2
4.4.3.4 EXtended Long Electronic Signature with Time (CAdES-X Long Type 4.4.3.4 EXtended Long Electronic Signature with Time (CAdES-X Long Type
1 or 2) 1 or 2)
Extended Long with Time (CAdES-X Long Type 1 or 2) in accordance with Extended Long with Time (CAdES-X Long Type 1 or 2) in accordance with
the present document is a combination of CAdES-X Long and one of the the present document is a combination of CAdES-X Long and one of the
two former types (CAdES-X Type 1 and CAdES-X Type 2). Clause B.1.4 two former types (CAdES-X Type 1 and CAdES-X Type 2). Section B.1.4
gives details on the production of the time-stamping process. Clause gives details on the production of the time-stamping process. Section
C4.8 in annex C provides the rationale. C4.8 in annex C provides the rationale.
The structure of the CAdES-X Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2. The structure of the CAdES-X Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2.
format is illustrated in figure 9. format is illustrated in figure 9.
+------------------ CAdES-X Long Type 1 or 2 -----------------------+ +------------------ CAdES-X Long Type 1 or 2 -----------------------+
| +--------------+| | +--------------+|
|+-------------------------------------- CAdES-C --+|+------------+|| |+-------------------------------------- CAdES-C --+|+------------+||
|| ||| Timestamp ||| || ||| Timestamp |||
||+------- CAdES --------------------++----------+ ||| over ||| ||+------- CAdES --------------------++----------+ ||| over |||
||| ||Timestamp | ||| CAdES-C ||| ||| ||Timestamp | ||| CAdES-C |||
||| ||over | ||+------------+|| ||| ||over | ||+------------+||
|||+---------++----------++---------+||digital | || OR || |||+---------++----------+ ||digital | || OR ||
||||Signer's || Signed || Digital |||signature | ||+------------+|| ||||Signer's || Signed | Digital ||signature | ||+------------+||
||||Document ||Attributes||signature||| | ||| Timestamp ||| ||||Document ||Attributes| signature || | ||| Timestamp |||
|||| || || |||Optional | ||| only over ||| |||| || | ||Optional | ||| only over |||
|||+---------++----------++---------+||when | ||| complete ||| |||+---------++----------+ ||when | ||| complete |||
||+----------------------------------+|timemarked| ||| certificate||| ||+----------------------------------+|timemarked| ||| certificate|||
|| +----------+ ||| and ||| || +----------+ ||| and |||
|| ||| Revocation ||| || ||| Revocation |||
|| +-------------+ ||| References ||| || +-------------+ ||| References |||
|| | Complete | ||+------------+|| || | Complete | ||+------------+||
|| | certificate | |+--------------+| || | certificate | |+--------------+|
|| | and | | +------------+ | || | and | | +------------+ |
|| | revocation | | | Complete | | || | revocation | | | Complete | |
|| | references | | |certificate | | || | references | | |certificate | |
|| +-------------+ | | and | | || +-------------+ | | and | |
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Figure 9: Illustration of CAdES-X Long Type 1 and CAdES Long Type 2 Figure 9: Illustration of CAdES-X Long Type 1 and CAdES Long Type 2
4.4.4 Archival Electronic Signature (CAdES-A) 4.4.4 Archival Electronic Signature (CAdES-A)
Archival Form (CAdES-A) in accordance with the present document builds Archival Form (CAdES-A) in accordance with the present document builds
on a CAdES-X Long or a CAdES-X Long Type 1 or 2 by adding one or more on a CAdES-X Long or a CAdES-X Long Type 1 or 2 by adding one or more
archive-time-stamp attributes. This form is used for archival of long- archive-time-stamp attributes. This form is used for archival of long-
term signatures. Successive time-stamps protect the whole material term signatures. Successive time-stamps protect the whole material
against vulnerable hashing algorithms or the breaking of the against vulnerable hashing algorithms or the breaking of the
cryptographic material or algorithms. Clause 6.4 contains the cryptographic material or algorithms. Section 6.4 contains the
specification details. Clauses C.4.5 and C.4.8 provide the rationale. specification details. Sections C.4.5 and C.4.8 provide the rationale.
The structure of the CAdES-A form is illustrated in figure 10. The structure of the CAdES-A form is illustrated in figure 10.
+---------------------------CAdES-A ---------------------------------+ +---------------------------CAdES-A ---------------------------------+
|+----------------------------------------------------+ | |+----------------------------------------------------+ |
|| +--------------+| +----------+ | || +--------------+| +----------+ |
||+----------------------CAdES-C ----+|+------------+|| | | | ||+----------------------CAdES-C ----+|+------------+|| | | |
||| +----------+ ||| Timestamp ||| | | | ||| +----------+ ||| Timestamp ||| | | |
|||+---- CAdES-BES ----+|Timestamp | ||| over ||| | | | |||+---- CAdES-BES ----+|Timestamp | ||| over ||| | | |
|||| or CAdeS-EPES || over | ||| CAdES-C ||| | Archive | | |||| or CAdeS-EPES || over | ||| CAdES-C ||| | Archive | |
skipping to change at page 27, line 36 skipping to change at page 27, line 36
||| +-------------+ | |certificate | | | ||| +-------------+ | |certificate | | |
||| | | and | | | ||| | | and | | |
||+----------------------------------+ |revocation | | | ||+----------------------------------+ |revocation | | |
|| | values | | | || | values | | |
|| +------------+ | | || +------------+ | |
|+----------------------------------------------------+ | |+----------------------------------------------------+ |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 10: Illustration of CAdES-A Figure 10: Illustration of CAdES-A
TABLE NOTE : Timestamps are timestamp token that may themselves
include unsigned attributes required to validate the timestamp
token, such as the complete-certificate-references and
complete-revocation-references attributes as defined by the
present document.
4.5 Arbitration 4.5 Arbitration
The CAdES-C may be used for arbitration should there be a dispute The CAdES-C may be used for arbitration should there be a dispute
between the signer and verifier, provided that: between the signer and verifier, provided that:
- the arbitrator knows where to retrieve the signer's certificate - the arbitrator knows where to retrieve the signer's certificate
(if not already present), all the cross-certificates and the (if not already present), all the cross-certificates and the
required CRLs, ACRLs or OCSP responses referenced in the CAdES-C; required CRLs, ACRLs or OCSP responses referenced in the CAdES-C;
- when time-stamping in the CAdES-T is being used, the certificate - when time-stamping in the CAdES-T is being used, the certificate
skipping to change at page 28, line 16 skipping to change at page 28, line 16
format is not revoked at the time of arbitration; format is not revoked at the time of arbitration;
- when time-marking in the CAdES-T is being used, a reliable audit - when time-marking in the CAdES-T is being used, a reliable audit
trail from the Time-Marking Authority is available for trail from the Time-Marking Authority is available for
examination regarding the time; examination regarding the time;
- none of the private keys corresponding to the certificates used - none of the private keys corresponding to the certificates used
to verify the signature chain have ever been compromised; to verify the signature chain have ever been compromised;
- the cryptography used at the time the CAdES-C was built has not - the cryptography used at the time the CAdES-C was built has not
been broken at the time the arbitration is performed; been broken at the time the arbitration is performed; and
- If the signature policy can be explicit or implicitly identified - If the signature policy can be explicit or implicitly identified
then an arbitrator is able to determine the rules required to then an arbitrator is able to determine the rules required to
validate the electronic signature. validate the electronic signature.
4.6 Validation process 4.6 Validation process
The Validation Process validates an electronic signature, the output The Validation Process validates an electronic signature, the output
status of the validation process can be: status of the validation process can be:
- invalid; - invalid;
- incomplete validation; - incomplete validation; or
- valid. - valid.
An Invalid response indicates that either the signature format is An Invalid response indicates that either the signature format is
incorrect or that the digital signature value fails verification (e.g. incorrect or that the digital signature value fails verification (e.g.
the integrity check on the digital signature value fails or any of the the integrity check on the digital signature value fails or any of the
certificates on which the digital signature verification depends is certificates on which the digital signature verification depends is
known to be invalid or revoked). known to be invalid or revoked).
An Incomplete Validation response indicates that the signature An Incomplete Validation response indicates that the signature
skipping to change at page 29, line 9 skipping to change at page 29, line 9
required certificates are not available or the grace period is required certificates are not available or the grace period is
not completed. not completed.
A Valid response indicates that the signature has passed verification A Valid response indicates that the signature has passed verification
and it complies with the signature validation policy. and it complies with the signature validation policy.
Example validation sequences are illustrated in annex B. Example validation sequences are illustrated in annex B.
5 Electronic signature attributes 5 Electronic signature attributes
This clause builds upon the existing Cryptographic Message Syntax This section builds upon the existing Cryptographic Message Syntax
(CMS), as defined in RFC 3852 [4], and Enhanced Security Services (CMS), as defined in RFC 3852 [4], and Enhanced Security Services
(ESS), as defined in RFC 2634 [5]. The overall structure of Electronic (ESS), as defined in RFC 2634 [5]. The overall structure of Electronic
Signature is as defined in CMS. The Electronic Signature (ES) uses Signature is as defined in CMS. The Electronic Signature (ES) uses
attributes defined in CMS, ESS and the present document. The present attributes defined in CMS, ESS and the present document. The present
document defines ES attributes which it uses and are not defined document defines ES attributes which it uses and are not defined
elsewhere. elsewhere.
The mandated set of attributes and the digital signature value is The mandated set of attributes and the digital signature value is
defined as the minimum Electronic Signature (ES) required by the defined as the minimum Electronic Signature (ES) required by the
present document. A signature policy MAY mandate that other signed present document. A signature policy may mandate that other signed
attributes are present. attributes are present.
5.1 General syntax 5.1 General syntax
The general syntax of the ES is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]). The general syntax of the ES is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]).
NOTE: CMS defines content types for id-data, id-signedData, id- NOTE: CMS defines content types for id-data, id-signedData, id-
envelopedData, id-digestedData, id-encryptedData, and id- envelopedData, id-digestedData, id-encryptedData, and id-
authenticatedData. Although CMS permits other documents to authenticatedData. Although CMS permits other documents to
define other content types, the ASN.1 type defined should not define other content types, the ASN.1 type defined should not
be a CHOICE type. The present document does not define other be a CHOICE type. The present document does not define other
content types. content types.
5.2 Data content type 5.2 Data content type
The data content type of the ES is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]). The data content type of the ES is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]).
NOTE: Requirements to identify encoding types within the content when NOTE: If the content type is id-data, it is recommended that the
the ContentType set to id-data are outside the scope of the content is encoded using MIME and that the MIME type is used
present document, see annex F for an example of using MIME to to identify the presentation format of the data. See annex F.1
identify encoding type. for an example of using MIME to identify encoding type.
5.3 Signed-data content type 5.3 Signed-data content type
The signed-data content type of the ES is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 The signed-data content type of the ES is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852
[4]). [4]).
To make sure that the verifier uses the right signer's key, the present
document mandates that an unambiguous reference of the signer's
certificate is always included in the Signing Certificate signed
attribute (see clause 5.7.3).
5.4 SignedData type 5.4 SignedData type
The syntax of the SignedData of the ES is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 The syntax of the SignedData of the ES is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852
[4]). [4]).
The fields of type SignedData have the meanings as defined in CMS (RFC The fields of type SignedData have the meanings as defined in CMS (RFC
3852 [4]) except that: 3852 [4]) but :
- the syntax version number value shall be 3. - the syntax version number value shall be 3.
The identification of signer's certificate used to create the signature The identification of signer's certificate used to create the signature
is always signed (see clause 5.7.3). The validation policy may specify is always signed (see section 5.7.3). The validation policy may specify
requirements for the presence of certain certificates. requirements for the presence of certain certificates.
The degenerate case where there are no signers is not valid in the The degenerate case where there are no signers is not valid in the
present document. present document.
5.5 EncapsulatedContentInfo type 5.5 EncapsulatedContentInfo type
The syntax of the EncapsulatedContentInfo type ES is as defined in CMS The syntax of the EncapsulatedContentInfo type ES is as defined in CMS
(RFC 3852 [4]). (RFC 3852 [4]).
For the purpose of long term validation as defined by the present For the purpose of long term validation as defined by the present
document, it is advisable that either the eContent is present, or the document, it is advisable that either the eContent is present, or the
data which is signed is archived in such as way as to preserve any data data which is signed is archived in such as way as to preserve any data
encoding. It is important that the OCTET STRING used to generate the encoding. It is important that the OCTET STRING used to generate the
signature remains the same every time either the verifier or an signature remains the same every time either the verifier or an
arbitrator validates the signature. arbitrator validates the signature.
NOTE: The eContent is optional in CMS, this allows the signed data NOTE: The eContent is optional in CMS :
to be encapsulated in the SignData (i.e. Signature + data)
alternatively the signed data may be absent form the SignData - When it is present, this allows the signed data to be
(i.e. Signature only). It is in the case of signature only encapsulated in the SignedData structure, which then
that the data which is signed needs to be archived in such as contains both the signed data and the signature. However,
way as to preserve any data encoding. the signed data may only be accessed by a verifier able to
decode the ASN.1 encoded SignedData structure.
- When it is missing, this allows the signed data to be sent
or stored separately from the signature and the SignedData
structure only contains the signature. In this case the
data which is signed needs to be stored and distributed in
such as way as to preserve any data encoding.
The degenerate case where there are no signers is not valid in the The degenerate case where there are no signers is not valid in the
present document. present document.
5.6 SignerInfo type 5.6 SignerInfo type
The syntax of the SignerInfo type ES is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 The syntax of the SignerInfo type ES is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852
[4]). [4]).
Per-signer information is represented in the type SignerInfo. In the Per-signer information is represented in the type SignerInfo. In the
case of multiple independent signatures (see clause B.5), there is an case of multiple independent signatures (see section B.5), there is an
instance of this field for each signer. instance of this field for each signer.
The fields of type SignerInfo have the meanings defined in CMS (RFC The fields of type SignerInfo have the meanings defined in CMS (RFC
3852 [4]) except that the signedAttrs field shall contain the following 3852 [4]) but the signedAttrs field shall contain the following
attributes: attributes:
- content-type as defined in clause 5.7.1; - content-type as defined in section 5.7.1; and
- message-digest as defined in clause 5.7.2; - message-digest as defined in section 5.7.2;
- signing-certificate as defined in clause 5.7.3.
- signing-certificate as defined in section 5.7.3.
5.6.1 Message digest calculation process 5.6.1 Message digest calculation process
The message digest calculation process is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 The message digest calculation process is as defined in CMS (RFC 3852
[4]). [4]).
5.6.2 Message signature generation process 5.6.2 Message signature generation process
The input to the message signature generation process is as defined in The input to the message signature generation process is as defined in
CMS (RFC 3852 [4]). CMS (RFC 3852 [4]).
5.6.3 Message signature verification process 5.6.3 Message signature verification process
The procedures for message signature verification are defined in CMS The procedures for message signature verification are defined in CMS
(RFC 3852 [4]) and enhanced in the present document. (RFC 3852 [4]) and enhanced in the present document: the input to the
The input to the signature verification process includes the signer's signature verification process MUST be the signer's public key which
public key which SHALL be verified as correct using the signing SHALL be verified as correct using the signing certificate reference
certificate reference attribute containing a reference to the signing attribute containing a reference to the signing certificate, e.g. when SigningCertificate from ESS [RFC 2634] is used, the public key from
certificate. the first certificate identified in the sequence of certificate
identifiers from SigningCertificate MUST be the key used to verify the
digital signature.
5.7 Basic ES mandatory present attributes 5.7 Basic ES mandatory present attributes
The following attributes SHALL be present with the signed-data defined The following attributes shall be present with the signed-data defined
by the present document. The attributes are defined in CMS (RFC 3852 by the present document. The attributes are defined in CMS (RFC 3852
[4]). [4]).
5.7.1 Content type 5.7.1 Content type
The syntax of the content-type attribute type of the ES is as defined The content-type attribute indicates the type of the signed content.
in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]). The syntax of the content-type attribute is as defined in CMS
(RFC 3852 [4]) section 11.1.
Note 1 : As stated in RFC 3852 [4] , the content-type attribute
must have its value (i.e. ContentType) equal to the
eContentType of the EncapsulatedContentInfo value being
signed.
Note 2 : For implementations supporting signature generation, if
the content-type attribute is id-data, then it is
recommended that the eContent be encoded using MIME.
For implementations supporting signature verification, if
the signed data (i.e. eContent) is MIME-encoded, then the
OID of the content-type attribute must be id-data.
In both cases, the MIME content-type(s) must be used to
identify the presentation format of the data. See Annex F
for further details about the use of MIME.
5.7.2 Message digest 5.7.2 Message digest
The syntax of the message-digest attribute type of the ES is as defined The syntax of the message-digest attribute type of the ES is as defined
in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]). in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]).
5.7.3 Signing certificate reference attributes 5.7.3 Signing certificate reference attributes
The Signing certificate reference attributes are supported by using The Signing certificate reference attributes are supported by using
either the ESS signing-certificate attribute or the other-signing- either the ESS signing-certificate attribute or the ESS signing-
certificate attribute. certificate v2 attribute.
These attributes shall contain a reference to the signer's certificate, These attributes shall contain a reference to the signer's certificate,
they are designed to prevent the simple substitution and re-issue they are designed to prevent the simple substitution and re-issue
attacks and to allow for a restricted set of certificates to be used in attacks and to allow for a restricted set of certificates to be used in
verifying a signature. They have a compact form (much shorter than the verifying a signature. They have a compact form (much shorter than the
full certificate) that allows to a certificate to be unambiguously full certificate) that allows to a certificate to be unambiguously
identified. identified.
One, and only one, of the following alternative attributes SHALL be One, and only one, of the following alternative attributes shall be
present with the signedData defined by the present document. present with the signedData defined by the present document.
- The ESS signing-certificate attribute, which is adopted in - The ESS signing-certificate attribute, defined in ESS [RFC 2634],
existing standards, may be used if the SHA-1 hashing algorithm is MUST be used when the SHA-1 hashing algorithm is used.
used.
- The other-signing-certificate attribute shall be used when other - The ESS signing-certificate attribute v2, defined in "ESS Update:
hashing algorithms are to be utilized. Adding CertID Algorithm Agility", RFC XXXX [15] shall be used
when other hashing algorithms are to be used.
The certificate to be used to verify the signature shall be identified The certificate to be used to verify the signature shall be identified
in the sequence (i.e. the certificate from the signer) and the sequence in the sequence (i.e. the certificate from the signer) and the sequence
shall not be empty. The signature validation policy may mandate other shall not be empty. The signature validation policy may mandate other
certificates be present that may include all the certificates up to the certificates be present that may include all the certificates up to the
point of trust. trust anchor.
5.7.3.1 ESS signing certificate attribute definition 5.7.3.1 ESS signing certificate attribute definition
The syntax of the signing-certificate attribute type of the ES is as The syntax of the signing-certificate attribute type of the ES is as
defined in Enhanced Security Services (ESS), RFC 2634 [5] and further defined in Enhanced Security Services (ESS), RFC 2634 [5] and further
qualified in the present document. qualified in the present document.
The sequence of policy information field is not used in the present The sequence of policy information field is not used in the present
document. document.
The ESS signing-certificate attribute shall be a signed attribute. The ESS signing-certificate attribute shall be a signed attribute.
The encoding of the ESSCertID for this certificate shall include the The encoding of the ESSCertID for this certificate shall include the
issuerSerial field. issuerSerial field.
The issuerAndSerialNumber present in the SignerInfo shall be consistent If present, the issuerAndSerialNumber in SignerIdentifier field of the
with issuerSerial field. The certificate identified shall be used SignerInfo shall match the issuerSerial field present in ESSCertID.
during the signature verification process. If the hash of the In addition the certHash from ESSCertID shall match the SHA-1 hash of
certificate does not match the certificate used to verify the the certificate. The certificate identified shall be used during the
signature, the signature shall be considered invalid. signature verification process. If the hash of the certificate does
not match the certificate used to verify the signature, the signature
shall be considered invalid.
NOTE: Where an attribute certificate is used by the signer to NOTE: Where an attribute certificate is used by the signer to
associate a role, or other attributes of the signer, with the associate a role, or other attributes of the signer, with the
electronic signature this is placed in the signer-attributes electronic signature, this is placed in the signer-attributes
attribute as defined in clause 5.8.3. attribute as defined in section 5.8.3.
5.7.3.2 Other signing certificate attribute definition 5.7.3.2 ESS signing certificate v2 attribute definition
The following attribute is identical to the ESS signing-certificate The ESS signing-certificate v2 attribute is similar to the ESS
defined above except that this attribute can be used with hashing signing-certificate defined above, except that this attribute can be
algorithms other than SHA-1. used with hashing algorithms other than SHA-1.
The syntax of the signing-certificate v2 attribute type of the ES is as
defined in "ESS Update: Adding CertID Algorithm Agility", RFC XXXX [15]
and further qualified in the present document.
The sequence of policy information field is not used in the present
document.
This attribute shall be used in the same manner as defined above for This attribute shall be used in the same manner as defined above for
the ESS signing-certificate attribute. the ESS signing-certificate attribute.
The following object identifier identifies the other-signing-
certificate attribute: If present, the issuerAndSerialNumber in SignerIdentifier field of the
SignerInfo shall match the issuerSerial field present in ESSCertID.
In addition the certHash from ESSCertID shall match the SHA-1 hash of
the certificate. The certificate identified shall be used during the
signature verification process. If the hash of the certificate does
not match the certificate used to verify the signature, the signature
shall be considered invalid.
Note 1 : Where an attribute certificate is used by the signer to
associate a role, or other attributes of the signer, with the
electronic signature, this is placed in the signer-attributes
attribute as defined in section 5.8.3.
Note 2 : RFC 3126 was using the other signing certificate attribute
(see section 5.7.3.3) for the same purpose. Its use is now
deprecated, since this structure is simpler.
5.7.3.3 Other signing certificate attribute definition
RFC 3126 was using the other signing certificate attribute as
an alternative to the ESS signing-certificate when hashing algorithms
other than SHA-1 were being used. Its use is now deprecated, since
the structure of the general-signing-certificate attribute is simpler.
Its description is however still present in this version for backwards compatibility.
id-aa-ets-otherSigCert OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-aa-ets-otherSigCert OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
smime(16) id-aa(2) 19 } smime(16) id-aa(2) 19 }
The other-signing-certificate attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax The other-signing-certificate attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax
OtherSigningCertificate: OtherSigningCertificate:
OtherSigningCertificate ::= SEQUENCE { OtherSigningCertificate ::= SEQUENCE {
certs SEQUENCE OF OtherCertID, certs SEQUENCE OF OtherCertID,
skipping to change at page 33, line 28 skipping to change at page 34, line 28
otherCertHash OtherHash, otherCertHash OtherHash,
issuerSerial IssuerSerial OPTIONAL } issuerSerial IssuerSerial OPTIONAL }
OtherHash ::= CHOICE { OtherHash ::= CHOICE {
sha1Hash OtherHashValue, -- This contains a SHA-1 hash sha1Hash OtherHashValue, -- This contains a SHA-1 hash
otherHash OtherHashAlgAndValue} otherHash OtherHashAlgAndValue}
OtherHashValue ::= OCTET STRING OtherHashValue ::= OCTET STRING
OtherHashAlgAndValue ::= SEQUENCE { OtherHashAlgAndValue ::= SEQUENCE {
HashAlgorithm AlgorithmIdentifier, hashAlgorithm AlgorithmIdentifier,
HashValue OtherHashValue } hashValue OtherHashValue }
5.8 Additional mandatory attributes for Explicit Policy-based 5.8 Additional mandatory attributes for Explicit Policy-based
Electronic Signatures Electronic Signatures
5.8.1 Signature policy identifier 5.8.1 Signature policy identifier
he present document mandates that for CAdES-EPES a reference to the The present document mandates that for CAdES-EPES a reference to the
signature policy is included in the signedData. This reference is signature policy is included in the signedData. This reference is
explicitly identified. A signature policy defines the rules for explicitly identified. A signature policy defines the rules for
creation and validation of an electronic signature, is included as a creation and validation of an electronic signature, is included as a
signed attribute with every Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature. signed attribute with every Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature.
The signature-policy-identifier shall be a signed attribute. The signature-policy-identifier shall be a signed attribute.
The following object identifier identifies signature-policy-identifier The following object identifier identifies signature-policy-identifier
attribute: attribute:
id-aa-ets-sigPolicyId OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-aa-ets-sigPolicyId OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
skipping to change at page 33, line 52 skipping to change at page 35, line 4
The following object identifier identifies signature-policy-identifier The following object identifier identifies signature-policy-identifier
attribute: attribute:
id-aa-ets-sigPolicyId OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-aa-ets-sigPolicyId OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
smime(16) id-aa(2) 15 } smime(16) id-aa(2) 15 }
signature-policy-identifier attribute values have ASN.1 type signature-policy-identifier attribute values have ASN.1 type
SignaturePolicyIdentifier: SignaturePolicyIdentifier:
SignaturePolicyIdentifier ::=CHOICE{ SignaturePolicyIdentifier ::=CHOICE{
signaturePolicyId SignaturePolicyId, signaturePolicyId SignaturePolicyId,
signaturePolicyImplied SignaturePolicyImplied signaturePolicyImplied SignaturePolicyImplied
-- not used in this version} -- not used in this version
}
SignaturePolicyId ::= SEQUENCE { SignaturePolicyId ::= SEQUENCE {
sigPolicyId SigPolicyId, sigPolicyId SigPolicyId,
sigPolicyHash SigPolicyHash OPTIONAL, sigPolicyHash SigPolicyHash,
sigPolicyQualifiers SEQUENCE SIZE (1..MAX) OF sigPolicyQualifiers SEQUENCE SIZE (1..MAX) OF
SigPolicyQualifierInfo OPTIONAL} SigPolicyQualifierInfo OPTIONAL}
SignaturePolicyImplied ::= NULL SignaturePolicyImplied ::= NULL
The sigPolicyId field contains an object-identifier which uniquely The sigPolicyId field contains an object-identifier which uniquely
identifies a specific version of the signature policy. The syntax of identifies a specific version of the signature policy. The syntax of
this field is as follows: this field is as follows:
SigPolicyId ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER SigPolicyId ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER
The sigPolicyHash field optionally contains the identifier of the hash The sigPolicyHash field optionally contains the identifier of the hash
algorithm and the hash of the value of the signature policy. algorithm and the hash of the value of the signature policy. The
hashValue within the sigPolicyHash max be set to zero to indicate
that the policy hash value is not known.
If the signature policy is defined using ASN.1, then the hash is If the signature policy is defined using ASN.1, then the hash is
calculated on the value without the outer type and length fields and calculated on the value without the outer type and length fields and
the hashing algorithm shall be as specified in the field sigPolicyHash. the hashing algorithm shall be as specified in the field sigPolicyHash.
If the signature policy is defined using another structure, the type of If the signature policy is defined using another structure, the type of
structure and the hashing algorithm shall be either specified as part structure and the hashing algorithm shall be either specified as part
of the signature policy, or indicated using a signature policy of the signature policy, or indicated using a signature policy
qualifier. qualifier.
SigPolicyHash ::= OtherHashAlgAndValue SigPolicyHash ::= OtherHashAlgAndValue
NOTE: In the previous version of TS 101 733 (i.e. version 1.5.1) OtherHashAlgAndValue ::= SEQUENCE {
sigPolicyHash was mandatory. Implementations requiring to be hashAlgorithm AlgorithmIdentifier,
backward compatible with version 1.5.1 and previous versions hashValue OtherHashValue }
of the current document MUST include SigPolicyHash.
OtherHashValue ::= OCTET STRING
A signature policy identifier may be qualified with other information A signature policy identifier may be qualified with other information
about the qualifier. The semantics and syntax of the qualifier is as about the qualifier. The semantics and syntax of the qualifier is as
associated with the object-identifier in the sigPolicyQualifierId associated with the object-identifier in the sigPolicyQualifierId
field. The general syntax of this qualifier is as follows: field. The general syntax of this qualifier is as follows:
SigPolicyQualifierInfo ::= SEQUENCE { SigPolicyQualifierInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
sigPolicyQualifierId SigPolicyQualifierId, sigPolicyQualifierId SigPolicyQualifierId,
sigQualifier ANY DEFINED BY sigPolicyQualifierId } sigQualifier ANY DEFINED BY sigPolicyQualifierId }
The present document specifies the following qualifiers: The present document specifies the following qualifiers:
- spuri: this contains the web URI or URL reference to the - spuri: this contains the web URI or URL reference to the
signature policy; signature policy, and
- sp-user-notice: this contains a user notice which should be - sp-user-notice: this contains a user notice which should be
displayed whenever the signature is validated. displayed whenever the signature is validated.
sigpolicyQualifierIds defined in the present document sigpolicyQualifierIds defined in the present document:
SigPolicyQualifierId ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER
SigPolicyQualifierId ::=
OBJECT IDENTIFIER
id-spq-ets-uri OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-spq-ets-uri OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
smime(16) id-spq(5) 1 } smime(16) id-spq(5) 1 }
SPuri ::= IA5String SPuri ::= IA5String
id-spq-ets-unotice OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-spq-ets-unotice OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
smime(16) id-spq(5) 2 } smime(16) id-spq(5) 2 }
skipping to change at page 35, line 35 skipping to change at page 36, line 39
organization DisplayText, organization DisplayText,
noticeNumbers SEQUENCE OF INTEGER } noticeNumbers SEQUENCE OF INTEGER }
DisplayText ::= CHOICE { DisplayText ::= CHOICE {
visibleString VisibleString (SIZE (1..200)), visibleString VisibleString (SIZE (1..200)),
bmpString BMPString (SIZE (1..200)), bmpString BMPString (SIZE (1..200)),
utf8String UTF8String (SIZE (1..200)) } utf8String UTF8String (SIZE (1..200)) }
5.9 CMS imported optional attributes 5.9 CMS imported optional attributes
The following attributes MAY be present with the signed-data, the The following attributes may be present with the signed-data, the
attributes are defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]) and are imported into the attributes are defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]) and are imported into the
present document. Were appropriated the attributes are qualified and present document. Were appropriated the attributes are qualified and
profiled by the present document. profiled by the present document.
5.9.1 Signing time 5.9.1 Signing time
The signing-time attribute specifies the time at which the signer The signing-time attribute specifies the time at which the signer
claims to have performed the signing process. claims to have performed the signing process.
Signing-time attribute values for ES have the ASN.1 type SigningTime as Signing-time attribute values for ES have the ASN.1 type SigningTime as
defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]). This type is further qualified in the defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]).
present document.
Dates between 1 January 1950 and 31 December 2049 (inclusive) MUST be
encoded as UTCTime. Any dates with year values before 1950 or after
2049 MUST be encoded as GeneralizedTime.
5.9.2 Countersignature 5.9.2 Countersignature
The counterSignature attribute values for ES have ASN.1 type The counterSignature attribute values for ES have ASN.1 type
CounterSignature as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]). CounterSignature as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 [4]).
A counterSignature attribute shall be an unsigned attribute. A counterSignature attribute shall be an unsigned attribute.
5.10 ESS imported optional attributes 5.10 ESS imported optional attributes
The following attributes MAY be present with the signed-data defined by The following attributes may be present with the signed-data defined by
the present document. The attributes are defined in ESS and are the present document. The attributes are defined in ESS and are
imported into the present document and were appropriate qualified and imported into the present document and were appropriate qualified and
profiled by the present document. profiled by the present document.
5.10.1 Content reference attribute 5.10.1 Content reference attribute
The content-reference attribute is a link from one SignedData to The content-reference attribute is a link from one SignedData to
another. It may be used to link a reply to the original message to another. It may be used to link a reply to the original message to
which it refers, or to incorporate by reference one SignedData into which it refers, or to incorporate by reference one SignedData into
another. The content-reference attribute shall be a signed attribute. another. The content-reference attribute shall be a signed attribute.
Content-reference attribute values for ES have ASN.1 type Content-reference attribute values for ES have ASN.1 type
ContentReference as defined in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]). ContentReference as defined in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]).
The content-reference attribute shall be used as defined in ESS (RFC The content-reference attribute shall be used as defined in ESS (RFC
2634 [5]) and further qualified in the present document. 2634 [5]).
5.10.2 Content identifier attribute 5.10.2 Content identifier attribute
The content-identifier attribute provides an identifier for the signed The content-identifier attribute provides an identifier for the signed
content for use when reference may be later required to that content, content for use when reference may be later required to that content,
for example in the content reference attribute in other signed data for example in the content reference attribute in other signed data
sent later. The content-identifier shall be a signed attribute. sent later. The content-identifier shall be a signed attribute.
content-identifier attribute type values for of the ES have ASN.1 type content-identifier attribute type values for of the ES have ASN.1 type
ContentIdentifier as defined in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]). ContentIdentifier as defined in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]).
The minimal content-identifier attribute should contain a concatenation The minimal content-identifier attribute should contain a concatenation
of user-specific identification information (such as a user name or of user-specific identification information (such as a user name or
public keying material identification information), a GeneralizedTime public keying material identification information), a GeneralizedTime
string, and a random number. string, and a random number.
5.10.3 Content hints attribute 5.10.3 Content hints attribute
The content-hints attribute provides information that describes the The content-hints attribute provides information on the innermost
format of the signed content. It may be used by the signer to indicate signed content of a multi-layer message where one content is
to a verifier a precise presentation format of the signed data (e.g. encapsulated in another.
text, voice, and video). This attribute SHOULD be present when the
signed data is to be presented to human users on verification if the
presentation format is not implicit within the data that has been
signed.
The syntax of the content-hints attribute type of the ES as defined in The syntax of the content-hints attribute type of the ES as defined in
ESS (RFC 2634 [5]). ESS (RFC 2634 [5]).
When used to indicate the precise format of the data to be presented to When used to indicate the precise format of the data to be presented to
the user the following rules apply: the user the following rules apply:
- the contentType indicates the type of the associated content. It - the contentType indicates the type of the associated content. It
is an object identifier (i.e. a unique string of integers) is an object identifier (i.e. a unique string of integers)
assigned by an authority that defines the content type; assigned by an authority that defines the content type; and
- when the contentType is id-data the contentDescription shall - when the contentType is id-data the contentDescription shall
define the presentation format, the format may be defined by MIME define the presentation format, the format may be defined by MIME
types. types.
When the format of the content is defined by MIME types the following When the format of the content is defined by MIME types the following
rules apply: rules apply:
- the contentType shall be id-data as defined in CMS (RFC 3852 - the contentType shall be id-data as defined in CMS (RFC 3852
[4]); [4]);
skipping to change at page 37, line 35 skipping to change at page 38, line 24
NOTE 1: id-data OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) NOTE 1: id-data OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 1 } rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 1 }
NOTE 2: contentDescription is optional in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]). It may NOTE 2: contentDescription is optional in ESS (RFC 2634 [5]). It may
be used to complement contentTypes defined elsewhere , such be used to complement contentTypes defined elsewhere , such
definitions are outside the scope of the present document. definitions are outside the scope of the present document.
5.11 Additional optional attributes defined in the present document 5.11 Additional optional attributes defined in the present document
This clause defines a number of attributes that may be used to meet This section defines a number of attributes that may be used to
specific requirements. indicate additional information to a verifier :
a) the type of commitment from the signer, and/or
b) the claimed location where the signature is performed, and/or
c) claimed attributes or certified attributes of the signer, and/or
d) a content time-stamp applied before the content was signed.
5.11.1 Commitment type indication attribute 5.11.1 Commitment type indication attribute
There may be situations where a signer wants to explicitly indicate to There may be situations where a signer wants to explicitly indicate to
a verifier that by signing the data, it illustrates a type of a verifier that by signing the data, it illustrates a type of
commitment on behalf of the signer. The commitment-type-indication commitment on behalf of the signer. The commitment-type-indication
attribute conveys such information. attribute conveys such information.
The commitment-type-indication attribute shall be a signed attribute. The commitment-type-indication attribute shall be a signed attribute.
The commitment type may be: The commitment type may be:
- defined as part of the signature policy, in which case the - defined as part of the signature policy, in which case the
commitment type has precise semantics that is defined as part of commitment type has precise semantics that is defined as part of
the signature policy; the signature policy; and
- be a registered type, in which case the commitment type has - be a registered type, in which case the commitment type has
precise semantics defined by registration, under the rules of the precise semantics defined by registration, under the rules of the
registration authority. Such a registration authority may be a registration authority. Such a registration authority may be a
trading association or a legislative authority. trading association or a legislative authority.
The signature policy specifies a set of attributes that it The signature policy specifies a set of attributes that it
"recognizes". This "recognized" set includes all those commitment "recognizes". This "recognized" set includes all those commitment
types defined as part of the signature policy as well as any externally types defined as part of the signature policy as well as any externally
defined commitment types that the policy may choose to recognize. Only defined commitment types that the policy may choose to recognize. Only
skipping to change at page 38, line 43 skipping to change at page 39, line 37
The following generic commitment types are defined in the present The following generic commitment types are defined in the present
document: document:
id-cti-ets-proofOfOrigin OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-cti-ets-proofOfOrigin OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) cti(6) 1} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) cti(6) 1}
id-cti-ets-proofOfReceipt OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-cti-ets-proofOfReceipt OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) cti(6) 2} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) cti(6) 2}
id-cti-ets-proofOfDelivery OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-cti-ets-proofOfDelivery OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) cti(6) 3} member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16)
cti(6) 3}
id-cti-ets-proofOfSender OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-cti-ets-proofOfSender OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) cti(6) 4} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) cti(6) 4}
id-cti-ets-proofOfApproval OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-cti-ets-proofOfApproval OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) cti(6) 5} member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16)
cti(6) 5}
id-cti-ets-proofOfCreation OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-cti-ets-proofOfCreation OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) cti(6) 6} member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16)
cti(6) 6}
These generic commitment types have the following meaning: These generic commitment types have the following meaning:
Proof of origin indicates that the signer recognizes to have created, Proof of origin indicates that the signer recognizes to have created,
approved and sent the message. approved and sent the message.
Proof of receipt indicates that signer recognizes to have received the Proof of receipt indicates that signer recognizes to have received the
content of the message. content of the message.
Proof of delivery indicates that the TSP providing that indication has Proof of delivery indicates that the TSP providing that indication has
skipping to change at page 39, line 34 skipping to change at page 40, line 26
(but not necessarily approved, nor sent it). (but not necessarily approved, nor sent it).
5.11.2 Signer location attribute 5.11.2 Signer location attribute
The signer-location attribute specifies a mnemonic for an address The signer-location attribute specifies a mnemonic for an address
associated with the signer at a particular geographical (e.g. city) associated with the signer at a particular geographical (e.g. city)
location. The mnemonic is registered in the country in which the location. The mnemonic is registered in the country in which the
signer is located and is used in the provision of the Public Telegram signer is located and is used in the provision of the Public Telegram
Service (according to ITU-T Recommendation F.1 [11]). Service (according to ITU-T Recommendation F.1 [11]).
The signer-location attribute shall be a signed attribute. The signer-location attribute shall be a signed attribute. The
The following object identifier identifies the signer-location following object identifier identifies the signer-location attribute:
attribute:
id-aa-ets-signerLocation OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-aa-ets-signerLocation OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 17} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 17}
Signer-location attribute values have ASN.1 type SignerLocation: Signer-location attribute values have ASN.1 type SignerLocation:
SignerLocation ::= SEQUENCE { -- at least one of the following shall be SignerLocation ::= SEQUENCE { -- at least one of the following shall be
present present
countryName [0] DirectoryString OPTIONAL, countryName [0] DirectoryString OPTIONAL,
-- As used to name a Country in X.500 -- As used to name a Country in X.500
skipping to change at page 40, line 12 skipping to change at page 40, line 51
PostalAddress ::= SEQUENCE SIZE(1..6) OF DirectoryString PostalAddress ::= SEQUENCE SIZE(1..6) OF DirectoryString
5.11.3 Signer attributes attribute 5.11.3 Signer attributes attribute
The signer-attributes attribute specifies additional attributes of the The signer-attributes attribute specifies additional attributes of the
signer (e.g. role). signer (e.g. role).
It may be either: It may be either:
- claimed attributes of the signer; - claimed attributes of the signer; or
- certified attributes of the signer. - certified attributes of the signer.
The signer-attributes attribute shall be a signed attribute. The signer-attributes attribute shall be a signed attribute.
The following object identifier identifies the signer-attribute The following object identifier identifies the signer-attribute
attribute: attribute:
id-aa-ets-signerAttr OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-aa-ets-signerAttr OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 18} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 18}
signer-attributes values have ASN.1 type SignerAttribute: signer-attributes values have ASN.1 type SignerAttribute:
SignerAttribute ::= SEQUENCE OF CHOICE { SignerAttribute ::= SEQUENCE OF CHOICE {
ClaimedAttributes [0] ClaimedAttributes, claimedAttributes [0] ClaimedAttributes,
certifiedAttributes [1] CertifiedAttributes } certifiedAttributes [1] CertifiedAttributes }
ClaimedAttributes ::= SEQUENCE OF Attribute ClaimedAttributes ::= SEQUENCE OF Attribute
CertifiedAttributes ::= AttributeCertificate CertifiedAttributes ::= AttributeCertificate
-- as defined in RFC 3281 : see section 4.1.
NOTE 1: Only a single signer-attributes can be used NOTE 1: Only a single signer-attributes can be used
NOTE 2: The claimedAttributes and certifiedAttributes fields are as NOTE 2: The claimedAttributes and certifiedAttributes fields are as
defined in ITU-T Recommendations X.501 [9] and X.509 [1]. defined in ITU-T Recommendations X.501 [9] and X.509 [1].
5.11.4 Content time-stamp 5.11.4 Content time-stamp
The content-time-stamp attribute is an attribute which is the time- The content-time-stamp attribute is an attribute which is the time-
stamp token of the signed data content before it is signed. stamp token of the signed data content before it is signed.
The content-time-stamp attribute shall be a signed attribute. The content-time-stamp attribute shall be a signed attribute.
The following object identifier identifies the content-time-stamp The following object identifier identifies the content-time-stamp
attribute: attribute:
id-aa-ets-contentTimestamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-aa-ets-contentTimestamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 20} member- body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16)
id-aa(2) 20}
Content-time-stamp attribute values have ASN.1 type ContentTimestamp: Content-time-stamp attribute values have ASN.1 type ContentTimestamp:
ContentTimestamp::= TimeStampToken ContentTimestamp::= TimeStampToken
The value of messageImprint of TimeStampToken (as described in RFC 3161 The value of messageImprint of TimeStampToken (as described in RFC 3161
[7]) shall be a hash of the value of eContent field within [7]) shall be a hash of the value of eContent field within
encapContentInfo in the signedData. encapContentInfo in the signedData.
For further information and definition of TimeStampToken see For further information and definition of TimeStampToken see
clause 7.4. section 7.4.
NOTE: Content-time-stamp indicates that the signed information was NOTE: Content-time-stamp indicates that the signed information was
formed before the date included in the Content-time-stamp. formed before the date included in the Content-time-stamp.
5.12 Support for multiple signatures 5.12 Support for multiple signatures
5.12.1 Independent signatures 5.12.1 Independent signatures
Multiple independent signatures (see clause B.5) are supported by Multiple independent signatures (see section B.5) are supported by
independent SignerInfo from each signer. independent SignerInfo from each signer.
Each SignerInfo shall include all the attributes required under the Each SignerInfo shall include all the attributes required under the
present document and shall be processed independently by the verifier. present document and shall be processed independently by the verifier.
Note: Independent signatures may be used to provide independent
signatures from different parties with different signed attributes, or
to provide multiple signatures from the same party using alternative
signature algorithms in which case the other attributes, excluding
time values and signature policy information, will generally be the
same.
5.12.2 Embedded signatures 5.12.2 Embedded signatures
Multiple embedded signatures (see clause C.5) are supported using the Multiple embedded signatures (see section C.5) are supported using the
countersignature unsigned attribute (see clause 7.1). Each counter countersignature unsigned attribute (see section 5.9.2). Each counter
signature is carried in Countersignature held as an unsigned attribute signature is carried in Countersignature held as an unsigned attribute
to the SignerInfo to which the counter-signature is applied. to the SignerInfo to which the counter-signature is applied.
Note: Counter signatures may be used to provide signatures from
different parties with different signed attributes, or to provide
multiple signatures from the same party using alternative signature
algorithms in which case the other attributes, excluding time values
and signature policy information, will generally be the same.
6 Additional Electronic Signature validation attributes 6 Additional Electronic Signature validation attributes
This clause specifies attributes that contain different types of This section specifies attributes that contain different types of
validation data. These attributes build on the electronic signature validation data. These attributes build on the electronic signature
specified in clause 5. This includes: specified in section 5. This includes:
- Signature-time-stamp applied to the electronic signature value or - Signature-time-stamp applied to the electronic signature value or
a Time-Mark in an audit trail. This is defined as the Electronic a Time-Mark in an audit trail. This is defined as the Electronic
Signature with Time (CAdES-T); Signature with Time (CAdES-T); and
- complete validation data references which comprises the time- - complete validation data references which comprises the time-
stamp of the signature value (CAdES-T), plus references to all stamp of the signature value (CAdES-T), plus references to all
the certificates (complete-certificate-references) and revocation the certificates (complete-certificate-references) and revocation
(complete-revocation-references) information used for full (complete-revocation-references) information used for full
validation of the electronic signature. This is defined as the validation of the electronic signature. This is defined as the
Electronic Signature with Complete data references (CAdES-C). Electronic Signature with Complete data references (CAdES-C).
NOTE 1: Formats for CAdES-T are illustrated in clause 4.4 and the NOTE 1: Formats for CAdES-T are illustrated in section 4.4 and the
attribute are defined in clause 6.1.1. attribute are defined in section 6.1.1.
NOTE 2: Formats for CAdES-C are illustrated in clause 4.4. The NOTE 2: Formats for CAdES-C are illustrated in section 4.4. The
required attributes for the CAdES-C signature format are required attributes for the CAdES-C signature format are
defined in clause 6.2.1 to 6.2.2, optional attributes are defined in section 6.2.1 to 6.2.2, optional attributes are
defined in clauses 6.2.3 and 6.2.4. defined in sections 6.2.3 and 6.2.4.
In addition the following optional eXtended forms of validation data In addition the following optional eXtended forms of validation data
are also defined, see annex B for an overview the eXtended forms of are also defined, see annex B for an overview the eXtended forms of
validation data: validation data:
- CAdES-X with time stamp: there are two types of time-stamp used - CAdES-X with time stamp: there are two types of time-stamp used
in extended validation data defined by the present document: in extended validation data defined by the present document:
- Type 1(CAdES-X Type 1): comprises a time-stamp over the ES - Type 1(CAdES-X Type 1): comprises a time-stamp over the ES
with complete validation data (CAdES-C); with complete validation data (CAdES-C); and
- Type 2 (CAdES-X Type2): comprises a time-stamp over the - Type 2 (CAdES-X Type2): comprises a time-stamp over the
certification path references and the revocation information certification path references and the revocation information
references used to support the CAdES-C. references used to support the CAdES-C.
NOTE 3: Formats for CAdES-X Type 1 and CAdES-X Type 2 are illustrated NOTE 3: Formats for CAdES-X Type 1 and CAdES-X Type 2 are illustrated
in clauses B.1.2 and B.1.3 respectively. in sections B.1.2 and B.1.3, respectively.
- CAdES-X Long :comprises the complete validation data references - CAdES-X Long :comprises the complete validation data references
(CAdES-C) plus the actual values of all the certificates and (CAdES-C) plus the actual values of all the certificates and
revocation information used in the CAdES-C. revocation information used in the CAdES-C.
NOTE 4: Formats for CAdES-X Long are illustrated in clause B.1.1. NOTE 4: Formats for CAdES-X Long are illustrated in section B.1.1.
- CAdES-X Long Type 1 or CAdES-X Long Type 2: comprises an X-Time- - CAdES-X Long Type 1 or CAdES-X Long Type 2: comprises an X-Time-
Stamp (Type 1 or Type 2) plus the actual values of all the Stamp (Type 1 or Type 2) plus the actual values of all the
certificates and revocation information used in the CAdES-C as certificates and revocation information used in the CAdES-C as
per CAdES-X Long. per CAdES-X Long.
This clause also specifies the data structures used in Archive This section also specifies the data structures used in Archive
validation data format (CAdES-A)of eXtended forms: validation data format (CAdES-A)of eXtended forms:
- Archive form of electronic signature (CAdES-A) comprises the - Archive form of electronic signature (CAdES-A) comprises the
complete validation data references (CAdES-C), the certificate complete validation data references (CAdES-C), the certificate
and revocation values (as in a CAdES-X Long ), if present any and revocation values (as in a CAdES-X Long ), if present any
existing extended electronic signature timestamps (CAdES-X Type 1 existing extended electronic signature timestamps (CAdES-X Type 1
or CAdES-X Type 2), plus the signed user data and an additional or CAdES-X Type 2), plus the signed user data and an additional
archive time-stamp applied over all that data. An archive time- archive time-stamp applied over all that data. An archive time-
stamp may be repeatedly applied after long periods to maintain stamp may be repeatedly applied after long periods to maintain
validity when electronic signature and time-stamping algorithms validity when electronic signature and time-stamping algorithms
weaken. weaken.
The additional data required to create the forms of electronic The additional data required to create the forms of electronic
signature identified above is carried as unsigned attributes associated signature identified above is carried as unsigned attributes associated
with an individual signature by being placed in the unsignedAttrs field with an individual signature by being placed in the unsignedAttrs field
of SignerInfo . Thus all the attributes defined in clause 6 are of SignerInfo. Thus all the attributes defined in section 6 are
unsigned attributes. unsigned attributes.
NOTE 5: Where multiple signatures are to be supported, as described NOTE 5: Where multiple signatures are to be supported, as described
in clause 5.12, each signature has a separate SignerInfo. in section 5.12, each signature has a separate SignerInfo.
Thus, each signature requires its own unsigned attribute Thus, each signature requires its own unsigned attribute
values to create CAdES-T, CAdES-C, etc. values to create CAdES-T, CAdES-C, etc.
NOTE 6: the optional attributes of the extended validation data are NOTE 6: the optional attributes of the extended validation data are
defined in clauses 6.3 and 6.4. defined in sections 6.3 and 6.4.
6.1 Electronic Signature Time-stamped (CAdES-T) 6.1 Electronic Signature Time-stamped (CAdES-T)
An Electronic Signature with time-stamp is an electronic signature for An Electronic Signature with time-stamp is an electronic signature for
which part, but not all, of the additional data required for validation which part, but not all, of the additional data required for validation
is available (i.e. some certificates and revocation information are is available (i.e. some certificates and revocation information are
available but not all). available but not all).
The minimum structure time-stamp validation data is: The minimum structure time-stamp validation data is:
- the Signature Time-stamp Attribute as defined in clause 6.1.1 - the Signature Time-stamp Attribute as defined in section 6.1.1
over the ES signature value. over the ES signature value.
6.1.1 Signature time- stamp attribute definition 6.1.1 Signature time- stamp attribute definition
The signature-time-stamp attribute is a TimeStampToken computed on the The signature-time-stamp attribute is a TimeStampToken computed on the
signature value for a specific signer. It is an unsigned attribute. signature value for a specific signer. It is an unsigned attribute.
Several instances of this attribute may occur with an electronic Several instances of this attribute may occur with an electronic
signature, from different TSAs. signature, from different TSAs.
The following object identifier identifies the signature-time-stamp The following object identifier identifies the signature-time-stamp
skipping to change at page 43, line 40 skipping to change at page 44, line 25
signature, from different TSAs. signature, from different TSAs.
The following object identifier identifies the signature-time-stamp The following object identifier identifies the signature-time-stamp
attribute: attribute:
id-aa-signatureTimeStampToken OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-aa-signatureTimeStampToken OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 14} body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 14}
The signature-time-stamp attribute value has ASN.1 type The signature-time-stamp attribute value has ASN.1 type
SignatureTimeStampToken: SignatureTimeStampToken:
SignatureTimeStampToken ::= TimeStampToken SignatureTimeStampToken ::= TimeStampToken
The value of messageImprint field within TimeStampToken shall be a hash The value of messageImprint field within TimeStampToken shall be a hash
of the value of the signature field within SignerInfo for the of the value of the signature field within SignerInfo for the
signedData being time-stamped. signedData being time-stamped.
For further information and definition of TimeStampToken see For further information and definition of TimeStampToken see
clause 7.4. section 7.4.
NOTE 1: In the case of multiple signatures it is possible to have a NOTE 1: In the case of multiple signatures it is possible to have a
TimeStampToken computed for each and all signers, or TimeStampToken computed for each and all signers, or
TimeStampToken computed on one signer's signature and no TimeStampToken computed on one signer's signature and no
TimeStampToken on another signer's signature. TimeStampToken on another signer's signature.
NOTE 2: In the case of multiple signatures, several TSTs , issued by NOTE 2: In the case of multiple signatures, several TSTs , issued by
different TSAs, may be present within the same signerInfo (see different TSAs, may be present within the same signerInfo (see
RFC 3852 [4]). RFC 3852 [4]).
6.2 Complete validation reference data (CAdES-C) 6.2 Complete validation reference data (CAdES-C)
An electronic signature with complete validation data references An electronic signature with complete validation data references
(CAdES-C) is an Electronic Signature for which all the additional data (CAdES-C) is an Electronic Signature for which all the additional data
required for validation (i.e. all certificates and revocation required for validation (i.e. all certificates and revocation
information) is available. This form is built on the CAdES-T form information) is available. This form is built on the CAdES-T form
defined above. defined above.
skipping to change at page 44, line 17 skipping to change at page 44, line 53
RFC 3852 [4]). RFC 3852 [4]).
6.2 Complete validation reference data (CAdES-C) 6.2 Complete validation reference data (CAdES-C)
An electronic signature with complete validation data references An electronic signature with complete validation data references
(CAdES-C) is an Electronic Signature for which all the additional data (CAdES-C) is an Electronic Signature for which all the additional data
required for validation (i.e. all certificates and revocation required for validation (i.e. all certificates and revocation
information) is available. This form is built on the CAdES-T form information) is available. This form is built on the CAdES-T form
defined above. defined above.
As a minimum the complete validation data shall include the following: As a minimum, the complete validation data shall include the following:
- a time, which shall either be a signature-timestamp attribute, as - a time, which shall either be a signature-timestamp attribute, as
defined in clause 6.1.1, or a time mark operated by a Time- defined in section 6.1.1, or a time mark operated by a Time-
Marking Authority; Marking Authority;
- complete-certificate-references, as defined in section 6.2.1;
- complete-certificate-references, as defined in clause 6.2.1; - complete-revocation-references , as defined in section 6.2.2.
- complete-revocation-references , as defined in clause 6.2.2.
6.2.1 Complete certificate references attribute definition 6.2.1 Complete certificate references attribute definition
The complete-certificate-references attribute is an unsigned attribute. The complete-certificate-references attribute is an unsigned attribute.
It references the full set of CA certificates that have been used to It references the full set of CA certificates that have been used to
validate an ES with Complete validation data up to (but not including) validate an ES with Complete validation data up to (but not including)
the signer's certificate. Only a single instance of this attribute the signer's certificate. Only a single instance of this attribute
shall occur with an electronic signature. shall occur with an electronic signature.
NOTE 1: The signer's certificate is referenced in the signing NOTE 1: The signer's certificate is referenced in the signing
certificate attribute (see clause 5.7.3). certificate attribute (see section 5.7.3).
id-aa-ets-certificateRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-aa-ets-certificateRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 21} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 21}
The complete-certificate-references attribute value has the ASN.1 The complete-certificate-references attribute value has the ASN.1
syntax CompleteCertificateRefs. syntax CompleteCertificateRefs.
CompleteCertificateRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF OtherCertID CompleteCertificateRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF OtherCertID
OtherCertID is defined in clause 5.7.3.2. OtherCertID is defined in section 5.7.3.2.
The IssuerSerial that shall be present in OtherCertID. The certHash The IssuerSerial that shall be present in OtherCertID. The certHash
shall match the hash of the certificate referenced. shall match the hash of the certificate referenced.
NOTE 2: Copies of the certificate values may be held using the NOTE 2: Copies of the certificate values may be held using the
certificate-values attribute defined in clause 6.3.3. certificate-values attribute defined in section 6.3.3.
This attribute MAY include references to the certification This attribute may include references to the certification
chain for any TSUs that provides time-stamp tokens. In this chain for any TSUs that provides time-stamp tokens. In this
case the unsigned attribute shall be added to the signData of case the unsigned attribute shall be added to the signedData
the relevant times tamp token as an unsignedAttrs in the of the relevant times tamp token as an unsignedAttrs in the
signerInfos field. signerInfos field.
6.2.2 Complete Revocation References attribute definition 6.2.2 Complete Revocation References attribute definition
The complete-revocation-references attribute is an unsigned attribute. The complete-revocation-references attribute is an unsigned attribute.
Only a single instance of this attribute shall occur with an electronic Only a single instance of this attribute shall occur with an electronic
signature. It references the full set of the CRL, ACRL or OCSP signature. It references the full set of the CRL, ACRL or OCSP
responses that have been used in the validation of the signer and CA responses that have been used in the validation of the signer and CA
certificates used in ES with Complete validation data. certificates used in ES with Complete validation data.
This attribute can be used to illustrate that the verifies has taken This attribute can be used to illustrate that the verifier has taken
due diligence of the available revocation information and then to be due diligence of the available revocation information and then to be
able to retrieve that information when stored elsewhere. able to retrieve that information when stored elsewhere.
The following object identifier identifies the complete-revocation- The following object identifier identifies the complete-revocation-
references attribute: references attribute:
id-aa-ets-revocationRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-aa-ets-revocationRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 22} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 22}
The complete-revocation-references attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax The complete-revocation-references attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax
CompleteRevocationRefs CompleteRevocationRefs:
CompleteRevocationRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF CrlOcspRef CompleteRevocationRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF CrlOcspRef
CrlOcspRef ::= SEQUENCE { CrlOcspRef ::= SEQUENCE {
Crlids [0] CRLListID OPTIONAL, crlids [0] CRLListID OPTIONAL,
Ocspids [1] OcspListID OPTIONAL, ocspids [1] OcspListID OPTIONAL,
OtherRev [2] OtherRevRefs OPTIONAL otherRev [2] OtherRevRefs OPTIONAL
} }
CompleteRevocationRefs shall contain one CrlOcspRef for the signing- CompleteRevocationRefs shall contain one CrlOcspRef for the signing-
certificate, followed by one for each OtherCertID in the certificate, followed by one for each OtherCertID in the
CompleteCertificateRefs attribute. The second and subsequent CompleteCertificateRefs attribute. The second and subsequent
CrlOcspRef fields shall be in the same order as the OtherCertID to CrlOcspRef fields shall be in the same order as the OtherCertID to
which they relate. At least one of CRLListID or OcspListID or which they relate. At least one of CRLListID or OcspListID or
OtherRevRefs should be present for all but the "trusted" CA of the OtherRevRefs should be present for all but the "trusted" CA of the
certificate path. certificate path.
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crlHash OtherHash, crlHash OtherHash,
crlIdentifier CrlIdentifier OPTIONAL} crlIdentifier CrlIdentifier OPTIONAL}
CrlIdentifier ::= SEQUENCE { CrlIdentifier ::= SEQUENCE {
crlissuer Name, crlissuer Name,
crlIssuedTime UTCTime, crlIssuedTime UTCTime,
crlNumber INTEGER OPTIONAL crlNumber INTEGER OPTIONAL
} }
OcspListID ::= SEQUENCE { OcspListID ::= SEQUENCE {
ocspResponses SEQUENCE OF OcspResponsesID} ocspResponses SEQUENCE OF OcspResponsesID
}
OcspResponsesID ::= SEQUENCE { OcspResponsesID ::= SEQUENCE {
ocspIdentifier OcspIdentifier, ocspIdentifier OcspIdentifier,
ocspRepHash OtherHash OPTIONAL ocspRepHash OtherHash OPTIONAL
} }
OcspIdentifier ::= SEQUENCE { OcspIdentifier ::= SEQUENCE {
OcspResponderID ResponderID, -- As in OCSP response data ocspResponderID ResponderID, -- As in OCSP response data
ProducedAt GeneralizedTime -- As in OCSP response data producedAt GeneralizedTime -- As in OCSP response data
} }
When creating a crlValidatedID, the crlHash is computed over the entire When creating a crlValidatedID, the crlHash is computed over the entire
DER encoded CRL including the signature. The crlIdentifier would DER encoded CRL including the signature. The crlIdentifier would
normally be present unless the CRL can be inferred from other normally be present unless the CRL can be inferred from other
information. information.
The crlIdentifier is to identify the CRL using the issuer name and the The crlIdentifier is to identify the CRL using the issuer name and the
CRL issued time, which shall correspond to the time thisUpdate CRL issued time, which shall correspond to the time thisUpdate
contained in the issued CRL, and if present, the crlNumber. The contained in the issued CRL, and if present, the crlNumber. The
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identified CRL is a Delta CRL then references to the set of CRLs to identified CRL is a Delta CRL then references to the set of CRLs to
provide a complete revocation list shall be included. provide a complete revocation list shall be included.
The OcspIdentifier is to identify the OCSP response using the issuer The OcspIdentifier is to identify the OCSP response using the issuer
name and the time of issue of the OCSP response which shall correspond name and the time of issue of the OCSP response which shall correspond
to the time producedAt contained in the issued OCSP response. Since it to the time producedAt contained in the issued OCSP response. Since it
may be needed to make the difference between two OCSP responses may be needed to make the difference between two OCSP responses
received within the same second, then the hash of the response received within the same second, then the hash of the response
contained in the OcspResponsesID may be needed to solve the ambiguity. contained in the OcspResponsesID may be needed to solve the ambiguity.
NOTE: Copies of the CRL and OCSP responses values may be held using NOTE 1: Copies of the CRL and OCSP responses values may be held using
the revocation-values attribute defined in clause 6.3.4. the revocation-values attribute defined in section 6.3.4.
OtherRevRefs ::= SEQUENCE {
OtherRevRefType OtherRevRefType,
OtherRevRefs ANY DEFINED BY otherRevRefType
}
OtherRevRefType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER NOTE 2: It is recommended that this attribute is used in preference to
The OtherRevocationInfoFormat specified in RFC 3852 to
Maintain backward compatibility with earlier version of this
specification.
The syntax and semantics of other revocation references is outside the The syntax and semantics of other revocation references is outside the
scope of the present document. The definition of the syntax of the scope of the present document. The definition of the syntax of the
other form of revocation information is as identified by other form of revocation information is as identified by
OtherRevRefType. OtherRevRefType.
This attribute MAY include the references to the full set of the CRL,
This attribute may include the references to the full set of the CRL,
ACRL or OCSP responses that have been used to verify the certification ACRL or OCSP responses that have been used to verify the certification
chain for any TSUs that provides time-stamp tokens. In this case the chain for any TSUs that provides time-stamp tokens. In this case the
unsigned attribute shall be added to the signData of the relevant unsigned attribute shall be added to the SignedData of the relevant
timestamp token as an unsignedAttrs in the signerInfos field. timestamp token as an unsignedAttrs in the signerInfos field.
6.2.3 Attribute certificate references attribute definition 6.2.3 Attribute certificate references attribute definition
This attribute is only used when an user attribute certificate is This attribute is only used when an user attribute certificate is
present in the electronic signature. present in the electronic signature.
The attribute-certificate-references attribute is an unsigned The attribute-certificate-references attribute is an unsigned
attribute. It references the full set of AA certificates that have attribute. It references the full set of AA certificates that have
been used to validate the attribute certificate. Only a single been used to validate the attribute certificate. Only a single
instance of this attribute shall occur with an electronic signature. instance of this attribute shall occur with an electronic signature.
id-aa-ets-attrCertificateRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-aa-ets-attrCertificateRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 44} body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 44}
The attribute-certificate-references attribute value has the ASN.1 The attribute-certificate-references attribute value has the ASN.1
syntax AttributeCertificateRefs. syntax AttributeCertificateRefs:
AttributeCertificateRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF OtherCertID AttributeCertificateRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF OtherCertID
OtherCertID is defined in clause 5.8.2. OtherCertID is defined in section 5.8.2.
NOTE: Copies of the certificate values may be held using the NOTE: Copies of the certificate values may be held using the
certificate-values attribute defined in clause 6.3.3. certificate-values attribute defined in section 6.3.3.
6.2.4 Attribute revocation references attribute definition 6.2.4 Attribute revocation references attribute definition
This attribute is only used when a user attribute certificate is This attribute is only used when a user attribute certificate is
present in the electronic signature and when that attribute certificate present in the electronic signature and when that attribute certificate
can be revoked. can be revoked.
The attribute-revocation-references attribute is an unsigned attribute. The attribute-revocation-references attribute is an unsigned attribute.
Only a single instance of this attribute shall occur with an electronic Only a single instance of this attribute shall occur with an
signature. It references the full set of the ACRL or OCSP responses electronic signature. It references the full set of the ACRL or OCSP
that have been used in the validation of the attribute certificate. responses that have been used in the validation of the attribute
This attribute can be used to illustrate that the verifier has taken certificate. This attribute can be used to illustrate that the
due diligence of the available revocation information. verifier has taken due diligence of the available revocation
information.
The following object identifier identifies the attribute-revocation- The following object identifier identifies the attribute-revocation-
references attribute: references attribute:
id-aa-ets-attrRevocationRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-aa-ets-attrRevocationRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 45} member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16)
id-aa(2) 45}
The attribute-revocation-references attribute value has the ASN.1 The attribute-revocation-references attribute value has the ASN.1
syntax AttributeRevocationRefs. syntax AttributeRevocationRefs:
AttributeRevocationRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF CrlOcspRef AttributeRevocationRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF CrlOcspRef
6.3 Extended validation data (CAdES-X) 6.3 Extended validation data (CAdES-X)
This clause specifies a number of optional attributes that are used by This section specifies a number of optional attributes that are used
extended forms of electronic signatures (see annex B for an overview by extended forms of electronic signatures (see annex B for an
these forms of validation data). overview these forms of validation data).
6.3.1 Time-stamped validation data (CAdES-X Type 1 or Type 2) 6.3.1 Time-stamped validation data (CAdES-X Type 1 or Type 2)
The extended validation data MAY include one of the following The extended validation data may include one of the following
additional attributes, forming a CAdES-X Time-Stamp validation data additional attributes, forming a CAdES-X Time-Stamp validation data
(CAdES-X Type 1 or CAdES-X Type 2), to provide additional protection (CAdES-X Type 1 or CAdES-X Type 2), to provide additional protection
against later CA compromise and provide integrity of the validation against later CA compromise and provide integrity of the validation
data used: data used:
- CAdES-C Time-stamp, as defined in clause 6.3.5 (CAdES-X Type 1); - CAdES-C Time-stamp, as defined in section 6.3.5 (CAdES-X Type 1);
or or
- Time-Stamped Certificates and CRLs references, as defined in - Time-Stamped Certificates and CRLs references, as defined in
clause 6.3.6 (CAdES-X Type 2). section 6.3.6 (CAdES-X Type 2).
6.3.2 Long validation data (CAdES-X Long, CAdES-X Long Type 1 or 2) 6.3.2 Long validation data (CAdES-X Long, CAdES-X Long Type 1 or 2)
The extended validation data MAY also include the following additional The extended validation data may also include the following additional
information, forming a CAdES-X Long, for use if later validation information, forming a CAdES-X Long, for use if later validation
processes may not have access to this information: processes may not have access to this information:
- certificate-values as defined in clause 6.3.3; - certificate-values as defined in section 6.3.3; and
- revocation-values as defined in clause 6.3.4. - revocation-values as defined in section 6.3.4.
The extended validation data MAY in addition to certificate-values and The extended validation data may in addition to certificate-values and
revocation-values as defined in clauses 6.3.3 and 6.3.4 include one of revocation-values as defined in sections 6.3.3 and 6.3.4 include one of
the following additional attributes, forming an CAdES-X Long Type 1 or the following additional attributes, forming an CAdES-X Long Type 1 or
CAdES-X Long Type 2. CAdES-X Long Type 2.
- CAdES-C Time-stamp, as defined in clause 6.3.3 (CAdES-X long Type - CAdES-C Time-stamp, as defined in section 6.3.3 (CAdES-X long
1); or Type 1); or
- Time-Stamped Certificates and CRLs references, as defined in - Time-Stamped Certificates and CRLs references, as defined in
clause 6.3.4 (CAdES-X Long Type 2). section 6.3.4 (CAdES-X Long Type 2).
The CAdES-X Long Type 1 or CAdES-X Long Type 2 provide additional The CAdES-X Long Type 1 or CAdES-X Long Type 2 provide additional
protection against later CA compromise and provide integrity of the protection against later CA compromise and provide integrity of the
validation data used. validation data used.
NOTE 1: The CAdES-X Long provides long term proof of a valid NOTE 1: The CAdES-X Long provides long term proof of a valid
electronic signature as long as the CAs are trusted such that electronic signature as long as the CAs are trusted such that
these keys cannot be compromised or the cryptography used these keys cannot be compromised or the cryptographic
broken. algorithms that were initialy used are broken.
NOTE 2: As long as the time stamp data remains valid, the CAdES-X NOTE 2: As long as the time stamp data remains valid, the CAdES-X
Long Type 1 and the CAdES-X Long Type 2 provides the following Long Type 1 and the CAdES-X Long Type 2 provides the following
important property for long standing signatures; that having important property for long standing signatures; that having
been found once to be valid, it shall continue to be so months been found once to be valid, it shall continue to be so months
or years later, long after the validity period of the or years later, long after the validity period of the
certificates have expired, or after the user key has been certificates have expired, or after the user key has been
compromised. compromised.
6.3.3 Certificate values attribute definition 6.3.3 Certificate values attribute definition
This attribute MAY be used to contain the certificate information This attribute may be used to contain the certificate information
required for the following forms of eXtended Electronic Signature: required for the following forms of eXtended Electronic Signature:
CAdES-X Long , ES X-Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2, see clause CAdES-X Long , ES X-Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2, see section
B.1.1 for an illustration of this form of electronic signature. B.1.1 for an illustration of this form of electronic signature.
The certificate-values attribute is an unsigned attribute. Only a The certificate-values attribute is an unsigned attribute. Only a
single instance of this attribute shall occur with an electronic single instance of this attribute shall occur with an electronic
signature. It holds the values of certificates referenced in the signature. It holds the values of certificates referenced in the
complete-certificate-references attribute. complete-certificate-references attribute.
NOTE: If an attribute certificate is used, it is not provided in this NOTE: If an attribute certificate is used, it is not provided in this
structure but shall be provided by the signer as a signer- structure but shall be provided by the signer as a signer-
attributes attribute (see clause 5.11.3). attributes attribute (see section 5.11.3).
The following object identifier identifies the certificate-values The following object identifier identifies the certificate-values
attribute: attribute:
id-aa-ets-certValues OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-aa-ets-certValues OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 23} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 23}
The certificate-values attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax The certificate-values attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax
CertificateValues CertificateValues
CertificateValues ::= SEQUENCE OF Certificate CertificateValues ::= SEQUENCE OF Certificate
Certificate is defined in clause 7.1 (which is as defined in ITU-T Certificate is defined in section 7.1.
Recommendation X.509 [1]).
This attribute MAY include the certification information for any TSUs This attribute may include the certification information for any TSUs
that have provided the time-stamp tokens if these certificates are not that have provided the time-stamp tokens if these certificates are not
already included in the TSTs as part of the TSUs signatures. In this already included in the TSTs as part of the TSUs signatures. In this
case the unsigned attribute shall be added to the signData of the case the unsigned attribute shall be added to the SignedData of the
relevant timestamp token. relevant timestamp token.
6.3.4 Revocation values attribute definition 6.3.4 Revocation values attribute definition
This attribute is used to contain the revocation information required This attribute is used to contain the revocation information required
for the following forms of eXtended Electronic Signature: CAdES-X Long, for the following forms of eXtended Electronic Signature: CAdES-X Long,
ES X-Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2, see clause B.1.1 for an ES X-Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2, see section B.1.1 for an
illustration of this form of electronic signature. illustration of this form of electronic signature.
The revocation-values attribute is an unsigned attribute. Only a The revocation-values attribute is an unsigned attribute. Only a
single instance of this attribute shall occur with an electronic single instance of this attribute shall occur with an electronic
signature. It holds the values of CRLs and OCSP referenced in the signature. It holds the values of CRLs and OCSP referenced in the
complete-revocation-references attribute. complete-revocation-references attribute.
NOTE : It is recommended that this attribute is used in preference to
the OtherRevocationInfoFormat specified in RFC 3852 to maintain
backward compatibility with earlier version of this
specification.
The following object identifier identifies the revocation-values The following object identifier identifies the revocation-values
attribute: attribute:
id-aa-ets-revocationValues OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-aa-ets-revocationValues OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9)
smime(16) id-aa(2) 24} smime(16) id-aa(2) 24}
The revocation-values attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax The revocation-values attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax
RevocationValues RevocationValues
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otherRevVals [2] OtherRevVals OPTIONAL} otherRevVals [2] OtherRevVals OPTIONAL}
OtherRevVals ::= SEQUENCE { OtherRevVals ::= SEQUENCE {
OtherRevValType OtherRevValType, OtherRevValType OtherRevValType,
OtherRevVals ANY DEFINED BY OtherRevValType OtherRevVals ANY DEFINED BY OtherRevValType
} }
OtherRevValType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER OtherRevValType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER
The syntax and semantics of the other revocation values (OtherRevVals) The syntax and semantics of the other revocation values (OtherRevVals)
is outside the scope of the present document. The definition of the is outside the scope of the present document.
syntax of the other form of revocation information is as identified by
OtherRevRefType.
CertificateList is defined in clause 7.2 (which as defined in ITU-T The definition of the syntax of the other form of revocation
Recommendation X.509 [1]). information is as identified by OtherRevRefType.
BasicOCSPResponse is defined in clause 7.3 (which as defined in RFC CertificateList is defined in section 7.2.
2560 [3]).
This attribute MAY include the values of revocation data including CRLs BasicOCSPResponse is defined in section 7.3.
This attribute may include the values of revocation data including CRLs
and OCSP for any TSUs that have provided the time-stamp tokens if these and OCSP for any TSUs that have provided the time-stamp tokens if these
certificates are not already included in the TSTs as part of the TSUs certificates are not already included in the TSTs as part of the TSUs
signatures. In this case the unsigned attribute shall be added to the signatures. In this case the unsigned attribute shall be added to the
signData of the relevant timestamp token. SignedData of the relevant timestamp token.
6.3.5 CAdES-C time-stamp attribute definition 6.3.5 CAdES-C time-stamp attribute definition
This attribute is used to protect against CA key compromise. This attribute is used to protect against CA key compromise.
This attribute is used for the time stamping the complete electronic This attribute is used for the time stamping the complete electronic
signature (CAdES-C). It is used in the following forms of eXtended signature (CAdES-C). It is used in the following forms of eXtended
Electronic Signature; CAdES-X Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 1, see Electronic Signature; CAdES-X Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 1, see
clause B.1.2 for an illustration of this form of electronic signature. section B.1.2 for an illustration of this form of electronic signature.
The CAdES-C-timestamp attribute is an unsigned attribute. It is a The CAdES-C-timestamp attribute is an unsigned attribute. It is a
time-stamp token of the hash of the electronic signature and the time-stamp token of the hash of the electronic signature and the
complete validation data (CAdES-C). It is a special purpose complete validation data (CAdES-C). It is a special purpose
TimeStampToken Attribute which time-stamps the CAdES-C. Several TimeStampToken Attribute which time-stamps the CAdES-C. Several
instances of this attribute may occur with an electronic signature from instances of this attribute may occur with an electronic signature from
different TSAs. different TSAs.
The following object identifier identifies the CAdES-C-Timestamp The following object identifier identifies the CAdES-C-Timestamp
attribute: attribute:
id-aa-ets-escTimeStamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-aa-ets-escTimeStamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 25} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 25}
The CAdES-C-timestamp attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax The CAdES-C-timestamp attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax
ESCTimeStampToken. ESCTimeStampToken :
ESCTimeStampToken ::= TimeStampToken ESCTimeStampToken ::= TimeStampToken
The value of messageImprint field within TimeStampToken shall be a hash The value of messageImprint field within TimeStampToken shall be a hash
of the concatenated values (without the type or length encoding for of the concatenated values (without the type or length encoding for
that value) of the following data objects: that value) of the following data objects:
- OCTETSTRING of the SignatureValue field within SignerInfo; - OCTET TRING of the SignatureValue field within SignerInfo;
- signature-time-stamp; or a time mark operated by a Time-Marking - signature-time-stamp, or a time mark operated by a Time-Marking
Authority; Authority;
- complete-certificate-references s attribute; - complete-certificate-references s attribute; and
- complete-revocation-references attribute. - complete-revocation-references attribute.
For further information and definition of the TimeStampToken see
clause 7.4.
6.3.6 Time-stamped certificates and crls references attribute 6.3.6 Time-stamped certificates and crls references attribute
definition definition
This attribute is used to protect against CA key compromise. This attribute is used to protect against CA key compromise. This
attribute is used for the time stamping certificate and revocation
This attribute is used for the time stamping certificate and revocation
references. It is used in the following forms of eXtended Electronic references. It is used in the following forms of eXtended Electronic
Signature; CAdES-X Type 2 and CAdES-X Long Type 2, see clause B.1.3 for Signature; CAdES-X Type 2 and CAdES-X Long Type 2, see section B.1.3
an illustration of this form of electronic signature. for an illustration of this form of electronic signature.
A time-stamped-certs-crls-references attribute is an unsigned A time-stamped-certs-crls-references attribute is an unsigned
attribute. It is a time-stamp token issued for a list of referenced attribute. It is a time-stamp token issued for a list of referenced
certificates and OCSP responses/CRLs to protect against certain CA certificates and OCSP responses or/and CRLs to protect against certain
compromises. Its syntax is as follows: CA compromises. Its syntax is as follows:
The following object identifier identifies the time-stamped-certs-crls- The following object identifier identifies the time-stamped-certs-crls-
references attribute: references attribute:
id-aa-ets-certCRLTimestamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member id-aa-ets-certCRLTimestamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 26} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 26}
The attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax TimestampedCertsCRLs.
The attribute value has the ASN.1 syntax TimestampedCertsCRLs :
TimestampedCertsCRLs ::= TimeStampToken TimestampedCertsCRLs ::= TimeStampToken
The value of messageImprint field within TimeStampToken shall be a hash The value of messageImprint field within TimeStampToken shall be a hash
of the concatenated values (without the type or length encoding for of the concatenated values (without the type or length encoding for
that value) of the following data objects as present in the ES with that value) of the following data objects as present in the ES with
Complete validation data: Complete validation data (CAdES-C):
- complete-certificate-references attribute; and
- complete-certificate-references attribute;
- complete-revocation-references attribute. - complete-revocation-references attribute.
6.4 Archive validation data 6.4 Archive validation data
Where an electronic signature is required to last for a very long time, Where an electronic signature is required to last for a very long time,
and a the time-stamp token on an electronic signature is in danger of and a the time-stamp token on an electronic signature is in danger of
being invalidated due to algorithm weakness or limits in the validity being invalidated due to algorithm weakness or limits in the validity
period of the TSA certificate, then it may be required to time-stamp period of the TSA certificate, then it may be required to time-stamp
the electronic signature several times. When this is required an the electronic signature several times. When this is required an
archive time-stamp attribute may be required for the archive form of archive time-stamp attribute may be required for the archive form of
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be repeatedly applied over a period of time. be repeatedly applied over a period of time.
6.4.1 Archive time-stamp attribute definition 6.4.1 Archive time-stamp attribute definition
The archive-time-stamp attribute is a time-stamp token of many of the The archive-time-stamp attribute is a time-stamp token of many of the
elements of the signedData in the electronic signature. If the elements of the signedData in the electronic signature. If the
certificate-values and revocation-values attributes are not present in certificate-values and revocation-values attributes are not present in
the CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES, then they shall be added to the electronic the CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES, then they shall be added to the electronic
signature prior to computing the archive time-stamp token. The signature prior to computing the archive time-stamp token. The
archive-time-stamp attribute is an unsigned attribute. Several archive-time-stamp attribute is an unsigned attribute. Several
instances of this attribute may occur with an electronic signature both instances of this attribute may occur with an electronic signature
over time and from different TSUs. both over time and from different TSUs.
The following object identifier identifies the nested archive-time- The following object identifier identifies the nested
stamp attribute: archive-time-stamp attribute:
id-aa-ets-archiveTimestamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-aa-ets-archiveTimestamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 27} body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 27}
Archive-time-stamp attribute values have the ASN.1 syntax Archive-time-stamp attribute values have the ASN.1 syntax
ArchiveTimeStampToken ArchiveTimeStampToken
ArchiveTimeStampToken ::= TimeStampToken ArchiveTimeStampToken ::= TimeStampToken
The value of messageImprint field within TimeStampToken shall be a hash The value of messageImprint field within TimeStampToken shall be a hash
of the concatenation of: of the concatenation of:
- The encapContentInfo element of the SignedData sequence; - The encapContentInfo element of the SignedData sequence;
- When present, the Certificates and crls elements of the - When present, the Certificates and crls elements of the
SignedData sequence; SignedData sequence; and
- Together with all data elements in the SignerInfo sequence - Together with all data elements in the SignerInfo sequence
including all signed and unsigned attributes. including all signed and unsigned attributes.
NOTE 1: The SignedData definition is the following: Notes:
SignedData ::= SEQUENCE { 1) Systems supporting archive time-stamp as defined in RFC 3126 will
version CMSVersion, need to upgrade to be compatible with this definition of the
digestAlgorithms DigestAlgorithmIdentifiers, Attribute time-stamp.
encapContentInfo EncapsulatedContentInfo,
certificates [0] IMPLICIT CertificateSet OPTIONAL,
crls [1] IMPLICIT CertificateRevocationLists OPTIONAL,
signerInfos SignerInfos }
NOTE 2: SignerInfo definition is as follows: 2) Counter signatures held as countersignature attributes do not
require independent archive time-stamps as they are protected by
the archive time-stamp against the containing SignedData
structure.
SignerInfo ::= SEQUENCE { 3) Unless DER is used throughout, it is recommended that the binary
version CMSVersion, encoding of the ASN.1 structures being time-stamped are
sid SignerIdentifier, preserved when being archived to ensure that the recalculation
digestAlgorithm DigestAlgorithmIdentifier, of the data hash is consistent.
signedAttrs [0] IMPLICIT SignedAttributes OPTIONAL,
signatureAlgorithm SignatureAlgorithmIdentifier,
signature SignatureValue,
unsignedAttrs [1] IMPLICIT UnsignedAttributes OPTIONAL }
Further information and definition of TimeStampToken see clause 7.4. Further information and definition of TimeStampToken see section 7.4.
The timestamp should be created using stronger algorithms (or longer The timestamp should be created using stronger algorithms (or longer
key lengths) than in the original electronic signatures and weak key lengths) than in the original electronic signatures and weak
algorithm (key length) timestamps. algorithm (key length) timestamps.
NOTE 3: This form of ES also provides protection against a TSP key NOTE 3: This form of ES also provides protection against a TSP key
Compromise. Compromise.
The ArchiveTimeStamp will be added as an unsigned attribute in the The ArchiveTimeStamp will be added as an unsigned attribute in the
SignerInfo sequence. For the validation of one ArchiveTimeStamp the SignerInfo sequence. For the validation of one ArchiveTimeStamp the
data elements of the SignerInfo must be concatenated excluding all data elements of the SignerInfo must be concatenated excluding all
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Certificates and revocation information required to validate the Certificates and revocation information required to validate the
ArchiveTimeStampshall be provided by one of the following methods: ArchiveTimeStampshall be provided by one of the following methods:
- The TSU provides the information in the SignedData of the - The TSU provides the information in the SignedData of the
timestamp token; timestamp token;
- Adding the complete-certificate-references attribute and the - Adding the complete-certificate-references attribute and the
complete-revocation-references attribute of the TSP as an complete-revocation-references attribute of the TSP as an
unsigned attribute within TimeStampToken, when the required unsigned attribute within TimeStampToken, when the required
information is store elsewhere; information is store elsewhere; or
- Adding the certificate-values attribute and the revocation-values - Adding the certificate-values attribute and the revocation-values
attribute of the TSP as an unsigned attribute within attribute of the TSP as an unsigned attribute within
TimeStampToken, when the required information is store elsewhere. TimeStampToken, when the required information is store elsewhere.
7 Other standard data structures 7 Other standard data structures
7.1 Public-key certificate format 7.1 Public-key certificate format
The X.509 v3 certificate basis syntax is defined in ITU-T The X.509 v3 certificate basis syntax is defined in ITU-T
Recommendation X.509 [1]. A profile of the X.509 v3 certificate is Recommendation X.509 [1]. A profile of the X.509 v3 certificate is
defined in RFC 3280 [2], which is being revised. The reader should defined in RFC 3280 [2].
consult the latest version of this RFC or any RFC that makes it
obsolete.
7.2 Certificate revocation list format 7.2 Certificate revocation list format
The X.509 v2 CRL syntax is defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.509 [1]. The X.509 v2 CRL syntax is defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.509 [1].
A profile of the X.509 v2 CRL is defined in RFC 3280 [2], which is A profile of the X.509 v2 CRL is defined in RFC 3280 [2].
being revised.
7.3 OCSP response format 7.3 OCSP response format
The format of an OCSP token is defined in RFC 2560 [3]. The format of an OCSP token is defined in RFC 2560 [3].
7.4 Time-stamp token format 7.4 Time-stamp token format
The format of a TimeStampToken type is defined in RFC 3161 [7] and TS The format of a TimeStampToken type is defined in RFC 3161 [7] and
101 861 (see informative references). profiled in ETSI TS 101 861 [TS101861].
7.5 Name and attribute formats 7.5 Name and attribute formats
The syntax of the naming and other attributes is defined in ITU-T The syntax of the naming and other attributes is defined in ITU-T
Recommendation X.509 [1]. Recommendation X.509 [1].
The name used by the signer, held as the subject in the signer's Note: The name used by the signer, held as the subject in the signer's
certificate, shall be allocated and verified on registration with the certificate, is allocated and verified on registration with the
Certification Authority, either directly or indirectly through a Certification Authority, either directly or indirectly through a
Registration Authority, before being issued with a Certificate. Registration Authority, before being issued with a Certificate.
The present document places no restrictions on the form of the name. The present document places no restrictions on the form of the name.
The subject's name may be a distinguished name, as defined in ITU-T The subject's name may be a distinguished name, as defined in ITU-T
Recommendation X.500 [12], held in the subject field of the Recommendation X.500 [12], held in the subject field of the
certificate, or any other name form held in the subjectAltName certificate, or any other name form held in the subjectAltName
certificate extension field as defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.509 certificate extension field as defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.509
[1]. In the case that the subject has no distinguished name, the [1]. In the case that the subject has no distinguished name, the
subject name can be an empty sequence and the subjectAltName extension subject name can be an empty sequence and the subjectAltName extension
shall be critical. shall be critical.
All TSP name forms (Certification Authorities, Attribute Authorities All Certification Authorities, Attribute Authorities and Time Stamping
and Time Stamping Authorities) shall be in the form of a distinguished Authorities shall use distinguished names in the subject field of
name held in the subject field of the certificate. their certificate.
The TSP name form shall include identifiers for the organization The distinguished name shall include identifiers for the organization
providing the service and the legal jurisdiction (e.g. country) under providing the service and the legal jurisdiction (e.g. country) under
which it operates. which it operates.
Where a signer signs as an individual but wishes to also identify Where a signer signs as an individual but wishes to also identify
him/herself as acting on behalf of an organization, it may be necessary him/herself as acting on behalf of an organization, it may be necessary
to provide two independent forms of identification. The first to provide two independent forms of identification. The first
identity, with is directly associated with the signing key identifies identity, with is directly associated with the signing key identifies
him/her as an individual. The second, which is managed independently, him/her as an individual. The second, which is managed independently,
identifies that person acting as part of the organization, possibly identifies that person acting as part of the organization, possibly
with a given role. with a given role. In this case one of the two identities is carried
in the subject/subjectAltName field of the signer's certificate as
In this case one of the two identities is carried in the described above.
subject/subjectAltName field of the signer's certificate as described
above.
The present document does not specify the format of signer's attribute The present document does not specify the format of signer's attribute
that may be included in public key certificates. that may be included in public key certificates.
NOTE : Signer's attribute may be supported by using a claimed role in NOTE : Signer's attribute may be supported by using a claimed role in
the CMS signed attributes field or by placing an attribute the CMS signed attributes field or by placing an attribute
certificate containing a certified role in the CMS signed certificate containing a certified role in the CMS signed
attributes field, see clause 7.6. attributes field, see section 7.6.
7.6 Attribute certificate 7.6 Attribute certificate
The syntax of the AttributeCertificate type is defined in RFC 3281 [13]. The syntax of the AttributeCertificate type is defined in RFC 3281 [13].
8. Conformance requirements 8. Conformance requirements
The present document defines conformance requirements for the For implementations supporting signature generation, the present
generation of two forms of basic electronic signature, one of the two document defines conformance requirements for the generation of two
forms must be implemented. forms of basic electronic signature, one of the two forms must be
implemented.
The present document defines conformance requirements for the For implementations supporting signature verification, the present
verification of two forms of basic electronic signature, one of the two document defines conformance requirements for the verification of two
forms must be implemented. forms of basic electronic signature, one of the two forms must be
implemented.
The present document only defines conformance requirements up to an ES The present document only defines conformance requirements up to an ES
with Complete validation data (CAdES-C). This means that none of the with Complete validation data (CAdES-C). This means that none of the
extended and archive forms of Electronic Signature (CAdES-X, CAdES-A) extended and archive forms of Electronic Signature (CAdES-X, CAdES-A)
need to be implemented to get conformance to the present document. need to be implemented to get conformance to the present document.
On verification the inclusion of optional signed and unsigned On verification the inclusion of optional signed and unsigned
attributes must be supported only to the extended that the signature is attributes must be supported only to the extended that the signature is
verifiable. The semantics of optional attributes may be unsupported, verifiable. The semantics of optional attributes may be unsupported,
unless specified otherwise by a signature policy. unless specified otherwise by a signature policy.
8.1 CAdES-Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES) 8.1 CAdES-Basic Electronic Signature (CAdES-BES)
A system supporting CAdES-BES signers according to the present document A system supporting CAdES-BES signers according to the present
shall, at a minimum, support generation of an electronic signature document shall, at a minimum, support generation of an electronic
consisting of the following components: signature consisting of the following components:
- The general CMS syntax and content type as defined in RFC 3852 - The general CMS syntax and content type as defined in RFC 3852
[4] (see clauses 5.1 and 5.2); [4] (see sections 5.1 and 5.2);
- CMS SignedData as defined in RFC 3852 [4] with version set to 3 - CMS SignedData as defined in RFC 3852 [4] with version set to 3
and at least one SignerInfo shall be present (see clauses 5.3 to and at least one SignerInfo shall be present (see sections 5.3 to
5.6); 5.6);
- The following CMS attributes as defined in RFC 3852 [4]: - The following CMS attributes as defined in RFC 3852 [4]:
- content-type; this shall always be present (see clause 5.7.1); - content-type; this shall always be present
(see section 5.7.1); and
- message-digest; this shall always be present (see - message-digest; this shall always be present (see section
clause 5.7.2). 5.7.2).
- One of following attributes as defined in the present document: - One of following attributes as defined in the present document:
- signing-certificate: as defined in clause 5.7.3.1; - signing-certificate: as defined in section 5.7.3.1; or
- Other-Signing-Certificate as defined in clause 5.7.3.2. - signing-certificate v2 : as defined in section 5.7.3.2.
Note : RFC 3126 was using the other signing certificate attribute
(see section 5.7.3.3). Its use is now deprecated, since the
structure of the signing-certificate v2 attribute is simpler
than the other signing certificate attribute.
8.2 CAdES-Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature 8.2 CAdES-Explicit Policy-based Electronic Signature
A system supporting Policy-based signers according to the present A system supporting Policy-based signers according to the present
document shall, at a minimum, support generation of an electronic document shall, at a minimum, support generation of an electronic
signature consisting of the previous components defined for the basic signature consisting of the previous components defined for the basic
signer, plus: signer, plus:
- The following attributes as defined in clause 5.9: - The following attributes as defined in section 5.9:
- signature-policy-identifier; this shall always be present (see - signature-policy-identifier; this shall always be present (see
clause 5.8.1). section 5.8.1).
8.3 Verification using time-stamping 8.3 Verification using time-stamping
A system supporting verifiers according to the present document with A system supporting verifiers according to the present document with
time-stamping facilities shall, at a minimum, support: time-stamping facilities shall, at a minimum, support:
- verification of the mandated components of an electronic - verification of the mandated components of an electronic
signature, as defined in clause 8.1. signature, as defined in section 8.1;
- signature-time-stamp attribute, as defined in clause 6.1.1.
- signature-time-stamp attribute, as defined in section 6.1.1;
- complete-certificate-references, attribute as defined in - complete-certificate-references, attribute as defined in
clause 6.2.1. section 6.2.1;
- complete-revocation-references attribute, as defined in - complete-revocation-references attribute, as defined in
clause 6.2.2. section 6.2.2;
- Public Key Certificates, as defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.509 - Public Key Certificates, as defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.509
[1] (see clause 8.1). [1] (see section 8.1); and
- either of: - either of:
- Certificate Revocation Lists. as defined in ITU-T - Certificate Revocation Lists. as defined in ITU-T
Recommendation X.509 [1] (see clause 8.2); or Recommendation X.509 [1] (see section 8.2); or
- on-line Certificate Status Protocol, as defined in RFC 2560 - on-line Certificate Status Protocol, as defined in RFC 2560
[3] (see clause 8.3). [3] (see section 8.3).
8.4 Verification using secure records 8.4 Verification using secure records
A system supporting verifiers according to the present document shall, A system supporting verifiers according to the present document shall,
at a minimum, support: at a minimum, support:
- verification of the mandated components of an electronic - verification of the mandated components of an electronic
signature, as defined in clause 8.1; signature, as defined in section 8.1;
- complete-certificate-references attribute, as defined in - complete-certificate-references attribute, as defined in
clause 6.2.1; section 6.2.1;
- complete-revocation-references attribute, as defined in - complete-revocation-references attribute, as defined in
clause 6.2.2; section 6.2.2;
- a record must be maintained and cannot be undetectable modified, - a record of the electronic signature and the time when the
of the electronic signature and the time when the signature was signature was first validated using the referenced certificates
first validated using the referenced certificates and revocation and revocation information must be maintained such that records
information; cannot be undetectable modified;
- Public Key Certificates, as defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.509 - Public Key Certificates, as defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.509
[1] (see clause 8.1); [1] (see section 8.1); and
- either of: - either of:
- Certificate Revocation Lists. as defined in ITU-T - Certificate Revocation Lists. as defined in ITU-T
Recommendation X.509 [1] (see clause 8.2); or Recommendation X.509 [1] (see section 8.2); or
- on-line Certificate Status Protocol, as defined in RFC 2560 - on-line Certificate Status Protocol, as defined in RFC 2560
[3] (see clause 8.3). [3] (see section 8.3).
9. Security considerations 9. Security considerations
9.1 Protection of private key 9.1 Protection of private key
The security of the electronic signature mechanism defined in the The security of the electronic signature mechanism defined in the
present document depends on the privacy of the signer's private key. present document depends on the privacy of the signer's private key.
Implementations should take steps to ensure that private keys cannot be
compromised. Implementations should take steps to ensure that private keys cannot
be compromised.
9.2 Choice of algorithms 9.2 Choice of algorithms
Implementers should be aware that cryptographic algorithms become Implementers should be aware that cryptographic algorithms become
weaker with time. As new cryptoanalysis techniques are developed and weaker with time. As new cryptoanalysis techniques are developed and
computing performance improves, the work factor to break a particular computing performance improves, the work factor to break a particular
cryptographic algorithm will reduce. Therefore, cryptographic cryptographic algorithm will reduce. Therefore, cryptographic
algorithm implementations should be modular allowing new algorithms to algorithm implementations should be modular allowing new algorithms to
be readily inserted. That is, implementers should be prepared for the be readily inserted. That is, implementers should be prepared for the
set of mandatory to implement algorithms to change over time. set of mandatory to implement algorithms to change over time.
10. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
Not applicable No IANA actions required.
11. References 11. References
11.1 Normative references 11.1 Normative references
[1] ITU-T Recommendation X.509 (2000)/ISO/IEC 9594-8 (2001): [1] ITU-T Recommendation X.509 (2000)/ISO/IEC 9594-8 (2001):
"Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - "Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection -
The Directory: Authentication framework". The Directory: Authentication framework".
[2] IETF RFC 3280 (2002): "Internet X.509 Public Key [2] IETF RFC 3280 (2002): "Internet X.509 Public Key
skipping to change at page 58, line 52 skipping to change at page 58, line ?
[4] IETF RFC 3852 (2004): "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)". [4] IETF RFC 3852 (2004): "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)".
[5] IETF RFC 2634 (1999): "Enhanced Security Services for [5] IETF RFC 2634 (1999): "Enhanced Security Services for
S/MIME". S/MIME".
[6] IETF RFC 2045 (1996): "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions [6] IETF RFC 2045 (1996): "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
(MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies". (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies".
[7] IETF RFC 3161 (2001): "Internet X.509 Public Key [7] IETF RFC 3161 (2001): "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Time-Stamp Protocol (TSP)". Infrastructure Time-Stamp Protocol ".
[8] ITU-T Recommendation X.680 (1997): "Information technology - [8] ITU-T Recommendation X.680 (1997): "Information technology -
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification of basic Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification of basic
notation". notation".
[9] ITU-T Recommendation X.501 (2000)/ISO/IEC 9594-1 (2001): [9] ITU-T Recommendation X.501 (2000)/ISO/IEC 9594-1 (2001):
"Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - "Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection -
Directory models ". Directory models ".
[10] IETF RFC 3370 (2002): "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) [10] IETF RFC 3370 (2002): "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)
skipping to change at page 59, line 25 skipping to change at page 59, line 18
[12] ITU-T Recommendation X.500: "Information technology - Open [12] ITU-T Recommendation X.500: "Information technology - Open
Systems Interconnection - The Directory: Overview of Systems Interconnection - The Directory: Overview of
concepts, models and services". concepts, models and services".
[13] IETF RFC 3281 (2002): "An Internet Attribute Certificate [13] IETF RFC 3281 (2002): "An Internet Attribute Certificate
Profile for Authorization". Profile for Authorization".
[14] ITU-T Recommendation X.208 (1988): "Specification of Abstract [14] ITU-T Recommendation X.208 (1988): "Specification of Abstract
Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)". Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)".
Referenced documents hereabove which are not found to be publicly [15] IETF RFC XXXX (2006). ESS Update: Adding CertID Algorithm
available in the expected location might be found at Agility.
http://docbox.etsi.org/Reference.
[STDWORDS] IETF RFC 2119 Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to
Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2
11.2 Informative references 11.2 Informative references
Directive 1999/93/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council ETSI technical specifications can be downloaded free of charge
of 13 December 1999 on a Community framework for electronic via the Services and Products Download Area at:
signatures. http://www.etsi.org/services_products/freestandard/home.htm
ETSI Standard TS 101 733 V.1.6.3 (2005-06) Electronic Signature [EU Directive] Directive 1999/93/EC of the European Parliament and
Formats. Note: copies of ETSI TS 101 733 can be freely downloaded of the Council of 13 December 1999 on a Community framework for
from the ETSI web site www.etsi.org. electronic signatures.
IETF RFC 2246 (1999): "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0". [TS101733] ETSI Standard TS 101 733 V.1.6.3 (2005-06) Electronic
Signature Formats.
IETF RFC 2437 (1998): "PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications [TS101861] ETSI TS 101 861: "Time stamping profile".
Version 2.0".
IETF RFC 2479 (1998): "Independent Data Unit Protection Generic [TS101903] ETSI TS 101 903: "XML Advanced Electronic Signatures
Security Service Application Program Interface (IDUP-GSS-API)". (XAdES)".
IETF RFC 2510 (1999): "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure [TS102023] ETSI TS 102 023: "Electronic Signatures and
Certificate Management Protocols". Infrastructures (ESI); Policy requirements for time-stamping
authorities".
IETF RFC 2587 (1999): "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure [TR102038] ETSI TR 102 038: "Electronic Signatures and
LDAPv2 Schema". Infrastructures (ESI); XML format for signature policies".
IETF RFC 3125 (2000): "Electronic Signature Policies". [TR102272] ETSI TR 102 272 V1.1.1 (2003-12). "Electronic Signatures
and Infrastructures (ESI); ASN.1 format for signature policies".
IETF RFC 2559 (2003): "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure [RFC2246] IETF RFC 2246 (1999): "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0".
Operational Protocols - LDAPv2".
ETSI TS 101 861: "Time stamping profile". [RFC2437] IETF RFC 2437 (1998): "PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography
Specifications Version 2.0".
ETSI TS 101 903: "XML Advanced Electronic Signatures (XAdES)". [RFC2479] IETF RFC 2479 (1998): "Independent Data Unit Protection
Generic Security Service Application Program Interface
(IDUP-GSS-API)".
ETSI TS 102 023: "Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); [RFC2510] IETF RFC 2510 (1999): "Internet X.509 Public Key
Policy requirements for time-stamping authorities". Infrastructure Certificate Management Protocols".
ETSI TS 102 038: "Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); [RFC2559] IETF RFC 2559 (2003): "Internet X.509 Public Key
XML format for signature policies". Infrastructure Operational Protocols - LDAPv2".
ETSI TR 102 272. "Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); [RFC2587] IETF RFC 2587 (1999): "Internet X.509 Public Key
ASN.1 format for signature policies". Infrastructure LDAPv2 Schema".
ISO 7498-2 (1989): "Information processing systems - Open Systems [RFC3125] IETF RFC 3125 (2000): "Electronic Signature Policies".
Interconnection - Basic Reference Model - Part 2: Security
Architecture".
ISO/IEC 13888-1 (2004): "IT security techniques - Non-repudiation - [RFC3851] IETF RFC 3851 (2004): "SMIME Version 3.1 Message
Part 1: General". Specification".
ISO/IEC 9796-2 (2002): "Information technology - Security techniques [ISO7498-2] ISO 7498-2 (1989): "Information processing systems -
- Digital signature schemes giving message recovery - Part 2: Open Systems Interconnection - Basic Reference Model - Part 2:
Integer factorization based mechanisms". Security Architecture".
ISO/IEC 9796-4 (1998): "Digital signature schemes giving message [ISO9796-2] ISO/IEC 9796-2 (2002): "Information technology -
recovery - Part 4: Discrete logarithm based mechanisms". Security techniques - Digital signature schemes giving message
recovery - Part 2: Integer factorization based mechanisms".
ISO/IEC 10118-1 (2000): "Information technology - Security [ISO9796-4] ISO/IEC 9796-4 (1998): "Digital signature schemes
techniques - Hash-functions - Part 1: General". giving message recovery - Part 4: Discrete logarithm based
mechanisms".
ISO/IEC 10118-2 (2000): "Information technology - Security [ISO10118-1] ISO/IEC 10118-1 (2000): "Information technology -
techniques - Hash-functions - Part 2: Hash-functions using an n-bit Security techniques - Hash-functions - Part 1: General".
block cipher algorithm".
ISO/IEC 10118-3 (2004): "Information technology - Security [ISO10118-2] ISO/IEC 10118-2 (2000): "Information technology -
techniques - Hash-functions - Part 3: Dedicated hash-functions". Security techniques - Hash-functions - Part 2: Hash-functions using
an n-bit block cipher algorithm".
ISO/IEC 10118-4 (1998): "Information technology - Security [ISO10118-3] ISO/IEC 10118-3 (2004): "Information technology -
techniques - Hash-functions - Part 4: Hash-functions using modular Security techniques - Hash-functions - Part 3: Dedicated
arithmetic". hash-functions".
ISO/IEC 14888-1 (1998): "Information technology - Security [ISO10118-4] ISO/IEC 10118-4 (1998): "Information technology -
techniques - Digital signatures with appendix - Part 1: General". Security techniques - Hash-functions - Part 4: Hash-functions using
modular arithmetic".
ISO/IEC 14888-2 (1999): "Information technology - Security [ISO10181-5] ISO/IEC 10181-5: Security Frameworks in Open Systems.
techniques - Digital signatures with appendix - Part 2: Identity- Non-Repudiation Framework. April 1997.
based mechanisms".
ISO/IEC 14888-3 (1998): "Information technology - Security [ISO13888-1]ISO/IEC 13888-1 (2004): "IT security techniques -
techniques - Digital signatures with appendix - Part 3: Certificate- Non-repudiation - Part 1: General".
based mechanisms".
ISO/IEC 15946-2 (2002): "Information technology - Security [ISO14888-1] ISO/IEC 14888-1 (1998): "Information technology -
techniques - Cryptographic techniques based on elliptic curves - Security techniques - Digital signatures with appendix - Part 1:
Part 2: Digital signatures". General".
ISO/IEC 15946-3 (2002): "Information technology - Security [ISO14888-2] ISO/IEC 14888-2 (1999): "Information technology -
techniques - Cryptographic techniques based on elliptic curves - Security techniques - Digital signatures with appendix - Part 2:
Part 3: Key establishment". Identity-based mechanisms".
ISO/IEC 10181-5: Security Frameworks in Open Systems. [ISO14888-3] ISO/IEC 14888-3 (1998): "Information technology -
Non-Repudiation Framework. April 1997. Security techniques - Digital signatures with appendix - Part 3:
Certificate-based mechanisms".
ITU-T Recommendation X.690 (2002): "Specification of basic encoding [ISO15946-2] ISO/IEC 15946-2 (2002): "Information technology -
rules for Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)". Security techniques - Cryptographic techniques based on elliptic
curves - Part 2: Digital signatures".
CWA 14171 CEN Workshop Agreements: "General Guidelines for [ISO15946-3] ISO/IEC 15946-3 (2002): "Information technology -
Electronic Signature Verification". Security techniques - Cryptographic techniques based on elliptic
curves - Part 3: Key establishment".
XMLDSIG: W3C/IETF Recommendation (February 2002): "XML-Signature [X690] ITU-T Recommendation X.690 (2002): "Specification of basic
Syntax and Processing". encoding rules for Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)".
ANSI X9.30-1 (1997): "Public Key Cryptography for the Financial [CWA14171] CWA 14171 CEN Workshop Agreements: "General Guidelines
Services Industry - Part 1: The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)". for Electronic Signature Verification".
ANSI X9.30-2 (1997): "Public Key Cryptography for the Financial [XMLDSIG] XMLDSIG: W3C/IETF Recommendation (February 2002):
Services Industry - Part 2: The Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1)". "XML-Signature Syntax and Processing".
ANSI X9.31-1 (1997): "Public Key Cryptography Using Reversible [X9.30-1] ANSI X9.30-1 (1997): "Public Key Cryptography for the
Algorithms for the Financial Services Industry - Financial Services Industry - Part 1: The Digital Signature
Algorithm (DSA)".
[X9.30-2] ANSI X9.30-2 (1997): "Public Key Cryptography for the
Financial Services Industry - Part 2: The Secure Hash Algorithm
(SHA-1)".
[X9.31-1] ANSI X9.31-1 (1997): "Public Key Cryptography Using
Reversible Algorithms for the Financial Services Industry -
Part 1: The RSA Signature Algorithm". Part 1: The RSA Signature Algorithm".
ANSI X9.31-2 (1996): "Public Key Cryptography Using Reversible [X9.31-2] ANSI X9.31-2 (1996): "Public Key Cryptography Using
Algorithms for the Financial Services Industry - Reversible Algorithms for the Financial Services Industry -
Part 2: Hash Algorithms". Part 2: Hash Algorithms".
ANSI X9.62 (1998): "Public Key Cryptography for the Financial [X9.62] ANSI X9.62 (1998): "Public Key Cryptography for the
Services Industry - The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm Financial Services Industry - The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature
(ECDSA)". Algorithm (ECDSA)".
IEEE P1363 (2000): "Standard Specifications for Public-Key [X.209] CCITT Recommendation X.209: Specification of Basic Encoding
Rules for Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) 1988.
[P1363] IEEE P1363 (2000): "Standard Specifications for Public-Key
Cryptography". Cryptography".
12. Authors' addresses 12. Authors' addresses
Denis Pinkas Denis Pinkas
Bull S.A. Bull S.A.
Rue Jean-Jaures Rue Jean-Jaures
78340 Les Clayes sous Bois CEDEX 78340 Les Clayes sous Bois CEDEX
FRANCE FRANCE
EMail: Denis.Pinkas@bull.net EMail: Denis.Pinkas@bull.net
Nick Pope Nick Pope
Security & Standards Security & Standards Consultancy Ltd
192 Moulsham Street The Waterhouse Business Centre
Chelmsford, Essex 2 Cromer Way
CM2 0LG Chelmsford
Essex
CM1 2QE
United Kingdom United Kingdom
EMail: pope@secstan.com EMail: pope@secstan.com
John Ross John Ross
Security & Standards Security & Standards Consultancy Ltd
192 Moulsham Street The Waterhouse Business Centre
Chelmsford, Essex 2 Cromer Way
CM2 0LG Chelmsford
Essex
CM1 2QE
United Kingdom United Kingdom
EMail: ross@secstan.com EMail: ross@secstan.com
13. Acknowledgments
This Informational RFC has been produced in ETSI TC-ESI. This Informational RFC has been produced in ETSI TC-ESI.
ETSI ETSI
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis, Cedex - FRANCE F-06921 Sophia Antipolis, Cedex - FRANCE
650 Route des Lucioles - Sophia Antipolis 650 Route des Lucioles - Sophia Antipolis
Valbonne - France Valbonne - France
Tel: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16 Tel: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
secretariat@etsi.fr secretariat@etsi.fr
http://www.etsi.org http://www.etsi.org
Special thanks to Russ Housley for reviewing the document.
Annex A (normative): ASN.1 definitions Annex A (normative): ASN.1 definitions
This annex provides a summary of all the ASN.1 syntax definitions for This annex provides a summary of all the ASN.1 syntax definitions for
new syntax defined in the present document. new syntax defined in the present document.
A.1 Signature format definitions using X.208 ASN.1 syntax A.1 Signature format definitions using X.208 ASN.1 syntax
NOTE: The ASN.1 module defined in clause A.1 using syntax defined in NOTE: The ASN.1 module defined in section A.1 using syntax defined in
ITU-T Recommendation X.208 [14] has precedence over that ITU-T Recommendation X.208 [14] has precedence over that
defined in clause A.2 in the case of any conflict. defined in section A.2 in the case of any conflict.
ETS-ElectronicSignatureFormats-ExplicitSyntax88 { iso(1) member-body(2) ETS-ElectronicSignatureFormats-ExplicitSyntax88 { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-mod(0) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-mod(0)
eSignature-explicit88(28)} eSignature-explicit88(28)}
DEFINITIONS EXPLICIT TAGS ::= DEFINITIONS EXPLICIT TAGS ::=
BEGIN BEGIN
-- EXPORTS All -- EXPORTS All
skipping to change at page 63, line 48 skipping to change at page 63, line 48
-- ESS Defined attributes: RFC 2634 (Enhanced Security Services -- ESS Defined attributes: RFC 2634 (Enhanced Security Services
-- for S/MIME) -- for S/MIME)
id-aa-signingCertificate, SigningCertificate, IssuerSerial, id-aa-signingCertificate, SigningCertificate, IssuerSerial,
id-aa-contentReference, ContentReference, id-aa-contentIdentifier, id-aa-contentReference, ContentReference, id-aa-contentIdentifier,
ContentIdentifier ContentIdentifier
FROM ExtendedSecurityServices FROM ExtendedSecurityServices
{ iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549)
pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) modules(0) ess(2) } pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) modules(0) ess(2) }
-- ESS Update: RFC XXXX (Adding CertID Algorithm Agility)
id-aa-signingCertificatev2
FROM ExtendedSecurityServices-2006
{ iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549)
pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) modules(0) ess-2006(200) }
-- Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure - Certificate and CRL -- Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure - Certificate and CRL
-- Profile: RFC 3280 -- Profile: RFC 3280
Certificate, AlgorithmIdentifier, CertificateList, Name, Certificate, AlgorithmIdentifier, CertificateList, Name,
DirectoryString, Attribute, BMPString, UTF8String DirectoryString, Attribute, BMPString, UTF8String
FROM PKIX1Explicit88 FROM PKIX1Explicit88
{iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-pkix1-explicit(18)} security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-pkix1-explicit(18)}
GeneralNames, GeneralName, PolicyInformation GeneralNames, GeneralName, PolicyInformation
FROM PKIX1Implicit88 FROM PKIX1Implicit88
{iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) security(5) {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) security(5)
mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-pkix1-implicit (19)} mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-pkix1-implicit (19)}
-- Internet Attribute Certificate Profile for Authorization - RFC 3281 -- Internet Attribute Certificate Profile for Authorization - RFC 3281
AttributeCertificate AttributeCertificate
FROM PKIXAttributeCertificate {iso(1) identified-organization(3) FROM PKIXAttributeCertificate {iso(1) identified-organization(3)
dod(6) internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) dod(6) internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7)
skipping to change at page 64, line 27 skipping to change at page 64, line 37
BasicOCSPResponse, ResponderID BasicOCSPResponse, ResponderID
FROM OCSP {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) FROM OCSP {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-mod-ocsp(14)} security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-mod-ocsp(14)}
-- Time Stamp Protocol RFC 3161 -- Time Stamp Protocol RFC 3161
TimeStampToken TimeStampToken
FROM PKIXTSP FROM PKIXTSP
{iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) security(5) {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) security(5)
mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-mod-tsp(13)}; mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-mod-tsp(13)}
;
-- Definitions of Object Identifier arcs used in the present document -- Definitions of Object Identifier arcs used in the present document
-- ================================================================== -- ==================================================================
-- OID used referencing electronic signature mechanisms based on -- OID used referencing electronic signature mechanisms based on
-- the present document for use with the IDUP API (see annex D) -- the present document for use with the IDUP API (see annex D)
id-etsi-es-IDUP-Mechanism-v1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= id-etsi-es-IDUP-Mechanism-v1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
{ itu-t(0) identified-organization(4) etsi(0) { itu-t(0) identified-organization(4) etsi(0)
electronic-signature-standard (1733) part1 (1) idupMechanism (4) electronic-signature-standard (1733) part1 (1) idupMechanism (4)
etsiESv1(1) } etsiESv1(1) }
-- Basic ES CMS Attributes Defined in the present document -- Basic ES CMS Attributes Defined in the present document
-- ======================================================= -- =======================================================
-- OtherSigningCertificate - deprecated
id-aa-ets-otherSigCert OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-aa-ets-otherSigCert OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
smime(16) id-aa(2) 19 } smime(16) id-aa(2) 19 }
OtherSigningCertificate ::= SEQUENCE { OtherSigningCertificate ::= SEQUENCE {
certs SEQUENCE OF OtherCertID, certs SEQUENCE OF OtherCertID,
policies SEQUENCE OF PolicyInformation OPTIONAL policies SEQUENCE OF PolicyInformation OPTIONAL
-- NOT USED IN THE PRESENT DOCUMENT -- NOT USED IN THE PRESENT DOCUMENT
} }
OtherCertID ::= SEQUENCE { OtherCertID ::= SEQUENCE {
otherCertHash OtherHash, otherCertHash OtherHash,
issuerSerial IssuerSerial OPTIONAL } issuerSerial IssuerSerial OPTIONAL }
OtherHash ::= CHOICE { OtherHash ::= CHOICE {
sha1Hash OtherHashValue, -- This contains a SHA-1 hash sha1Hash OtherHashValue, -- This contains a SHA-1 hash
otherHash OtherHashAlgAndValue} otherHash OtherHashAlgAndValue}
OtherHashValue ::= OCTET STRING
OtherHashAlgAndValue ::= SEQUENCE {
hashAlgorithm AlgorithmIdentifier,
hashValue OtherHashValue }
-- Policy ES Attributes Defined in the present document -- Policy ES Attributes Defined in the present document
-- ==================================================== -- ====================================================
-- Mandatory Basic Electronic Signature Attributes as above, -- Mandatory Basic Electronic Signature Attributes as above,
-- plus in addition. -- plus in addition.
-- Signature Policy Identifier -- Signature Policy Identifier
id-aa-ets-sigPolicyId OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-aa-ets-sigPolicyId OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
skipping to change at page 66, line 4 skipping to change at page 65, line 33
-- ==================================================== -- ====================================================
-- Mandatory Basic Electronic Signature Attributes as above, -- Mandatory Basic Electronic Signature Attributes as above,
-- plus in addition. -- plus in addition.
-- Signature Policy Identifier -- Signature Policy Identifier
id-aa-ets-sigPolicyId OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-aa-ets-sigPolicyId OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
smime(16) id-aa(2) 15 } smime(16) id-aa(2) 15 }
SignaturePolicy ::= CHOICE { SignaturePolicy ::= CHOICE {
signaturePolicyId SignaturePolicyId, signaturePolicyId SignaturePolicyId,
signaturePolicyImplied SignaturePolicyImplied signaturePolicyImplied SignaturePolicyImplied
-- not used in this version -- not used in this version
} }
SignaturePolicyId ::= SEQUENCE { SignaturePolicyId ::= SEQUENCE {
sigPolicyId SigPolicyId, sigPolicyId SigPolicyId,
sigPolicyHash SigPolicyHash OPTIONAL, sigPolicyHash SigPolicyHash,
sigPolicyQualifiers SEQUENCE SIZE (1..MAX) OF sigPolicyQualifiers SEQUENCE SIZE (1..MAX) OF
SigPolicyQualifierInfo OPTIONAL SigPolicyQualifierInfo OPTIONAL
} }
SignaturePolicyImplied ::= NULL SignaturePolicyImplied ::= NULL
SigPolicyId ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER SigPolicyId ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER
SigPolicyHash ::= OtherHashAlgAndValue SigPolicyHash ::= OtherHashAlgAndValue
OtherHashAlgAndValue ::= SEQUENCE {
hashAlgorithm AlgorithmIdentifier,
hashValue OtherHashValue }
OtherHashValue ::= OCTET STRING
SigPolicyQualifierInfo ::= SEQUENCE { SigPolicyQualifierInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
sigPolicyQualifierId SigPolicyQualifierId, sigPolicyQualifierId SigPolicyQualifierId,
sigQualifier ANY DEFINED BY sigPolicyQualifierId } sigQualifier ANY DEFINED BY sigPolicyQualifierId }
SigPolicyQualifierId ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER SigPolicyQualifierId ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER
id-spq-ets-uri OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-spq-ets-uri OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
smime(16) id-spq(5) 1 } smime(16) id-spq(5) 1 }
skipping to change at page 68, line 26 skipping to change at page 67, line 47
id-aa-ets-signerAttr OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-aa-ets-signerAttr OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 18} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 18}
SignerAttribute ::= SEQUENCE OF CHOICE { SignerAttribute ::= SEQUENCE OF CHOICE {
claimedAttributes [0] ClaimedAttributes, claimedAttributes [0] ClaimedAttributes,
certifiedAttributes [1] CertifiedAttributes } certifiedAttributes [1] CertifiedAttributes }
ClaimedAttributes ::= SEQUENCE OF Attribute ClaimedAttributes ::= SEQUENCE OF Attribute
CertifiedAttributes ::= AttributeCertificate CertifiedAttributes ::= AttributeCertificate
-- as defined in RFC 3281 : see clause 4.1 -- as defined in RFC 3281 : see section 4.1
-- Content Timestamp -- Content Timestamp
id-aa-ets-contentTimestamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-aa-ets-contentTimestamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 20} body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 20}
ContentTimestamp::= TimeStampToken ContentTimestamp::= TimeStampToken
-- Signature Timestamp -- Signature Timestamp
skipping to change at page 72, line 7 skipping to change at page 71, line 7
id-aa-ets-attrRevocationRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-aa-ets-attrRevocationRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9)
smime(16) id-aa(2) 45} smime(16) id-aa(2) 45}
AttributeRevocationRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF CrlOcspRef AttributeRevocationRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF CrlOcspRef
END END
A.2 Signature format definitions using X.680 ASN.1 syntax A.2 Signature format definitions using X.680 ASN.1 syntax
NOTE: The ASN.1 module defined in clause A.2 has precedence over that NOTE: The ASN.1 module defined in section A.1 has precedence over that
defined in clause A.2 using syntax defined in ITU-T defined in section A.2 using syntax defined in ITU-T
Recommendation X.680 (1997) [8] in the case of any conflict. Recommendation X.680 (1997) [8] in the case of any conflict.
ETS-ElectronicSignatureFormats-ExplicitSyntax97 { iso(1) member-body(2) ETS-ElectronicSignatureFormats-ExplicitSyntax97 { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-mod(0) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-mod(0)
eSignature-explicit97(29)} eSignature-explicit97(29)}
DEFINITIONS EXPLICIT TAGS ::= DEFINITIONS EXPLICIT TAGS ::=
BEGIN BEGIN
skipping to change at page 72, line 43 skipping to change at page 71, line 43
-- ESS Defined attributes: RFC 2634 -- ESS Defined attributes: RFC 2634
-- (Enhanced Security Services for S/MIME) -- (Enhanced Security Services for S/MIME)
id-aa-signingCertificate, SigningCertificate, IssuerSerial, id-aa-signingCertificate, SigningCertificate, IssuerSerial,
id-aa-contentReference, ContentReference, id-aa-contentIdentifier, id-aa-contentReference, ContentReference, id-aa-contentIdentifier,
ContentIdentifier ContentIdentifier
FROM ExtendedSecurityServices FROM ExtendedSecurityServices
{ iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549)
pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) modules(0) ess(2) } pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) modules(0) ess(2) }
-- ESS Update: RFC XXXX (Adding CertID Algorithm Agility)
id-aa-signingCertificatev2
FROM ExtendedSecurityServices-2006
{ iso(1) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549)
pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) modules(0) ess-2006(200) }
-- Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure -- Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
-- Certificate and CRL Profile: RFC 3280 -- Certificate and CRL Profile: RFC 3280
Certificate, AlgorithmIdentifier, CertificateList, Name, Certificate, AlgorithmIdentifier, CertificateList, Name,
DirectoryString, Attribute, DirectoryString, Attribute,
FROM PKIX1Explicit88 FROM PKIX1Explicit88
{iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
id-pkix1-explicit(18)} id-pkix1-explicit(18)}
skipping to change at page 73, line 19 skipping to change at page 72, line 28
dod(6) internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) dod(6) internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0)
id-mod-attribute-cert(12)} id-mod-attribute-cert(12)}
-- OCSP RFC 2560 -- OCSP RFC 2560
BasicOCSPResponse, ResponderID BasicOCSPResponse, ResponderID
FROM OCSP {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) FROM OCSP {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-mod-ocsp(14)} security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-mod-ocsp(14)}
-- RFC 3161 Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure -- RFC 3161 Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
-- Time-Stamp Protocol
TimeStampToken TimeStampToken
FROM PKIXTSP {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1) FROM PKIXTSP {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6) internet(1)
security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-mod-tsp(13)} security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7) id-mod(0) id-mod-tsp(13)}
maxSize maxSize
FROM ETS-ElectronicSignaturePolicies-97Syntax { iso(1) FROM ETS-ElectronicSignaturePolicies-97Syntax { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9)
smime(16) id-mod(0) 8} smime(16) id-mod(0) 8}
; ;
-- Definitions of Object Identifier arcs used in the present document -- Definitions of Object Identifier arcs used in the present document
-- ================================================================== -- ==================================================================
-- OID used referencing electronic signature mechanisms based -- OID used referencing electronic signature mechanisms based
-- on the present document for use with the IDUP API (see annex D) -- on the present document for use with the IDUP API (see annex D)
id-etsi-es-IDUP-Mechanism-v1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= id-etsi-es-IDUP-Mechanism-v1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
{ itu-t(0) identified-organization(4) etsi(0) { itu-t(0) identified-organization(4) etsi(0)
electronic-signature-standard (1733) part1 (1) idupMechanism (4) electronic-signature-standard (1733) part1 (1) idupMechanism (4)
etsiESv1(1) } etsiESv1(1) }
-- Basic ES Attributes Defined in the present document -- Basic ES Attributes Defined in the present document
-- =================================================== -- ===================================================
-- CMS Attributes defined in the present document
-- OtherSigningCertificate - deprecated
id-aa-ets-otherSigCert OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-aa-ets-otherSigCert OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
smime(16) id-aa(2) 19 } smime(16) id-aa(2) 19 }
OtherSigningCertificate ::= SEQUENCE { OtherSigningCertificate ::= SEQUENCE {
certs SEQUENCE OF OtherCertID, certs SEQUENCE OF OtherCertID,
policies SEQUENCE OF PolicyInformation OPTIONAL policies SEQUENCE OF PolicyInformation OPTIONAL
-- NOT USED IN THE PRESENT DOCUMENT -- NOT USED IN THE PRESENT DOCUMENT
} }
OtherCertID ::= SEQUENCE { OtherCertID ::= SEQUENCE {
otherCertHash OtherHash, otherCertHash OtherHash,
issuerSerial IssuerSerial OPTIONAL } issuerSerial IssuerSerial OPTIONAL }
OtherHash ::= CHOICE { OtherHash ::= CHOICE {
sha1Hash OtherHashValue, -- This contains a SHA-1 hash sha1Hash OtherHashValue, -- This contains a SHA-1 hash
otherHash OtherHashAlgAndValue} otherHash OtherHashAlgAndValue}
OtherHashValue ::= OCTET STRING
OtherHashAlgAndValue ::= SEQUENCE {
hashAlgorithm AlgorithmIdentifier,
hashValue OtherHashValue }
-- Policy ES Attributes Defined in the present document -- Policy ES Attributes Defined in the present document
-- ==================================================== -- ====================================================
-- Mandatory Basic Electronic Signature Attributes, plus in addition. -- Mandatory Basic Electronic Signature Attributes, plus in addition.
-- Signature Policy Identifier -- Signature Policy Identifier
id-aa-ets-sigPolicyId OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) id-aa-ets-sigPolicyId OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1)
member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9) member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs9(9)
smime(16) id-aa(2) 15 } smime(16) id-aa(2) 15 }
SignaturePolicy ::= CHOICE { SignaturePolicy ::= CHOICE {
signaturePolicyId SignaturePolicyId, signaturePolicyId SignaturePolicyId,
signaturePolicyImplied SignaturePolicyImplied signaturePolicyImplied SignaturePolicyImplied
-- not used in this version -- not used in this version
} }
SignaturePolicyId ::= SEQUENCE { SignaturePolicyId ::= SEQUENCE {
sigPolicyId SigPolicyId, sigPolicyId SigPolicyId,
sigPolicyHash SigPolicyHash OPTIONAL, sigPolicyHash SigPolicyHash,
sigPolicyQualifiers SEQUENCE SIZE (1..MAX) OF sigPolicyQualifiers SEQUENCE SIZE (1..MAX) OF
SigPolicyQualifierInfo OPTIONAL SigPolicyQualifierInfo OPTIONAL
} }
SignaturePolicyImplied ::= NULL SignaturePolicyImplied ::= NULL
SigPolicyId ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER SigPolicyId ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER
SigPolicyHash ::= OtherHashAlgAndValue SigPolicyHash ::= OtherHashAlgAndValue
OtherHashAlgAndValue ::= SEQUENCE {
hashAlgorithm AlgorithmIdentifier,
hashValue OtherHashValue }
OtherHashValue ::= OCTET STRING
SigPolicyQualifierInfo ::= SEQUENCE { SigPolicyQualifierInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
sigPolicyQualifierId SIG-POLICY-QUALIFIER.&id sigPolicyQualifierId SIG-POLICY-QUALIFIER.&id
({SupportedSigPolicyQualifiers}), ({SupportedSigPolicyQualifiers}),
qualifier SIG-POLICY-QUALIFIER.&Qualifier qualifier SIG-POLICY-QUALIFIER.&Qualifier
({SupportedSigPolicyQualifiers} ({SupportedSigPolicyQualifiers}
{@sigPolicyQualifierId})OPTIONAL } {@sigPolicyQualifierId})OPTIONAL }
SupportedSigPolicyQualifiers SIG-POLICY-QUALIFIER ::= SupportedSigPolicyQualifiers SIG-POLICY-QUALIFIER ::=
{ noticeToUser | pointerToSigPolSpec } { noticeToUser | pointerToSigPolSpec }
skipping to change at page 77, line 41 skipping to change at page 76, line 18
id-aa-ets-signerAttr OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) id-aa-ets-signerAttr OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2)
us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 18} us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 18}
SignerAttribute ::= SEQUENCE OF CHOICE { SignerAttribute ::= SEQUENCE OF CHOICE {
claimedAttributes [0] ClaimedAttributes, claimedAttributes [0] ClaimedAttributes,
certifiedAttributes [1] CertifiedAttributes } certifiedAttributes [1] CertifiedAttributes }
ClaimedAttributes ::= SEQUENCE OF Attribute ClaimedAttributes ::= SEQUENCE OF Attribute
CertifiedAttributes ::= AttributeCertificate CertifiedAttributes ::= AttributeCertificate
-- as defined in RFC 3281 : see clause 4.1 -- as defined in RFC 3281 : see section 4.1
-- Content Timestamp -- Content Timestamp
id-aa-ets-contentTimestamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-aa-ets-contentTimestamp OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 20} body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 20}
ContentTimestamp::= TimeStampToken ContentTimestamp::= TimeStampToken
-- Signature Timestamp -- Signature Timestamp
skipping to change at page 81, line 7 skipping to change at page 79, line 7
id-aa-ets-attrRevocationRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member- id-aa-ets-attrRevocationRefs OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-
body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 45} body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9) smime(16) id-aa(2) 45}
AttributeRevocationRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF CrlOcspRef AttributeRevocationRefs ::= SEQUENCE OF CrlOcspRef
END END
Annex B (informative): Extended forms of Electronic Signatures Annex B (informative): Extended forms of Electronic Signatures
Clause 4 provides on overview of the various formats of electronic Section 4 provides on overview of the various formats of electronic
signatures included in the present document. This annex lists the signatures included in the present document. This annex lists the
attributes that need to be present in the various extended electronic attributes that need to be present in the various extended electronic
signature formats and provide example validation sequences using the signature formats and provide example validation sequences using the
extended formats. extended formats.
B.1 Extended forms of validation data B.1 Extended forms of validation data
The complete validation data (CAdES-C) described in clause 4.3 and The complete validation data (CAdES-C) described in section 4.3 and
illustrated in figure 3 may be extended to create Electronic Signatures illustrated in figure 3 may be extended to create Electronic Signatures
with extended validation data. Some Electronic Signatures forms that with extended validation data. Some Electronic Signatures forms that
include extended validation are explained below. include extended validation are explained below.
An X-Long electronic signature (CAdES-X Long) is when the values of the An X-Long electronic signature (CAdES-X Long) is when the values of the
certificates and revocation information are added to the CAdES-C. certificates and revocation information are added to the CAdES-C.
This form of Electronic Signature can be useful when the verifier does This form of Electronic Signature can be useful when the verifier does
not have direct access to the following information: not have direct access to the following information:
skipping to change at page 81, line 44 skipping to change at page 79, line 44
the Electronic Signatures as additional attributes. For example: the Electronic Signatures as additional attributes. For example:
- time-stamping all the validation data as held with the ES (CAdES- - time-stamping all the validation data as held with the ES (CAdES-
C), this eXtended validation data is called a CAdES-X Type 1; or C), this eXtended validation data is called a CAdES-X Type 1; or
- time-stamping individual reference data as used for complete - time-stamping individual reference data as used for complete
validation. This form of eXtended validation data is called an validation. This form of eXtended validation data is called an
CAdES-X Type 2. CAdES-X Type 2.
NOTE 1: The advantages/drawbacks for CAdES-X Type 1 and CAdES-X Type 2 NOTE 1: The advantages/drawbacks for CAdES-X Type 1 and CAdES-X Type 2
are discussed in clause C.4.4. are discussed in section C.4.4.
The above time-stamp forms can be useful when it is required to counter The above time-stamp forms can be useful when it is required to counter
the risk that any CA keys used in the certificate chain may be the risk that any CA keys used in the certificate chain may be
compromised. compromised.
A combination of the two formats above may be used. This form of A combination of the two formats above may be used. This form of
eXtended validation data is called an ES X-Long Type 1 or CAdES-X Long eXtended validation data is called an ES X-Long Type 1 or CAdES-X Long
Type 2. This form of Electronic Signature can be useful when the Type 2. This form of Electronic Signature can be useful when the
verifier needs both the values and proof of when the validation data verifier needs both the values and proof of when the validation data
existed. existed.
NOTE 2: The advantages/drawbacks for CAdES-X long Type 1 and CAdES-X NOTE 2: The advantages/drawbacks for CAdES-X long Type 1 and CAdES-X
long Type 2 are discussed in clause C.4.6. long Type 2 are discussed in section C.4.6.
B.1.1 CAdES-X Long B.1.1 CAdES-X Long
An Electronic Signature with the additional validation data forming the An Electronic Signature with the additional validation data forming the
CAdES-X Long form (CAdES-X-Long)) is illustrated in figure B.1 and CAdES-X Long form (CAdES-X-Long)) is illustrated in figure B.1 and
comprises the following: comprises the following:
- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES as defined in clauses 4.3 , 5.7 or 5.8; - CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES as defined in sections 4.3 , 5.7 or 5.8;
- complete-certificate-references attribute as defined in clause - complete-certificate-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.1; 6.2.1;
- complete-revocation-references attribute as defined in clause - complete-revocation-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.2. 6.2.2.
The following attributes are required if a TSP is not providing a time- The following attributes are required if a TSP is not providing a time-
mark of the ES: mark of the ES:
- signature-time-stamp attribute as defined in clause 6.1.1. - signature-time-stamp attribute as defined in section 6.1.1.
The following attributes are required if the full certificate values The following attributes are required if the full certificate values
and revocation values are not already included in the CAdES-BES or and revocation values are not already included in the CAdES-BES or
CAdES-EPES: CAdES-EPES:
- certificate-values attribute as defined in clause 6.3.3; - certificate-values attribute as defined in section 6.3.3;
- revocation-values attribute, as defined in clause 6.3.4. - revocation-values attribute, as defined in section 6.3.4.
If attributes certificates are used then the following attributes may If attributes certificates are used then the following attributes may
be present: be present:
- attribute-certificate-references attribute defined in clause - attribute-certificate-references attribute defined in section
6.2.3; 6.2.3;
- attribute-revocation-references attribute as defined in clause - attribute-revocation-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.4. 6.2.4.
Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required. Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required.
NOTE: Attribute certificate and revocation references are only NOTE: Attribute certificate and revocation references are only
present if a user attribute certificate is present in the present if a user attribute certificate is present in the
electronic signature, see clauses 6.2.2 and 6.2.3. electronic signature, see sections 6.2.2 and 6.2.3.
+---------------------- CAdES-X-Long --------------------------------+ +---------------------- CAdES-X-Long --------------------------------+
|+-------------------------------------- CAdES-C ---+ | |+-------------------------------------- CAdES-C ---+ |
|| +----------+ | +-------------+| || +----------+ | +-------------+|
||+----- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES ----+ |Timestamp | | | || ||+----- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES ----+ |Timestamp | | | ||
||| | |over | | | Complete || ||| | |over | | | Complete ||
|||+---------++----------++---------+| |digital | | | certificate || |||+---------++----------++---------+| |digital | | | certificate ||
|||| || || || |signature | | | and || |||| || || || |signature | | | and ||
||||Signer's || Signed ||Digital || | | | | revocation || ||||Signer's || Signed ||Digital || | | | | revocation ||
||||Document ||Attributes||signature|| |Optional | | | data || ||||Document ||Attributes||signature|| |Optional | | | data ||
skipping to change at page 83, line 36 skipping to change at page 81, line 36
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure B.1 : Illustration of CAdES-X-Long Figure B.1 : Illustration of CAdES-X-Long
B.1.2 CAdES-X Type 1 B.1.2 CAdES-X Type 1
An Electronic Signature with the additional validation data forming the An Electronic Signature with the additional validation data forming the
eXtended Validation Data - Type 1 X is illustrated in figure B.2 and eXtended Validation Data - Type 1 X is illustrated in figure B.2 and
comprises the following: comprises the following:
- the CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES as defined in clauses 4.2, 5.7 or - the CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES as defined in sections 4.2, 5.7 or
5.8; 5.8;
- complete-certificate-references attribute as defined in clause - complete-certificate-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.1; 6.2.1;
- complete-revocation-references attribute as defined in clause - complete-revocation-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.2; 6.2.2;
- CAdES-C-Timestamp attribute, as defined in clause 6.3.5. - CAdES-C-Timestamp attribute, as defined in section 6.3.5.
The following attributes are required if a TSP is not providing a time- The following attributes are required if a TSP is not providing a time-
mark of the ES: mark of the ES:
- signature-time-stamp attribute as defined in clause 6.1.1. - signature-time-stamp attribute as defined in section 6.1.1.
If attributes certificates are used then the following attributes may If attributes certificates are used then the following attributes may
be present: be present:
- attribute-certificate-references attribute defined in clause - attribute-certificate-references attribute defined in section
6.2.3; 6.2.3;
- attribute-revocation-references attribute as defined in clause - attribute-revocation-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.4. 6.2.4.
Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required. Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required.
+------------------------ CAdES-X-Type 1 ----------------------------+ +------------------------ CAdES-X-Type 1 ----------------------------+
|+---------------------------------- CAdES-C ------+ | |+---------------------------------- CAdES-C ------+ |
|| +----------+ | +-------------+ | || +----------+ | +-------------+ |
||+--- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES ------+|Timestamp | | | | | ||+--- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES ------+|Timestamp | | | | |
||| ||over | | | | | ||| ||over | | | | |
|||+---------++----------++---------+||digital | | | | | |||+---------++----------++---------+||digital | | | | |
skipping to change at page 84, line 47 skipping to change at page 82, line 47
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure B.2 : Illustration of CAdES-X Type 1 Figure B.2 : Illustration of CAdES-X Type 1
B.1.3 CAdES-X Type 2 B.1.3 CAdES-X Type 2
An Electronic Signature with the additional validation data forming the An Electronic Signature with the additional validation data forming the
eXtended Validation Data - Type 2 X is illustrated in figure B.3. and eXtended Validation Data - Type 2 X is illustrated in figure B.3. and
comprises the following: comprises the following:
- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES as defined in clauses 4.2, 5.7 or 5.8; - CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES as defined in sections 4.2, 5.7 or 5.8;
- complete-certificate-references attribute as defined in clause - complete-certificate-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.1; 6.2.1;
- complete-revocation-references attribute as defined in clause - complete-revocation-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.2; 6.2.2;
- time-stamped-certs-crls-references attribute as defined in clause - time-stamped-certs-crls-references attribute as defined in section
6.3.6. 6.3.6.
The following attributes are required if a TSP is not providing a time- The following attributes are required if a TSP is not providing a time-
mark of the ES: mark of the ES:
- signature-time-stamp attribute as defined in clause 6.1.1. - signature-time-stamp attribute as defined in section 6.1.1.
If attributes certificates are used then the following attributes may If attributes certificates are used then the following attributes may
be present: be present:
- attribute-certificate-references attribute defined in clause - attribute-certificate-references attribute defined in section
6.2.3; 6.2.3;
- attribute-revocation-references attribute as defined in clause - attribute-revocation-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.4. 6.2.4.
Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required. Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required.
+----------------------- CAdES-X-Type 2 -----------------------------+ +----------------------- CAdES-X-Type 2 -----------------------------+
|+-------------------------------------- CAdES-C --+ | |+-------------------------------------- CAdES-C --+ |
|| +----------+ | | || +----------+ | |
||+-- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES -------+|Timestamp | | | ||+-- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES -------+|Timestamp | | |
||| ||over | | | ||| ||over | | |
|||+---------++----------++---------+||digital | | +-------------+ | |||+---------++----------++---------+||digital | | +-------------+ |
skipping to change at page 86, line 5 skipping to change at page 84, line 5
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure B.3 : Illustration of CAdES-X Type 2 Figure B.3 : Illustration of CAdES-X Type 2
B.1.4 CAdES-X Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2 B.1.4 CAdES-X Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2
An Electronic Signature with the additional validation data forming the An Electronic Signature with the additional validation data forming the
CAdES-X Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2 is illustrated in CAdES-X Long Type 1 and CAdES-X Long Type 2 is illustrated in
figure B.4 and comprises the following: figure B.4 and comprises the following:
- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES as defined in clauses 4.3, 5.7 or 5.8; - CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES as defined in sections 4.3, 5.7 or 5.8;
- complete-certificate-references attribute as defined in clause - complete-certificate-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.1; 6.2.1;
- complete-revocation-references attribute as defined in clause - complete-revocation-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.2; 6.2.2;
The following attributes are required if a TSP is not providing a time- The following attributes are required if a TSP is not providing a time-
mark of the ES: mark of the ES:
- signature-time-stamp attribute as defined in clause 6.1.1. - signature-time-stamp attribute as defined in section 6.1.1.
The following attributes are required if the full certificate values The following attributes are required if the full certificate values
and revocation values are not already included in the CAdES-BES or and revocation values are not already included in the CAdES-BES or
CAdES-EPES: CAdES-EPES:
- certificate-values attribute as defined in clause 6.3.3; - certificate-values attribute as defined in section 6.3.3;
- revocation-values attribute, as defined in clause 6.3.4. - revocation-values attribute, as defined in section 6.3.4.
If attributes certificates are used then the following attributes may If attributes certificates are used then the following attributes may
be present: be present:
- attribute-certificate-references attribute defined in clause - attribute-certificate-references attribute defined in section
6.2.3; 6.2.3;
- attribute-revocation-references attribute as defined in clause - attribute-revocation-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.4. 6.2.4.
Plus one of the following attributes is required: Plus one of the following attributes is required:
- CAdES-C-Timestamp attribute, as defined in clause 6.3.5; - CAdES-C-Timestamp attribute, as defined in section 6.3.5;
- time-stamped-certs-crls-references attribute as defined in clause - time-stamped-certs-crls-references attribute as defined in section
6.3.6. 6.3.6.
Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required. Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required.
+---------------------- CAdES-X-Type 1 or 2 ------------------------+ +---------------------- CAdES-X-Type 1 or 2 ------------------------+
| +--------------+| | +--------------+|
|+-------------------------------------- CAdES-C --+|+------------+|| |+-------------------------------------- CAdES-C --+|+------------+||
|| +----------+ ||| Timestamp ||| || +----------+ ||| Timestamp |||
||+-- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES -------+|Timestamp | ||| over ||| ||+-- CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES -------+|Timestamp | ||| over |||
||| ||over | ||| CAdES-C ||| ||| ||over | ||| CAdES-C |||
skipping to change at page 87, line 42 skipping to change at page 85, line 42
Figure B.4 : Illustration of CAdES-X Long Type 1 Figure B.4 : Illustration of CAdES-X Long Type 1
and CAdES-X Long Type 2 and CAdES-X Long Type 2
B.2 Timestamp extensions B.2 Timestamp extensions
Each instance of time-stamp attribute may include as unsigned Each instance of time-stamp attribute may include as unsigned
attributes in the signedData of the timestamp the following attribute attributes in the signedData of the timestamp the following attribute
related to the TSU: related to the TSU:
- complete-certificate-references attribute of the TSU as defined - complete-certificate-references attribute of the TSU as defined
in clause 6.2.1; in section 6.2.1;
- complete-revocation-references attribute of the TSU as defined in - complete-revocation-references attribute of the TSU as defined in
clause 6.2.2; section 6.2.2;
- certificate-values attribute; of the TSU as defined in clause - certificate-values attribute; of the TSU as defined in section
6.3.3; 6.3.3;
- revocation-values attribute, of the TSU as defined in clause - revocation-values attribute, of the TSU as defined in section
6.3.4. 6.3.4.
Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required. Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required.
B.3 Archive validation data (CAdES-A) B.3 Archive validation data (CAdES-A)
Before the algorithms, keys and other cryptographic data used at the Before the algorithms, keys and other cryptographic data used at the
time the CAdES-C was built become weak and the cryptographic functions time the CAdES-C was built become weak and the cryptographic functions
become vulnerable, or the certificates supporting previous time-stamps become vulnerable, or the certificates supporting previous time-stamps
expires, the signed data, the CAdES-C and any additional information expires, the signed data, the CAdES-C and any additional information
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|+----------------------------------------------------+ | |+----------------------------------------------------+ |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+ +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure B.5 : Illustration of CAdES-A Figure B.5 : Illustration of CAdES-A
The CAdES-A comprises the following elements: The CAdES-A comprises the following elements:
- the CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES including their signed and unsigned - the CAdES-BES or CAdES-EPES including their signed and unsigned
attributes; attributes;
- complete-certificate-references attribute as defined in clause - complete-certificate-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.1; 6.2.1;
- complete-revocation-references attribute as defined in clause - complete-revocation-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.2. 6.2.2.
The following attributes are required if a TSP is not providing a time- The following attributes are required if a TSP is not providing a time-
mark of the ES: mark of the ES:
- signature-time-stamp attribute as defined in clause 6.1.1. - signature-time-stamp attribute as defined in section 6.1.1.
If attributes certificates are used then the following attributes may If attributes certificates are used then the following attributes may
be present: be present:
- attribute-certificate-references attribute defined in clause - attribute-certificate-references attribute defined in section
6.2.3; 6.2.3;
- attribute-revocation-references attribute as defined in clause - attribute-revocation-references attribute as defined in section
6.2.4. 6.2.4.
The following attributes are required if the full certificate values The following attributes are required if the full certificate values
and revocation values are not already included in the CAdES-BES or and revocation values are not already included in the CAdES-BES or
CAdES-EPES: CAdES-EPES:
- certificate-values attribute as defined in clause 6.3.3; - certificate-values attribute as defined in section 6.3.3;
- revocation-values attribute as defined in clause 6.3.4. - revocation-values attribute as defined in section 6.3.4.
At least one of the following two attributes is required: At least one of the following two attributes is required:
- CAdES-C-Timestamp attribute as defined in clause 6.3.5; - CAdES-C-Timestamp attribute as defined in section 6.3.5;
- time-stamped-certs-crls-references attribute as defined in clause - time-stamped-certs-crls-references attribute as defined in section
6.3.6. 6.3.6.
The following attribute is required: The following attribute is required:
- archive-time-stamp attributes defined in clause 6.4.1. - archive-time-stamp attributes defined in section 6.4.1.
Several instances of archive-time-stamp attribute may occur with an Several instances of archive-time-stamp attribute may occur with an
electronic signature both over time and from different TSUs. The time- electronic signature both over time and from different TSUs. The time-
stamp should be created using stronger algorithms (or longer key stamp should be created using stronger algorithms (or longer key
lengths) than in the original electronic signatures or time-stamps. lengths) than in the original electronic signatures or time-stamps.
Other unsigned attributes of the ES may be present, but are not Other unsigned attributes of the ES may be present, but are not
required. required.
The archive timestamp will itself contain the certificate and The archive timestamp will itself contain the certificate and
revocation information required to validate the archive timestamp, this revocation information required to validate the archive timestamp, this
may include the following unsigned attributes: may include the following unsigned attributes:
- complete-certificate-references attribute of the TSU as defined - complete-certificate-references attribute of the TSU as defined
in clause 6.2.1; in section 6.2.1;
- complete-revocation-references attribute of the TSU as defined in - complete-revocation-references attribute of the TSU as defined in
clause 6.2.2; section 6.2.2;
- certificate-values attribute of the TSU as defined in clause - certificate-values attribute of the TSU as defined in section
6.3.3; 6.3.3;
- revocation-values attribute of the TSU as defined in clause - revocation-values attribute of the TSU as defined in section
6.3.4. 6.3.4.
Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required. Other unsigned attributes may be present, but are not required.
B.4 Example validation sequence B.4 Example validation sequence
As described earlier the signer or initial verifier may collect all the As described earlier the signer or initial verifier may collect all the
additional data that forms the electronic signature. Figure B.6, and additional data that forms the electronic signature. Figure B.6, and
subsequent description, describes how the validation process may build subsequent description, describes how the validation process may build
up a complete electronic signature over time. up a complete electronic signature over time.
skipping to change at page 97, line 23 skipping to change at page 95, line 23
components of the electronic signature that shall be provided by the components of the electronic signature that shall be provided by the
signer with data required by the verifier when required to provide long signer with data required by the verifier when required to provide long
term proof. term proof.
C.2 Signed information C.2 Signed information
The information being signed may be defined as a MIME-encapsulated The information being signed may be defined as a MIME-encapsulated
message which can be used to signal the format of the content in order message which can be used to signal the format of the content in order
to select the right display or application. It can be composed of to select the right display or application. It can be composed of
formatted data, free text or fields from an electronic form (e-form). formatted data, free text or fields from an electronic form (e-form).
For example, the Adobe(tm) format "pdf" may be used or the eXtensible Mark For example, the Adobe(tm) format "pdf" may be used or the eXtensible
up Language (XML). Annex D defines how the content may be structured Mark up Language (XML). Annex D defines how the content may be
to indicate the type of signed data using MIME. structured to indicate the type of signed data using MIME.
C.3 Components of an electronic signature C.3 Components of an electronic signature
C.3.1 Reference to the signature policy C.3.1 Reference to the signature policy
When two independent parties want to evaluate an electronic signature, When two independent parties want to evaluate an electronic signature,
it is fundamental that they get the same result. This requirement can it is fundamental that they get the same result. This requirement can
be met using comprehensive signature policies that ensure consistency be met using comprehensive signature policies that ensure consistency
of signature validation. Signature policies can be identified of signature validation. Signature policies can be identified
implicitly by the data being signed or they can be explicitly implicitly by the data being signed or they can be explicitly
skipping to change at page 101, line 12 skipping to change at page 99, line 12
timestamp the content, to provide proof of the existence of the timestamp the content, to provide proof of the existence of the
content, at the time indicated by the time-stamp token. content, at the time indicated by the time-stamp token.
Using this optional attribute a trusted secure time may be obtained Using this optional attribute a trusted secure time may be obtained
before the document is signed and included under the digital signature. before the document is signed and included under the digital signature.
This solution requires an on-line connection to a trusted time-stamping This solution requires an on-line connection to a trusted time-stamping
service before generating the signature and may not represent the service before generating the signature and may not represent the
precise signing time, since it can be obtained in advance. However, precise signing time, since it can be obtained in advance. However,
this optional attribute may be used by the signer to prove that the this optional attribute may be used by the signer to prove that the
signed object existed before the date included in the time-stamp (see signed object existed before the date included in the time-stamp (see
clause 5.11.4). section 5.11.4).
Also, the signing time, if present should be between the time indicated Also, the signing time, if present should be between the time indicated
by this time-stamp and time indicated by the CAdES-T time-stamp. by this time-stamp and time indicated by the CAdES-T time-stamp.
C.3.7 Content format C.3.7 Content format
When presenting signed data to a human user it may be important that When presenting signed data to a human user it may be important that
there is no ambiguity as to the presentation of the signed information there is no ambiguity as to the presentation of the signed information
to the relying party. In order for the appropriate representation to the relying party. In order for the appropriate representation
(text, sound or video) to be selected by the relying party a content (text, sound or video) to be selected by the relying party when data
hint may be indicated by the signer. If a relying party system does (as opposed to data which has been further signed or encrypted)
not use the format specified in the content hints attribute to present is encapsulated in the SignedData (indicated by the eContentType
the data to the relying party, then a human relying party may within EncapsulatedContentInfo being set to id-data), further typing
misinterpret data with valid signatures. information should be used to identify the type of document being
signed. This is generally achieved using the MIME content typing and
encoding mechanism defined in RFC 2045 [6]). Further information on
the use of MIME is given in Annex F.
C.3.8 Content cross referencing C.3.8 Content hints
The contents hints attribute provides information on the innermost
signed content of a multilayer message where one content is
encapsulated in another. This may be useful if the signed data is
itself encrypted.
C.3.9 Content cross referencing
When presenting a signed data is in related to another signed data, it When presenting a signed data is in related to another signed data, it
may be important to identify the signed data to which it relates to. may be important to identify the signed data to which it relates to.
The Content-reference and Content-identifier attributes as defined in The Content-reference and Content-identifier attributes as defined in
ESS (RFC 2634 [5]) provide the ability to link a request and reply ESS (RFC 2634 [5]) provide the ability to link a request and reply
messages in an exchange between two parties. messages in an exchange between two parties.
C.4 Components of validation data C.4 Components of validation data
C.4.1 Revocation status information C.4.1 Revocation status information
skipping to change at page 104, line 45 skipping to change at page 102, line 47
by a trusted source, known as a Time-stamping Authority. by a trusted source, known as a Time-stamping Authority.
The present document requires that the signer's digital signature value The present document requires that the signer's digital signature value
is time-stamped by a trusted source before the electronic signature can is time-stamped by a trusted source before the electronic signature can
become an ES with Complete validation data. Acceptable TSAs may be become an ES with Complete validation data. Acceptable TSAs may be
specified in a Signature Validation Policy. specified in a Signature Validation Policy.
This technique is referred to as CAdES-C in the present document. This technique is referred to as CAdES-C in the present document.
Should both the signer and verifier be required to time-stamp the Should both the signer and verifier be required to time-stamp the
signature value to meet the requirements of the signature policy, the signature value to meet the requirements of the signature policy, the
signature policy MAY specify a permitted time delay between the two signature policy may specify a permitted time delay between the two
time stamps. time stamps.
C.4.4 Time-stamping for long life of signature before CA key C.4.4 Time-stamping for long life of signature before CA key
compromises compromises
Time-stamped extended electronic signatures are needed when there is a Time-stamped extended electronic signatures are needed when there is a
requirement to safeguard against the possibility of a CA key in the requirement to safeguard against the possibility of a CA key in the
certificate chain ever being compromised. A verifier may be required certificate chain ever being compromised. A verifier may be required
to provide on request, proof that the certification path and the to provide on request, proof that the certification path and the
revocation information used a the time of the signature were valid, revocation information used a the time of the signature were valid,
even in the case where one of the issuing keys or OCSP responder keys even in the case where one of the issuing keys or OCSP responder keys
is later compromised. is later compromised.
The present document defines two ways of using time-stamps to protect The present document defines two ways of using time-stamps to protect
against this compromise: against this compromise:
- time-stamp the ES with Complete validation data, when an OCSP - time-stamp the ES with Complete validation data, when an OCSP
response is used to get the status of the certificate from the response is used to get the status of the certificate from the
signer (CAdES-X Type 1). This format is suitable to be used with signer (CAdES-X Type 1). This format is suitable to be used with
an OCSP response and offers the additional advantage to provide an OCSP response and offers the additional advantage to provide
skipping to change at page 109, line 46 skipping to change at page 107, line 46
- embedded signatures. - embedded signatures.
Independent signatures are parallel signatures where the ordering of Independent signatures are parallel signatures where the ordering of
the signatures is not important. The capability to have more than one the signatures is not important. The capability to have more than one
independent signature over the same data shall be provided. independent signature over the same data shall be provided.
Embedded signatures are applied one after the other and are used where Embedded signatures are applied one after the other and are used where
the order the signatures are applied is important. The capability to the order the signatures are applied is important. The capability to
sign over signed data shall be provided. sign over signed data shall be provided.
These forms are described in clause 5.13. All other multiple signature These forms are described in section 5.13. All other multiple signature
schemes, e.g. a signed document with a countersignature, double schemes, e.g. a signed document with a countersignature, double
countersignatures or multiple signatures, can be reduced to one or more countersignatures or multiple signatures, can be reduced to one or more
occurrence of the above two cases. occurrence of the above two cases.
Annex D (informative):Data protocols to interoperate with TSPs Annex D (informative):Data protocols to interoperate with TSPs
D.1 Operational protocols D.1 Operational protocols
The following protocols can be used by signers and verifiers to The following protocols can be used by signers and verifiers to
interoperate with Trusted Service Providers during the electronic interoperate with Trusted Service Providers during the electronic
signature creation and validation. signature creation and validation.
D.1.1 Certificate retrieval D.1.1 Certificate retrieval
User certificates, CA certificate and cross-certificates can be User certificates, CA certificate and cross-certificates can be
retrieved from a repository using the Lightweight Directory Access retrieved from a repository using the Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol as defined in as defined RFC 2559 (see informative Protocol as defined in as defined RFC 2559 (RFC2559], with the schema
references), with the schema defined in RFC 2587 (see informative defined in RFC 2587 [RFC2587].
references).
D.1.2 CRL retrieval D.1.2 CRL retrieval
Certificate revocation lists, including authority revocation lists and Certificate revocation lists, including authority revocation lists and
partial CRL variants, can be retrieved from a repository using the partial CRL variants, can be retrieved from a repository using the
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol as defined in RFC 2559 (see Lightweight Directory Access Protocol as defined in RFC 2559
informative references), with the schema defined in RFC 2587 (see [RFC2559], with the schema defined in RFC 2587 [RFC2587].
informative references).
D.1.3 OnLine certificate status D.1.3 OnLine certificate status
As an alternative to use of certificate revocation lists the status of As an alternative to use of certificate revocation lists the status of
certificate can be checked using the OnLine Certificate Status Protocol certificate can be checked using the OnLine Certificate Status Protocol
(OCSP) as defined in RFC 2560 [3]. (OCSP) as defined in RFC 2560 [3].
D.1.4 Time-stamping D.1.4 Time-stamping
The time-stamping service can be accessed using the Time-Stamping The time-stamping service can be accessed using the Time-Stamping
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D.2 Management protocols D.2 Management protocols
Signers and verifiers can use the following management protocols to Signers and verifiers can use the following management protocols to
manage the use of certificates. manage the use of certificates.
D.2.1 Request for certificate revocation D.2.1 Request for certificate revocation
Request for a certificate to be revoked can be made using the Request for a certificate to be revoked can be made using the
revocation request and response messages defined in revocation request and response messages defined in
RFC 2510 (see informative references). RFC 2510 [RFC2510].
Annex E (informative): Guidance on naming Annex E (informative): Guidance on naming
E.1 Allocation of names E.1 Allocation of names
The subject name shall be allocated through a registration scheme The subject name shall be allocated through a registration scheme
administered through a Registration Authority (RA) to ensure administered through a Registration Authority (RA) to ensure
uniqueness. This RA may be an independent body or a function carried uniqueness. This RA may be an independent body or a function carried
out by the Certification Authority. out by the Certification Authority.
skipping to change at page 112, line 9 skipping to change at page 110, line 9
This policy may be different whether the RA is being used only within a This policy may be different whether the RA is being used only within a
company or for public use. The policy will have to take into account company or for public use. The policy will have to take into account
national legislation and in particular any data protection and privacy national legislation and in particular any data protection and privacy
legislation. legislation.
Currently, the provision of access to registration is a local matter Currently, the provision of access to registration is a local matter
for the RA. However, if open access is required, standard protocols for the RA. However, if open access is required, standard protocols
such as HTTP - RFC 2068 (Internet Web Access Protocol) may be employed such as HTTP - RFC 2068 (Internet Web Access Protocol) may be employed
with the addition of security mechanisms necessary to meet the data with the addition of security mechanisms necessary to meet the data
protection requirements (e.g. Transport Layer Security - RFC 2246 with protection requirements (e.g. Transport Layer Security - RFC 2246
client authentication). [RFC2246] with client authentication).
E.3 Naming schemes E.3 Naming schemes
E.3.1 Naming schemes for individual citizens E.3.1 Naming schemes for individual citizens
In some cases the subject name that is contained in a public key In some cases the subject name that is contained in a public key
certificate may not be meaningful enough. This may happen because of certificate may not be meaningful enough. This may happen because of
the existence of homonyms or because of the use of pseudonyms. A the existence of homonyms or because of the use of pseudonyms. A
distinction could be made if more attributes were present. However, distinction could be made if more attributes were present. However,
adding more attributes to a public key certificate placed in a public adding more attributes to a public key certificate placed in a public
skipping to change at page 114, line 7 skipping to change at page 112, line 7
in the organization structure or the place of work. So this may not be in the organization structure or the place of work. So this may not be
the best solution. An alternative is to provide more attributes (like the best solution. An alternative is to provide more attributes (like
the organization unit and the place of work) through access to a the organization unit and the place of work) through access to a
directory maintained by the company. It is likely that at the time of directory maintained by the company. It is likely that at the time of
registration the Registration Authority got more information than what registration the Registration Authority got more information than what
was placed in the certificate, if such additional information is placed was placed in the certificate, if such additional information is placed
in a repository accessible only to the organization. in a repository accessible only to the organization.
Annex F (informative): Example structured contents and MIME Annex F (informative): Example structured contents and MIME
F.1 General description F.1 Use of MIME to encode data
The signed content may be structured as using MIME (Multipurpose The signed content may be structured as using MIME (Multipurpose
Internet Mail Extensions - RFC 2045 [6]. Whilst the MIME structure was Internet Mail Extensions - RFC 2045 [6]. Whilst the MIME structure was
initially developed for Internet e-mail, it has a number of features initially developed for Internet e-mail, it has a number of features
which make it useful to provide a common structure for encoding a range which make it useful to provide a common structure for encoding a range
of electronic documents and other multi-media data (e.g. photographs, of electronic documents and other multi-media data (e.g. photographs,
video). These features include: video). These features include:
- it provides a means of signalling the type of "object" being - it provides a means of signalling the type of "object" being
carried (e.g. text, image, ZIP file, application data); carried (e.g. text, image, ZIP file, application data);
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- it can handle data encoded in text or binary and, if necessary, - it can handle data encoded in text or binary and, if necessary,
re-encode the binary as text. re-encode the binary as text.
When encoding a single object MIME consists of: When encoding a single object MIME consists of:
- header information, followed by; - header information, followed by;
- encoded content. - encoded content.
This structure can be extended to support multi-part content. This structure can be extended to support multi-part content.
F.2 Header information F.1.1 Header information
A MIME header includes: A MIME header includes:
MIME Version information: MIME Version information: e.g.: MIME-Version: 1.0
e.g.: MIME-Version: 1.0
Content type information which includes information describing the Content type information which includes information describing the
content sufficient for it to presented to a user or application process content sufficient for it to presented to a user or application
as required. This includes information on the "media type" (e.g. text, process as required. This includes information on the "media type"
image, audio) or whether the data is for passing to a particular type (e.g. text, image, audio) or whether the data is for passing to a
of application. In the case of text the content type includes particular type of application. In the case of text the content type
information on the character set used. includes information on the character set used, e.g.
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
e.g. Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
Content encoding information, which defines how the content is encoded. Content encoding information, which defines how the content is
(See below about encoding supported by MIME). encoded. (See below about encoding supported by MIME).
Other information about the content such as a description, or an Other information about the content such as a description, or an
associated file name. associated file name.
An example MIME header for text object is: An example MIME header for text object is:
Mime-Version: 1.0 Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
An example MIME header for a binary file containing a word document is: An example MIME header for a binary file containing a pdf document is:
Content-Type: application/octet-stream Content-Type: application/pdf
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Description: JCFV201.doc (Microsoft Word Document) Content-Description: JCFV201.pdf
Content-Disposition: filename="JCFV201.doc" Content-Disposition: filename="JCFV201.pdf"
F.3 Content encoding F.1.2 Content encoding
MIME supports a range of mechanisms for encoding the both text and MIME supports a range of mechanisms for encoding the both text and
binary data. binary data.
Text data can be carried transparently as lines of text data encoded in Text data can be carried transparently as lines of text data encoded
7 or 8 bit ASCII characters. MIME also includes a "quoted-printable" in 7 or 8 bit ASCII characters. MIME also includes a
encoding which converts characters other than the basic ASCII into an "quoted-printable" encoding which converts characters other than the
ASCII sequence. basic ASCII into an ASCII sequence.
Binary can either be carried: Binary can either be carried:
- transparently a 8 bit octets; or - transparently a 8 bit octets; or
- converted to a basic set of characters using a system called - converted to a basic set of characters using a system called
Base64. Base64.
NOTE: As there are some mail relays which can only handle 7 bit NOTE: As there are some mail relays which can only handle 7 bit
ASCII, Base64 encoding is usually used on the Internet. ASCII, Base64 encoding is usually used on the Internet.
F.4 Multi-part content F1.3 Multi-part content
Several objects (e.g. text and a file attachment) can be associated Several objects (e.g. text and a file attachment) can be associated
together using a special "multi-part" content type. This is indicated together using a special "multi-part" content type. This is indicated
by the content type "multipart" with an indication of the string to be by the content type "multipart" with an indication of the string to be
used indicate a separation between each part. used indicate a separation between each part.
In addition to a header for the overall multipart content, each part In addition to a header for the overall multipart content, each part
includes its own header information indicating the inner content type includes its own header information indicating the inner content type
and encoding. and encoding.
skipping to change at page 116, line 13 skipping to change at page 114, line 6
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
------=_NextPart_000_01BC4599.98004A80 ------=_NextPart_000_01BC4599.98004A80
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
Per your request, I've attached our proposal for the Java Card Version Per your request, I've attached our proposal for the Java Card Version
2.0 API and the Java Card FAQ. 2.0 API and the Java Card FAQ.
------=_NextPart_000_01BC4599.98004A80 ------=_NextPart_000_01BC4599.98004A80
Content-Type: application/octet-stream; name="JCFV201.doc" Content-Type: application/pdf; name="JCFV201.pdf"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Description: JCFV201.doc (Microsoft Word Document) Content-Description: JCFV201.pdf
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="JCFV201.doc" Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="JCFV201.pdf"
0M8R4KGxGuEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPgADAP7/CQAGAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACAAAAAgAAAAA 0M8R4KGxGuEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPgADAP7/CQAGAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACAAAAAgAAAAA
AAAAAEAAAtAAAAAEAAAD+////AAAAAAMAAAAGAAAA////////////////////////////// AAAAAEAAAtAAAAAEAAAD+////AAAAAAMAAAAGAAAA//////////////////////////////
//////////AANhAAQAYg== //////////AANhAAQAYg==
------=_NextPart_000_01BC4599.98004A80-- ------=_NextPart_000_01BC4599.98004A80--
Multipart content can be nested. So a set of associated objects (e.g. Multipart content can be nested. So a set of associated objects (e.g.
HTML text and images) can be handled as a single attachment to another HTML text and images) can be handled as a single attachment to another
object (e.g. text). object (e.g. text).
F.5 S/MIME The Content-Type from each part of the S/MIME message indicates the
type of content.
Previous clauses in this annex have described the use of MIME to encode
data. MIME encoded data can be signed (i.e. carried in the eContent of
the SignedData structure) thereby signalling the type of information
that has been signed.
MIME can also be used to encode the CMS structure containing data after
it has been signed so that, for example, this can be carried within an
e-mail message. The specific use of MIME to carry CMS (extended as
defined in the present document) secured data is called S/MIME. The
relationship between the general use of MIME for encoding content, CMS
and S/MIME is illustrated in figure F.1.
+------------++-------------++----------++------------++------------+ F.2 S/MIME
| || || || || |
| E-mail || S/MIME || CAdES || MIME || Word file |
| || || || || |
|From: Smith ||Content Type=||SignedData||ContentType=||Dear MrSmith|
|To:Jones ||application/ || Econtent ||application/||Received |
|Subject: ||pkcs7 || ||octet-stream|| 100 tins |
|Signed doc. || || || || |
| /| || /| || /| || /| || Mr.Jones |
| / -----+ / -----+ / -----+ / -----+ |
| \ -----+ \ -----+ \ -----+ \ -----+ |
| \| || \| || \| || \| || |
| |+------------- | |+------------+| |
+------------+ ++----------+ +------------+
Figure F.1 The specific use of MIME to carry CMS (extended as defined in the
present document) secured data is called S/MIME (see [RFC3851]).
S/MIME carries electronic signatures as either: S/MIME carries electronic signatures as either:
- an "application/pkcs7-mime" object with the CMS carried as binary - an "application/pkcs7-mime" object with the CMS carried as binary
attachment (PKCS7 is the name of the early version of CMS). attachment (PKCS7 is the name of the early version of CMS).
The signed data may be included in the SignedData, which itself
may be included in a single S/MIME object. See [RFC3851],
section 3.4.2 "Signing Using application/pkcs7-mime with
SignedData" and figure F.1 hereafter.
or
- a "multipart/signed" object with the signed data and the
signature encoded as separate MIME objects.
The signed data is not included in the SignedData, and the CMS
structure only includes the signature. See [RFC3851],
section 3.4.3 "Signing Using the multipart/signed Format" and
figure F.2 hereafter.
+-------------++----------++-------------++------------+
| || || || |
| S/MIME || CAdES || MIME || pdf file |
| || || || |
|Content-Type=||SignedData||Content-Type=||Dear MrSmith|
|application/ || eContent ||application/ ||Received |
|pkcs7-mime || ||pdf || 100 tins |
| || || || |
|smime-type= || /| || /| || Mr.Jones |
|signed-data || / -----+ / ------+ |
| || \ -----+ \ ------+ |
| || \| || \| |+------------+
| || |+-------------+
| |+----------+
+-------------+
Figure F.1 Signing Using application/pkcs7-mime
F.2.1 Using application/pkcs7-mime
This approach is similar to handling signed data as any other binary
file attachment.
An example of signed data encoded using this approach is: An example of signed data encoded using this approach is:
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-mime; smime-type=signed-data; Content-Type: application/pkcs7-mime; smime-type=signed-data;
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7m Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7m
567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4f8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7 567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4f8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7
77n8HHGT9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6rfvbnj756tbBghyHhHUujhJhjH 77n8HHGT9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6rfvbnj756tbBghyHhHUujhJhjH
HUujhJh4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYGTrfvbnjT6jH7756tbB9H7n8HHGghyHh HUujhJh4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYGTrfvbnjT6jH7756tbB9H7n8HHGghyHh
6YT64V0GhIGfHfQbnj75 6YT64V0GhIGfHfQbnj75
This approach is similar to handling signed data as any other binary F.2.1 Using application/pkcs7-signature
file attachment. Thus, this encoding can be used where signed data
passes through gateways to other e-mail systems (e.g. those based on CMS also supports an alternative structure where the signature and
other e-mail systems). data being protected are separate MIME objects carried within a single
A "multipart/signed" object with the signed data and the signature message. In this case the signed data is not included in the
encoded as separate MIME objects. SignedData, and the CMS structure only includes the signature. See
[RFC3851], section 3.4.3 "Signing Using the multipart/signed Format"
and figure F.2 herafter.
An example of signed data encoded this approach is: An example of signed data encoded this approach is:
Content-Type: multipart/signed; Content-Type: multipart/signed;
protocol="application/pkcs7-signature"; protocol="application/pkcs7-signature";
micalg=sha1; boundary=boundary42 micalg=sha1; boundary=boundary42
--boundary42 --boundary42
Content-Type: text/plain Content-Type: text/plain
This is a clear-signed message. This is a clear-signed message.
--boundary42 --boundary42
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature; name=smime.p7s Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature; name=smime.p7s
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7s Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7s
ghyHhHUujhJhjH77n8HHGTrfvbnj756tbB9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6 ghyHhHUujhJhjH77n8HHGTrfvbnj756tbB9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6
4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6jH77n8HHGghyHhHUujhJh756tbB9HGTrfvbnj 4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6jH77n8HHGghyHhHUujhJh756tbB9HGTrfvbnj
n8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4 n8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4
7GhIGfHfYT64VQbnj756 7GhIGfHfYT64VQbnj756
--boundary42-- --boundary42--
skipping to change at page 118, line 6 skipping to change at page 116, line 23
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7s Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7s
ghyHhHUujhJhjH77n8HHGTrfvbnj756tbB9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6 ghyHhHUujhJhjH77n8HHGTrfvbnj756tbB9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6
4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6jH77n8HHGghyHhHUujhJh756tbB9HGTrfvbnj 4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6jH77n8HHGghyHhHUujhJh756tbB9HGTrfvbnj
n8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4 n8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4
7GhIGfHfYT64VQbnj756 7GhIGfHfYT64VQbnj756
--boundary42-- --boundary42--
With this second approach MIME the signed data passes through the CMS With this second approach MIME the signed data passes through the CMS
process and is carried as part of the S/MIME structure as illustrated process and is carried as part of a muliple parts signed MIME
in figure F.2. The CMS structure just holds the electronic signature. structure as illustrated in figure F.2. The CMS structure just holds
the electronic signature.
+------------++-------------++----------++------------++------------+ +---------------++----------++-------------++------------+
| || || || || | | || || || |
| E-mail || | /MIME || CAdES || MIME || Word file | | MIME || CAdES || MIME || pdf file |
| || || || || | | || || || |
|From: Smith ||Content Type=||SignedData||ContentType=||Dear MrSmith| |Content-Type= ||SignedData||Content-Type=||Dear MrSmith|
|To:Jones ||multipart/ || ||application/||Received | |multipart/ || ||application/ ||Received |
|Subject: ||signed || ||octet-stream|| 100 tins | |signed || ||pdf || 100 tins |
|Signed doc. || /| || || || | | /| || || || |
| /| || / -----------------+ /| || Mr.Jones | | / -------------------+ /| || Mr.Jones |
| / -----+ \ -----------------+ / -----+ | | \ -------------------+ / -----+ |
| \ -----+ \| || || \ -----+ | | \| || || \ -----+ |
| \| ||ContentType= || || \| || | |Content-Type= || || \| |+------------+
+------------+|application/ || |+------------+| | |application/ || |+-------------+
|octet-stream || | +------------+ |pdf || |
| || | | || |
|ContentType= || | |Content-Type= || |
|application/ || | |application/ || |
|pkcs7- || | |pkcs7-signature|| |
|signature || | | || |
| /| || | | /| || |
| / -----+ | | / -------+ |
| \ -----+ | | \ -------+ |
| \| ||----------+ | \| ||----------+
| | | |
+-------------+ +---------------+
Figure F.2 Figure F.2. Signing Using application/pkcs7-signature
The second approach (multipart/signed) has the advantage that the This second approach (multipart/signed) has the advantage that the
signed data can be decoded by any MIME compatible e-mail system even if signed data can be decoded by any MIME compatible system even if
it does not recognize CMS encoded electronic signatures. However, this it does not recognize CMS encoded electronic signatures.
form cannot be used with other e-mail systems.
Annex G (informative): Relationship to the European Directive and EESSI Annex G (informative): Relationship to the European Directive and EESSI
G.1 Introduction G.1 Introduction
This annex provides an indication of the relationship between This annex provides an indication of the relationship between
electronic signatures created under the present document and electronic signatures created under the present document and
requirements under the European Parliament and Council Directive on a requirements under the European Parliament and Council Directive on a
Community framework for electronic signatures. Community framework for electronic signatures.
skipping to change at page 121, line 5 skipping to change at page 119, line 5
- procedures for Electronic Signature Verification; - procedures for Electronic Signature Verification;
- electronic signature syntax and encoding formats; - electronic signature syntax and encoding formats;
- protocol to interoperate with a Time Stamping Authority; - protocol to interoperate with a Time Stamping Authority;
- Policy requirements for Time-Stamping Authorities; - Policy requirements for Time-Stamping Authorities;
- XML electronic signature formats. - XML electronic signature formats.
Each of these standards addresses a range of requirements including the Each of these standards addresses a range of requirements including
requirements of Qualified Electronic Signatures as specified in article the requirements of Qualified Electronic Signatures as specified in
5.1 of the Directive. However, some of them also address general article 5.1 of the Directive. However, some of them also address
requirements of electronic signatures for business and electronic general requirements of electronic signatures for business and
commerce which all fall into the category of article 5.2 of the electronic commerce which all fall into the category of article 5.2 of
Directive. Such variation in the requirements may be identified either the Directive. Such variation in the requirements may be identified
as different levels or different options. either as different levels or different options.
G.4.2 Classes of electronic signatures G.4.2 Classes of electronic signatures
Since some of these standards address a range of requirements, it may Since some of these standards address a range of requirements, it may
be useful to identify a set of standards to address a specific business be useful to identify a set of standards to address a specific
need. Such a set of standards and their uses defines a class of business need. Such a set of standards and their uses defines a class
electronic signature. The first class already identified is the of electronic signature. The first class already identified is the
qualified electronic signature, fulfilling the requirements of article qualified electronic signature, fulfilling the requirements of article
5.1 of the Directive. 5.1 of the Directive.
A limited number of "classes of electronic signatures" and A limited number of "classes of electronic signatures" and
corresponding profiles could be defined by EESSI, in close co-operation corresponding profiles could be defined by EESSI, in close
with actors on the market (business, users, suppliers). Need for such co-operation with actors on the market (business, users, suppliers).
standards is envisaged, in addition to those for qualified electronic Need for such standards is envisaged, in addition to those for
signatures, in areas such as: qualified electronic signatures, in areas such as:
- different classes of electronic signatures with long term - different classes of electronic signatures with long term
validity; validity;
- electronic signatures for business transactions with limited - electronic signatures for business transactions with limited
value. value.
G.4.3 EESSI classes and the ETSI electronic signature format G.4.3 EESSI classes and the ETSI electronic signature format
The electronic signature format defined in the present document is The electronic signature format defined in the present document is
applicable to the EESSI area "electronic signature and encoding applicable to the EESSI area "electronic signature and encoding
formats". formats".
An electronic signature produced by a signer (see clause 5 and An electronic signature produced by a signer (see section 5 and
conformance clause 10.1) is applicable to the proposed class of conformance section 10.1) is applicable to the proposed class of
electronic signature: "qualified electronic signatures fulfilling electronic signature: "qualified electronic signatures fulfilling
article 5.1". article 5.1".
With the addition of validation data by the verifier (see clause 6 and With the addition of validation data by the verifier (see section 6
conformance clause 10.2) this would become applicable electronic and conformance section 10.2) this would become applicable electronic
signatures adding long-term validity attributes to the qualified signatures adding long-term validity attributes to the qualified
electronic signature. electronic signature.
Annex H (informative):APIs for the generation and verification of Annex H (informative):APIs for the generation and verification of
electronic signatures tokens electronic signatures tokens
While the present document describes the data format of an electronic While the present document describes the data format of an electronic
signature, the question is whether there exists APIs (Application signature, the question is whether there exists APIs (Application
Programming Interfaces) able to manipulate these structures. At least Programming Interfaces) able to manipulate these structures. At least
two such APIs have been defined. One set by the IETF and another set two such APIs have been defined. One set by the IETF and another set
by the OMG (Object Management Group). by the OMG (Object Management Group).
H.1 Data framing H.1 Data framing
In order to be able to use either of these APIs, it will be necessary In order to be able to use either of these APIs, it will be necessary
to frame the previously defined electronic signature data structures to frame the previously defined electronic signature data structures
using a mechanism-independent token format. Clause 3.1 of RFC 2743 using a mechanism-independent token format. Section 3.1 of RFC 2743
(see informative references) describes that framing incorporating an [RFC2743] describes that framing incorporating an identifier of the
identifier of the mechanism type to be used and enabling tokens to be mechanism type to be used and enabling tokens to be interpreted
interpreted unambiguously. unambiguously.
In order to be processable by these APIs, all electronic signature data In order to be processable by these APIs, all electronic signature data
formats that are defined in the present document shall be framed formats that are defined in the present document shall be framed
following that description. following that description.
The encoding format for the token tag is derived from ASN.1 and DER, The encoding format for the token tag is derived from ASN.1 and DER,
but its concrete representation is defined directly in terms of octets but its concrete representation is defined directly in terms of octets
rather than at the ASN.1 level in order to facilitate interoperable rather than at the ASN.1 level in order to facilitate interoperable
implementation without use of general ASN.1 processing code. The token implementation without use of general ASN.1 processing code. The token
tag consists of the following elements, in order: tag consists of the following elements, in order:
skipping to change at page 123, line 43 skipping to change at page 121, line 43
Tokens conforming to the present document shall have the following OID Tokens conforming to the present document shall have the following OID
in order to be processable by IDUP-APIs: in order to be processable by IDUP-APIs:
id-etsi-es-IDUP-Mechanism-v1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= id-etsi-es-IDUP-Mechanism-v1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
{ itu-t(0) identified-organization(4) etsi(0) { itu-t(0) identified-organization(4) etsi(0)
electronic-signature-standard (1733) part1 (1) IDUPMechanism (4) electronic-signature-standard (1733) part1 (1) IDUPMechanism (4)
etsiESv1(1) } etsiESv1(1) }
H.2 IDUP-GSS-APIs defined by the IETF H.2 IDUP-GSS-APIs defined by the IETF