draft-seedorf-cdni-request-routing-alto-04.txt   draft-seedorf-cdni-request-routing-alto-05.txt 
CDNI J. Seedorf CDNI J. Seedorf
Internet-Draft NEC Internet-Draft NEC
Intended status: Informational July 15, 2013 Intended status: Informational Y. Yang
Expires: January 16, 2014 Expires: April 24, 2014 Yale
October 21, 2013
CDNI Request Routing with ALTO CDNI Footprint and Capabilities Advertisement using ALTO
draft-seedorf-cdni-request-routing-alto-04 draft-seedorf-cdni-request-routing-alto-05
Abstract Abstract
Network Service Providers (NSPs) are currently considering to deploy Network Service Providers (NSPs) are currently considering to deploy
Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) within their networks. As a Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) within their networks. As a
consequence of this development, there is a need for interconnecting consequence of this development, there is a need for interconnecting
these local CDNs. The necessary interfaces for inter-connecting CDNs these local CDNs. The necessary interfaces for inter-connecting CDNs
are currently being defined in the Content Delivery Networks are currently being defined in the Content Delivery Networks
Interconnection (CDNI) WG. This document focuses on the CDNI Interconnection (CDNI) WG. This document focuses on the CDNI
Footprint & Capabilities Advertisement interface (FCI). Footprint & Capabilities Advertisement interface (FCI).
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 16, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 24, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. ALTO within CDNI Request Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. ALTO within CDNI Request Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Assumptions and High-Level Design Considerations . . . . . . 4 3. Assumptions and High-Level Design Considerations . . . . . . 4
3.1. General Assumptions and Consideration . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. General Assumptions and Consideration . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. Semantics for Footprint/Capabilities Advertisment . . . . 5 3.2. Semantics for Footprint/Capabilities Advertisment . . . . 5
4. Selection of a Downstream CDN with ALTO . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Selection of a Downstream CDN with ALTO . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Footprint Advertisement with ALTO Network Map . . . . . . 7 4.1. Footprint and Capabilities Advertisement using ALTO
4.2. Capabilities Advertisement with ALTO Network Maps . . . . 8 Network Map and PID Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.3. Conveying additional information with ALTO Cost Maps . . 8 4.2. Conveying additional information with ALTO Cost Maps . . 8
4.4. Example of Selecting a Downstream CDN based on ALTO Maps 9 4.3. Example of Selecting a Downstream CDN based on ALTO Maps 9
4.5. Advantages of using ALTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.4. Advantages of using ALTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. Useful ALTO extensions for CDNI Request Routing . . . . . . . 10 5. Useful ALTO extensions for CDNI Request Routing . . . . . . . 10
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7. Summary and Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Summary and Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Many Network Service Providers (NSPs) are currently considering or Many Network Service Providers (NSPs) are currently considering or
have already started to deploy Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) have already started to deploy Content Delivery Networks (CDNs)
within their networks. As a consequence of this development, there within their networks. As a consequence of this development, there
is a need for interconnecting these local CDNs. Content Delivery is a need for interconnecting these local CDNs. Content Delivery
Networks Interconnection (CDNI) has the goal of standardizing Networks Interconnection (CDNI) has the goal of standardizing
protocols to enable such interconnection of CDNs [RFC6707]. protocols to enable such interconnection of CDNs [RFC6707].
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have already started to deploy Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) have already started to deploy Content Delivery Networks (CDNs)
within their networks. As a consequence of this development, there within their networks. As a consequence of this development, there
is a need for interconnecting these local CDNs. Content Delivery is a need for interconnecting these local CDNs. Content Delivery
Networks Interconnection (CDNI) has the goal of standardizing Networks Interconnection (CDNI) has the goal of standardizing
protocols to enable such interconnection of CDNs [RFC6707]. protocols to enable such interconnection of CDNs [RFC6707].
The CDNI problem statement [RFC6707] envisions four interfaces to be The CDNI problem statement [RFC6707] envisions four interfaces to be
standardized within the IETF for CDN interconnection: standardized within the IETF for CDN interconnection:
o CDNI Request Routing Interface o CDNI Request Routing Interface
o CDNI Metadata Interface o CDNI Metadata Interface
o CDNI Logging Interface o CDNI Logging Interface
o CDNI Control Interface o CDNI Control Interface
This document focuses solely on the CDNI Request Routing Interface. This document focuses solely on the CDNI Request Routing Interface,
This interface can further be divided into two interfaces (see which can be further divided into two interfaces (see [RFC6707] for a
[RFC6707] for a detailed description): the CDNI Request Routing detailed description): the CDNI Request Routing Redirection interface
Redirection interface (RI), and the CDNI Footprint & Capabilities (RI), and the CDNI Footprint & Capabilities Advertisement interface
Advertisement interface (FCI). This document argues that ALTO is a (FCI). This document presents how one may use ALTO as a protocol for
good candidate as a protocol for CDNI Footprint & Capabilities CDNI Footprint & Capabilities Advertisement. Concrete examples of
Advertisement. Concrete examples of how the CDNI FCI can be how the CDNI FCI can be implemented with the ALTO protocol
implemented with the ALTO protocol [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol] are [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol] are given. The examples used in this
given. The examples used in this document are based on the use cases document are based on the use cases and request routing proposals
and request routing proposals currently being discussed in the CDNI currently being discussed in the CDNI WG [RFC6770]
WG [RFC6770] [I-D.peterson-CDNI-strawman] and in the ALTO WG [I-D.peterson-CDNI-strawman] and in the ALTO WG
[I-D.jenkins-alto-cdn-use-cases]. The overall rationale of this [I-D.jenkins-alto-cdn-use-cases].
document is that the ALTO protocol [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol]
constitutes a good solution for the CDNI FCI.
A previous version of this document [I-D.seedorf-alto-for-cdni] A previous version of this document [I-D.seedorf-alto-for-cdni]
contained detailed examples of actual request routing and surrogate contained detailed examples of actual request routing and surrogate
selection with ALTO, i.e. how ALTO could be used for implementing the selection with ALTO, i.e. how ALTO could be used for implementing the
CDNI Request Routing Redirection interface (RI). This version solely CDNI Request Routing Redirection interface (RI). This version solely
focuses on implementing the CDNI Footprint & Capabilities focuses on implementing the CDNI Footprint & Capabilities
Advertisement interface (FCI) with ALTO, i.e. the selection of a Advertisement interface (FCI) with ALTO, i.e. the selection of a
downstream CDN and how ALTO can support such downstream CDN downstream CDN and how ALTO can support such downstream CDN
selection. selection.
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* Capabilities related to CDNI Metadata (e.g., authorization * Capabilities related to CDNI Metadata (e.g., authorization
algorithms or support for proprietary vendor metadata) algorithms or support for proprietary vendor metadata)
4. Selection of a Downstream CDN with ALTO 4. Selection of a Downstream CDN with ALTO
Under the considerations stated in Section 3, ALTO can help the Under the considerations stated in Section 3, ALTO can help the
upstream CDN provider to select a proper downstream CDN provider for upstream CDN provider to select a proper downstream CDN provider for
a given end user request as follows: Each downstream CDN provider a given end user request as follows: Each downstream CDN provider
hosts an ALTO server which provides ALTO information (i.e. ALTO hosts an ALTO server which provides ALTO information (i.e. ALTO
network maps and ALTO cost maps [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol]) to an ALTO network maps and ALTO cost maps [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol]) to an ALTO
client at the upstream CDN provider. A network map provided by each client at the upstream CDN provider. Network maps provided by each
of several candidate downstream CDNs can provide information to the of several candidate downstream CDNs can provide information to the
upstream CDN provider about each dCDN's "coverage/reachability" upstream CDN provider about each dCDN's "coverage/reachability" as
footprint, e.g. regarding geographical coverage, the IP-prefix ranges well as capabilities.
the dCDN claims it can cover with agreed upon delivery quality, or
similar.
Additional ALTO network maps or cost maps can provide an upstream CDN 4.1. Footprint and Capabilities Advertisement using ALTO Network Map
provider additional information about the capabilities each and PID Properties
individual dCDN offers. Potentially, such capabilities can be tied
to a given (partial) footprint of the dCDN. ALTO 'costs' in this
context is a generic term; many types of costs are possible and can
be useful in the context of the CDNI FCI whenever numeric or metric
types of capabilities need to be expressed.
4.1. Footprint Advertisement with ALTO Network Map Conceptually, the foorprint and capabilities interface of a dCDN is
easy to specify: It is a function that given an endhost, returns if
the dCDN is willing to serve the endhost, and the capabilities
available to that endhost (e.g., "delivery-protocol":
["HTTP","RMTP"], "acquisition-protocol": ["HTTP"], "redirection-
mode": ["HTTP-redirect"], "loggin-mechanism": ["TBD"], and "meta-
capabilities": [""]).
An ALTO network map contains a "set of Network Location groupings" Specifiying the preceding for each endhost can be redundant, and one
may use PIDs defined in ALTO. Specifically, an ALTO network map
contains a "set of Network Location groupings"
[I-D.ietf-alto-protocol]. The groupings are defined in the form of [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol]. The groupings are defined in the form of
so-called "PIDs". A PID is an identifier to group network location so-called "PIDs". A PID is an identifier to group network location
endpoints, e.g. IP-addresses in the form of prefixes (see section 4 endpoints, e.g. IP-addresses in the form of prefixes (see section 4
in [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol] for details). in [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol] for details).
The concept of an ALTO network map (and the PIDs contained therein) Applying the basic idea of ALTO PIDs to the preceding, abstract
is a natural and straightforward candidate for CDNI Fooprint mapping specification, by aggregating endhosts with the same
Advertisement: The downstream CDN provider groups the IP-addresses in capabilities in the same PID, we obtain CDNi FCI using ALTO Network
its footprint into PIDs and makes these groupings available to an Maps as simply (1) a Network Map which defines a set of PIDs, and (2)
upstream CDN via an ALTO network map. With such a network map, the a PID Property Map [draft-roome-alto-pid-properties ] that defines
upstream CDN provider can easily match a given end user request with the properties of each PID, where the properties define the
the footprint of the downstream CDN provider to see if a given capabilities.
downstream CDN can in principle provide "coverage" for the IP-address
of the end user. Whenever the footprint changes, the downstream CDN
creates an updated network map and makes it available via its ALTO
server.
4.2. Capabilities Advertisement with ALTO Network Maps With the preceding Network Map and PID Property Map, the upstream CDN
provider can easily match a given end user request with the footprint
and capabilities of the downstream CDN providers. Whenever the
footprint and/or capabilities of a dCDN change, the ALTO server of
the dCDN changes its data, and the uCDN can obtain the update through
ALTO incremental updates. Future extensions to ALTO to add
notifications can be integrated when they become available.
ALTO network maps can convey all mandatory capabilities (see In particular, this document does not define how a dCDN aggregates
Section 3.2) via PID names: Additional network maps provided by a the endhosts into PIDs, to allow flexibility in (anticipated)
dCDN can group the dCDN's coverage footprint into several PIDs, where updates.
each PID name has a certain 'capability' semantic. For instance, one
mandatory type of capability is the 'Delivery Protocol' (see further
the discussion in [I-D.spp-cdni-rr-foot-cap-semantics]) supported by
a dCDN for a given footprint. For each supported delivery protocol,
the dCDN would provide an ALTO PID in a network map that contains all
IP-prefixes that support this delivery protocol.
4.3. Conveying additional information with ALTO Cost Maps In this document, we define the following PID properties, which each
must be a JSON array, to convey all mandatory capabilities (see
Section 3.2):
o delivery-protocol
o acquisition-protocol
o redirection-mode
o loggin-mechanism
o meta-capabilities
To complement the preceding capabilities mapping, we require that an
uCDN has access to ALTO Network Map(s) that can map from an endhost
to Country Code and AS Number. Such mapping may or may not be
specific to CDNI but can be a general mapping. Specifically, the
uCDN should have access to ALTO Network Map(s) with Properties
include:
o country-code
o asn
4.2. Conveying additional information with ALTO Cost Maps
An ALTO cost map contains costs between defined groupings of a An ALTO cost map contains costs between defined groupings of a
corresponding network map (i.e. costs between PIDs): "An ALTO Cost corresponding network map (i.e. costs between PIDs): "An ALTO Cost
Map defines Path Costs pairwise amongst sets of source and Map defines Path Costs pairwise amongst sets of source and
destination Network Locations" [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol]. This destination Network Locations" [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol]. This
concept enables the provider of a cost map to express (and quantify) concept enables the provider of a cost map to express (and quantify)
preferences of a destination network location with respect to a given preferences of a destination network location with respect to a given
source network location. source network location.
In the context of CDNI, the ALTO cost map concept is an extensive In the context of CDNI, the ALTO cost map concept is an extensive
tool to convey additional information about the footprint or tool to convey additional information about the footprint or
capabilties of a downstream CDN. The cost map concept provides a capabilties of a downstream CDN. The cost map concept provides a
means for a downstream CDN provider to convey numeric values means for a downstream CDN provider to convey numeric values
associated with a PID, e.g. in order to convey metrics associated associated with a PID, e.g. in order to convey metrics associated
with a footprint or a capability. This may be useful for future, with a footprint or a capability. This may be useful for future,
non-mandatory types of footprint or capabilties. non-mandatory types of footprint or capabilties.
One way to use ALTO cost maps would have these maps of the type One way to use ALTO cost maps would have these maps of the type
N-to-1, i.e. 'costs' are expressed for each of N end user source PIDs N-to-m, i.e. 'costs' are expressed for each of N end user source PIDs
to 1 single dCDN request router PID. Semantically, the source PID in to m dCDN request router PIDs. Semantically, a source PID in a CDNI
a CDNI ALTO cost map is thus the end user location, whereas the ALTO cost map is thus the end user location, whereas a destination
destination is the request router to which the uCDN redirects the end PID is a (group of) request router(s) to which the uCDN redirects the
user request. Note that this perspective is driven by the CDNI end user request. Note that this perspective is driven by the CDNI
request routing. An alternative way - seen from the perspective of request routing. An alternative way - seen from the perspective of
content retrieval - would be to have a 1-to-N cost map where the content retrieval - would be to have a m-to-N cost map where the
source is always the dCDN and the destination is the end user (with source is always the dCDN and the destination is the end user (with
the semantic "if the source dCDN would deliver content to an end user the semantic "if the source dCDN would deliver content to an end user
in the destination PID, the costs would be the following). in the destination PID, the costs would be the following). With
explicit destination PIDs reflecting different entries to the same
dCDN, the dCDN can convey shortcut or differentiaed quality of
services.
4.4. Example of Selecting a Downstream CDN based on ALTO Maps 4.3. Example of Selecting a Downstream CDN based on ALTO Maps
In the following, we will outline an example of dCDN selection by a In the following, we will outline an example of dCDN selection by a
uCDN based on ALTO maps provided by each dCDN. In the example, an uCDN based on ALTO maps provided by dCDNs. Consider the following
ALTO network map "NM_cov" is used to express the overall "coverage" example: An upstream CDN (uCDN) has agreed on CDN interconnection
footprint of each dCDN. In addition, each dCDN provides one or more with several downstream CDNs (dCDN-a, dCDN-b, and dCDN-c). Each of
ALTO network maps regarding capabilities "CM_1", "CM_2", ..., "CM_n" these downstream CDNs runs an ALTO server to provide aforementioned
to express the supported capabilities, corresponding with the ALTO information. Whenever the upstream CDN receives a request from
"NM_cov" coverage footprint network map. an end user and has determined that this request is best served by an
interconnected dCDN, the uCDN uses ALTO maps to make a redirection
Consider the following example: An upstream CDN (uCDN) has agreed on decision. For a given request, assume that only the ALTO network
CDN interconnection with several downstream CDNs (dCDN-a, dCDN-b, and maps provided by dCDN-a and dCDN-c include the endhost. The uCDN
dCDN-c). Each of these downstream CDNs runs an ALTO server to first looks up the PIDs of the endhost in the two network maps from
provide information about what locations it can deliver content to the two dCDNs, then search the PID properties to find out the
(coverage footprint) by means of a network map "NM_cov" and capabilities of each dCDN for the endhost. If only one dCDN supports
additionally capability network maps "CM_1", "CM_2", ..., "CM_n". the required capabilities, then the uCDN chooses the dCDN.
uCDN has downloaded from each candidate downstream CDN "NM_cov" and Otherwise, if Cost Maps are available to provide additional server
one or more ALTO network maps regarding capabilities (e.g. by using selection information (e.g., a Cost Map defining latency), the uCDN
the "Filtered Cost Map" option and different "cost-types" as picks the dCDN with better cost performance.
specified in 7.7.3.2. of [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol]). The ALTO network
map provides "coverage" (footprint) for each downstream CDN as
aggregated network locations in the form of ALTO PIDs. The additonal
capability network maps provide the upstream CDN information
regarding the support for capabilities each individual downstream CDN
would imply depending on the given location of an end user request.
Whenever the upstream CDN receives a request from an end user and has
determined that this request is best served by an interconnected
dCDN, the uCDN uses ALTO maps to make a redirection decision. For a
given request, assume that only the ALTO network maps provided by
dCDN-a and dCDN-c, "NM_cov(dCDN-a)" and "NM_cov(dCDN-c)", indicate
that these downstream CDNs can deliver content to the location of the
request. In this case, additonal ALTO network maps received from
dCDN-a and dCDN-c provide useful additional information to the
upstream CDN in order to make a selection decision regarding either
dCDN-a or dCDN-c. For instance, if both downstream CDNs have provided
two ALTO capbility network maps "CM_delivery_protocol" and
"CM_redirect_mode", uCDN can make a downstream CDN selection based on
its needs or preference. This enables the upstream CDN to make a
well-considered downstream CDN selection.
4.5. Advantages of using ALTO 4.4. Advantages of using ALTO
The following reasons make ALTO a suitable candidate protocol for The following reasons make ALTO a suitable candidate protocol for
downstream CDN selection as part of CDNI request routing and in downstream CDN selection as part of CDNI request routing and in
particular for a FCI protocol: particular for a FCI protocol:
o CDN request routing is done at the application layer. ALTO is a o CDN request routing is done at the application layer. ALTO is a
protocol specifically designed to improve application layer protocol specifically designed to improve application layer
traffic (and application layer connections among hosts on the traffic (and application layer connections among hosts on the
Internet) by providing additonal information to applications that Internet) by providing additonal information to applications that
these applications could not easily retrieve themselves. For these applications could not easily retrieve themselves. For
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Jan Seedorf has been partially supported by the COAST project Jan Seedorf has been partially supported by the COAST project
(COntent Aware Searching, retrieval and sTreaming, http://www.coast- (COntent Aware Searching, retrieval and sTreaming, http://www.coast-
fp7.eu), a research project supported by the European Commission fp7.eu), a research project supported by the European Commission
under its 7th Framework Program (contract no. 248036). The views under its 7th Framework Program (contract no. 248036). The views
and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should
not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies
or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the COAST project or or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the COAST project or
the European Commission. the European Commission.
Thanks to Richard Yang for providing valuable comments, and for
contributiong some design considerations and assumptions.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[RFC5693] Seedorf, J. and E. Burger, "Application-Layer Traffic [RFC5693] Seedorf, J. and E. Burger, "Application-Layer Traffic
Optimization (ALTO) Problem Statement", RFC 5693, October Optimization (ALTO) Problem Statement", RFC 5693, October
2009. 2009.
[RFC6707] Niven-Jenkins, B., Le Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content [RFC6707] Niven-Jenkins, B., Le Faucheur, F., and N. Bitar, "Content
Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Problem Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI) Problem
skipping to change at page 13, line 44 skipping to change at page 14, line 7
Statement", draft-ietf-cdni-problem-statement-08 (work in Statement", draft-ietf-cdni-problem-statement-08 (work in
progress), June 2012. progress), June 2012.
[I-D.marocco-alto-next] [I-D.marocco-alto-next]
Marocco, E. and V. Gurbani, "Extending the Application- Marocco, E. and V. Gurbani, "Extending the Application-
Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol", draft- Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol", draft-
marocco-alto-next-00 (work in progress), January 2012. marocco-alto-next-00 (work in progress), January 2012.
[I-D.ietf-alto-protocol] [I-D.ietf-alto-protocol]
Alimi, R., Penno, R., and Y. Yang, "ALTO Protocol", draft- Alimi, R., Penno, R., and Y. Yang, "ALTO Protocol", draft-
ietf-alto-protocol-17 (work in progress), July 2013. ietf-alto-protocol-20 (work in progress), October 2013.
[I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements] [I-D.ietf-cdni-requirements]
Leung, K. and Y. Lee, "Content Distribution Network Leung, K. and Y. Lee, "Content Distribution Network
Interconnection (CDNI) Requirements", draft-ietf-cdni- Interconnection (CDNI) Requirements", draft-ietf-cdni-
requirements-09 (work in progress), July 2013. requirements-11 (work in progress), October 2013.
[I-D.ietf-cdni-use-cases] [I-D.ietf-cdni-use-cases]
Bertrand, G., Emile, S., Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Ma, Bertrand, G., Emile, S., Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Ma,
K., and G. Watson, "Use Cases for Content Delivery Network K., and G. Watson, "Use Cases for Content Delivery Network
Interconnection", draft-ietf-cdni-use-cases-10 (work in Interconnection", draft-ietf-cdni-use-cases-10 (work in
progress), August 2012. progress), August 2012.
[I-D.marocco-alto-ws] [I-D.marocco-alto-ws]
Marocco, E. and J. Seedorf, "WebSocket-based server-to- Marocco, E. and J. Seedorf, "WebSocket-based server-to-
client notifications for the Application-Layer Traffic client notifications for the Application-Layer Traffic
skipping to change at page 14, line 32 skipping to change at page 14, line 43
S. Previdi, "Use Cases for ALTO within CDNs", draft- S. Previdi, "Use Cases for ALTO within CDNs", draft-
jenkins-alto-cdn-use-cases-03 (work in progress), June jenkins-alto-cdn-use-cases-03 (work in progress), June
2012. 2012.
[I-D.seedorf-alto-for-cdni] [I-D.seedorf-alto-for-cdni]
Seedorf, J., "ALTO for CDNi Request Routing", draft- Seedorf, J., "ALTO for CDNi Request Routing", draft-
seedorf-alto-for-cdni-00 (work in progress), October 2011. seedorf-alto-for-cdni-00 (work in progress), October 2011.
[I-D.ietf-cdni-framework] [I-D.ietf-cdni-framework]
Peterson, L. and B. Davie, "Framework for CDN Peterson, L. and B. Davie, "Framework for CDN
Interconnection", draft-ietf-cdni-framework-03 (work in Interconnection", draft-ietf-cdni-framework-06 (work in
progress), February 2013. progress), October 2013.
[I-D.liu-cdni-cost] [I-D.liu-cdni-cost]
Liu, H., "A Cost Perspective on Using Multiple CDNs", Liu, H., "A Cost Perspective on Using Multiple CDNs",
draft-liu-cdni-cost-00 (work in progress), October 2011. draft-liu-cdni-cost-00 (work in progress), October 2011.
[I-D.spp-cdni-rr-foot-cap-semantics] [I-D.spp-cdni-rr-foot-cap-semantics]
Seedorf, J., Peterson, J., Previdi, S., Brandenburg, R., Seedorf, J., Peterson, J., Previdi, S., Brandenburg, R.,
and K. Ma, "CDNI Request Routing: Footprint and and K. Ma, "CDNI Request Routing: Footprint and
Capabilities Semantics", draft-spp-cdni-rr-foot-cap- Capabilities Semantics", draft-spp-cdni-rr-foot-cap-
semantics-04 (work in progress), February 2013. semantics-04 (work in progress), February 2013.
Author's Address Authors' Addresses
Jan Seedorf Jan Seedorf
NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd. NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd.
Kurfuersten-Anlage 36 Kurfuersten-Anlage 36
Heidelberg 69115 Heidelberg 69115
Germany Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 221 Phone: +49 (0) 6221 4342 221
Email: jan.seedorf@neclab.eu Email: jan.seedorf@neclab.eu
URI: http://www.neclab.eu URI: http://www.neclab.eu
Y.R. Yang
Yale University
51 Prospect Street
New Haven 06511
USA
Email: yry@cs.yale.edu
URI: http://www.cs.yale.edu/~yry/
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