draft-ietf-v6ops-v6inixp-00.txt   draft-ietf-v6ops-v6inixp-01.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force R. Gagliano Internet Engineering Task Force R. Gagliano
Internet-Draft LACNIC Internet-Draft LACNIC
Intended status: Informational June 26, 2009 Intended status: Informational July 03, 2009
Expires: December 28, 2009 Expires: January 4, 2010
IPv6 Deployment in Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) IPv6 Deployment in Internet Exchange Points (IXPs)
draft-ietf-v6ops-v6inixp-00.txt draft-ietf-v6ops-v6inixp-01.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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skipping to change at page 1, line 32 skipping to change at page 1, line 32
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This Internet-Draft will expire on December 28, 2009. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 4, 2010.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Abstract Abstract
This document provides a description of IPv6 deployment in Internet This document provides a guide for IPv6 deployment in Internet
Exchange Points (IXP). It includes information about the switch Exchange Points (IXP). It includes information about the switch
fabric configuration, the addressing plan options and general fabric configuration, the addressing plan options and general
organizational tasks to be performed. IXP are mainly a layer 2 organizational tasks to be performed. IXP are mainly a layer 2
device (a switching fabric) and in many case the best recommendations device and in many case the best recommendations state that the IPv6
state that the IPv6 data, control and management should not be data, control and management plane should not be handled differently
handled differently than in IPv4. than in IPv4.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Switch Fabric Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Switch Fabric Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Addressing Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Addressing Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Reverse DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Multicast IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. Route Server Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. Reverse DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6. Internal and External Services support . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. Route Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7. IXP Policies and IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. Internal and External Services support . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8. Multicast IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8. IXP Policies and IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Most Internet Exchange Points (IXP) work on the Layer 2 level, making Most Internet Exchange Points (IXP) work on the Layer 2 level, making
the adoption of IPv6 an easy task. However, IXPs normally implement the adoption of IPv6 an easy task. However, IXPs normally implement
additional services such as statistics, route servers, looking additional services such as statistics, route servers, looking
glasses, broadcast control and others that may be impacted by the glasses, broadcast control that may be impacted by the implementation
implementation of IPv6. This document gives guidance on the impact of IPv6. This document gives guidance on the impact of IPv6 on a new
of IPv6 on a new or an existing IXP that may or may not fit any or an existing IXP that may or may not fit any particular deployment.
particular deployment. The document assumes an Ethernet switch The document assumes an Ethernet switch fabric, algthouh other layer
fabric, algthouh other layer 2 canfigurations can be deployed. 2 canfigurations can be deployed.
2. Switch Fabric Configuration 2. Switch Fabric Configuration
An Ethernet based IXP switch fabric implements IPv6 over Ethernet as An Ethernet based IXP switch fabric implements IPv6 over Ethernet as
described in [RFC2464], therefore the switching of IPv6 traffic described in [RFC2464], therefore the switching of IPv6 traffic
happens in the same way as in IPv4. However, some management happens in the same way as in IPv4. However, some management
functions require explicit IPv6 support, particularly: switch functions require explicit IPv6 support (such as switch management,
management, SNMP support and flow analysis tools. SNMP support and flow analysis exportation) and its need should be
evaluated by the IXP administrator.
There are two common configurations of IXP switch ports to support There are two common configurations of IXP switch ports to support
IPv6: IPv6:
1. dual stack VLAN: both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic share a common VLAN. 1. dual stack LAN: both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic share a common LAN.
No extra configuration is required in the switch. In this No extra configuration is required in the switch. In this
scenario, participants will typically configure dual stack scenario, participants will typically configure dual stack
interfaces although independent port can be an option. interfaces although independent port can be an option.
2. independent VLAN: an exclusive IPv6 VLAN is created for IPv6 2. independent LAN: an exclusive IPv6 LAN is created for IPv6
traffic. If IXP participants are already using VLAN tagging on traffic. If IXP participants are already using Virtual LAN
their routers interfaces that are facing the IXP switch, this (VLAN) tagging on their routers interfaces that are facing the
only requires passing one additional VLAN tag across the IXP switch, this only requires passing one additional VLAN tag
interconnection. If participants are using untagged across the interconnection. If participants are using untagged
interconnections with the IXP switch and wish to continue doing interconnections with the IXP switch and wish to continue doing
so, they will need to facilitate a separate physical port to so, they will need to facilitate a separate physical port to
access the IPv6-specific VLAN. access the IPv6-specific LAN.
The "independent VLAN" configuration provides a physical separation The "independent LAN" configuration provides a physical separation
for IPv4 and IPv6 traffic. This simplifies separate analysis for for IPv4 and IPv6 traffic simplifying separate analysis for IPv4 and
IPv4 and IPv6 traffic. However, it can be more costly in both IPv6 traffic. However, it can be more costly in both capital
capital expenses (if new ports are needed) and operational expends. expenses (if new ports are needed) and operational expends.
Conversely, the dual stack implementation allows a quick and capital Conversely, the dual stack implementation allows a quick and capital
cost-free start-up for IPv6 support in the IXP, allowing the IXP to cost-free start-up for IPv6 support in the IXP, allowing the IXP to
avoid transforming untagged ports into tagged ports. In this avoid transforming untagged ports into tagged ports. In this
implementation, traffic split for statistical analysis may be done implementation, traffic split for statistical analysis may be done
using flows techniques such as in IPFIX [RFC5101] considering the using flows techniques such as in IPFIX [RFC5101] considering the
different ether-types (0x0800 for IPv4 and 0x86DD for IPv6). different ether-types (0x0800 for IPv4 and 0x86DD for IPv6).
The support for jumbo frames MTU should be evaluated. The only The only technical requirement for IPv6 referring link MTUs is that
technical requirement for IPv6 referring link MTUs is that it needs it needs to be greater than or equal to 1280 octets [RFC2460].
to be greater than or equal to 1280 octets [RFC2460]. Common MTU Common MTU sizes in IXPs are 1500, 4470, or 9216 bytes, so typically
sizes in IXPs are 1500, 4470, or 9216 bytes, so typically this this requires no change of configuration. The MTU size for every LAN
requires no change of configuration. in an IXP should be well know by all its participants.
3. Addressing Plan 3. Addressing Plan
Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) have specific address policies to Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) have specific address policies to
allocate Provider Independent (PI) IPv6 address to IXPs. Those allocate Provider Independent (PI) IPv6 address to IXPs. Those
allocations are usually /48 or shorter prefixes [RIR_IXP_POLICIES]. allocations are usually /48 or shorter prefixes [RIR_IXP_POLICIES].
Depending on the country and region of operation, address allocations Depending on the country and region of operation, address allocations
may be provided by NIRs (National Internet Registries). may be provided by NIRs (National Internet Registries).
From the allocated prefix, following the recommendations of From the allocated prefix, following the recommendations of
[RFC4291], a /64 prefix should be allocated for each of the exchange [RFC4291], a /64 prefix should be allocated for each of the exchange
point Local Area Networks (LANs). A /48 prefix allows the addressing point IPv6 enabled LANs. A /48 prefix allows the addressing of 65536
of 65536 LANs. As IXP will normally use manual address LANs. As IXP will normally use manual address configuration, longer
configuration, longer prefixes (/65-/127), are technically feasible prefixes (/65-/127), are technically feasible but are normally
but are normally discouraged because of operational practices.The discouraged because of operational practices.The manual configuration
manual configuration of IPv6 addresses allows IXP participants to of IPv6 addresses allows IXP participants to replace network
replace network interfaces with no need to reconfigure Border Gateway interfaces with no need to reconfigure Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Protocol (BGP) sessions information and facilitates routing sessions information and facilitates management tasks.
management tasks.
Not only interface auto-configuration is typically disabled in an IXP
LAN but also on a LAN where all addresses are manually configured, it
is important to avoid the exchange of router advertisement messages
described in [RFC4861].
When selecting the use of static Interface Identifiers (IIDs), there When selecting the use of static Interface Identifiers (IIDs), there
are different options on how to "intelligently" fill its 64 bits (or are different options on how to "intelligently" fill its 64 bits (or
16 hexadecimal characters). A non exhausted list of possible IID 16 hexadecimal characters). A non exhausted list of possible IID
selection mechanisms follows: selection mechanisms follows:
1. Some IXPs like to include the participants' ASN number decimal 1. Some IXPs like to include the participants' ASN number decimal
encoding inside each IPv6 address. The ASN decimal number number encoding inside each IPv6 address. The ASN decimal number number
is used as the BCD (binary code decimal) encoding of the upper is used as the BCD (binary code decimal) encoding of the upper
part of the IID such as shown in this example: part of the IID such as shown in this example:
* IXP LAN prefix: 2001:DB8::/64 * IXP LAN prefix: 2001:DB8::/64
* ASN: 64496 * ASN: 64496
* IPv6 Address: 2001:DB8::6449:6000:0000:0001/64 or its * IPv6 Address: 2001:DB8::0000:0006:4496:0001/64 or its
equivalent representation 2001:DB8::6449:6000:0:1/64 equivalent representation 2001:DB8::6:4496:1/64
Please remember that 32 bits ASNs requires a maximum of 10
characters, as 16 characters are available, up to 2^24 IPv6 In this example we are right justifying the participant' ASN
number from the the 112nd bit.Remember that 32 bits ASNs require
a maximum of 10 characters. Whith this example, up to 2^16 IPv6
addresses can be configured per ASN. addresses can be configured per ASN.
2. Although BCD encoding is more "human-readable", some IXPs prefer 2. Although BCD encoding is more "human-readable", some IXPs prefer
to use the hexadecimal encoding of the ASNs number as the upper to use the hexadecimal encoding of the ASNs number as the upper
part of the IID as follow: part of the IID as follow:
* IXP LAN prefix: 2001:DB8::/64 * IXP LAN prefix: 2001:DB8::/64
* ASN: 64496 (DEC) or FBF0 (HEX) * ASN: 64496 (DEC) or FBF0 (HEX)
* IPv6 Address: 2001:DB8::0000:FBF0:0000:0001/64 or its * IPv6 Address: 2001:DB8::0000:0000:FBF0:0001/64 or its
equivalent representation 2001:DB8::FBF0:0:1/64 equivalent representation 2001:DB8::FBF0:1/64
The four zero before the ASN (bits 63-96) will be used by 32 bits
ASNs.
3. A third scheme for statically assigning IPv6 addresses on an IXP 3. A third scheme for statically assigning IPv6 addresses on an IXP
LAN could be to relate some portion of a participant's IPv6 LAN could be to relate some portion of a participant's IPv6
address to its IPv4 address. In the following example, the last address to its IPv4 address. In the following example, the last
three decimals of the IPv4 address are copied to the last three decimals of the IPv4 address are copied to the last
hexadecimals of the IPv6 address, using the decimal number as the hexadecimals of the IPv6 address, using the decimal number as the
BCD encoding for the last three characters of the IID such as in BCD encoding for the last three characters of the IID such as in
the following example: the following example:
* IXP LAN prefix: 2001:DB8::/64 * IXP LAN prefix: 2001:DB8::/64
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* IPv6 Address: 2001:DB8::132/64 * IPv6 Address: 2001:DB8::132/64
4. A fourth approach might be based on the IXPs ID for that 4. A fourth approach might be based on the IXPs ID for that
participant. participant.
The current practice that applies to IPv4 about publishing IXP The current practice that applies to IPv4 about publishing IXP
allocations to the DFZ (Default Free Zone) should also apply to the allocations to the DFZ (Default Free Zone) should also apply to the
IPv6 allocation (normally a /48 prefix). Typically IXPs LANs are not IPv6 allocation (normally a /48 prefix). Typically IXPs LANs are not
globally reachable in order to avoid a Distributed Denial of Service globally reachable in order to avoid a Distributed Denial of Service
(DDoS) attack but participant may route these prefixes inside their (DDoS) attack but participant may route these prefixes inside their
networks (ex. using no-export communities) to perform fault networks (ex. using BGP no-export communities or routing the IXP LANs
management. IXP external services (such as dns, web pages, ftp within the participant' IGP) to perform fault management. IXP
servers) needs to be globally routed and due to strict prefix length external services (such as dns, web pages, ftp servers) needs to be
filtering could be the reason to request a shorter than /48 globally routed and due to strict prefix length filtering could be
assignment from an RIR (ex requesting a /47 assignment and using one the reason to request a shorter than /48 assignment from an RIR (ex
/48 for the IXPs LANs that is not globally routed and one /48 for the requesting a /47 assignment and using one /48 for the IXPs LANs that
IXP external services that is globally routed). is not globally routed and one /48 for the IXP external services that
is globally routed).
4. Reverse DNS 4. Multicast IPv6
There are two elements that need to be evaluated when studying IPv6
multicast in an IXP: multicast support for netighbor discovery and
multicast peering.
IXPs typically control broadcast traffic accross switching fabric in
order to avoid broadcast storms by only allowing limited ARP
[RFC0826] traffic for address resolution. In IPv6 there is not
broadcast support but IXP may intend to control multicast traffic in
each LAN instead. ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery [RFC4861] implements the
following necessary functions in an IXP switching fabric: Address
Resolution, Neighbor Unreachability Detection and Duplicate Address
Detection. In order to perform these functions, Neighbor
Solicitation and Neighbor Advertisement packets are exchange using
the link-local all-nodes multicast address (FF02::1) and/or
solicited-node multicast addresses (FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00:0000 to FF02:
0:0:0:0:1:FFFF:FFFF). As described in [RFC4861] routers will
initializate its interfaces by joining its solicited-node multicast
addresses using either Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) [RFC2710]
or MLDv2 [RFC3810]. MLD messages may be sent to the corresponding
group address:FF02::2 (MLD) or FF02::16 (MLDv2). Similarly to the
ARP policy an IXP may limit multicast traffic acccross the switching
fabric in order to only allow ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation, Neighbor
Advertisement and MLD messages. Configuring default routes in an IXP
LAN without an agreement within the parties is normally against IXP
policies. For that reason, eventhough routers should ignore them,
rogue ICMPv6 route advertisements may be monitored in order to
prevent configuration errors.
For IPv6 Multicast traffic exhange, an IXP may decide to use either
the same LAN being used for unicast IPv6 traffic exchange, the same
LAN being used for IPv4 Multicast traffic exchange or a dedicated LAN
for IPv6 Multicast traffic exchange. The reason for having a
dedicated LAN for multicast is to prevent unwanted multicast traffic
to reach participants that do not have multicast support. Protocol
Independent Multicast [RFC4601] messages will be sent to the the
link-local IPv6 'ALL-PIM-ROUTERS' multicast group ff02::d in the
selected LAN and should be allowed. Implementing IPv6 PIM snooping
will allow that only the participants associated to a particular
group will receive its multicast traffic. BGP reachability
information for IPv6 multicast address-family (SAFI=2) is normally
exchanged using MP-BGP [RFC4760] and is used for Reverse Path
Forwarding (RPF) lookups performed by the IPv6 PIM (Protocol
Independent Multicast) protocol [RFC4601]. If a dedicated LAN is
configured for Multicast IPv6 traffic exchange, reachability
information for IPv6 Multicast address familly should be carried in
new BGP sessions. ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery should be allowed in the
Multicast IPv6 LAN as described in the previous paragraph.
5. Reverse DNS
PTR records for all addresses assigned to participants should be PTR records for all addresses assigned to participants should be
included in the IXP reverse zone under "ip6.arpa". DNS servers included in the IXP reverse zone under "ip6.arpa". DNS servers
should be reachable over IPv6 transport. should be reachable over IPv6 transport.
5. Route Server Configuration 6. Route Server
IXPs may offer a Route Server service, either for Multi-Lateral IXPs may offer a Route Server service, either for Multi-Lateral
Peering Agreements (MLPA) service, looking glass service or route- Peering Agreements (MLPA) service, looking glass service or route-
collection service. IPv6 support needs to be added to the BGP collection service. IPv6 support needs to be added to the BGP
speaking router. The equipment should be able to transport IPv6 speaking router. The equipment should be able to transport IPv6
traffic and to support Multi-protocol BGP (MP-BGP) extensions for traffic and to support Multi-protocol BGP (MP-BGP) extensions for
IPv6 address family ([RFC2545] and [RFC4760]). IPv6 address family ([RFC2545] and [RFC4760]).
A good practice is to have IPv6 SAFI (Subsequent Address Family A good practice is to have IPv6 SAFI (Subsequent Address Family
Identifiers) information carried over sessions established also on Identifiers) information carried over sessions established also on
skipping to change at page 6, line 33 skipping to change at page 7, line 29
This configuration allows that in the event of IPv6 reachability This configuration allows that in the event of IPv6 reachability
issues to any IPv6 peer, the IPv6 session will be turned down and the issues to any IPv6 peer, the IPv6 session will be turned down and the
IPv4 session to the same peer will not be affected. Please consider IPv4 session to the same peer will not be affected. Please consider
the use of MD5 [RFC2385] or IPSEC [RFC4301] to authenticate the BGP the use of MD5 [RFC2385] or IPSEC [RFC4301] to authenticate the BGP
sessions. sessions.
The Router-Server or Looking Glass external service should be The Router-Server or Looking Glass external service should be
available for external IPv6 access, either by an IPv6 enabled web available for external IPv6 access, either by an IPv6 enabled web
page or an IPv6 enabled console interface. page or an IPv6 enabled console interface.
6. Internal and External Services support 7. Internal and External Services support
Some external services that need to have IPv6 support are Traffic Some external services that need to have IPv6 support are Traffic
Graphics, DNS, FTP, Web, Route Server and Looking Glass. Other Graphics, DNS, FTP, Web, Route Server and Looking Glass. Other
external services such as NTP servers, or SIP Gateways need to be external services such as NTP servers, or SIP Gateways need to be
evaluated as well. In general, each service that is currently evaluated as well. In general, each service that is currently
accessed through IPv4 or that handle IPv4 addresses should be accessed through IPv4 or that handle IPv4 addresses should be
evaluated for IPv6 support. evaluated for IPv6 support.
Internal services are also important when considering IPv6 adoption Internal services are also important when considering IPv6 adoption
at an IXP. Such services may not deal with IPv6 traffic but may at an IXP. Such services may not deal with IPv6 traffic but may
handle IPv6 addresses; that is the case of provisioning systems, handle IPv6 addresses; that is the case of provisioning systems,
logging tools and statistics analysis tools. Databases and tools logging tools and statistics analysis tools. Databases and tools
should be evaluated for IPv6 support. should be evaluated for IPv6 support.
7. IXP Policies and IPv6 8. IXP Policies and IPv6
IXP Policies may need to be revised as any mention of IP should be IXP Policies may need to be revised as any mention of IP should be
clarified if it refers to IPv4, IPv6 or both. The current clarified if it refers to IPv4, IPv6 or both. The current
interpretation is that IP refers to the Internet Protocol, interpretation is that IP refers to the Internet Protocol,
independently of the its version (i.e. both IPv4 and IPv6). In any independently of the its version (i.e. both IPv4 and IPv6). In any
case contracts and policies should be reviewed for any occurrence of case contracts and policies should be reviewed for any occurrence of
IP and/or IPv4 and replace it with the appropriate IP, IPv4 and/or IP and/or IPv4 and replace it with the appropriate IP, IPv4 and/or
IPv6 language. IPv6 language.
8. Multicast IPv6
There are two elements that needs to be evaluated when studying IPv6
multicast in an IXP: multicast support for netighbor discovery and
multicast peering.
IXPs are used to control broadcast traffic in the switching fabric in
order to avoid broadcast storm by allowing limited ARP [RFC0826]
traffic for address resolution. In IPv6 there is not broadcast
support. ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery [RFC4861] implements the
following necesarry functions in an IXP switching fabric: Address
Resolution, Neighbor Unreachability Detection and Duplicate Address
Detection. In order to perform this functions Neighbor Solicitations
and Neighbor Advertisments packets are exchange using the link-local
all-nodes multicast address (FF02::1). Similarly to the ARP policy
an IXP may set up a scanning device for link-local multicast traffic
in order to allow only limited ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation and
Neighbor Advertisement messages. Particularly rogue ICMPv6 route
advertisements may be monitored.
For IPv6 Multicast Peering sessions (SAFI=2) the IXP may decide to
use a reserved VLAN or to exchange those prefixes in the same VLAN as
the unicast IPv6 sessions (SAFI=1) or the same VLAN as the multicast
IPv4 sessions. When forwarding inter-domain multicast traffic PIM
messages in the link-local IPv6 'ALL-PIM-ROUTERS' multicast group
ff02::d will be present in the selected VLAN.
9. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
This memo includes no request to IANA. This memo includes no request to IANA.
10. Security Considerations 10. Security Considerations
This memo includes no Security Considerations. This memo includes no Security Considerations.
11. Acknowledgements 11. Acknowledgements
The author would like to thank the contributions from Bill Woodcock The author would like to thank the contributions from Stig Venaas,
(PCH), Martin Levy (Hurricane Electric), Carlos FriaAas of FCCN Martin Levy, Bill Woodcock, Carlos Frias, Arien Vijn and Louis Lee.
(GIGAPIX), Arien Vijn (AMS-IX) and Louis Lee (Equinix).
12. References 12. References
12.1. Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[RFC0826] Plummer, D., "Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or [RFC0826] Plummer, D., "Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or
converting network protocol addresses to 48.bit Ethernet converting network protocol addresses to 48.bit Ethernet
address for transmission on Ethernet hardware", STD 37, address for transmission on Ethernet hardware", STD 37,
RFC 826, November 1982. RFC 826, November 1982.
skipping to change at page 8, line 36 skipping to change at page 8, line 47
[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998. (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.
[RFC2464] Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet [RFC2464] Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
Networks", RFC 2464, December 1998. Networks", RFC 2464, December 1998.
[RFC2545] Marques, P. and F. Dupont, "Use of BGP-4 Multiprotocol [RFC2545] Marques, P. and F. Dupont, "Use of BGP-4 Multiprotocol
Extensions for IPv6 Inter-Domain Routing", RFC 2545, Extensions for IPv6 Inter-Domain Routing", RFC 2545,
March 1999. March 1999.
[RFC2710] Deering, S., Fenner, W., and B. Haberman, "Multicast
Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6", RFC 2710,
October 1999.
[RFC3810] Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery
Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.
[RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing [RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006. Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.
[RFC4301] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the [RFC4301] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005. Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.
[RFC4601] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
"Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.
[RFC4760] Bates, T., Chandra, R., Katz, D., and Y. Rekhter, [RFC4760] Bates, T., Chandra, R., Katz, D., and Y. Rekhter,
"Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 4760, "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 4760,
January 2007. January 2007.
[RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman, [RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
"Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
September 2007. September 2007.
[RFC5101] Claise, B., "Specification of the IP Flow Information [RFC5101] Claise, B., "Specification of the IP Flow Information
Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of IP Traffic Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of IP Traffic
 End of changes. 25 change blocks. 
101 lines changed or deleted 129 lines changed or added

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