Internet Draft                       R. Zuccherato(Entrust Technologies)
S/MIME Working Group                                          March                                           June 1999
expires in six months

Methods for Avoiding the "Small-Subgroup" Attacks on the Diffie-Hellman
                    Key Agreement Method for S/MIME
                <draft-ietf-smime-small-subgroup-00.txt>
                <draft-ietf-smime-small-subgroup-01.txt>

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   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

In some circumstances the use of the Diffie-Hellman key agreement scheme
in a prime order subgroup of a large prime p is vulnerable to certain
attacks known as "small-subgroup" attacks.  Methods exist, however, to
prevent these attacks.  This document will describe the situations
relevent
relevant to the implementations of S/MIME standard version 3 in which protection is
required and the methods that can be used to to prevent these attacks.

1. Introduction

This document will describe those situations in which protection from
"small-subgroup" type attacks are required when using Diffie-Hellman key
agreement as described in [x942] for S/MIME. in implementations of S/MIME version 3 [CMS, MSG].
Thus, the ephemeral-static modes of Diffie-Hellman will be focussed focused on.
The situations that require protection are those in which an attacker
could determine a substantial portion (i.e. more than a few bits) of a
user's private key.

Protecting oneself from these attacks involves certain costs.  These
costs may include additional processing time either when a public key is
certified or a shared secret key is derived, increased parameter
generation time, increased key size, and possibly the licensing of

encumbered technologies.  All of these factors must be considered when
deciding whether or not to protect oneself from these attacks, or
whether to engineer the application so that protection is not required.

We will not consider "attacks" where the other party in the key
agreement merely forces the shared secret value to be "weak" (i.e. from
a small set of possible values).  These types of attacks are  It is not
possible worth the effort to prevent, attempt
to prevent these attacks since the other party may always in the key agreement gets
the shared secret and can simply make the encrypted
text public anyway. plaintext public.

1.1 Notation

In this document we will use the same notation as in [x942].  In
particular the shared secret ZZ is generated as follows:

     ZZ = g ^ (xb * xa) mod p

Note that the individual parties actually perform the computations:

     ZZ = yb (yb ^ xa    (mod p) xa)  mod p  = ya (ya ^ xb xb)  mod p

where ^ denotes exponentiation.

     ya is party a's Party A's public key; ya = g ^ xa mod p
     yb is party b's Party B's public key; yb = g ^ xb mod p
     xa is party a's Party A's private key
     xb is party b's Party B's private key
     p is a large prime
     g = h^((p-1)/q) mod p, where
     h is any integer with 1 < h < p-1 such that h^((p-1)/q) mod p > 1
           (g has order q mod p)
     q is a large prime
     j a large integer such that p=q*j + 1

In this discussion, a "static" public key is one that is certified and
is used for more than one key agreement agreement, and an "ephemeral" public key
is one that is not certified but is used only one time.

The order of an integer y modulo p is the smallest value of x greater
than 1 such that y^x=1 y^x mod p. p = 1.

1.2 Brief Description of Attack

For a complete description of these attacks see [LAW] and [LIM].

If the other party in an execution of the Diffie-Hellman key agreement
method has a public key not of the form described above, but of small
order (where small means <q) less than q) then he/she may be able to obtain
information about the user's private key.  In particular, if information
on whether or not a given decryption was successful is available, or if
ciphertext encrypted with the given agreed upon key is available, information
about the user's private key can be obtained.

Assume party a Party A has a properly formatted public key ya and that party b Party B
has a public key yb that is not of the form described in Section 1.1,
but
rather yb has order r r, where r<<q.  Thus yb^r=1 mod p.  Now, when party a Party

A produces ZZ as yb^xa mod p, there will only be r possible values for ZZ.
ZZ instead of p-1 possible values.

If party a Party A encrypts plaintext with this value and makes that ciphertext
available to party b, party b Party B, Party B only needs to exhaustively search through
r possibilities to determine which key produced the ciphertext.  When
the correct one is found, this gives information about the value of xa
modulo p. r.  Similarly, if party a Party A uses ZZ to decrypt a ciphertext and
relays information about the decryption
Party B is able to party b, determine whether or not decryption was performed
correctly, then information about xa can be obtained.

Also,  The actual number
of messages that must be sent or received for these attacks to be
successful will depend on the structure of the prime p.  However, it is
not unreasonable to expect that the entire private key could be
determined after as few as one hundred messages.

A similar attack can be mounted if party b has Party B chooses a public key of the
form yb=g^xb*f yb=g^xb*f, where f is an element of small order similar attacks are applicable.  This is because
party a order.  In this situation
Party A will now compute ZZ=yb^xa=g^(xa*xb)*f^xa mod p.  Again, party b Party B can
compute g^(xa*xb) and can therefore only has to exhaust the small number of possible
values of f^xa mod p to determine information about xa.

2. Situations where protection is required Where Protection Is Required

This section will describe describes the situations in which the sender of a message
should protect itself obtain protection against this type of attack and also those
situations in which the receiver of a message should protect itself. obtain protection.
Each entity may decide independently whether it requires protection from
these attacks.

This discussion assumes that the recipient's key pair is static.  This static, as is
always the case in [x942].

2.1 For Message Sender

This section describes situations in which the sender of a message sender should be
protected.

If the sender's key is ephemeral ephemeral, (i.e. ephemeral-static Diffie-Hellman
is being used), then no protection is required.  In this situation only
the recipient recipients of the message can obtain the plaintext and corresponding
ciphertext and therefore determine information about the private key
using the "small-
subgroup" "small-subgroup" attacks.  However, the recipient recipients can always
decrypt the message and since the sender's key is ephemeral, even if the
recipient can learn the entire private key no other messages are at
risk.  Notice here that if two or more recipients have selected the same
domain parameters (p,q,g) then the same ephemeral public key can be used
for all of them.  Since the key is ephemeral and only associated with a
message that the recipients can already decrypt, no interesting attacks
are possible.

If the sender's key is static (i.e. static-static Diffie-Hellman is
being used), then protection is required because in this situation the a
recipient mounting a small-subgroup attack will obtain the plaintext and
corresponding ciphertext and therefore could obtain information about
the private key using the "small-subgroup" attacks.  This information
could then be used to attack other messages protected with this the same

static key.

2.2 For the recipient of a Message Recipient

This section describes situations in which the message recipient should
be protected.

If absolutely no information on the decryption of the ciphertext is
available to any other party than the recipient recipient, then protection is not
required because this attack requires information on whether the
decryption was successful to be sent to the attacker.  In this situation
one must be sure  So, no protective
measures are needed if the implementation ensures that no information
about the decryption can leak out.
For example,  However, protection may be warranted
if human users may give this information to the sender via out of band
means (e.g. through telephone conversations).

If information on the decryption is available to any other party , then
protection is required.

3. Methods of protection Of Protection

This section lists methods describes five protective measures that senders and
recipients of messages can use to protect themseleves themselves from "small-subgroup" "small-
subgroup" attacks.

3.1 Public Key Validation

This method is described in Section 2.1.5 of [x942] [x942], and its description
is repeated here.  If this method is used, it should be used to validate
public keys of the other party prior to computing the shared secret ZZ.
The public key to be validated is y.

     1. Verify that y lies within the interval [2,p-1]. If it does not,
        the key is invalid.
     2. Compute y^q mod p. If the result == 1, the key is valid.
        Otherwise the key is invalid.

Note that this procedure may be subject to pending patents.

3.2 CA Performs Public Key Validation

The CA Certification Authority (CA) could perform the Public Key Validation
method of described in Section 3.1
once for all entities in prior to signing and issuing a PKI.  However,
certificate containing a Diffie-Hellman public key.  In this way, any
party using the public key can be assured that a trusted third party has
already performed the key validation process.  This method is only
viable for static public keys and thus keys.  When Static-Static Diffie-Hellman is always possible as a method of protection for
employed, both the sender, but only sometimes possible for sender and recipient are protected when the receiver (when Static-
Static DH CA has
performed public key validation.  However, when Ephemeral-Static Diffie-
Hellman is implemented). employed, only the sender can be protected.  Since the sender
uses an ephemeral public key, the CA cannot perform the validation on
that public key.

In this situation a method must exist to assure the user that the CA has
actually performed this test.  Possibilities include verification.  The CA can notify certificate

users that it has performed the validation by reference to the CA's
Certificate Policy and (CP)and Certification Practice Statement (CPS)
[RFC2527] or through extensions in the user's certificate.

3.3 Choice of Prime p

The prime p could be chosen such that p-1=2*q*r p-1=2*q*j where r j is the product
of large primes (large means >=q). greater than or equal to q).  This will
prevent an attacker from being able to find an element of small order
modulo p and p, thus mount
this thwarting the small-subgroup attack.  To  One method to
produce primes of this form, form is to run the prime generation algorithm could be run
multiple times until a an appropriate prime with this form is obtained.  As an example,
the value of r j could be tested for primality.  If it j is prime prime, then the
value of p could be accepted, otherwise the prime generation algorithm
would be run again, until a value of p is produced with r j prime.

However, since with primes of this form there is still an element of
order 2 (i.e. -1), one bit of the private key could still be lost.
Thus, this method may not be appropriate in circumstances where even the loss
of one a single bit of the private key is a concern.

Another option method to produce primes of this form is to choose the prime p
such that p = 2*q*r 2*q*j + 1 where r j is small (i.e. only a few bits). In this
case, the leakage due to a small subgroup attack will be only a few
bits.  Again, this would not be appropriate for circumstances where the
loss of even a few bits of the private key is a concern.

3.4 Compatible Cofactor Exponentiation

This method of protection is specified in [p1363] and [KALISKI].  It
involves modifying the computation of ZZ.  Instead of computing ZZ as
ZZ=yb^xa mod p, party a Party A would compute it as ZZ=(yb^j)^c mod p where
c=j^(-1)*xa mod q.  (Similarly for party b.) Party B.)

If the resulting value ZZ satisfies ZZ==1, then the key agreement should
be abandoned because the public key being used is invalid.

Note that this procedure may be subject to pending patents.

3.5 Non-compatible Cofactor Exponentiation

This method of protection is specified in [p1363].  Similar to the
method of Section 3.4, it involves modifying the computation of ZZ.
Instead of computing ZZ as ZZ=yb^xa mod p, Party A would compute it as
ZZ=(yb^j)^xa mod p.  (Similarly for Party B.)  However, with this method
the resulting ZZ value is different from what is computed in [x942] and
therefore is not interoperable with implementations conformant to
[x942].

If the resulting value ZZ satisfies ZZ==1, then the key agreement should
be abandoned because the public key being used is invalid.

Note that this procedure may be subject to pending patents.

4. Ephemeral-Ephemeral Key Agreement

This situation is when both the sender and recipient of a message are
using ephemeral keys.  While this situation is not specifically allowed possible in S/MIME, some users may however attempt to use this mode and thus
it might be used in other protocol environments.  Thus we will describe briefly
discuss protection for this case as well.

In most ephemeral-ephemeral key agreements protection is required for
both entities.  In this situation an a third party attacker could modify
the other entity's public key in order to determine the user's private
key (as described in Section 1.2). Another possibility is that the
attacker could modify both parties' public key so as to make their
shared key predictable.  For example, the attacker could replace both ya
and yb with some element of small order, say -1.  Then, with a certain
probability, both the sender and receiver would compute the same shared
value which that comes from some small, easily exhaustible set.

Note that in this situation if protection was obtained from the methods
of Section 3.3, then each user must ensure that the other party's public
key does not come from the small set of elements of small order.  This
can be done either by checking a list of such elements, or by
additionally applying the methods of Section 3.1. Sections 3.1, 3.4 or 3.5.

Protection from these attacks is not required however if the other
party's ephemeral public key has been signed by the other party.  For  An
example of this is in the Station-To-Station protocol [STS] no protection is
required because [STS].  Since the
owner authenticates the public key, a third party would not be able to alter the other
party's public key cannot modify it and thus
therefore cannot mount an attack.  Thus, the only person that could
attack the an entity's private key is the other party, who will be able to decrypt the message
anyway.  Since authenticated entity in the private
key is agreement. However, since both public keys are ephemeral, no other messages would be
compromised even if they only
protect the entire private key was compromised. current session that the attacker would have access to
anyway.

5. Security Considerations

This entire document concerns addresses security considerations. considerations in the
implementation of Diffie-Hellman key agreement.

6. Intellectual Property Rights

The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to per-
tain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this
document or the extent to which any license under such rights might
or might not be available; neither does it represent that it has made
any effort to identify any such rights.  Information on the IETF's
procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and standards-
related documentation can be found in BCP-11.  Copies of claims of
rights made available for publication and any assurances of licenses
to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to obtain a
general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights
by implementors or users of this specification can be obtained from
the IETF Secretariat.

The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary

rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice
this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF Executive
Director.

7. References

[RFC2527] S. Chokhani and W. Ford, "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure, Certificate Policy and Certification Practices
Framework", RFC 2527, March 1999.

[STS] W. Diffie, P.C. van Oorschot and M. Wiener, "Authentication and
authenticated key exchanges", Designs, Codes and Cryptography, vol. 2,
1992, pp. 107-125.

[CMS] R. Housley, "Cryptographic Message Syntax", draft-ietf-smime-cms-
XX.txt, work in progress.

[KALISKI] B.S. Kaliski, Jr., "Compatible cofactor multiplication for
Diffie-Hellman primitives", Electronics Letters, vol. 34, no. 25,
December 10, 1998, pp. 2396-2397.

[LAW98] L. Law, A. Menezes, M. Qu, J. Solinas and S. Vanstone, "An
efficient protocol for authenticated key agreement", Technical report
CORR 98-05, University of Waterloo, 1998.

[LIM] C.H. Lim and P.J. Lee, "A key recovery attack on discrete log-
based schemes using a prime order subgroup", B.S. Kaliski, Jr., editor,
Advances in Cryptology - Crypto '97, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,
vol. 1295, 1997, Springer-Verlag, pp. 249-263.

[P1363] IEEE P1363, Standard Specifications for Public Key Cryptography,
1998, work in progress.

[MSG] B. Ramsdell, "S/MIME Version 3 Message Specification", draft-ietf-
smime-msg-0X.txt, work in progress.

[x942] E. Rescorla, "Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Method", draft-ietf-
smime-x942-0X.txt, work in progress.

8. Authors' Addresses Author's Address

Robert Zuccherato
Entrust Technologies
750 Heron Road
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada K1V 1A7
robert.zuccherato@entrust.com

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